There is a spot of earth supremely blest.
A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest,
Where man, creation's tyrant, casts aside
His sword and sceptre, pageantry and pride.
That spot's thy home. Montgomery.

HE exact time and place of the making of the first settlement of the territory now composing Izard County is uncertain. It is evident, however, that immigration must have commenced very soon after the beginning of the present century, points of location being, in general, along White and Strawberry Rivers. Among the early settlers in the vicinity of the former stream were Daniel Hively, Elbert and Henry Benbrook. the family of the father of William and Hill Dillard, the Jefferys, Moses Bishop, the Harrises and George and James Partee. Daniel Jeffery settled below Mount Olive, Jehoida, his brother, a mile above, and James, another brother, at or near the mouth of Piney Creek. Of the Harrises there were four brothers: Augustus. Henry, James and Richard. Augustus located on the east side of the river, in (the present) Izard County, the others on the opposite side, now Stone County. Daniel Hively settled at the mouth of Piney Creek, and there built a water-power grist-mill very early. Among the first to locate on Strawberry River wore the Simpsons, Billingsleys and Finleys, John Gray taking up his residence on Rocky Bayou, and James Wren at Lunenburg. Other very early comers to the county were Ambrose, Harvey, William and James Creswell.

Later came the Lancasters, the Walkers, the Watkinses, Richard, Robert and William Powell, Thomas Richardson, Samuel Bingham, William and James Woods, Col. Thomas Black, the Arnolds, Jesse Hinkle, the Robinsons and many others. Both the early and subsequent settlers of the county principally came from Tennessee. A few were from Georgia, and some other Southern States, but few, if any, from Northern States. The early settlers here suffered in common with all who moved so far back from the Mississippi the many privations of frontier life. It was not long, however, until boats came up White River and furnished such provisions as could not be produced at home. The people of Izard County are intelligent, kind and hospitable. Society now is all that could be desired, and churches are numerous in all settled portions. Subsequent pages contain more detailed mention of the county's pioneers and prominent citizens.

Court affairs, of course, early occupied attention. The county court was established in 1829, when Arkansas was a territory. Prior to that date the county business had all been transacted in the circuit court. This court meets on the first Mondays of January, April, July and October, in each year.The probate court meets on the third Mondays of March, June, September and December.

The Izard circuit court convenes on the second Monday in April and October, in each year. It belongs to the Fourteenth judicial circuit, composed of the counties of Izard, Boone, Baxter, Marion, Fulton, Searcy and Newton, of which R. H. Powell, of Melbourne, is the judge.

The legal bar of Izard County is composed of the following named attorneys: Ransom Gulley, John H. Woods, J. B. Baker, F. M. Hanley, Moreau Ashley, S. W. Woods, and E. B. Bradshaw. Judge Powell, when not on the bench, is also a member of the bar.

Aside from the war period, there has never been but one or two murders committed within the county, as it is now composed, and not a legal execution of a criminal has occurred here. Other crimes have been committed frequently.

At the approach of the Civil War, when the question of secession was first discussed, a majority of the people of Izard County seemed opposed to it, but when actual hostilities commenced, all but a few were naturally in full sympathy with the Southern cause, and soon thereafter favored the secession of the State. Of the several companies of soldiery raised within the county for the Confederate army, one, gathered by Capt. Deason, served in the Seventh Arkansas Regiment; four, commanded, respectively, by Capts. C. C. Elkins, T. N. Smith, Hugh A. Barnett and T. J. Mason, became a part of the Ninth Arkansas Regiment; two, commanded, respectively, by Capts. C. Cook and Richard Powell, served in Col. Freeman's regiment of cavalry; three, commanded, respectively, by Capts. T. M. Gibson, R. C. Matthews and Samuel Taylor, formed a part of Col. Shaler's regiment. A portion of a company was raised by Capt. John H. Dye, the other part being raised in Independence County, and a part of another was raised by Capt. James Huddleston, the other being recruited in what is now Sharp County. Some individuals went out and joined companies raised in adjoining counties. Thus ten companies, besides the fractions of other companies, were furnished by the county for the Confederate army.

Early in the war period, most of the Union men here removed to Rolla, Mo., and were there organized into a company by Capt. L. D. Toney, and served in the Federal army. All the able bodied men of the county, and many boys in their "teens," joined the armies. Only the old and feeble were left with the women and children. There was no fighting or bushwhacking among the citizens. The county, however, was over-run by scouting parties from the contending armies, and while but little burning was done, all stock and provisions that could be found were seized and carried away, thus leaving the citizens in great want for food. Parties of women, each accompanied by an old man, frequently hauled cotton inside of the Federal lines and exchanged it for salt and other necessities. Salt was also obtained by extracting it from the earth under old smoke houses. Meat was concealed from the scouting parties by hiding it in straw beds, in the rocks and under brush heaps. Grain was also hid in peculiar places. J. B. Hunt, the postmaster at Melbourne, states that he saved his corn by shelling it and hiding it in the hollow walls of his house, between the weather-boarding and the inside-boarding, and had a hole at the bottom through which he drew it out on going to the mill. Others, no doubt, saved their grain in a similar way.

The county of Izard was organized in accordance with an act of the legislature of the Territory of Arkansas, approved October 17, 1825. It was named in honor of George Izard, who was the governor of the Territory, and contained territory since cut off in the formation of Fulton, Baxter and Stone Counties. Various acts have been passed since its formation, by which it has been created as at present.

The original county seat was located on White River, at the mouth of Big North Fork, now in Baxter County. Soon after it was moved to Athens, on White River, at the mouth of Piney Creek, and from there, about the year 1844, to Mount Olive, in Section 31, Township 16 north, Range 10 west, another point on White River. Here it remained until May 15, 1875, when it was taken to its present site at Melbourne. The first court house erected at the original site of the county seat was a hewed log cabin. The second was a small frame structure, built at Athens, and the third was also a frame erected at Mount Olive. The court-house at Melbourne was built in 1878, but on the 11th of April, 1889, it was consumed by fire, with all the public records and papers, supposed to have been of incendiary origin, as the fire occurred in the morning before daylight. The question of removing the county seat to some other point is now being agitated, but the probability is that it will remain at its present location.

The only public building the county possesses is the jail and jailer's residence combined, at Melbourne. This is a wooden building, the jail proper being frame on the outside, with a wall of squared timbers on the inside. The county owns a poor farm, but it has never been improved or made available for the support of the paupers. The latter are let out on contract for their support, to the lowest responsible bidder.

The following is a list of the names of the county officers of Izard County, and the dates of their terms of service from the organization of the county to the present time, as compiled from the report of the secretary of State:

Judges: Matthew Adams, 1829-38; J. Jeffery, 1833-38: B. Hawkins, 1840-42; J. A. Harris, 1842-44; James Wren, 1844-46; J. A. Harris, 1846-48; G. H. Morton, 1848-50; Henry Cole, 1850-52; J. J. Sams, 1852-54; B. C. Hollowell, 1854 50; T. Black, 1858-60; H. H. Harris, 1860-62; Thomas Black, 1862.64; A. C. Jeffery, 1864-68; William Byler, 1868-72; commissioners, 1872-74; G. W. Shaw, 1874-80; J. A. Byler, 1880-82; W. Grimmett, 1882-86; H. H. Harris, present incumbent, first elected in 1886.

Clerks: J. P. Houston, 1825 30; Jesse Adams, 1830-32; J. P. Houston, 1832-38; B. H. Johnson, 1838-44; C. P. Lancaster, 1844-46; A. C. Jeffery, 1846-48; R. M. Haggard, 1848-52; William Wood, 1852-54; H. H. Harris, 1854-58; W. C. Dixon, 1858-60; H. H. Harris, 180068; I. H. Talley, 1868 72; F. W. Perrin, 1872-74; D. W. Billingsley, 1874-70; J. N. Craig, 1870-78; H. H. Harris, 1878-84; W. K. Estes, present incumbent, elected in 1884, re-elected and served continuously since.

Sheriffs: John Adams, 1825-30; John Hargrove, 1830-35; Daniel Jeffery, 1835-30; J. A. Harris, 1836-38; D. K. Lloyd, 1838-44; Miles Jeffery, 1844-40; S. E. Rossen, 1846-50; S. J. Mason. 1850-56; John Woods, 1850-58; A. Adams, 1858-60; W. J. Cagle, 1800-08; R. L. Landers, 1868-72; J. M. Hinkle, 1872-78; R. L. Landers, 1878-82; J. S. Roberts, 1882-86; R. L. Landers, present incumbent, first elected in 1886.

Treasurers: W. B. Carr, 1836-38; A. Creswell, 1838-40; S. H. Creswell, 1840-42; Jacob Wolf, 1842-44; A. McFelich. 1844-40: H. J. Wren, 1840-48; H. Dillard, 1848-50; William Gray, 1850-58; J. W. Cypert, 1858-64; H. H. Harris, 1864-60: E. D. Hayes, 1800-08; B. F. Brantley, 1808-72; J. B. Hunt, 1872-74; L. C. Holmes, 1874-76; A. J. Hutson, 1876-SO; John McElmurry. 1880-82; H. H. Hinckle, 1882-84; John McElmurry, 1884-80; J. B. Hunt, present incumbent, first elected in 1886.

Coroners: H. C. Roberts. 1829 30; J. Blyeth, 1830-35; Jesse Adams, 1835-36; H. W. Bandy, 1840-42; R. C. Moore, 1842-48; G. W. Neal, 1848-50; J. D. Churchill, 1850-52; D. Jeffery. 1852-54; R. Harris, 1854-56; S. T. Martin, 1856-58; R. Landers. 1858-62; Jesse Hinckle, 1862-64; J. A. Byler. 1864-66; R. Landers, 1866-68; J. G. Richardson, 1808-72; J. H. Roten, 1872-74; J. F. Cornelius, 1874-76; F. M. Hall. 1870-78; Squire Wood, 1878-80; J. R. Beaver, 1880-86; John Schell, 1886-88; S. F. Heaves, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

Surveyors: William Clement, 1830-32; A. Adams, 1835-36; Jesse Adams, 1830-38; James Davis, 1838-40; William Seymour. 1840-42; J. M. Pugh, 1842-44; F. M. Copeland. 1844-46; R. Decker, 1846-48: Cyrus Crosby, 1848-52; Byler, 1852-56; J. W. Rector, 1856-58; A. C. Hardin. 1858-62; J. W. Rector, 1862-64; J. C. Claiborne, 1866-08; R. Sanders, 1868-72; J. A. Claiborne, 1872-76; Joseph Hixon, 1876-80; Jacob Franks, 1880-82; J. A. Claiborne, 1882-88; E. L. Billingsley, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

Assessors: P. F. Heasler, 1868-72; W. O. Dillard, 1872-74; James Green, 1874-80: W. C. Hammond, 1880-84; Robert Gray, 1884-86; James Gray, 1886-88; P. J. Puckett, present incumbent, elected in 1888.

Representatives in constitutional conventions: 1836, Charles R. Sanders; 1861, A. Adams; 1868, W. W. Adams; 1874, Ransom Gulley.

The first representative of the county in the erritorial legislature was Jacob Wolf, and the first one in the State legislature was Thomas Culp. The first State senator from the county was C. R. Sanders.

The following will show the political aspect of Izard County. At the September election, 1888, James P. Eagle (Dem. ) received 1,328 votes for the office of governor, and C. M. Norwood, his opponent, 779 votes. At the presidential election, 1888, the several candidates received votes as follows: Cleveland (Dem.), 1,187; Harrison (Rep.), 378; Streeter (U. L.), 68; Fisk (Pro.), 7.

Religious affairs, here as elsewhere, date from the first settlement of the community. As usual, the Methodists and Baptists were the pioneer Christian workers of the Territory, followed by the Cum- berland Presbyterians and Christians. The organizations of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, located within the county, are embraced in three circuits. The Melbourne circuit. Rev. W. L. King, pastor, has eight appointments; the Newburg circuits. Rev. William A. Peck, pastor, has five appointments, and the La Crosse and Evening Shade - circuit. Rev. J. S. Brooke, pastor, has also five appointments, the latter being in Sharp County. The aggregate membership of each, as shown by the last conference minutes, is as follows: Melbourne, 399; Newburg, 684; La Crosse and Evening Shade, 301; making 1,384 in all. Of the J. Methodist Episcopal Church, there is but one organization in the county.

Of the Missionary Baptist Church nineteen organizations are known, sixteen of which belong to the Rocky Bayou Association, two to the Big Creek Association, and one to Independence Association. Those belonging to the first named are Melbourne, Lunenburg and Franklin, of which Elder J. L. Brown is pastor; Saints' Rest, Bellview, Mount Nebo, No. 2, and Piney Bayou, of which Elder J. J. Vest is pastor; Mount Pleasant and Bethel, of which Elder J. D. J. Faulkner is pastor; Zion Hill, Concord, Fairviow and Philadelphia, of which Elder William Duren is pastor; Pleasant Valley, with Elder S. A. Merchant as pastor; Mount Nebo No. 1, with Elder J. H. Soden as pastor, and Hidden Creek, which has no pastor at present. Those belonging to Big Creek Association are Cross Roads and New Prospect, while the one belonging to Independence Association is called Wilson Creek. The aggregate membership of these organizations within the county is between 700 and 800.

The ten organizations of the Christian Church here consist of Mill Creek, at Melbourne; Walnut Grove, Oxford, Franklin and Iuka. with Elder H. T. King as pastor; Kent Mill, Liberty, Pleasant Spring and Newburg, with Elder W. G. Cypert as pastor, and Twin Creek, with Elder G. H. Metheny as pastor. The aggregate membership is 503.

The organizations of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church are Mill Creek, at Melbourne, and Mount Olive, with Rev. P. M. Jeffery as pastor; Nubbin Ridge, Rev. R. H. Evans, pastor; Olive Branch, Rev. J. S. Bone, pastor; La Crosse. Rev. W. B. Baird, pastor; Barren Fork, Rev. A. C. Evans, pastor; Dry Town, Rev. J. S. Bone, pastor; Palestine, Rev. Clark, pastor: Rocky Glade and one or two other organizations. Many of the church organizations have Sunday-schools connected with them, and nearly all have regular preaching, and are doing good work in the cause of Christianity. There is an organization of the Adventists at La Crosse.

The towns and villages of the county are small and scattered, and no one has gained much ascendancy over the others. Barren Fork, in the southeast part of the county, contains two general stores, one drug store, one grocery, two church houses, a school house, cotton-gin, and some shops, dwelling houses, etc.

Franklin, in the opposite northeast portion, has two general stores, a grist-mill, still-house, schoolhouse, Masonic hall and lodge, and an Odd Fellows' hall and lodge.

Iuka is a very small post village on the line between Izard and Baxter Counties.

La Crosse, four miles northeast of Melbourne, contains two general stores, a drug store, a church edifice, two blacksmith shops, a Masonic hall and lodge, and the La Crosse Collegiate Institute. In the fall of 1883 a cyclone passed over this place and almost entirely demolished the buildings, besides killing a number of individuals.

Melbourne, the county seat, located near the center of the county, includes within its limits four general stores, three groceries, a drug store, two hotels, four church buildings, a Masonic and Odd Fellows' hall and school-house combined, a lodge each of Masons and Odd Fellows, two feed stables, one newspaper (The Izard County Register, Democratic in politics, now in its eighth volume, and ably edited by its proprietor, Mr. Dave Craig), a steam grist-mill, mechanics" shops, etc., etc., but no court-house at present. Of the societies there is also an Encampment of Fellows. The churches are Baptist, Methodist, Cumberland Presbyterian and Christian.

Newburg, a few miles northwest of Melbourne, has three general stores, a steam saw-mill, schoolhouse, blacksmith shop, a Masonic and Odd Fellows' hall and a lodge of each of these societies.

Oxford is in the north central part of the county. Three general stores, a steam grist-mill, three churches, a school-house and an Odd Fellow's hall comprise its industries.

- Pineville, in the northwest part of the county, contains a general store, a blacksmith shop, and a Masonic hall, church and school-house combined.

Violet Hill is eight miles northeast of Melbourne. It has a store, steam grist-mill, blacksmith shop and a church.

At each of these points is a postoffice,and dwelling houses corresponding in number to the size of the place. The other postoffices in the county are Wideman, Sage, Gid, Alder, Rockford, Engle and Byler.

Prior to the inauguration of the present free school system there were no schools within Izard County, except a few sustained here and there by private individual enterprise. Education in those days for the masses was not advocated or encouraged, and truth compels the assertion that, even ataged, and truth compels the assertion that, even at this date, the facilities for popular education are not as well sustained as they ought to be. However, prejudice against free schools is wearing away, and the interest in their favor is slowly but gradually increasing. The following statistics compiled from the report of the State superintendent, for the year ending June 30, 1888, will show the progress of schools within the county: Scholastic population, white, 4,702, colored, 116, total, 4,818; number taught in the public schools, white, 2,572, colored, 19, total, 2,608; number of teachers employed, males, 47, females, 8, total, 55; average monthly salaries paid teachers, first grade, males, $40.25, females, $40; second grade, males, $37.50, females, §28.30; amount of revenue expended to sustain the public schools, $9,433.45. According to these figures, only a little over one-half of the white scholastic population and about Odd one-sixth of the colored scholastic population were taught in the public schools. It is believed, though, that the statistics do not give the whole facts, as the number taught in some schools was not reported. The wages paid should secure teachers of fair talent. The free school system is yet young, and will improve with age and experience.

The La Crosse Collegiate Institute, which has been sustained for many years at the town of La Crosse, has gained considerable reputation as an institution of learning. It is now taught in connection with the public school of that place. There are eighty-four school districts within the county, and for the school year mentioned, thirty-four voted a local tax for school purposes.

Izard County is in Northeast Arkansas. It is bounded north by Fulton County, east by Sharp, south by Independence and Stone, and west by Stone and Baxter. It has an area of 600 square miles, with only about one-eighth of it improved. Being an interior county it has as yet no railroad facilities, its nearest railroad station being at Cushman, in the adjoining county of Independence. The boundary lines are as follows: Beginning at the northwest corner of Section 1, in Township 18 north. Range 7 west, of the fifth principal meridian; thence south three miles; thence east one mile to the range line, between Ranges 6 and 7 west; thence south on the range line to the southeast corner of Section 25, Township 16 north, Range 7 west; thence west one and a half miles; thence south to the quarter-post between Sections 14 and 23 in Township 15 north, Range 7 west; thence west to the southwest corner of Section 16, same township and range; thence south 45° west, seven and a half miles to White River; thence up the middle of that river to the range line between Ranges 11 and 12, in Township 17 north; thence north on the range line to the township line between Townships 17 and 18 north; thence east to the middle of Range 11 west; thence north on section lines to the township line between Townships 18 and 19 north; thence east on the township line to the place of beginning.

The principal streams are White and Strawberry Rivers, both of which flow in a general south-easterly direction, the former on the southwestern boundary of the county, and the latter across the northeastern portion. Between these rivers there is a dividing ridge or water-shed in the same direction. The principal tributaries of White River within the county are Piney, Mill, Knob, Hurricane, Rocky Bayou and Lafferty Creeks. The principal tributary of Strawberry River is Caney Fork. There are some smaller tributaries of these streams, and altogether they form a complete system of drainage for the territory. Numerous excellent springs abound, and in most places good well water can be obtained at a depth of fifty feet. Cisterns are in general use. From the streams, springs, cisterns and wells, an abundant supply of excellent water for all purposes is obtained.

The surface of the county is generally broken and hilly, though there are some tracts of beautiful and gently undulating table lands. The highest points above sea level are said to be about 1,000 feet. A large percentage of the lands belong to the Government, and are subject to homestead entry. Of the entire area, a very small proportion is valley, or bottom lands. The soil of the latter is alluvial and exceedingly productive, while that of the uplands is light and sandy, and not so productive. Contrary to the general rule elsewhere, the most productive uplands in this county are the pine timbered lands. Altogether it is adapted to the cultivation of cotton, several kinds of grain, clover, and the tame grasses. It is probably best suited to the growing of corn. Clover and the tame grasses have scarcely been introduced, but, where tried, excellent results have followed. "Cotton is king," and some lands are being exhausted by its constant cropping. All the uplands are capable of the growing of all manner of fruits, common to this latitude, but thus far the cultivation of fruit has received but little attention.

In the southeast part of the county, over an area of twenty-five square miles are rich deposits of black oxide of manganese. This ore is used extensively in the manufacture of Bessemer steel rails. In Section 20, Township 17 north, Range 9 west, there is a lead of antimony, and at different points elsewhere, notably in Townships 16 and 17 north. Range 7 west, are strong indications of zinc. There is a good quality of sandstone, building stone, and a great deal of limestone within the county. In Sections 34 and 35, Township 15 north, Range 8 west, is a good deposit of lithographic stone, which is being worked by a New York company.

The bottom lands and adjacent bluffs are covered with white and black oak, red cedar, and black and sweet gum, all of good quality, the white oak being of very superior quality. In the north-west part of the county is a belt of good short leaved yellow pine, the stumpage of which is carefully estimated at 500,000,000 feet. Much of this timber averages from two to three feet in diameter, and many trees will cut four saw logs each. The rest of the timber is mostly black, post, and white oak. In the northeast portion the growth is mostly post oak and black jack. Ash, cherry, walnut, and other varieties of timber abound in limited quantities.

The county's resources, so fur as developed, are principally agricultural, the horticultural and mineral wealth not having been unfolded. The supply of timber is extensive, as but little, aside from the small quantity used at home, has ever been cut. This will be an important resource whenever shipping facilities are provided. The agricultural products for 1879, as given by the census of 1880, were as follows: Indian corn, 451,904 bushels; oats, 40,593 bushels; wheat, 25,902 bushels; hay, 214 tons; cotton, 4,800 bales; Irish potatoes, 4,500 bushels; sweet potatoes, 11,349 bushels; tobacco, 13,212 pounds. These figures show that the lands of the county are best adapted to the raising of corn, cotton, sweet potatoes and tobacco. The number of head of live-stock, as shown by the same report, were as follows: Horses, 2,109; mules and asses, 1,258; cattle, 9,492; sheep, 8,492; hogs, 18,966. The number listed for taxation, as shown by the abstract of taxable property for 1888, are as follows: Horses, 2,436; mules and asses, 1,655; cattle, 14,857; sheep, 7,035; hogs, 1,619. indicates by comparison a large increase of the three former and an apparent decrease of the two latter. But reflecting that the number of animals given by the census report include the number of sold and slaughtered during the previous year, while the tax lists include only those on hand when assessed, it is evident that in all, excepting probably sheep, there was a large increase.

In 1880 the county's real estate was assessed for taxation at 1584,303, the personal property at $411,715, making a total of $996,018. In 1888 the real estate was assessed at $743,994, and the personal property at $759,607, making a total of $1,503,601. This shows that the taxable property of the county, since 1880, has increased in value over 61 per cent. The total amount of taxes charged in 1888, for all purposes, was $20,608.

The population of Izard County at the end of each census decade, since its organization, has been as follows: 1830, 1,266; 1840, 2,240; 1850, 3,212; 1860, 7,215; 1870, 6,806; 1880, 10,857. The colored population in 1870 was 182, and in 1880, 222.




Charles R. Aikin, a retired merchant of Calico Rock, Ark., was born in Colorado, in 1854, and is a son of William M. and Catherine W. (Rudolph) Aikin, who were born in South Carolina and Maryland, respectively. William Aikin removed to Arkansas in 1843 or 1844, and located in what was then Izard County (now Stone County), and these counties have since been his home, with the exception of from 1852 to 1855, when he was a resident of Colorado. From 1861 to 1872 he resided in Batesville, but upon the death of his wife, in the latter year, he removed from Batesville, and has made his home in Izard and Stone Counties since. He was a farmer during his early life, but afterward gave his attention to merchandising, and was associated with Cox & Byers, at Sylamore. He was married in 1850 or 1851, and he and wife became the parents of four children, Charles R., the subject of this memoir, being the only one living; Maggie L. (deceased) was the wife of Joseph Case, This of Batesville, and died in 1881, leaving two children, Maggie being the only one now living; the two other children died in infancy. Mr. Aikin has filled the office of notary public, and was postmaster of Calico Rock for a number of years. He resides in Sylamore, is sixty-six years of age, and is in the enjoyment of excellent health. Charles R. Aikin attended school in Batesville until he attained his sixteenth year, and then engaged in farming for himself on his father's farm, continuing thus occupied for three years; then entered college at Batesville, which institution he attended one year. He then entered the dry goods store of W. E. Maxwell, at Sylamore, but at the end of one year accepted a position in a store at Batesville, and after remaining in the employ of H. C. Smith for some time he returned to Sylamore and entered the employ of McMurtry & Whitfield. His next enterprise was to engage in merchandising in partnership with W. E. Maxfield, but in 1879 he came to Calico Rock, and began working for that gentleman for a portion of the profits, and since 1888 has been out settling up the outstanding accounts of the business. He was married on the 22d of January, 1888, to Miss Mary B. Grimmett. He has been postmaster of this place for four or five years, is a Democrat politically, and belongs to the I. O. O. F. and the A. F. & A. M. He owns a good farm of eighty acres close to the town, well improved, besides other valuable property.

A. G. Albright is one of the substantial residents of Izard County, Ark., but his birth occurred in the "Old North State" October 9, 1838, his parents, Alvis and Mary A. (Stockard) Albright, being also born there, in 1808 and 1815, respectively. They were reared, educated and married in their native State, but about the year 1853 they moved to Arkansas, where they reared their family. Five sons and five daughters were born to them, and seven of their children are living at the present time. The father was an energetic tiller of the soil, in which occupation he acquired a handsome competency, and at the time of his death, March 31, 1881, he was the owner of some 500 acres of land. He was also a minister of the gospel, being an expounder of the Methodist doctrine, but, after his arrival in Arkansas, he and his wife attached themselves to the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Mr. Albright being identified with this church at the time of his death. widow is still living, and resides with a daughter at Barren Fork. A. G. Albright, their son, was educated near Pittsboro, N. C, and after coming to Arkansas with his parents he united his destiny with that of Miss Sarah T. Screws, who was born in this State, being a daughter of George W. Screws. Of the family of eleven children born to them eight are living: George A., James G. Sarah C, Harriet E., Nancy N., Julia Esther, William F. and Lula J. Mr. Albright owns an excellent farm comprising 352 acres, of which there are about 160 acres under cultivation, and it is well stocked with all the necessary animals for successfully conducting the place. In connection with this work he is engaged in general merchandising at Barren Fork, his stock at the present time invoicing at about $8,000. He is a member of three secret organizations, the Masons, the Knights and Ladies of Honor, and the I. O. O. F., and in the former order belongs to the Commandery. When the war, which had for some time been threatening, at last became an assured fact, Mr. Albright joined Kelley's Ninth Battalion, and went to Kentucky, but was discharged on account of disability. The same year he joined Capt. Woods' company, Shaler's regiment, and served to the close of the war in the quartermaster's department, as regimental carpenter. In the latter part of 1866 he returned home and engaged in the milling business with his father, and still later embarked in the occupations mentioned above. He and wife are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and are active and liberal supporters of churches and schools, as well as all other worthy enterprises.

J. H. Ayler, farmer, Melbourne, Ark. Among the younger members of the agricultural community of Izard County there are none more deserving of mention than Mr. Ayler, and on this account, no less than that he has resided in this county since about three years of age, he is accorded a worthy place in this volume. His birth occurred in Tennessee in 1848, and he came with his parents, Charles and Minerva E. (Robison) Ayler, to Arkansas, in 1851, and settled in Izard County. He assisted on his father's farm until His twenty-one years of age, when he started out to fight life's battles for himself, and rented land for about six years. He then purchased a farm of eighty-six acres, which he afterward increased to 286 acres, with sixty-five acres under cultivation, and has plenty of good stock to run his farm. In 1870 he was married to Miss Icy D. H. Cornelius, and they became the parents of these children: John P., born October 13, 1871, at home; Ada M., born February 21, 1873, at home; Lou N., born July 21, 1875; Nancy E., born November 23, 1877; Willie Maud, born February 1, 1880 (deceased); Nettie E., born February 19, 1883, and Grover H., born June 7, 1885. Mr. and Mrs. Ayler are members of the Christian Church, and in politics he is a Democrat. His parents were both natives of Tennessee. The father, Charles Ayler, was reared on a farm and educated in the common schools of Tennessee. He came to Arkansas in 1851, as above stated, and bought an unimproved farm in Izard County. After remaining on this farm for about fifteen years he sold out and bought an improved farm, close to where he first resided, continued there about ten years. He then sold out, and bought another farm of 175 acres, where he remained until his death, which occurred in 1882, at the age of sixty-four years. He was twice married, the first time to Miss Minerva E. Robison, and by her became the father of seven children, five now living: J. H., William, Mrs. Nancy Evans, Mrs. Sarah E. Sterling and Mrs. Harriet J. Williams. The mother of these children is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Ayler's second marriage was to Miss Amanda Taylor, in 1871, and they had a family of three children: Tennessee, Annie and John. Mr. Ayler was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Mrs. Ayler still survives him. Mrs. Minerva Ayler was married the second time to Henry Williams, and they reside in this county.

John N. Bates, farmer, Franklin, Ark. Not withstanding the rapid growth of the agricultural affairs of the county in the last few years, and the progressive ideas advanced, Mr. Bates has kept thoroughly apace with the times, and is considered one of the leading farmers of the county. His birth occurred in Bedford County, Tenn. in 1829, and he is the son of J. A. and Elizabeth (Davis) Bates, the former a native of the Old Dominion, and the latter of South Carolina. J. A. Bates came to Tennessee about 1820, but previous to that had been a resident of Georgia and Alabama. He was principally reared in Georgia, and served in the War of 1812 up to 1815. He was also with Gen. Noonan's command, was in the Florida swamps in 1830, and was present when the chief, Osceola, was captured. During the War of 1812 he was a lieutenant, and served in that capacity until 1814 when, for his bravery and daring, he was promoted to the rank of captain, having piloted a boat-load of ammunition and provisions from Black Creek Station to Fort Scott. Fla. This boat-load of supplies had been ordered to Black Creek Station while Gen. Jackson was there, but the commander at Fort Scott was hard-pressed. and had requested Gen. Jackson to come to his assistance. Lieut. Bates was off after deserters at this time, but when he returned to Black Creek and Station he found Gen. Jackson gone, and the boat load of ammunition and provisions had arrived from the head of supplies. There were not enough troops left to guard the boat, so Lieut. Bates built breastworks on the boat and pushed off, reaching Gen. Jackson in safety. For this daring and almost impossible feat he was promoted to the rank of captain. He died in Coffee County, Tenn. in September, 1868, at the age of seventy-four years. He had been twice married, first to Elizabeth Aulford, by whom he had three children, all daughters, Martha, Mary and Elizabeth, wife of a Mr. Carroll. Mrs. Bates died about 1819. and Mr. Bates was the second time married, to Miss and Elizabeth Davis, in 1824. To this union were born seven children, six of whom lived to be grown. The youngest one died when quite small; Jasper M. resides in this county; Alethia (deceased), was the wife of J. S. Jones; John N., the subject of this sketch; Frances A., widow of J. Hickerson, now resides in Tennessee; Rebecca A. (deceased), wife of L. W. Angell, of Tennessee, and Louisa J. (deceased), was the wife of Alex. Oldfield. Mrs. Bates died in July, 1869. Both Mr. and Mrs. Bates were members of the Baptist Church, and he was a member of the Masonic fraternity. In politics he was a Whig. At the age of twenty-one years J. N. Bates started out for himself, after receiving a fair education in the common schools. He was a schoolmate of Judge Powell, of this county, in Bedford County, Tenn. He first began as a hired hand to learn the tanning business. boarded with his father, and worked for $5 per month for one year. In 1854 he commenced tanning on his own account, and ran a yard for himself until 1864, when he lost all of his property. He then engaged in farming, and has followed this pursuit up to the present. In March, 1869, he came to this county, and settled on Strawberry, where he remained until 1876, when he sold out and bought his present property, consisting of 220 acres, 100 under cultivation, all the result of hard labor since the war. He was married, on the 4th of December, 1849, to Miss Harriet L. Oldfield, a native of Tennessee, born on the 11th of November, 1827, and they are the parents of ten children, eight now living: Nancy E., widow of Dr. J. M. Beaver, and afterward married to John C. Billingsley; Rhoda J., wife of James Billingsley; Eliza F., wife of F. M. Wolf; Charles L. lives in Texas; John L. resides in Lee County, Ark.; Mary F. (deceased); Laura A., wife of J. T. Robertson; Susan L., wife of Walter Hardaway; Lillie M., wife of James M. Godwin, and Carrie L. (deceased). Mr. Bates was not in the army, but was detailed to make shoes for the soldiers, and to continue the tanning business. Previous to the war he was a Whig, but since then he has voted with the Democratic party until 1880, when he supported the Greenback and Wheeler ticket. He and wife are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The paternal grandfather of John N. Bates, Samuel Bates, was a soldier in the War for Independence, and served first, until the battle of Lexington, when he was captured by the English, and kept prisoner for three months. He then made his escape. He was a silversmith by trade, and the English kept him at work at his trade while a prisoner. He then joined the army again, was at Yorktown, and was present at the surrender of Lord Cornwallis. After the war he located in Virginia, where he reared his family. He worked at his trade and became wealthy, owning many negroes. In 1807 he moved to North Carolina.

Dr. E. A. Baxter, Melbomne, Ark. It is the prerogative of the physician to relieve or alleviate the ailments to which suffering humanity is prone, and as such he deserves the most grateful consideration of all. A prominent physician, who by his own ability has attained distinction in his profession, is Dr. E. A. Baxter. This gentleman was born in Batesville, Ark., in 1853, and is the son of Elisha D. and Harriet N. (Patton) Baxter [see sketch of ex-Gov. Elisha Baxter]. Dr. Baxter was educated at Batesville, Ark., received a good English education at that place, and in 1877 entered the University of Louisville, from which he graduated in March, 1879. He then returned home, remained a short time, and then came to Melbourne, where he located in the last named year. He immediately began practicing his profession. Realizing that it was not good for man to be alone, he was married on the 23d of December, 1882, to Miss Maggie Powell, daughter of William and Millie Powell, and niece of Judge Powell, of Melbourne. They are the parents of two children, only one living. Hattie M. The one deceased was named Alfred A. Dr. and Mrs. Baxter are both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Doctor is a member of the I. O. O. F., and also belongs to the Encampment of that order. He makes no specialty in his line of practice, but has gained the confidence of all as a clever and scientific practitioner. He has been successful financially, accumulating property as rapidly as could be expected in a healthy county like Izard. Coming as he does from one of the leading families of the State, and being well connected by marriage, the Doctor would be a very popular man even if it were not for his pleasant, social disposition, which has called around him many friends. Kind and obliging, open-hearted and free-handed, he is ever found at the bedside of the sick and helpless. He takes no active part in politics, and votes always for the good of his friends. He is a Republican, though he has voted with the Democratic party in this State.

Elbert Benbrook is one of the most successful farmers and stockmen of Izard County, and deserves much credit for the success which has attended his efforts, for when he began life for himself he only owned one horse and rented land, whereas he is now the owner of 500 acres of as good land as there is in the county, and is one of the most successful stockmen of this region. He was born in Izard County, in 1838, and is a son of Henry and Catherine (Langston) Benbrook, who came from the State of Illinois in 1832, and settled on the farm on which our subject is now residing. The father was a miller as well as a farmer, and in 1848 erected one of the first mills in the county, and was also the proprietor of one of the first cotton-gins. Upon settling in this region their neighbors, with the exception of the families who came with them, were twenty miles distant, and Indians and wild game of all kinds were very abundant. Flouring-mills were very few and far between in the region at that time, and their corn and wheat were ground by machinery of their own manufacture and wore of a very crude description. The first mill built in the county was said to have been erected by Langsten Close, near Melbourne, in 1816, its capacity being one bucket of meal per day, but this was sufficient to keep all the families in meal within a radius of fifty miles. Wild honey was very abundant, and as a means of carrying it in considerable quantities they would sew up a deer skin in the form of a sack, put the honey in at the neck, throw the same across their horse as a sack, and thus convey it home. A few elk were found in the region by the earliest settlers, but there was no buffalo, although the country showed evidence of their having been here, as the woods were entirely free from underbrush, the canebrake being only along the streams. At the age of twenty-three years Elbert Benbrook began managing a steam saw-mill, the first one of the kind in the county, it being erected by A. H. Matthews and Ben Bufford in 1858, but owing to the breaking out of the war he was compelled to give up the work. In 1802 he enlisted in the Confederate service, but at the end of six weeks he was discharged on account of disability and returned home, where he engaged in teaching school for a short time. He then operated his father's carding machine until after the close of the war, when he again embarked in saw-milling, and also managed the carding machine and followed farming up to 1873. From 1873 to 1881 he operated a grist-mill, but since that time he has given his attention o farming and carpentering. He is a Democrat politically. and has held the office of justice of the peace and deputy sheriff, and is the present incumbent of the latter office, to which he was appointed in 1888, and had previously filled it from 1874 to 1878. Margaret M. Berry became his wife in 1861, but her death occurred seven years later, she having borne a family of three children: Susan A. (wife of W. J. Hudson), Robert H., and Martha 0. (wife of W. C. Rodman). Mr. Benbrook wedded his second wife. Miss Sarah A. Mathes, in 1868, but after bearing three children, Margie A., Dora and Allan H. her death occurred in 1878, she having been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In the latter part of 1878 Mr. Benbrook wedded his present wife, Mrs. Elizabeth (Slyre) Rodman, and both are worthy members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is a Royal Arch Mason. He is one of the men who has helped to build up the county and has always been noted for his Christianity, benevolence, and high sense of honor.

Ben Benbrook, farmer, Pinesville, Ark. Located in the midst of one of the finest agricultural centers of Izard County, the farm which Mr. Benbrook occupies is conceded to be among the best in this vicinity, and this is saying not a little, for on every hand may be seen superior places, whose ownership indicate thrift and prosperity. He is a native of this county, his birth occurring in 1849, and he is the son of Henry and Elizabeth (Traylor) Benbrook, natives of Illinois and Indiana, respectively. Henry Benbrook came to Izard County, at a very early day, settled on a farm and tilled the soil, but in connection also carried on the milling business. He and wife reared a family of ten children, eight now living: Maria J. (wife of David Smith), Uen, Armedia A. (wife of Green P. Staggs), Washington. Serenia V. (wife of A. J. Franks), Perry, Charlotte T. (wife of L. L. Bailey). Henry and Nancy (deceased). Mr. Benbrook died in 1872, at the age of sixty years, and Mrs. Benbrook died in 1808, at the age of forty years. They were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he was a member of the A. F. & A. M. He had accumulated considerable property at the time of his death, and owned about 1,800 acres of land, besides a grist-mill, two saw-mills and a water-gin and carding machine. He was one of the leading men of his day, and contributed liberally to all worthy enterprises. Fen Benbrook remained on his father's farm until twenty-four years of age. and acquired a taste for agricultural pursuits which has adhered to him ever since. He received a good practical education in the subscription schools, and when twenty five years of age selected a wife in the person of Mrs. Acenith (Long) Benbrook, a native of Izard County, Ark. This union was blessed by the birth of six children: Elizabeth, Angelene A., Albert, Robert, Acie and Elbert. Mr. Benbrook first commenced farming on rented land, but two years later purchased 200 acres of land, selling part of this in 1881, and purchasing 115 acres unimproved. He then traded that for his present property, which consists of 205 acres, with about 125 improved. He also owns one-half interest in a cotton-gin. He has excellent buildings and plenty of stock to run his farm. He is a liberal donator to all public affairs, and is active in educational matters. He and Mrs. Benbrook are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he is a member of the A. F. & A. M. Mrs. Benbrook had been married previous to her marriage to Mr. Benbrook, and to the brother of the subject of this sketch. He died in 1870. Her parents, George and Elizabeth (Langston) Long, were both natives of Arkansas, and her father was one of the earliest settlers on Strawberry Creek. He and wife were the parents of three children, two now living: Acey M. and Acenith. Mr. and Mrs. Long both died in 1834.

Rev. J. N. A. Billingsley, Rockford, Ark. Like many others of the representative men of Izard County, Ark., Mr. Billingsley is a native Tennessean, born in the year 1834. His parents, A. C. and Rebecca (Billingsley)Billingsley, were also natives of the eastern part of that State. A. C. Billingsley received a common school education in his native State, and moved to Arkansas in 1844. He purchased land in Izard County, and followed farming in the spring and summer, and the rest of the time was engaged as a house carpenter, and was interested in the ginning business. He was married in 1833 to Miss Rebecca Billing.sley, and the fruits of this union were ten children, nine of whom lived to be grown and four are now living: J. N. A., Harriet E., wife of W. Lee; Thomas C, resides in Yell County, Ark., and Eutonia E., wife of W. Ragan. When Mr. Billingsley first came to Arkansas the country was very thinly settled, and their clothes were principally made from deer skins, and their shoes were also made of the skins of animals. The settlers depended principally on hunting for their meat. Mr. Billingsley was a Whig in politics, and was justice of the peace in his county for a number of years. His father, Samuel Billingsley, came to this county in 1840. He filled many offices of trust in Fulton County, and was ex-county judge and representative of that county from about 1852 to 1853. Politically, he was a Democrat. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M. and was a member of the Advent Church. The maternal grandfather of the subject of this sketch was Thomas Billingsley, brother to the paternal grandfather. He moved to Sevier County, Ark., about 1840 and there followed agricultural pursuits. He was a Democrat in his political views. Upon reaching manhood. Rev. J. N. A. Billingsley commenced life for himself and worked for some time as a hired hand. After this he clerked in a dry goods store for about fifteen months, and then went to tilling the soil on rented land. One year later he entered 320 acres in Van Buren County, Ark., but sold out in 1868 and came to Izard County. He rented land for four years and then entered his present property of 160 acres. He now has seventy acres under cultivation. During the late conflict, or in 1862, he joined the Confederate army, and served until the 5th of June, 1865, when he surrendered at Jacksonport, Ark. He participated in the following battles: Prairie Grove, Helena (July 4, 1863), Little Rock, and was in most of the battles during Gen. Price's raid through Missouri, in 1864. After cessation of hostilities he returned home and resumed his farming industry. His marriage was consummated, in 1858, to Miss Catherine Orr, of Fulton County, Ark., and nine children were the result of this union, eight now living: David C, resides in this county; Mary E. at home; Sarah F. wife of Charles B. Thomas, resides in this county; J. N. A., Jr., (deceased); Samuel A., at home; R. Catherine, wife of L. J. Jackson; Eutonia E., at home; Edwin H., at home, and Martha E. also at home. Mr. Billingsley was ordained a minister of the Advent Church in 1873, and was a pioneer minister of his faith in this section. He has had between thirty five and forty conversions in the church, and has performed about a dozen marriage services. He is in favor of all public enterprises, is active in school matters, and is a Prohibitionist and Union Labor man. He is also a member of the Masonic fraternity. The father of Mrs. Billingsley, David Orr, was born in 1799, came to Cape Girardeau County, Mo., in 1823, remained there for five years, and in 1827 came to this State and settled in Lawrence County, where he remained until 1845. He then moved to Fulton County, and died there in 1849. He was a missionary in the Baptist Church, and his circuit extended from Jefferson City, Mo., to Little Rock, Ark. The State was still a territory when he settled here, and the nearest neighbor was twenty-five miles distant. Often he would travel all day and not see a house. Sometimes he would get bothered and fail to reach a house by night time, and in that case he would be obliged to camp out, frequently in the dense canebrakes. Bear, panthers and other wild animals would come prowling around, and he would have to stay up to watch his horse. He followed his ministerial duties from 1827 to 1845, and was also a school teacher. He married Miss Eliza T. Caldwell, of Kentucky, on the 13th of September, 1821, and became the father of eleven children: James (deceased), E. W. (died in 1863, and his family resides in Fulton County),' David (died in 1827), David (died in 1856), John H. (lives in Idaho Territory). Eliza A. (wife of A. S. Godwin), Catherine (wife of Rev. Billingsley), Martha J. (died in 1847), W. H. H. (died and left a family in Texas). Joseph M. (lives in Fulton County) and Robert G. Mr. Orr died in 1849 and his wife in 1874. Mrs. Orr was married the second time, in 1852, to Thomas R. Hill, a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church; she belonged to the Baptist Church.

Dr. J. K. P. Black, Melbourne, Ark. One of the leading and most successful physicians of Izard County is Dr. Black, who has acquired a flattering reputation, and does credit to the profession. He was born in Bedford County, Tenn. in 1840, and divided his time in youth between assisting on the farm and in attending the common schools. In 1861 he threw aside the implements of peace to take up the weapons of warfare, and enlisted in Company K, Boon's First Battalion of Cavalry, and served until 1865, when he was paroled at Shreviport, La. He was engaged in the battles of Elkhorn, Iuka, Corinth, and was sick during the siege of Vicksburg. He came west after the surrender of that place and joined Capt. McCabel's and was captured on Saline River, Ark., taken to cavalry, Rock Island, Ill., where he was kept over a year before being exchanged. He returned home after the surrender and engaged in agricultural pursuits, but also attended school. In 1870 he commenced to read medicine, and two years later attended lectures at the University of Nashville, from which he graduated in 1876. He then commenced practicing at Melbourne, and here he has remained ever since. He was married, in 1882, to Miss Susan Morton, of this State, and six children are the result of this union, all living: Edgar and Edna (twins), Thomas K., Ernest, Rufus and Mary. At the commencement of his life as a public man, the Doctor was not possessed of a great amount of property, but he is now the owner of a large farm of 310 acres, with about 100 acres under cultivation. He is at present erecting a very tine residence, which, when completed, will be equal to any in the county. He is a stanch Democrat, but takes no particular interest in politics. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. Mrs. Black is the daughter of David and Nellie (Garmon) Morton, both natives of North Carolina. The father was born about 1807 or 1808, and came to the State of Arkansas in 1850. The mother was born about 1810, and died in 1881. Dr. Black is the son of Col. Thomas and Mary F. (Byler) Black, the former born on the 4th of October, 1807. In 1813 Col. Black removed with his father from Williamson to Bedford County, Tenn. and when in his nineteenth year he was elected lieutenant of the militia. When twenty-one years of age he was promoted to the rank of captain, and subsequently in his twenty sixth and twenty ninth years he was made adjutant-major and then colonel of his regiment. When twenty-three years of age he was elected to the Tennessee legislature, where he remained for four successive terms, representing Marshall and Bedford Counties. Within this time occurred the trouble of 1841 and 1S42, relating to an ineffectual effort to remove Foster and White from the United States senate; Col. Black being a Democrat, dyed in the wool, voted accordingly. In 1 849 he moved to Izard County, Ark., from which he was sent to represent the county in 1852. In 1856 he was elected county and probate judge, which office he filled successfully for four years, when he was appointed by the governor for two years more. In 1880 he again represented Izard County in the State legislature, and with the expiration of his term of office came the end of his public life. His last years were spent in the retirement of the home circle, but he was at all times keenly alive to passing events. His death occurred at his residence near Melbourne, on the 23d of June, 1889, when in his eighty second year, and after a long and useful life. When in his thirty-third year he became a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and was at once made ruling elder, a relation to the church which he retained until his death. He was also a member of the I. O. O. F.

Lee A. Bland, farmer, Melbourne, Izard County, Ark. Personal popularity, it cannot be denied, results largely from industry, perseverance and close attention to business, which a person displays in the management of any particular branch of trade; and in the case of Mr. Bland this is certainly true, for he has adhered so closely to farming, and helped in so many ways to advance all worthy enterprises in this community, that he is considered one of the representative men of the county. His birth occurred at Augusta, in Woodruff County, Ark., and he is the son of James T. and Mary C. (Snow) Bland, the father a native of Tennessee, and the mother of Arkansas. James Bland came to Arkansas, at an early day, settling at Augusta, Woodruff County, and was married January 5, 1854. He followed farming, but also engaged in merchandising previous to the war, and was broken during that eventful period. He did not enlist, but was one of the few men who assisted the wives of the soldiers. He had three brothers killed while serving in the Confederate army. After the war he farmed extensively until his death, which occurred January 5, 1809, when he was killed by the State militia, serving under Powell Clayton's orders. He was at one time quite wealthy, and was the owner of some slaves. He and his first wife were the parents of two children, Lee A. being the only one living. Mrs. Bland died in 1858, and Mr. Bland took for his second wife, in 1858, Miss Lucy Perry, who bore him two children, only one living, Oliver P., who is a telegraph operator, and resides at El Paso, Texas. Mr. Bland was only about thirty-nine years of age at the time of his death, and his second wife followed him to the grave in 1869. In politics he was a stanch Democrat. At the age of sixteen years Lee A. Bland (the subject of this sketch) commenced life for himself, first as a dry goods clerk, and was then employed for eighteen months by Campbell Bros. at Augusta. He then farmed for about two years, after which he again returned to mercantile pursuits, but not liking this he again returned to farming and has continued thus occupied ever since. He first rented land, but in 1887 he bought his present property, consisting of 397 acres, with sixty under cultivation, and has resided here since. In 1876 he abandoned his single state and was united in marriage at La Crosse, Izard County, to Miss Cornelia F. Helm, who bore him five children, three now living: Ada M., born July 29, 1877; Mary J., born October 5, 1879; Effie L. (deceased), born November 1, 1883; Nora S. (deceased), born February 17, 1886, and Willie L. born November 22, 1887. Mr. Bland has been constable of La Crosse Township for two years, and, like his father, is a Democrat in his political principles. Mrs. Bland is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. She is a daughter of George T. and Sally C. Helm, and was born in Izard County, Ark., September 16, 1859.

Dedrick Blevins is one of the practical and representative agriculturists of this region, and up from early boyhood has been familiar with the occupation of farming, having learned the details of the work from his father, who was a worthy tiller of the soil.He is the owner of a good farm of 140 acres, of which about sixty-five are under cultivation, and his property is well improved with good buildings, fences, etc., and is also well stocked with the necessary animals for successfully conducting the same. He was born in Sullivan County, Tenn., March 20, 1847, and is a son of W. K. and Rachel (Morgan) Blevins, who were also Tennesseeans, the former's birth occurring in Sullivan county, June 26, 1818, and the latter' s on the 28th of April, 1822. In connection with his farm work the father was engaged in blacksmithing, which occupation he followed on his farm of 160 acres. He died on the 3d of October, 1865, having been an earnest member of the Christian Church for many years, but his wife, who is a member of the Baptist Church, still lives and resides with her son, John W., on the old homestead. Her family consisted of nine children, whose names are as follows: Mary, Eliza, Nathaniel, Hiley A., Thomas W., Lydia, Henry B. John W. and Dodrick. Seven of these children reside in the State of Arkansas, the last named child having been reared and educated in Izard County, acquiring a fair education in the common schools. After attaining manhood he was married to Miss Lucy Davidson, their marriage being consummated on the 10th of September, 1868, and to them have been born nine children, five sons and four daughters, six of the family being still alive and residing with their parents: David G., Emily C. Lydia, F., Bartholomew, Owen A., and an infant. Mr. Blevins joined the Confederate army June 8, 1864, and, after serving under Gen. Price, was discharged in 1865. He has held the office of school director and constable, and he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Charles Henry Boatman was born in the State of Tennessee, in 1844, and is a son of John and Rebecca (Shore) Boatman, who were born in Georgia and Tennessee, respectively, the former's birth occurring in 1786, and their marriage in Tennessee in 1838. Four sons and three daughters were born to them: William E., Richard, Wiley, Lucinda, Elizabeth J. Eliza F. and Charles Henry. Mr. Boatman was a farmer, and died in 1861, followed by his wife, whose death occurred in Izard County in 1886. They removed to this State in 1850, and entered 160 acres in Izard County, on which they erected a little log cabin, which continued to be their home for a number of years. Charles H. Boatman came with his parents to this county and State, but received a somewhat limited education in the schools of Izard County. He was married here, in 1860, to Miss Sarah, a daughter of Henry Hose, and of nine children born to them seven are living: Rebecca J., Lucinda E., Ira E., Joseph B., Franklin A., Jasper O. Lewis H., and William W., and Andrew C., deceased. Mr. Boatman owns eighty acres of good land, with thirty under cultivation, and on his farm he erected a a substantial frame residence, in 1885, and an addition to the same in 1888. His principal crops are corn, cotton and small grain. His wife, who was born in the State of Tennessee, in 1843, is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. John Boatman enlisted in the Confederate infantry, under Capt. Thomas Smith, in 1861, and, at the battle of Shiloh, he was wounded in the head. He was also at Franklin, Nashville and Chickamauga, Tenn. besides being a participant in many other hard fought battles, and served until the war closed. James H. Bone is a native of Izard County, born on the 18th of June, 1857, and is one of five living members of a family of ten children born to the marriage of A. W. Bone and Sarah L. McKee, both Tennesseeans, the former's birth occurring on the 8th of October, 1826. He gave his attention to farming throughout life, and is now residing on his farm of 200 acres in Izard County, Ark., there being about seventy-five acres of his land under cultivation. He and wife are church members, he being a member of the Old School Presbyterian Church and she of the Cumberland Presbyterian, and they are substantial residents of the county. James H. Bone received a good practical education in his youth, and learned the rudiments of farm life from his father, who was a practical agriculturist, and by attending strictly to his chosen calling he has done much to advance the reputation the county enjoys as a prosperous farming community. He is careful and painstaking in the cultivation of his land, and very thorough in everything connected with its management, and of the 180 acres which he possesses he has about sixty acres under cultivation. He was married, in his native county, on the 7th of February, 1878, to Miss Amanda M. Taylor, a daughter of Stephen and Arena Taylor. Stephen Taylor was born in North Carolina, but moved to Tennessee at an early day and married there. He then came to Arkansas, after which his wife died, and later he married Miss Arena Hinkle who still survives, a resident of Izard County. She was born in the State of Tennessee. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Bone five children have been born: Fannie E. William H., Sarah A., Stephen W. and Samuel J. Mr. Bone has held a number of local offices in his township, and he has always been ready and willing to support enterprises of a worthy character. He and wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church. Mr. Bone's paternal grandfather came from Tennessee to Arkansas in 1840, and his great-grandfather, McKee, was born in Ireland. He went from there to Virginia. Grandfather McKee was born in Virginia, in 1801 or 1802, and moved from there to Tennessee, and in 1851 he came to Arkansas.

W. L. Bramblette is a farmer of Izard County, and although his land only amounts to eighty acres yet his farm is so well tilled that it yields a larger income than many larger farms. He was born Murray County, Ga. July 8, 1851, he being one of five sons and three daughters born to the marriage of Wiley Bramblette and Mary A. Howard, whose birthplace was in the "Palmetto State," where they were reared and married. At the time of the father's death, which occurred in August,1861, he owned about 200 acres of laud in Izard County, Ark., whither he had moved in the year 1856. His wife survives him and lives with her son, W. L. Bramblette, our subject. He was a Mason in good standing at the time of his death. W. L. Bramblette received the advantages of the common schools of Izard County in bis youth, and after attaining manhood was married in this county to Miss Sarah Mosier, whose native State was Arkansas, their nuptials being celebrated on the 27th of May, 1877, and to them were born five children, whose names are as follows: Owen M. Minnie A., Arah B., Buggie and Delia C. all residing at home. Mr. Bramblette is a member of the Agricultural Wheel, and was president of this organization for one year. The family are attendants at the Baptist Church, to which our subject and his wife belong, and they are liberal contributors to enterprises tending to benefit the community in which they reside.

G. W. Bray is one of the rising young farmers of this region, and since starting out in life for himself he has applied himself steadfastly to agricultural pursuits, and with what success may be inferred when we mention the fact that since 1881 he has owned a good farm of 193 acres. He was born in Mississippi in 1851, and is a son of William and Permelia (Aikin) Bray, who were natives of Tennessee, but moved to Mississippi at an early day, where they engaged in farming, and reared their family of ten children, only two of whom are now living. Mr. Bray died in 1843, and in 1868 Mrs. Bray and her son, G. W. came to Arkansas (whither her daughter Permelia, wife of W. F. Raider had previously come), their journey being made in an ox-cart, which they had borrowed. Mr. Bray now says at that time he had only $2 in cash, and that the oxen were borrowed from W. Garner, and the cart from Sandford Hames, in The first two years after coming here he raised crops on shares, and then entered land, purchasing, in 1870, his first horse, for which he paid the sum of $80, $30 of which he earned by picking cotton on the bottom lands, and the balance he paid the following year. In 1871 he married Miss Alice Nail, who bore him five children: John H. born in 1872; Martha B., born in 1873; William A., born in 1877; George W., born in 1879, and Newton E., born in 1882. This wife died in 1883. In 1881 he purchased his present property, and has thirty acres under cultivation and seventy-five acres improved with good fences, buildings, orchards, etc. his building especially being in excellent condition. This property has all been acquired through unremitting toil and judicious management, and he may with truth be called one of the self-made men of the county. He always favors public improvement, and although he never went to school a day in his life he is making every effort to give his children, Permelia R., Isaac R., Mary B. and Ellen E., the advantages of which he was deprived. Before coming to Arkansas, and for two years after, he supported his mother out of his wages earned by daily labor, and for this filial care if for nothing else he deserves the respect of his fellowmen and when it is taken into consideration that he has manfully fought his way up to his present position, and that he has been honest and upright in all his dealings, words are but meager things with which to express the admiration his conduct commands. In his political views he is a Democrat, and socially he is a member of the I. O. O. F. His wife, whom he married in 1883, was formerly a Miss Docia Hames.

E. A. Brown, one of the worthy residents of Izard County, Ark. was born in Hall County, Ga., on the 16th of August, 1824, and is a son of William and Nancy (Grimes) Brown, whose native State was South Carolina, the former's birth occurring in 1797. They were reared and married in their native State, and their union resulted in the births of four sons and five daughters, E. A. Brown being the only one of the family now living. The father was a carpenter by occupation, and died on the 26th of December, 1880, his death being followed by his wife's on the 9th of January following. They were worshipers in, and consistent members of, the Presbyterian Church, and were worthy and honored residents of the community in which they resided. E. A. Brown was educated in the State of Georgia, near Lawrenceville, and after reaching manhood, was married there on the 14th of August, 1845, to Miss Susan Long, she being a native of the "Palmetto State," and a daughter of James and Margaret Long. At the time of his marriage Mr. Brown only owned a horse worth about $40, but, with the push and energy for which he has always been remarkable, he set bravely to work, and with the aid of his intelligent and estimable wife he has become the owner of 1,400 acres of land in Izard County and 900 acres in Sharp County, about 875 acres of which are under cultivation. He is a member of the Masonic lodge, is a Democrat, in his political views, and on the breaking out of the late war he enlisted in the First Georgia Cavalry, under Col. Morrison, and his first hard fight was near Knoxville, Tenn. He was discharged at Jacksonport in 1865. He and wife are members of the Baptist Church, and are the parents of the following children: Henry, Wiley, Jane and Mollie.

W. A. Brumitt, farmer, Franklin, Ark. This successful farmer was born in Fulton County, Ark., in 1859, and when only eleven years of age started out to fight life's battle for himself. He first commenced as a hired hand, and for his services was boarded and clothed the first year, but the second year the same man paid him $12 a month for his labor. He continued working by the month on a farm until seventeen years of age, when he began traveling, and thus enjoyed himself for about twelve months, visiting as far north as Illinois and Kentucky, and as far south as Texas and the Indian Nation. When eighteen years of age he rented land and farmed in Sharp County, and when nineteen years of age he farmed and ran a cotton-gin. After this he rented the Wolf mill and conducted that for two years, after which he embarked in the distillery business for twelve months. In 1884 he bought his present property, consisting of 220 acres, with eighty under cultivation, and had this farm cultivated until 1889, when he took charge of the place himself. He was married in December, 1878, to Miss Rebecca Jackson, a native of this county, and born on the farm where they now reside. They are the parents of four children; Lucy A., W. P., Clara and James H. Mr. Brumitt has discharged the duties of justice of the peace in his township, and is now director of the public schools. He is a self-made man in every sense of the word and deserves the esteem of all for his enterprise and perseverance. His educational advantages, as might be supposed, were rather limited, but by reading and observation he has become a well-informed man. He is a Republican and is alive to the political issues of the day. His parents were R. H. and Elizabeth A. (Morris) Brumitt, natives of Tennessee and Kentucky, respectively. R. H. Brumitt moved to Arkansas in 1857, entering land on Strawberry River, Fulton County, but only resided there three years, when he moved to Independence County, settling in the northeast part of the same. In 1862 he moved to Illinois, settling in Johnson County, and there remained for four years. In 1867 he came back to his farm in Independence County, remained there until 1869, when he moved to Sharp County and there bought a farm of 360 acres. In 1883 he sold this farm and moved to Izard County, locating near the center of the county on a farm of 340 acres. He has been married three times; first, to the mother of the subject of this sketch, and they became the parents of two children: Nathaniel (deceased) and W. A. Mrs. Brumitt was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and died in 1867, at the age of fifty-two years. Mr. Brumitt' s second marriage was to Mrs. P. M. Hotchkiss, nee Shanks, and they had six children, five now living: Martha, wife of William Fry; James F., resides in this county; Susan J., at home; Lucy F., Daniel H. and Mary A. (deceased). Mrs. Brumitt was a worthy member of the Baptist Church, and died in 1881. By his third marriage, to Mrs. Mahala Thompson, nee Richardson, he became the father of one child, Naomi A. Mr. Brumitt is a member of the I. O. O. F. lodge, and is still quite an active man. He is a Republican, but does not take a very active part in politics. Mrs. Brumitt is a member of the Primitive Baptist Church.

Joseph L. Byler was born in Middle Tennessee, in 1834, his father, John Byler, being also born in that State in 1797. The latter was a soldier in the War of 1812, and was the captain of a company, afterward being promoted to major, and this latter position he held until the close of the war. In the year 1820 he united in the bonds of matrimony to Miss Middia Adkinson, a daughter of John Adkinson, and to their union seven children have been born, two of whom are now living: Mary and Joseph L. He removed from Tennessee to Izard County, Ark., in the year 1847, and obtained a land warrant from the government for 160 acres of land, which he farmed with success up to the time of his death, in 1873. His wife died in Bedford County, Tenn., in 1844. At the age of eighteen years Joseph L. Byler engaged in farming and stock raising, and in these two enterprises, which have been his chief calling through life, he has met with marked success. He owns 250 acres of land on Rocky Bayou, and has about ninety acres under cultivation, which he devotes principally to the raising of cotton, corn and small grain. In addition to this, he owns a large cotton-gin and grist-mill, which he has operated for the past twelve years, last year putting up 166 bales of cotton, and since 1887 he has been engaged in merchandising, and has a fair patronage. Since Cleveland's administration he has held the office of postmaster of Alder, and socially is a member of the Masonic and Odd Fellow's fraternities. He is a thorough, enterprising business man, has a host of friends, and is recognized by all as a good citizen. In 1854 he was married to Rachel, the daughter of John and Elizabeth Gray, of Izard County, but she died in 1868, leaving him with a family of five children to care for: Augusta C, Mary E., Mentian, Sarah J. and Rachel R. In 1871 he was married to his second wife, whose maiden name was Lettie W. Woody, she being a daughter of Joseph and Sarah Woody, of Izard County. They have a family of three children: Dixie E., Joseph G. and Edna. Mr. Byler served in the Confederate army under Capt. Gibson and Col. Shaler from 1861 to 1865, being in the infantry, and was a participant in a number of battles. He is now a stanch Democrat in his political views, and for a number of years has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. William W. Campbell. The farm which Mr. Campbell now owns and conducts in such an enterprising and industrious manner embraces 340 acres of land, of which 125 are under cultivation, forming one of the neat, comfortable homesteads of this township. The improvements upon it are convenient and complete, and, no doubt, one reason of his success in this calling is the fact that from his earliest youth he has been familiar with the duties of farm labor. He was born in the "Old North State" in 1838, his father, William R. Campbell, also being born there, the latter's birth occurring in 1813. The latter received a somewhat limited education in his youth, but in his business enterprises was quite successful, and be came the owner of 550 acres of land. He was married to Miss Mary Howard, a daughter of John Howard, of Iredell County, and to their union a family of eleven children were born, seven sons and four daughters: James A., William W., Sarah A., Faunie, Martin H. Augustus W., Henry F., Samuel P., Mary, Preston B. and Alice. The family emigrated from North Carolina to Izard County, Ark., in 1856, and here became prominent citizens. The father purchased 200 acres of land, which he devoted principally to raising corn and small grain, and during his lifetime he was quite active in politics, and held the office of magistrate for some years. He volunteered to serve in the Mexican War, but before he entered service peace was declared. He, as well as his wife, were active members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and his death occurred in Izard County, Ark., in 1883. William W. Campbell received a common school education in North Carolina, and, in 1859, began life for himself in Izard County, with the results above stated. Upon the breaking out of the Civil War he enlisted in the infantry, but later joined the cavalry, being under Gens. McCarver and Hardy, but was discharged while serving under the latter, at Pocahontas. He next enlisted under Gen. Shaler, and was taken prisoner at Cape Girardeau, Mo., and was taken to St. Louis, where he was confined for six months. He served in all four years. He is a Mason, a member of the I. O. O. F., and is a man who enjoys an extensive acquaintance, and is highly respected. He has been married three times; first, in 1860, to Miss Hiley J. Walker, a daughter of John Walker, of Izard County, but she died in 1863, leaving one child, Pierce W. She was a member of the Baptist Church, and was an estimable woman in every respect. In 1864 Mr. Campbell took for his second wife Miss Hiley J. Hightower, Nathan Hightower's daughter, but her death occurred in 1876, she having borne him two children, Sarah A. and Martha J. She was also a consistent member of the Baptist Church. Mrs. Caroline Smith became his third wife in 1883, her father's name being Andrew James. This marriage resulted in the birth of the following family: Patrick O., Edward B. Augustus A. and Maggie O.

Henry F. Campbell is a native of North Carolina, born in 1848, and like the majority of the native born residents of that State, he is energetic and enterprising. A short history of his father, William R. Campbell, appears in the sketch of William W. Campbell. Henry F. Campbell received the education and rearing which is usuallygiven the farmer's boy, and after reaching manhood was married in Izard County, Ark., to Miss Mary E. Helen, a daughter of George C. Helen, of this county. To them have been born the following interesting family of children: James T., William C, Mary E., and Cornelia F. Like so many of the substantial citizens of this country at the present time, Mr. Campbell was initiated into the mysteries of farm life from the very first, and this has since continued to be the calling to which his attention has been directed. He now owns and operates 240 acres of land in Izard County, and has sixty-five acres under cultivation, which he devotes to the raising of cotton, corn and oats. In 1880 he erected a cotton-gin on his farm, which has been in operation each succeeding year, and in 1888 he ginned 140 bales of cotton. He built a substantial residence in 1881; and is one of the largest and most successful fruit growers in this section of the country. His marriage occurred in 1874, and his wife lived until the 7th of March, 1889, when she was called to her long home. She was a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and Mr. Campbell belongs to the Baptist Church. His mother was born in North Carolina in 1816, her parents being also natives of that State, and they were the parents of the following family of children; Martin, James. Polly, Sarah, Lemira and Millie.

John W. Cone, farmer, Newburg, Ark. Mr. Cone is one of the representative young farmers of Newburg Township. and is closely associated with the agricultural affairs of the county. His birth occurred on the 5th of July, 1850, in Tennessee, and his youth was passed in attending the common schools and in assisting his father on the farm in Tennessee. He came with his father to Arkansas, in 1870, and settled on the farm where he now resides. Four years later ho wedded Miss Mollie A. Freeman, a native of Tennessee, but who was reared in Arkansas, this county. Four children are the result of this union: George T., Cora E., Bosa H. and John B. Mr. Cone commenced farming for himself at the age of twenty- one years on his father's land, and at the end of two years bought his present property, which then consisted of 140 acres, but he has added to this until he now has 260 acres with 160 under cultivation. Soon after arriving at his majority he commenced traveling, and journeyed over Tennessee, Kentucky and Illinois, and did not commence saving anything for a rainy day until twenty -five years of age. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., is a Democrat in his political views, and he and wife are members of the Christian Church. His parents, Bev. G. W. and Margaret (Howland) Cone, were natives of North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively. W. Cone was a minister in the Christian Church, and followed this calling for forty years, although in connection he also carried on farming. He was married in Tennessee, in 1847, and lived there until 1870, when he moved to Izard County, Ark., and settled on the farm adjoining his son's (John W. Cone) fine tract of land. There he now resides and is in his seventy-third year, but is still active and in the enjoyment of comparatively good health. He was quite well off previous to the war, but lost the principal part of his property during that exciting period. He and wife reared a family of eight children, all living: Tennessee, wife of B. F. Smith, of this county; John W., J. B., resides in this county; Mary J., wife of W. C. Bounds, and lives in Texas County, Mo.; I. N., wife of W. C. Aylor; Cassie M., wife of C. E. Jett; Maggie W., wife of H. Lacy, and Thomas F., who lives in this county. The mother of these children is in her fifty-eighth year. The paternal grandfather was of Irish descent as was also the grandmother, whose maiden name was Norwood. The maternal grandparents of John W. Cone were John F. and Ellen (Miller) Howland, and the grandfather was a soldier in the Mexican War.

J. M. J. Conyers deserves honorable mention as one of the successful agriculturists of Izard County, and, owing to his own enterprise and push, he has become the owner of 307 acres of land, with about 110 acres under cultivation, all of which is located in Dry Town Township. He was born in Hart County, Ky. March 6, 1836, and is one of three sons born to P. C. and Eliza (Ralston) Conyers, both of whom were born on Blue Grass soil, and were there reared, educated and married. After the death of his wife, in 1838, he espoused Miss Tabitha Gouch, she also being a Kentuckian; their union was consummated in March, 1842. This marriage resulted in the birth of thirteen children, of which family three were boys and the rest girls. Seven of these children are now living. At the time of Mr. Conyers death, March 4, 1865, he was the owner of 240 acres of land. His widow survives him, and resides with a son in Izard County, Ark. The father was a G. Mason, and a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. J. M. J. Conyers received an excellent education in Henry County, Tenn., but in the year 1867, he removed to Arkansas, and was afterward married to Miss Nannie Billington, a daughter of William and Pemelia Billington, of Tennessee. To their marriage, which occurred on the 6th of February, 1867, have been born a family of eleven children (eight of whom are living): William P., Thomas A., Franklin M. James A., Newton A., Nathaniel E. Dora A., Nancy A., Mary E., Jeptha A. and Sarah J. Mr. Conyers has held the office of Junior Deacon in the Masonic order, and in public life has been deputy sheriff of the county, and has also held the position of constable of his township. He and wife worship in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, of which he has been a worthy member since 1853.

David Craige, proprietor of the Izard County Register, Melbourne, Ark.The name of Craige is honorably connected with the prosperity and happiness of Melbourne and the county of Izard, for his paper enters the homes of many, and with its progressive ideas and newsy articles, receives a ready welcome. This paper is the only one in the county. David Craige is a native of Rowan County, N. C, born in the year 1836, and is the son of John and Jane (Thomason) Craige, both natives of North Carolina, The father was a descendant of a Scotch family, and owned a number of slaves. He was a Democrat, but not active in politics. He died about 1847, at the age of forty-five years, and his wife died about 1840, at the age of thirty five years. The paternal grandfather served as a colonel dining the entire War for Independence. David Craige divided his time in early youth in assisting on the farm and in attending the common schools of his county. At the age of fifteen years he commenced serving an apprenticeship at the printer's trade in Lincolnton, N. C. and after following this for some time, he came to Batesville. Ark., in 1852, and went to work on the Commercial Standard, run by John C. Claiborne. Mr. Claiborne only ran the paper a year, when he sold to Urban E. Fort, and the name and political status were changed from a Democratic to a Whig. It then became known as the Independent Balance, and was run under that name until the commencement of the war. About 1855 Prof. M. Shelby Kennard assumed control of the paper, and through all the political changes Mr. Craige worked at this paper until the breaking out of the war. On account of poor health he was exempt from service, and during the war, and for a few years afterward, he was engaged in agricultural pursuits on North Fork and Piney Bayou. In 1871 he returned to the printing business and worked on the North Arkansas Times, published by Charles Maxwell and Dr. M. McClure of Batesville, Ark., and Democratic in its principles. He continued with this paper until 1873, when he went to Jacksonport, and was engaged as journeyman on the Statesman, a Republican journal, edited by John Fagan. From 1873 to 1883 Mr. Craige merely rusticated, for his health was quite poor at that time. In 1883 or 1884 he took charge of the Sharp County Record for J. W. Buckley, and managed that for three years. In January, 1887, he first leased the Register, but in November, 1888, purchased the same, and runs the paper in the interests of the Democratic party. He was married March 20, 1887, to Jliss Elizabeth Campbell, daughter of Archibald Campbell, of this county, who was originally from Iredell County, N. C., and is one of the old settlers of Izard County. Mr. Craige is now permanently located, having married in his fifty- first year, and with the extensive circulation his paper has already obtained, commands the respect and confidence of many of the reading public. Politically he is of course, a Democrat.

Dr. John M. Creswell is a native of Izard County, and was born on the 20th of May. 1857. being one of nine living members of a family of eleven children born to James C. and Martha (Mann) Creswell, the former a native of Arkansas, born in 1826, and the latter of Tennessee. James received a very limited education in his youth, and afterward followed the occupation of farming: and although he was badly crippled financially during the war, by diligent subsequent labors he was the owner of a good farm of 1(50 acres at the time of his death, on the 21st of March, 1881. In 1868 he moved to Bell County, Tex., but not liking the country he returned to Arkansas at the end of six months, and settled at Sylamore (now in Stone County), but two years later came to Izard County. He served in the Confederate army from 1863 to 1865, and was captain of his company, being under Gen. Price, and was with him on his raid through Missouri, participating in the battle of Pilot Knob. He surrendered at Jacksonport. Ark., June 5. 1865, and then returned home. He was married in 1854. the following being his children, who are now living: John M., Solon M., Cyrus J., James L., Rufus C., Martha D., (wife of J. D. Denton), William D., Harriet E. and Homer Z. Mr. Creswell was a member in good standing of the A. F. & A. M. at the time of his death, and was a man who took great interest in all worthy public movements and gave his children good educational advantages. His widow survives him. Dr. John M. Creswell was reared on a farm but spent the most of his time in school, being an attendant of the La Crosse Academy from 1871 to 1878, the institution at this time being under Profs. H. C. Tipton and M. Shelby Kennard. In 1880 he entered the St. Louis Homeopathic College and graduated from this institution two years later, delivering the valedictory address at the commencement exercises, and was honorably mentioned in Materia Medica and Surgery. He has been engaged in practicing at his present location ever since, and has won an enviable reputation among the medical fraternity of the county, and is acknowledged by all to be a successful physician. On the 7th of May, 1885, he was united in marriage to Miss Martha C. Peel, of Izard County, and by her became the father of one child, who is deceased. They are members the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is a Royal Arch Mason, and a member of the I. 0. O. F. The paternal grandparents, James L. and Margaret (Laferty) Creswell, were very early settlers of Izard County, and here the grandfather died at the age of fifty-five years; four of his sisters also died when fifty five years of age. The maternal grandfather. Rev. John H. Mann, was a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and came to Izard County from the State of Tennessee in 1830. His death occurred in 1872, aged sixty.

Wiley Croom is a Tennesseean, bom in 1840, and a son of Denajah and Mary (Daniel) Croom, who were born, reared and married in North Carolina, the latter event taking place in 1825. father was born in 1805, and about 1828 or 1830 removed to the State of Tennessee, and was there engaged in farming up to 1849, when he came to Arkansas, and after renting land one year he returned to Tennessee. He continued to make his home in this State until 1854, and from that time until 1856 he was a resident of Lawrence County; then resided one year in Greene County, Mo., after which he again returned to Lawrence County. He here purchased 160 acres of land, which he was engaged in farming until 1863, at which date he removed to Illinois and farmed on rented land until 1866. From that time until his death, 1871, be was a resident of Lawrence County, Ark. He was a member of the Baptist Church, as was his wife, whose death occurred in 1870, she being a daughter of Owen Daniel, of North Carolina. Of sixteen children born to Mr. and Mrs. Croom, the following are now living: Nancy, wife of Ephraim Sharp, of Lawrence County, Ark. Elizabeth, Mariah, wife of Whit B. Smith; Jesse, Wiley, Hiram, and Drucilla, the wife of John M. Smith. Wiley Croom, our immediate subject, began life for himself in 1865. farming on rented land for two years, and then purchased a farm of 160 acres in Izard County, the tilling of which has since received his attention, but his acreage is now 185, and he has sixty-five under the plow. Since 1878 he has been engaged in grist-milling in Oxford, at which time he erected a substantial mill, and in of these two enterprises the results have been highly satisfactory. His union to Miss Sarah J. Pearson occurred in 1866, she being a daughter of Thomas Pearson, of Lawrence County, Ark., and to them have been born five sons and three daughters: Mary M., wife of J. L. Smith, of Oxford; David F., Hiram F., Ida J., wife of A. H. Caldwell, of Oxford; Denajah, Anna B., Thomas W. and Grover C. Mr. Croom is a Democrat. In 1861 he enlisted in the Confederate army, under Col. McCarver, find was in many important battles during his service. He was captured at Big Black, Miss., and taken to Fort Delaware, on the Delaware River, and was kept there until September, then being taken to listed in the infantry under Capt. Deason, and was Point Lookout, on the Chesapeake Bay. The He was kept in captivity from May 17, 1863, till January, 1864, when he was released and returned to Arkansas. Here he again entered the service, this time enlisting under Capt. Wiley Jones, and served until the surrender at Jacksonport, in 1865.

Marion D. Crutchfield was born in Orange County, N. C., in 1846, and is a son of James W. Crutchfield, who was born in North Carolina, July 6, 1811. The latter first married Levina, the daughter of Alex. Lashley, their union taking place on the 13th of March, 1836, but her death occurred the following year, she having borne one child, Salina. For his second wife he took, in 1841, a in daughter of Acquilla Jones, her name being Sallie P., and three sons and three daughters have been born to them. Mr. Crutchfield emigrated from North Carolina to White County, Ark., in 1849, and here he took up government land to the amount of 160 acres, near Searcy, but the following year he moved to Newton County, and bought eighty acres and entered eighty acres more, and here made his home until his death in 1860, his wife, who was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, having died here a year earlier. Marion D. Crutchfield, having learned farming and blacksmithing of his father, began doing for himself in 1861, and when the war broke out be joined the infantry, but afterward joined the cavalry under Capt. Harvey Lane. In 1868 he was captured in Newton County, Ark. and at the end of about three weeks, after being kept at Springfield, was released, and joined the Federal army. After his return home he resumed farming and blacksmithing, and by his own good management has a fine farm of 580 acres, with 250 acres under cultivation, his principal products being corn, cotton, millet and the small grains. He has a fine fruit orchard of about 500 bearing trees, and, take it all-in-all, he has one of the finest and best improved farms in the county. In connection with his farm work, he has also been engaged in blacksmithing. He is a Democrat, a member of the I. O. O. F., and he and wife, whom he married on the 7th of January, 1869, and whose maiden name was Martha M. Cargill, are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and are the parents of the following children: Lueian E., Ida A., Elmer W. and Henry G. Those deceased are James P, Florence I. and Marion F. His wife was born in Kentucky in 1846, and is a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John P. Cargill, the former a native of North Carolina, born in 1812, and the latter of Kentucky, born in 1819.This couple became the parents of the following family: William, James, Mary E., Sarah M. and Susan S. and those deceased are Thomas C. Jonathan and Louiza. Mr. and Mrs. Cargill are residing in Izard County, and the former is a member of the Baptist Church.

Thomas P. Cypert was born in Wayne County, Tenn., in 1820, his parents, Jesse and Jemima (Worthen) Cypert, being Virginians by birth. To them were born seven sons and four daughters: Nancy, Elizabeth, John, Zacharias, William, James W., Thomas P., Robert J., Jesse Newton, Sarah W. and Felicia Ann. At an early day the parents moved to Wayne County, Tenn., where they entered land, and followed the occupation of farming for many years. The father served in the War of 1812, and died in Tennessee in 1856, and his wife in 1858. Thomas P. Cypert embarked in life for himself in 1842, following the occupation of farming, and by energy and good management has become the owner of 160 acres of land, fifty of which are under cultivation and are devoted to the cultivation of corn, cotton and small grain. He also raises considerable stock. In 1861 he enlisted in the infantry under Capt. Deason, and was with the troops stationed at Bowling Green, Ky., during that year, but after participating in the battle of Shiloh, the following year he was discharged, and upon returning resumed farming, which occupation has since received his attention. He has been a resident of Izard County. Ark., since 1852, and is considered by all one of its industrious and enterprising citizens. The year 1846 witnessed his marriage to Miss Temperance Brown, a daughter of Levi Brown, by whom he became the father of eleven children: John T. Sarah A., Delphina. Mary. Levi J., Jesse N., Jemima C, Mack, Lydia. George W., Emma F., Levi and Jesse (twins).

William Davis is one of the old and highly honored residents of Izard County, and during the many years devoted to agricultural pursuits in this region he has become well and favorably known. His farm comprises 252 acres, of which eighty acres are under cultivation, and it is well improved with good buildings and orchards. Some portions of his land are underlaid with minerals and are considered very valuable. He was born in Campbell County, Tenn., in 1815, and is a son of James Davis, who was born in Kentucky. The latter received a liberal education in his youth, and gave his attention to the occupation of farming. He served in the War of 1812, was a member of the Primitive Baptist Church, and after his marriage to Miss Sallie Cushenbury, of Tennessee, he removed to Kentucky (in 1829), where he purchased land and reared his family of six sons and six daughters: Patsey, Nancy, Baxter, George, Anna, James, Ursula, William, Ferroby, Joseph, John and Emaiuiel. William Davis, the immediate subject of this sketch, was married to Miss Bethenia Dobbs, of Kentucky, in 1835, but her death occurred in 1858, she having borne a family of eleven children, eight of whom survive: Mary A., James, Emanuel, Ferroby, Simon, Mark, Ollie and Nancy. In the latter part of 1858 Mr. Davis took for his second wife Harriet A., the daughter of Isaac Bettis, of Izard County, Ark. This union resulted in the birth of twelve children, seven living: William A. Baxter, Rufus M., Martha E., Anthony W. Tennessee and Minnie L. Their son, Rufus M., was married in 1888 to Miss Julia Cunningham, of Izard County, and they reside on the homestead with Mr. Davis. They have one child, Willie. The family attend the Missionary Baptist Church, of which Mr. and Mrs. Davis have long been members.

W. O. Dillard. The family of which the subject of this sketch is a representative, is one well known to the people of Izard County, for one or more of its members have been identified with its agricultural interests since 1849, when Alex. Dillard and his family located here. The latter was married to Delilah Legau, both being natives of Tennessee, and, throughout his entire life, he was engaged in farming and merchandising, following the latter occupations at Spring Creek and Woods after coming to Arkansas. He served as justice of the peace and deputy sheriff of his county, and, during the time he served in the latter capacity, he transacted the greater portion of the business which should have been attended to by the sheriff. He was quite a wealthy man prior to the war, and owned several negroes, but his losses during the rebellion were very heavy, and these he never fully regained. He died in 1867, at the age of fifty-nine years. To his marriage, which occurred in 1825, were born a family of seven children, three of whom lived to be grown, and two now living: J. A., a resident of this county, and W. O. John C. died while serving in the Mexican War, being sergeant of his company. Both parents were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the mother's death occurred in 1837 or 1838. Mr. Dillard's second wife was Mary Wood, of Tennessee, and she is now the wife of John Anderson. W. O. Dillard remained with his father until twenty-seven years of age, then commenced for himself, farming on his own land, which was situated on White River, in Izard County. This property he sold in 1806, and bought 202 acres on another portion of White River, about eighty acres of which are under cultivation, and in addition to this owns 1,000 acres, the entire now amount of his land under cultivation amounting to 250 acres. In 1862 he joined the Confederate army as a private, but was afterward promoted to the rank of second lieutenant, and served three years under Col. Freeman, and was with Price on his raid through Missouri. He surrendered at Jacksonport, Ark. on the 5th of June, 1865, and returned home and resumed farming. From 1869 to 1875 he was successfully engaged in merchandising, and since that time he has been occupied with farming. He was married, in 1857, to Miss Averilla Jeffrey, but she died in 1868, after having borne four children, three now living: James L. Nancy J. wife of Neely Talley, and Alex. Mary E. is deceased. In 1869 Mr. Dillard wedded his second wife, she being a Mrs. Sarah Slavens, and to them three children have been born: J. J., John C. and W. O. Mr. Dillard was called upon Flat to mourn the death of this wife in 1879, and in 1881, his third wife, who was a Miss Sallie Harris, also died, their marriage having been consummated in 1880. His marriage to his present wife, who was a Miss Adelaide Cantrell, took place in 1883. They have two children: George C. and Charley R. Mr. Dillard's first two wives were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, his third wife was a Cumberland Presbyterian, and he and his present wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church. He is a Democrat, a member of the A. F. & A. M., and is a man who favors and supports all laudable enterprises, especially those connected with churches and schools.

George J. Dillard is a native-born resident of Izard County, Ark., and was born in the year 1850. He is a son of Hill and Eliza (Creswell) Dillard, the former's birth having occurred in the "Old Dominion," in 1814. The father was one of the leading farmers of the section in which he resided, and during slavery times, owned a great many negroes. Although he received a limited early education, he possessed sound judgment and a keen and active intellect, and was a man who stood well in the estimation of all who knew him. The following family were born to himself and wife: Elizabeth, the wife of B. T. Roose; Martha, also married, Sarah, now Mrs. Billingsley, all of whom reside in this county. Mr. Dillard removed to this county and State in 1836, coming overland, and entered a large tract of land, and, at the time of his death, owned about 1,000 acres. He built him a cedar-log hut in the woods and in this primitive structure, his son, George J. Dillard, was born. After making this county his home until 1863 he moved to the State of Texas, where he died two years later. George J. Dillard, like his father, has followed the occupation of farming all his life, and like him, has been successful. His farm, which comprises 264 acres, of which 130 acres are under cultivation, he devotes chiefly to raising cotton, corn and small grains, and throughout the county he is well and favorably known. Although he attended the La Crosse school for some time, which was under the management of Prof. Kennard, his early education was somewhat limited, but by reading and contact with the world, he is considered one of the well posted men of the county. In 1872 be was married to Miss Rebecca Shell, a daughter of William and Catherine Shell, of Izard County, and by her has a family of seven children: Edward, William D., Ollie, Elizabeth, James, Hubbard and Catherine.

William K. Estes, county and circuit clerk, Melbourne, Ark. In his present position as clerk of the county and circuit court of this county, Mr. Estes is proving himself to be efficient and popular, and the manner in which he has acquitted himself has justly won him the name of being possessed of more than ordinary business ability. He is a native-born citizen of this county, his birth occurring on the 5th of September, 1853, and he is the son of Thomas N. and Lucy R. (Johnson) Estes, and the grandson of Burris and Martha (Morris) Estes, natives of North Carolina. The grandfather came to Tennessee at an early day, and was there married about 1825. He was a leading agriculturist, and died near the close of the late war, leaving considerable property in land and slaves. He was a member of the Baptist Church, as was also his wife, who died shortly after his death. The paternal great-grandfather of William K. Estes was an officer in the war for independence, and had in the same army with himself eleven cousins of the same name and sons of one father. He drew from the government 600 acres of land, and located his claim in Henry County, Tenn., where he passed his last days. Thomas N. Estes was born in Tennessee, but moved to this State in 1852, and was married that year to Miss Lucy R. Johnson, who bore him three children: W. K., John J. (who is a bookkeeper at Evening Shade, Sharp County, and Samuel C. (who is clerking in a dry goods store, at Ash Flat, Ark.) The mother of these children died in 1858. She was a member of the Baptist Church. Mr. Estes was married the second time, in 1869, to Mrs. Minerva R. Wilson, nee Kimmins; both are members of the Baptist Church. The same year they moved to Izard County, where Mr. Estes has a fine farm of 200 acres, with thirty or forty under cultivation, and on which are good buildings, etc. In 1849 he crossed the plains to California, and after suffering untold hardships and after being on the road over six months, reached that State. He then followed mining until 1852, met with reasonable success and returned to Arkansas in the above mentioned year. He was county clerk of Fulton County from 1862 to 1864, and also served in the Confederate army. William K. Estes' early life was divided between assisting on the farm and in attending the common schools of bis county. At the age of twenty years he started out for himself by continuing the pursuit to which he had been reared, and followed this occupation uninterruptedly for a long time. In 1879 be moved to the city, and served as deputy clerk from that time until 1884, when be was elected county clerk, though he had first been deputy clerk in November, 1876. He filled this office in such a capable and efficient manner, and so popular did be become, that be was complimented by being re-elected in 1886, serving until 1888. He has been twice married: first, in 1873, to Miss Lurana E. Wilson, by whom he had five children: Lucy E., Walter H., Jasper M., Allie M. and Ford W. Mrs. Estes was born on the 3d of March. 1855, and died on the 13th of August, 18S6. She was a member of the Baptist Church. Mr. Estes' second marriage was to Miss Nancy C. Kitchens, on the 30th of January, 1887. They have one child, Earl T. Mr. and Mrs. Estes are both church members, she of the Christian denomination and he of the Baptist. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M. and R. A. M. and also a member of the Subordinate Lodge and the Encampment of Odd Fellows. In politics he is Democratic.

James H. Garner was born in Tennessee, in 1834, and is a son of John Garner, whose native State was North Carolina, where he was born on the 1st of August, 1808. In his youth he removed to Tennessee with his parents, and in this State he received the advantages of the common schools, and as far back as he could remember he had been familiar with farm work. In 1831 his marriage with Miss Sarah B. Greer was celebrated, she being a daughter of Joshua and Polly Greer. Five sons and three daughters were born to John Garner and wife: William T. Washington L., Edward P., John D. Mary E. Francis and Lucy C. Mr. Garner removed from Tennessee to Izard County, Ark., in 1858, and purchased a farm of eighty acres, which he successfully conducted until his death on the 21st of August, 1872. His wife, who was born in Tennessee, February 19, 1816, still lives on the old homestead, and both were members of the Christian Church. James H. Garner's youth was spent in his native State, and in 1859 he followed his father to Izard County, Ark., and purchased a woodland farm of 120 acres near him. On this he built a house and established his family, and in time became able to purchase 280 acres more, of which he has 150 acres under the plow. On this he raises corn and cotton, and as a large portion of his farm is underlaid with mineral ore it is very valuable. He has now in process of erection a commodious frame residence on his Piney Creek farm, and in looking over Mr. Garner's domains it can easily be seen that he thoroughly understands his business and is thrifty and energetic. He was married to Miss Mary E. Murphy, a daughter of Gilston Murphy, of Illinois, and by her has a family of seven children: John It., Nathan F., William L., Jessie B. James E., Henry B. Thomas F. and Edwin L. When the war broke out he joined Company E, and was two years in the infantry under Capt. Gibson, and from that time until the close of the war he was in the cavalry under Capt. Powell. He was at Little Rock, Independence and Kansas City, and surrendered at Jacksonport in 1865. He is a Democrat in his political views, and from 1872 to 1876 served as justice of the peace; in 1887 he was appointed deputy sheriff under R. L. Sanders, of Izard County. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, having been Master of his lodge two years.

B. F. Garner was born in the State of Tennessee, in 1836, his parents, William P. and Harriet (Greer) Garner, being also natives of that State, the former's birth occurring in 1813. They were married in their native State in 1835, she being a daughter of Joshua Greer, and in 1859 they removed to Izard County, Ark., and purchased a farm of 240 acres, and here he was engaged in farming and preaching (he being a minister of the Christian Church) up to the time of his death, in 1870. His wife died in 1860, and three or four years later he wedded Miss Martha Murphy, who died the same year as himself. His first union resulted in the birth of twelve children, six being now alive: B. F., John L., Nancy E., wife of M. D. S. Laird, of Boone County, Ark.; Eliza J., wife of William A. Robins, of Izard County; Thomas H., and Harriet L. wife of J. J. Seers, of Fulton County, Ark. B. F. Garner removed to this county in 1869, having begun life for himself in his native State at the age of twenty-one years, his first business venture being to engage in saw-milling. This enterprise he continued to follow until 1864, when he turned his attention to farming. He was married there, in 1858, to Miss Elizabeth J. Wade, and by her has four children: William L., A. B., J. T. and U. S. The two eldest sons are engaged in saw-milling, on a large scale, in what is known as "Dry Hollow," Izard County, and are enterprising young business men. Upon coming to the State of Arkansas Mr. Garner entered and purchased land to the amount of 410 acres, and, with the exception of 100 acres, has divided his land among his sons. He has forty acres of his land under cultivation, and since 1879 has been engaged in the mercantile business, at Oxford, and does a business of about $4,000 per annum. He is also interested in the mercantile business with his son, J. T., at Widoman. He supports the principles of the Republican party, and he and wife are members of the Christian Church, as are three of his sons: A. B. J. T. and U. S.

John D. Garner has spent his entire life in the occupation of farming, and the manner in which he has acquired his present possessions denotes him to be a man of energy, push and enterprise. He was born in Tennessee, in 1852, and since 1858 has been a resident of Izard County, Ark., and here received a somewhat meager education in the common schools in his youth. In 1871 he married Miss Ellen Langston, a daughter of John Langston, of Izard County, and to them have been born two children: Lafayette and James E. Mrs. Garner died in 1876, and he afterward married Miss Sarah Niblett, a daughter of Samuel Niblett, their union taking place in Fulton County, Ark., in 1878. Six children have been born to them: Lucy C, Silas M., Joseph, Coral, Harvey and Richard. After Mr. Garner's marriage to his present wife he resided for some time in Fulton County, but is now located permanently in Izard County, and is negotiating for the farm he is now working.He raised a good crop this year, and is a thrifty and industrious farmer. He is a Democrat politically, and he and wife are members of the Christian Church. He is a son of John Garner, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this work.

Dr. Thomas K. Goodman, of the mercantile firm of Goodman & Schenck, of Calico Rock, was born in Polk County, Mo., in 1849, and is one of nine surviving members of a family of twelve children, eleven of whom lived to be grown, born to the marriage of Sampson Goodman and Sarah Lyngar, of English and French descent, respectively, and natives of Tennessee. The father removed to Polk County, Mo. when the country was almost a wilderness, and resided in this county until his death, which occurred in 1888, at the age of eighty-two years. His wife died in 1869. He was a farmer and stock raiser of moderate means, and, although a man of not much education, he possessed sound judgment, and was an individual of more than ordinary intelligence. He and his wife were married in 1827, and were members of the Baptist Church for a number of years. Their children were as follows: F. M., who died in Missouri, in 1888, leaving a family; Elizabeth, wife of George Slatten; John F., James, who went to California in 1852, and has not been heard from since; Isaac J., Newton J., Mary E., wife of S. C. Chumbley; Harvey C., Thomas K., Edward M. Dr. Thomas K. Goodmaa received his early education in the common schools of his native county, and afterward completed his education in the academy at Greenfield, Mo., which institution he entered in 1800. He began studying medicine at Springfield in the following year under Dr. W. A. Hyde, and in the spring of 1879 graduated from the Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri, at St. Louis, but previous to graduating had practiced in Newton and Izard Counties, Ark., having located in the latter county in 1872. He continued his practice here until 1885, when he embarked in the mercantile business with Dr. Schenck [see sketch]. Upon coming to this county the Doctor was rather poor financially, but he now owns 248 acres of improved land, and his interest in his mercantile establishment. He is a Republican in his political views, is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and he and his wife, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Greenhaw. and whom he married in 1871, are the parents of three children: Oliver S., Homer H. H. and Albert A. T.

Robert Gray was born in Wilkes County. N. C., July 11, 1838, and is one of twelve children, six living, born to Constant and Jane (Sale) Gray, who were also North Carolinians. and were there reared, educated and married. Mr. Gray was a successful farmer, and at his death, in 1862, owned 1,800 acres of good land. His wife died in 1873, in the full faith of the Baptist Church. Robert Gray was educated in Wilkesboro, N. C., and in 1859 removed to Arkansas, settling in Izard County, he at that time owning but one horse and about $75 in money. He was married here on the 15th of June, 1864, to Miss Rachel E. Gray, who was born in the " Old North State," but her death occurred in January, 1864, leaving one son, William R., who died on the 8th of February, 1875. June 14, 1868, Mr. Gray wedded his second wife, Martha Hinkle by name, she having been born in Tennessee; and of their family of twelve children, eleven are still living, and ten reside at home: Thomas J., Arena J., John, Mary E., Ida K. Bertha L., James F. Walter N. Robert E., Amanda E. Annie M. and Jesse A. Mr. Gray, like his father, has always been engaged in farming, and owns about 700 acres of good land, of which 250 acres are under cultivation. He has been a member of the I. O. O. F. for the past nine years, and has held a number of offices in the county, such as assessor, and while residing in Sharp County held the office of county treasurer for two years. In 1862 he enlisted in the Confederate army under McBride, and was severely wounded at the tight at Mansfield, losing his left leg and one linger on his left hand. He also received a shot in the left side, and received his discharge in 1865. He followed the occupation of school teaching for some time after returning home, but, as stated above, has given the most of his attention to farming, which he has been remarkably successful. He and wife worship in the Baptist Church.

W. Grimmett, ex-county judge and farmer, Newburg, Ark. A plain untarnished statement of the facts embraced in the life of W. Grimmett, a man well known to the people of Izard County, is all that we profess to be able to give in this history of the county; and yet, upon examination of those facts, there will be found the career of one whose entire course through the world has been marked with great honesty and fidelity of purpose, as well as sincere and effective service to those whom he has been called upon to represent in different capacities. Mr. Grimmett was born in the Blue Grass State in 1840, and his parents, Andrew and Mary (Wilson) Grimmett, were natives of Virginia and Kentucky, respectively. Andrew Grimmett came to Kentucky at an early day, worked as a farm hand, and was here married to Miss Wilson. He moved to Arkansas in 1855, settled first in Fulton County, and one year later moved to this county, where he remained for five years. He subsequently located in Van Buren County, resided there four years, and then returned to this county, where his death occurred in 1878, at about the age of sixty-six years. Mrs. Grimmett died in 1887, at the age of seventy-two years. They were the parents of these children: Harvey Watson (the subject of this sketch), Samuel (deceased), Wilson (deceased), Mrs. Elizabeth Reynolds, W. T., Mrs. Minerva Billingsley. Mrs. Grimmett was a member of the Baptist Church. At the age of eighteen years W. Grimmett commenced life for himself by farming, and in 1858 was united in marriage to Miss Sarah A. Hammond. He has followed agricultural pursuits ever since, with the exception of three years, when he was engaged in merchandising at Newburg (1876-78), but he soon closed out his business and returned to the farm. He has held the office of justice of the peace for two terms, four years in all, two terms county and probate judge, and has since resided on and attended to his farm. In 1862 he joined the Confederate army, Company C, Shaler's regiment, under Capt. Gibson, and served until at the close of hostilities, when he surrendered at Jacksonport on the 5th of June, 1805. He was engaged in some severe skirmishes, notably Augusta and at Village Creek. After the war he came home, and went immediately to farming. Although starting with limited means the Judge has been quite successful, and is now the owner of 190 acres of land, with 100 acres under cultivation. To his marriage were born the following children: Amanda M., wife of J. O. Hammond; Caldona, wife of R. F. Lacy; Charles M. Averilla, C. E., at home; George A., Amos J. and Joseph Roscoe. Judge Grimmett is a man who favors all public improvements, and is a great friend to education. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. lodge, and in politics casts his vote with the Democrat party. Mrs. Grimmett is a member of the Baptist Church.

Sandford Hames, of the saw-milling firm of Hames & Kanky, was born in Georgia, in 1832, and is a son of Thomas H. and Annice (Robinson) Hames, who were born in South Carolina. Thomas Haines removed to Georgia at an early day, and there reared a family of ten children, three of whom are now living: John, Jasper and Sandford. The father was a soldier in the Mexican War, and was a miner by occupation, working in the gold mines of Georgia, acquiring considerable wealth in this enterprise. He passed from life in 1802, and his wife died in 1884. Sandford Hames was reared in a mining camp, and worked in the mines for some time before coming to Arkansas, in 1861. He purchased the place where he is now living, which had then fifteen or sixteen acres under cultivation, but he now has seventy-five acres under the plow, and in excellent farming condition. Besides this he owns a one-half interest in a saw-mill worth at least $2,000, and also has a farm of 216 acres in Fulton County, with fifty or sixty acres under cultivation and well stocked. He is a man who will assist in the advancement of any community in which he may reside, and gives liberally of his means in support of worthy enterprises. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M. and in his political views is a Democrat. In 1855 he was united in marriage to Miss Rebecca Montgomery, and by her is the father of seven children: Martha, wife of John Hagar; Mahala, wife of James Martin; Thomas H. William, Docia, wife of George Gray, and John. One child is deceased. J. M. Kanky, like his partner, is also a farmer, and since the age of sixteen years he has been fighting the battle of life for himself. He was first engaged in tilling his own land in Kentucky, but afterward sold out, and rented land for one or two years. 1873 he came with his father to Arkansas, and after renting land for one year he purchased a tract of land comprising 130 acres, of which there were about twenty-five or thirty acres in a tillable condition. He now has sixty-five acres of land cleared, and also owns a one-half interest in the above mentioned mill. He was born in the State of Indiana, in 1852, and in 1882 was united in marriage to Miss Mekay Hames, who died in 1888, leaving one child, Annie. Mr. Kanky is a Democrat, and is a son of J. M. and Annie H. (Davis) Kanky, whose native place was in the "Old Dominion." The father removed to Indiana in 1845, and after removing to Kentucky was married in that State, in 1848. Of four children born to them two are now living: J. M. and Thomas. Mr. Kanky removed to Arkansas in 1873, and in this State has since made his home. He is the postmaster at Wideman, Ark., is a member of the A. F. & A. M. and the I. O. O. F., and has now attained the advanced age of seventy-five years, and although quite feeble in body his mind is still clear and active. His wife died in 1875.

Andrew J. Hamilton has been a resident of Izard County, Ark., since the year 1871, and has become well known to the people of this section as a substantial, enterprising and industrious tiller of the soil. Of his farm, which comprises 300 acres of fine land, he has 125 under cultivation, and this he devotes to the raising of corn and small grain. He was born in the "Palmetto State" in 1820, and was there reared and received his scholastic training in the common schools. He first embarked in the battle of life for himself at the age of twenty-four years, and at that time emigrated to the State of Georgia, where he purchased a farm embracing 250 acres of land. On this he resided for about twenty-seven years, then, as stated above, coming to Izard County, Ark. In addition to the admirable way in which he conducts his large farm he is also one of the largest fruit growers of Northeast Arkansas. While residing in Georgia he was married to Miss Mary M. Standridge, in 1849, she being a daughter of Samuel Standridge, of that State, and their family include In the following children: Lettitia, Andrew B. Rebecca, Mary J., William H., Celia A. and Laura. The mother of these children is still living, she, like her husband, being a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Hamilton has always honored the Democratic party by his vote, ever being interested in political affairs. He is a son of James C. and Nellie (Gilstrap) Hamilton, the former's birth occurring in 1876. and he is a grandson of Hardy Gilstrap. To James C. Hamilton and his wife were born these children: Edley Andrew J., Lettie, Mary A., David, Thomas and Nancy. Mr. Hamilton died in Georgia, in 1873. and his wife in 1859, in the same State.

Newton L. Hamm. The estate which Mr. Hamm is now engaged in cultivating embraces 266 acres of land, which are well adapted to the purposes of general farming, and in his operations he displays those sterling principles which are characteristic of those of Tennessee birth, industry, and wise and judicious management being chief among the number. He has 150 acres of his land under cultivation, it being well improved with good buildings, fences, etc., and stocked with all the necessary farm animals for successfully conducting the same. He was born in McNairy County, June 24, 1840, and is one of five surviving members of a family of ten sons and seven daughters, born to William and Rachel (Huggins) Hamm, both of whom were born on Blue Grass soil, the former's birth occurring on the 20th of October, 1799, and the latter's September 13, 1798. They were tillers of the soil, and at the time of the father's death, December 10, 1872, he was the owner of 120 acres of land. He had attained a high rank in the Masonic lodge, having been a member of that organization from the time he was twenty-one years of age, and also belonged to the Hard Shell Baptist Church. He was followed to his long home by his wife on the 10th of January, 1874. Newton L. Hamm's youth was spent in attending the common schools of Tennessee, and in assisting his father on the home farm. In 1855 he moved to Arkansas, and was married here on the 1st of November, 1863, to Miss Nettie Frizzell, she having been born in Henry County, Tenn. and a daughter of Jason and Mahala Frizzell, and ten children have blessed their union, nine of whom, still living, reside at home with their parents: Carrol, William, Asa, Emmer, Joseph, Jason, Philip, Newton, Leroy and Adah E. In 1862 he enlisted in the Confederate army under Gen. Hindman, and was at the battle of Prairie Grove. He was discharged at the surrender of Jacksonport. Like his father he is a Mason, and he is a member of the Baptist Church, his wife being a member of the Methodist Church.

F. M. Hanley, attorney, Melbourne, Ark. Prominent among the comparatively young men of Izard County, Ark. whose career thus far has been both honorable and successful, is the subject of this present sketch. He was born in Graves County, Ky., in 1845, and his parents, F. M. and Elizabeth (Mobley) Hanley, were also natives of the Blue Grass State. The parents were marriedabout 1828, and the father was a successful agriculturist in his native State. He died in 1845, and the mother died in 1854. Both were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he was Democratic in his views. Their family consisted of five children, three now living: James E. (resides in Kentucky, and follows farming), Mary E. (wife of Joseph G. Henry, and resides in Kentucky), and F. M. The paternal grandfather was born in Tipperary, Ireland, and came to America when quite a young man. The paternal grandmother was also a native of the Emerald Isle. The maternal grandparents were natives of Ireland, and were married there before coming to America. F. M. Hanley was left an orphan when quite young, and, at the age of nine years, he was taken to Todd County, Ky., and bound out to Johnston Carr. He was reared on a farm, attending the subscription schools of his county until his fifteenth year, after which he entered the St. Joseph College, at Bardstown, and there remained two years. When seventeen years of age he enlisted in the Confederate army. Company D, Second Kentucky Infantry Regiment, and served until the 7th of May, 1865, participating in the following battles: Fort Donelson, Hartsville, Murfreesboro, Jackson, Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge, and was in all the battles from Resaca to Jonesboro, where he was captured, on the 1st of September, 1864, but was retained only a short time. Previous to this he was captured at Fort Donelson, and was retained by the United States forces from February to September, 1862. After being exchanged the last time his command was mounted. Upon coming home he attended school at Spring Grove Academy, Todd County, Ky. and subsequently spent three years "teaching the young idea" and in studying law, under Williams, Turner & Williams. He was admitted to the bar, at May field, Ky., in 1869, and engaged in the practice of his profession at that place. In 1873 he came to Phillips County, Ark., but, on account of poor health, only remained a short time there, and came to Izard County in 1874. He located in La Crosse, and there remained until the county seat was located at Melbourne, in 1875, when he moved here. He has since practiced his profession at this place, and has met with flattering success. He was married, in Kentucky, in 1866, to Mrs. Willie Dallam, nee Overley, and they are the parents of three children: Lena (wife of T. P. Powett, of Melbourne), Moss (wife of E. C. Parsons), and Gussie (at home). In his political views Mr. Hanley affiliates with the Democratic party, and he is a member of the I. O. O. F. lodge. Mrs. Hanley is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

Judge Henry H. Harris, Melbourne, Ark. There is one man within the limits of this county whose name, it might be said, is a household word with the people in the vicinity, for his long residence hero and his intimate association with its various material and official affairs, have gained for him an extensive acquaintance. Such a man is Henry H. Harris, judge of the county court of Izard County. He owes his nativity to Independence County, Ark., where his birth occurred on the 18th of January, 1826, and is the son of James A. Harris, a native of Georgia, who moved to Arkansas in 1820, and was there married, in 1822, to Miss Elizabeth Finley, also a native of Georgia. They first moved to Lawrence County, but a short time afterward went to Independence County and located east of Batesville, where they were the neighbors of John Miller, Sr. To their union were born two children, the Judge being the only one living. Mrs. Harris died in 1827, and Mr. Harris took for his second wife Miss Ester Ruddle, of Arkansas, in 1828. One child (deceased) was the result of this union., Mrs. Harris died in 1830, and Mr. Harris was again united in marriage to Miss Ann Carter, of Virginia, by whom he had four children, all deceased after arriving at maturity. The third Mrs. Harris died in 1846, and Mr. Harris' fourth marriage was to Miss Ellen Holoman, who bore him one child (deceased). After living in Independence County and tilling the soil until 1834, Mr. Harris moved to Izard County, and settled on White River, in Kickapoo Bottom, which is known as Harris Bottom, and now in Stone County. He here purchased 160 acres of land and improved a farm of about 100 acres in the Bottom. In 1840 he was elected sheriff, serving in that capacity for two years, and at a time when it required some little courage to successfully fill that position, as Col. Lewis had recently left with his Cherokee Indians, and everything was wild and unsettled. Later he was elected county and probate judge, which position he filled in a creditable manner for two years. He was very successful as a farmer, and popular as an officer. He had acquired considerable property, and owned at the time of his death, which occurred in 1848, several negroes, besides a good improved farm. Of all the children born to James A. Harris, Judge Harris is the only one now living. During his boyhood days he assisted on the farm and received his education in the subscription schools of the county, but later supplemented this by a course at Mount View, where he paid 7)0 cents a week for board. Though not a graduate of any school, the Judge is quite a scholar, and is held in the highest respect by all for his sterling integrity, sober, sound judgment, broad intelligence and liberal progressive ideas. His decisions are not made without care and painstaking, and all feel that he can be relied upon. At the age of eighteen he ventured out in life for himself and first engaged in the calling to which he had been reared, but in connection was also a horse drover and trader. He was married on the 22d of November, 1849, to Miss Lucy A. Dillard, a native of the Old Dominion, but reared in the State of Arkansas. To them were born nine children, seven now living: Virginia E. (wife of Dr. D. T. Powell, of Thayer. Mo.), James A., Arkansas (widow of A. J. Kainey, of Powhatan, George D., Henry H. Jr., Ruth L. (wife of S. R. Hinkle, of Melbourne), and H. D. In 1852 he was elected county and circuit clerk of Izard County, served for two years, and, in 1850, was elected the second time to the same position, holding that office until 1860. He was then elected county and probate judge, served about a year, and then sent in his resignation from Bowling Green, Ky., where he had joined the Confederate army, Company G, Eighth Arkansas Infantry. He served east of the Mississippi River and was Wounded in the battle of Shiloh, after which he came home to remain there three or four months. After this he went east and served until the close of the war. He was a daring and fearless soldier and participated in some of the closest engagements. He was at Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, also Franklin, where he was wounded the second time, and was from Dalton, Ga. to Jonesboro, of the same State. Aside from these he was in many minor engagements. He surrendered at Meridian, Miss., in ]865, and returned to his home, where he continued farming for some time. He was then employed to carry the mail and followed this for seven years, after which he embarked in mercantile pursuits, and was thus occupied from 1871 to 1872, when he moved to La Crosse, and there continued the same business for two years. In March, 1877, he was again elected clerk of this county and served for seven years. From 1884 to 1886 he was deputy clerk, and in the last named year he was elected county and probate judge, being re-elected in 1888. The Judge and wife have reared a family of which they may well be proud, for they are all honorable men and women. Politically, the Judge is a very decided Democrat, and was one among the prominent men of his county that the reconstruction act did not leave out in the cold. He was then, as he is now, among the most prominent men, and is desirous of the welfare of his county. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, also the I. O. O. F., and he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

W. E. Hill is a successful merchant and farmer of Franklin, Ark., and is one of the oldest native residents of the county, having been born here in 1841. His parents, Thomas R. and Rachel (Burlisson) Hill, were born in Kentucky and Indiana, respectively, and the former came to the State of Arkansas in 1836, settling in Izard County. Here he entered and purchased about 2,000 acres of land, which he owned and operated until his death. This country at first was very thinly populated, and Mr. Hill was compelled to go from ten to twenty miles to mill. He was married twice, and of his first family only four children are living: Mary A., widow of Lewis Williams; J. B., of Fulton County, La.; Elizabeth F., wife of Samuel Vannatta, and W. E. Two children died in in fancy and three after reaching mature years: James W., Thomas J., Erasmus, Benjamin and Eliza. Mrs. Hill, who was a devout member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, died in 1849, and in 1851 Mr. Hill married Mrs. Eliza (Colwell) Orr, widow of Dr. Orr. This wife was a Baptist, but he, like his first wife, was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Hill died in 1876, at the age of sixty-eight years, his wife's death occurring in 1874, at the age of sixty-four years. W. E. Hill has been familiar with farming from his earliest youth and secured a good education in the common schools of his native county. At the age of twenty one years he began farming for himself, but continued to make his home with his father until twenty six. When the Civil War began he espoused the Confederate cause and joined C. A. Shaler's battalion, but only served a short time when he was discharged on account of sickness. After remaining at home one year he again joined the army and served under Capt. Wolf until the close of the war, being a participant in all the fights with Gen. Price in Missouri. He surrendered at Jacksonport, Ark. June 5, 1865, and returned home and began farming on his father's land. In connection with him he built a mill, which he operated six years, and during this time his father gave him his present home farm, which consists of 274 acres. There were ten acres cleared, but it was in a worse condition than if it had not been touched. He now has 175 acres improved, and on it is erected one of the finest farm houses in Northern Arkansas. His barns are also very commodious and will accommodate forty or fifty head of horses. He has forty acres of improved land in Jefferson Township, be sides his home place and 155 acres of unimproved land. His wife owns fifty-five acres of her father's old homestead, a portion of which is improved. In 1867 Mr. Hill married Miss Margaret J. Billingsley, a daughter of Samuel Billingsley, one of the old settlers of Izard County, and the following are their family; Elizabeth A., W. E., Jr., Thomas R., Samuel B., James M., John W. Joseph E. and Stella W. Mr. Hill and his wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he belongs to the A. F. & A. M., and is a Democrat politically. He is associated with Mr. Billingsley in the mercantile business at Franklin, and they do an annual business of about $18,000.

Robert H. Holland has been familiar with the intricacies of farm work from his youth up, but since the year 1871 has been engaged in business for himself, and by unremitting toil and judicious management he has become the owner of 820 acres of land situated on Rocky Bayou, about fifty acres being under cultivation. He is one of the wide-awake agriculturists of the county, and he and his worthy wife, whom he married in 1883, and whose maiden name was Mary J. Kerwin, are noted for their hospitality and liberality. His native birthplace was Independence County, Ark., where he first saw the light of day, in 1850. He is a patron of all enterprises of a worthy character, and has shown his approval of secret organizations by becoming a member of the I. O. O. F. He married, in 1885, Miss Mary Jane Taylor. He is a son of William Holland, who was born in the State of Tennessee, in 1819, and was reared to a farm life, removing with his mother to Illinois, during the early settlement of that State, and coming with her to Arkansas, in 1829, her death occurring in Independence County, Ark., when she was about ninety years of age. His father was a soldier in the War of 1812. William Holland received a limited education in his youth, and when about twenty-one years of age began the battle of life for himself. He was married, in Independence County, to a Miss Henderson, who bore him two children, James W. and Reuben L., and after her death he was united in marriage to Martha J. Dickson, of the same county. Six children are the result of this union: Benjamin F., Robert H. (our subject), Mary J., William M., John and Sarah E. The mother of these children died in Independence County, in 1866, she having been an active member of the Missionary Baptist Church for many years. Catherine Fulks because his wife in 1867, and by him the mother of these children: Charles C, Martha J., Nancy A., Joseph S. and Margaret. This wife's demise occurred in 1882, and he is now living with his fourth wife, who was formerly Mrs. Jane Fullbright, of Izard County. He served in the Mexican War, and he and wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church.

Prof. I. K. Hooper. The education of the youth of our country being a matter of great importance, it is just and proper to make honorable mention of Prof. Hooper, for he is one of the able educators of the county. He was born in Hall County. Ga. on the 31st of December, 1854, and is one of seven surviving members of a family of nine children born to Edward and Eveline Hooper, the former's birth occurring in South Carolina, in 1799. The father was married three times; first, to Anna Bowen, who died after having borne three sons and four daughters; next, to Mary Steppe, a native of Georgia, who bore him two sons and three daughters; and then to Eveline Owen, who was also a native of Georgia. This last union resulted in the birth of nine children, six sons and three daughters, seven of the children being still alive. The father was a farmer by occupation, and owned 500 acres of land at the time of his death, in December, 1880. He and wife were in communion with the Baptist Church, she being now a resident of Georgia, making her home with her daughter. Prof. I. K. Hooper received his education at La Crosse Collegiate Institute, of Izard County, and at Fayetteville, Ark., in the Industrial University, and while at school was a bright and industrious student. On the 25th of October, 1882, after his return home from the University, he was married to Miss Mary T. Bishop, a native of Arkansas, and a daughter of William and India Bishop, who were Tennesseeans. Prof. Hooper and wife have an interesting little family of three children: Edward C., Lillian G. and Cyril L. Prof. Hooper has always been a patron of education, and has been successfully engaged in teaching school for some time, and his labors in this direction have won golden opinions for himself. He has been a member of the I. O. O. F. fur nbout three months, and in his religious views is a member of the Methodist Church. His wife is connected with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

P. M. Jeffery was born in Izard County, Ark., June 14, 1887, and is a son of Daniel JefFery, who was born, reared and educated in the State of Tennessee, moving to Arkansas in the year 1816, and took up his abode in Izard County, where he was married to Miss Mary Bowcock, a native Virginian, their union taking place in 1824. The result of their marriage was the birth of eleven children, seven sons and four daughters, only one of whom is now living, P. M. Jeffery, our subject. The father was an active politician, and besides holding the offices of sheriff and county judge, one term each, he was elected to represent this county in the State legislature in 1846, and discharged the duties of this position with honor to himself and to the satisfaction of bis constituents. He was also justice of the peace of his township one term. He and wife were active workers in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church at the time of their respective deaths in September, 1862, and February 22, 1863, and left a fine property to be divided among their children, consisting of 320 acres of fertile land. P. M. Jeffery, the immediate subject of this sketch, has spent his life in his native county, and received his education in the schools near Melbourne. From earliest youth he has been familiar with farm work, and of his 200 acres of land, tifty are under cultivation. In connection with this he is engaged in preaching the gospel, being a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, his wife and all his children being also members of that church. In September, 1861, he enlisted under W. J. Hardy, for a war experience, his first hard light being at Shiloh, he being wounded in the head in this engagement by a fragment of shell. He received his discharge at Jacksonport. On the 30th of April, 1865, he wedded Miss Dorinda Arnold, a daughter of James and Annie Arnold, and to them have been born seven children, six sons and one daughter: James E., Albert S., Willie M., Philip A., Daniel P., Henry K. and Annie M.

P. H. Jeffery, farmer, Mount Olive, Ark. Mr. Jeffery is a representative of one of the oldest and most respected families of Arkansas, and was born in Izard County in 1851. His parents, Miles and Sarah (Williams) Jeffery, were natives of Missouri and Arkansas, respectively, the former having been born in Missouri, while on the way to Arkansas, in 1818. His father, Jeohiada Jeffery, came to Arkansas in 1818, settling on White River, near Mount Olive, and was one of the very first settlers of the county. He purchased a little claim, improved it, and accumulated considerable property previous to his death, which occurred sometime in the 50' s. His wife was originally Miss Polly Wair, and they reared a large family of honorable men and women, who are scattered throughout Izard County. Jeohiada Jeffery was one of the first justices of the peace of his county after the State was admitted. He was in the War of 1812, and was in the battle of New Orleans, under Gen. Jackson. Miles Jeffery was reared to farm labor, and was not an educated man, although he had better advantages than most boys at that day. He was married, about 1836, to Miss Williams, and to them were born fifteen children, ten of whom lived to be grown, and eight are now living: Ambrose, Asa, Robert E., Attie, Mary, P. H., Finis E. and R. J., all of whom live in this, Independence and Stone Counties. Miles Jeffery represented Izard County in the legislature two terms before the war, in 1856 and 1858, and also filled the position of sheriff in 1844. He was a strong Democrat, and took an active part in politics. He was a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and was an honest, upright citizen, having a host of friends. He died in 1868. The mother died in 1876, at about the age of fifty-five years. She was an excellent woman, firm and decided in her views. P. H. Jeffery, like his father, was reared and educated in this county, although his education was rather neglected, on account of the breaking out of the late war. When eighteen years of age, he started out on his own responsibility, rented land, and tilled the soil for three years. He then purchased a farm of 345 acres, with twenty-five under cultivation, and still owns this tract of land. He now has about fifty acres cultivated, and is deeply interested in stock raising. His land is on White River, and is excellent for stock raising. By his marriage, which was consummated in 1876, to Miss Carrie E. Perrin, be became the father of five children: Henry E., Frank P., Charles E., Richard R. and Sallie. Mr. and Mrs. Jeffery are both members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and he is Democratic in his political views.

John W. Jones, M. D., is one of the oldest and best known physicians in Izard County, Ark., and was born in Giles County, Tenn., on the 1st of March, 1832. He inherits Welsh blood from his paternal ancestors, his grandfather, Wiley, his great grandfather, John Jones, having been born in that country. They came to America a short time prior to the Revolutionary War, and John took an active part in that struggle, taking sides with the colonists in their struggle for liberty, serving throughout the entire war as a private. He afterward settled in Virginia, near the North Carolina line, but after these two States were divided his home was found to be on the North Carolina side, and in this State he died near Charlotte in 1807. Wiley Jones and his wife, who was also born in Wales, removed to the State of Tennessee at a very early day, and there he reared his family and engaged in farming, being the owner of a large amount of property, both personal and real. He died in 1827. His son Ceberu was born in North Carolina, and in his youth learned the boot and shoe maker's trade, which business he conducted in Nashville from 1803 to 1871, his death occurring in the latter year. He was married, in 1827, to Miss Selina W. Mealor, and their marriage was blessed in the birth of four children, John W. and William being the only ones now living, the latter a farmer of Greene County, Mo. The mother's death occurred in 1837, and Mr. Jones took for his second wife Miss Sarab Stephens, their union resulting in the birth of four sons and three daughters: Mary A., the widow of James Cash; Sarah A., Christina, George W., Thomas N., Newton J. and Louis E. Mr. Jones and this wife were divorced, and he espoused his third wife in Nashville, Tenn. He was a member of the Old School Presbyterian Church, and in his political views was a Whig. His son. Dr. John W. Jones, was reared to farm life, but lived in the villages of Louisburg and Connersville; receiving his early scholastic advantages in the schools of those places and Jackson College, at Columbia, Tenn., which institution he entered when seventeen years of age, remaining one term. Upon leaving school he learned the harness maker's and saddler's trade, but after following this occupation two years he came to Arkansas in 1855, and settled in Independence County, where he was engaged in teaching school, following this occupation in Polk Bayou, and and afterward in Searcy County. During his days of pedagogning1 his leisure moments were devoted to the study of medicine with the view to making it his calling through life, in 1860 he entered and upon his practice continuing until the opening of the rebellion, when he joined the Confederate forces as a private, and after serving one month was promoted to the position of assistant surgeon and filled the position three years. He took part in a number of battles. Pea Ridge, Iuka and Corinth being among the number. He was taken prisoner at Port Hudson, but after being kept in captivity for six days he was paroled and returned to Searcy County, Ark., where he again resumed the practice of his profession. In 1865 he located at Evening Shade, and after teaching school for twenty months he again entered upon the practice of medicine, being in partnership with Dr. Hill. but this connection only continued a short time. He moved to near La Crosse in 1868, but in 1873 he came to Izard County and settled on the old Langston place, where he remained seven years. He purchased his present property at the end of that time, and by adding forty acres now has a farm comprising 100 acres, with about twenty acres under cultivation. Prior to the war, in 1861, he attended the Medical College, of St. Louis, Mo., but owing to some disagreement between Prof. McDowell and some of his German and Irish students the institution was closed. Dr. Jones is a member of the A. F. & A. M., the I. O. O. F., and in his political views is a Democrat. He was married in October. 1866, to Miss Martha H. Taylor, of Izard County, and by her is the father of ten children: Mary F., wife of Robert Guest; John W., Cebern S., James T., Margaret J., Samuel T., Wiley N., Martha C, Nancy A. and George R. Mrs. Jones is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Dr. Jones is a physician of acknowledged merit, and an excellent proof of his ability is shown in the extended territory over which he goes to alleviate the sufferings of the sick.

Prof. Michael Shelby Kennard is principal of the Collegiate Institute at La Crosse, Ark., an institution established by him in 1868, which has become noted as an excellent business training school, and is largely patronized by the best youth of which the State of Arkansas can boast. Prof. Kennard was born in Sumter County, Ala. in 1833, and is the son of George W. Kennard, who was born in Williamson County, Tenn., in 1801, which State he made his home until 1821, at which time he emigrated to Alabama. Up to this date, owing to his services being required on his father's farm, he had received a limited education, but in 1848 he began studying for the Baptist ministry in his adopted State, was ordained in 1847, and in 1852 emigrated to Arkansas, and located in Batesville, where he continued to reside until his death, which occurred in May, 1864. He was an earnest and faithful minister of the Gospel, and his influence in the Baptist denomination was widely felt. He was a member of the Masonic order for some thirty-five years. He was married in Perry County, Ala. in 1828, to Eliza Hopson, a daughter of Bluford and Nancy Hopson, whose death occurred in Batesville, Ark., in 1860. They had two children: Octavia C. and Michael S. The latter, the subject of this sketch, had the best advantages in obtaining an education that his native State afforded. He graduated with honor at the University of Alabama, in 1852, at the age of nineteen, and some years after received from that institution the degree of A. M. In September, 1852, he was married, in Sumner County, Tenn., to Mary E. Saunders, daughter of Joseph P. and Ellen D. Saunders, of that county. In 1852-53 he was engaged in teaching in Louisiana and Mississippi, part of the time as private tutor in the family of Gen. Minor, of Natchez, Miss. In 1854 he removed from Mississippi to Arkansas and settled at Batesville, where he spent two years in teaching, in the meantime pursuing the study of law. He was admitted to the bar in 1856, but soon abandoned the law to engage in the newspaper business. From 1857 to 1861 he was the editor and proprietor of the Independent Balance, a newspaper published at Batesville. When the war broke out he joined Sweet's Cavalry regiment, and served as adjutant, with the rank of major, and participated in many skirmishes, until January, 1863, when he was severely wounded in the head by a fragment of a shell, at the battle of Arkansas Post, and was made a prisoner of war. At the close of the war he determined to devote the remainder of his life to teaching, and engaged in the work of that profession again, at Batesville, but in 1868 he moved to La Crosse, where, as stated above, he established the Collegiate Institute. He has been principal of the same since that time, with the exception of five years, spent in Bradley County, Ark. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, in which order he has advanced to the Council, and has filled the offices of Worshipful Master and High Priest of the Royal Arch Chapter. In earlier days he was a follower of the Whig party, but since the disruption of that party has been a stanch Democrat. His children are as follows: Mary E., wife of T. B. Childress, of La Crosse, Ark.; George S., who was first married to Miss Maud Cunningham, a daughter of Hon. J. F. Cunningham, but after her death, in 1884, he married Miss Annie Collins, of Van Buren, Ark.; he is a graduate of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, at Louisville, Ky. and is now pastor of the Baptist Church at Bentonville; John F., who married Miss Mary Watkins, a daughter of Dr. O. T. Watkins, is engaged in the mercantile business at Fort Smith, Ark. Ralph E., who married Miss Henry Lee Powell, a daughter of Judge R. H. Powell, of the Fourteenth judicial district, is a druggist at La Crosse: Joseph A. married Miss Carrie W. Hunt, a daughter of Dr. O. T. Hunt, of La Crosse, and Edward L. Ruth and Robert S. are still unmarried.

Dr. J. A. Kerr, physician and surgeon. Newburg, Ark. Among the younger members of the medical profession in Izard County, Ark., is he whose name heads this sketch, already well established as a physician and surgeon of merit and true worth, and regarded with favor by those older in years and experience. He is a native of this State and county, and is one of nine children, seven now living, born to John and Ann (Mennox) Kerr. The children are named as follows: G. W., resides in Izard County; J. A., Mrs. Mary J. Hays, of this county; Mrs. Indiana Evans, of this county; John M., of this county; T. J., resides in Newburg; Mrs. Maggie Stroud, wife of D. J. Stroud, of this county; Benjamin F., died in 1809 at the age of eleven years, and one that died when quite young. The parents were natives of Ireland, and the father came to America about 1843. He landed in New York, but immediately made his way to Nashville, Tenn., where he remained for seventeen years, and where he was engaged in the carpenter's trade exclusively. He was there married to Miss Mennox, who came over from Ireland when he did, and who settled in Nashville, Tenn. Both he and wife were orphans, and came over from the old country with an old man and his family. In 1860 they settled at Batesville, Independence County, remained there for some time, the father engaging in the carpenter business, and then moved to Izard County, where he still continued his trade up to 1870, after which he embarked in the mercantile business. In 1884 he retired to private life on his farm, and there received his final summons, in 1886, at the age of fifty-six years. Mrs. Kerr still survives and resides on the old homestead. Mr. Kerr was a member of the Masonic fraternity, and was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which his wife is still a member. Dr. J. A. Kerr received his education in the public schools of his county until 1880, when he entered the Medical College at Louisville, and attended regularly until 1882, when he graduated. He then returned immediately to Izard County and entered upon the practice of his profession at this place, and his reputation as a physician and surgeon, as well as in private life, is an enviable one. The Doctor is yet a young man, as his birth occurred in 1857, and he was married in 1882 to Miss Emma Wood, of this county. The fruits of this union have been four children, three now living: Clarence E. (deceased), Neely T. Oscar and Roscoe (twins). Mrs. Kerr was born in 1863, and is the daughter of William and Sarah (Benbrock) Wood, natives of Tennessee, who came to Izard County at an early day. When Dr. Korr first commenced the practice of medicine his financial resources were rather limited, a horse, saddle and bridle, and a pair of pill bags, filled, completed his outfit. He is now the owner of some 500 acres of land, with about 135 acres under cultivation, and is also the owner of property in Newburg, consisting of house, store-house, office, vacant lots, and, besides, plenty of personal property. He is building on his farm a fine residence, and already has a good barn and out-buildings. The Doctor has made all this within the last ten years, and by energy and perseverance. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., and politically he is Democratic. Mrs. Kerr is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Rev. H. T. King, minister, Melbourne. Ark. This much revered and esteemed gentleman is only one of the many citizens of Izard County, who owe their nativity to Tennessee, where his birth occurred in 1853. He is the son of John A. King, a native of Virginia, who, when a young man, was united in marriage to Miss Dedania Sutton, also a native of the Old Dominion. The parents moved to Tennessee at an early day, and here the father purchased land, which he tilled until 1850. after which he moved to Crittenden County, Ky. He remained in that State for four years, and then settled in Randolph County. Ark., but, not being particularly satisfied, he moved from there to Clay County, Ill., thence to Jefferson County, where his death occurred in 1873, at the age of sixty-seven years. He was a member of the Christian Church. Mrs. King still survives and resides in Baxter County, this State. She is a member of the Christian Church, and a pleasant, agreeable woman. They were the parents of eleven children, four now living: Nancy J., widow of John Welch, is now living in Fulton County, Ark.; Sarah A., wife of G. W. Selph, resides in Baxter County; Rebecca M. wife of G. W. Lundy, resides in Baxter County, and Rev. H. T. The father of these children was fairly educated, and during his lifetime had accumulated considerable property, the principal part of which was lost during the late unpleasantness between the North and South. Rev. H. T. King acquired but a limited education, as during his boyhood days he only attended one month at school, and this was all the education he received until after his marriage, when he attended school two terms. He is quite studious, and applies himself to his books at home, and is now probably better informed than many who have had every advantage. He expects to attend school during the fall and winter of this year (1889), and is now studying law with a view to making it his profession. At the age of twenty-one years Mr. King commenced life for himself, and at that age was united in marriage to Miss E. E. Taylor, by whom he had six children, five now living: W. C, K. J., Auscar and Oscar (twins), and Mary L. Mrs. King died in 1884, a devout member of the Christian Church. Mr. King took for his second wife Mrs. Mary A. Harlin (Conklin), a widow. She was a member of the Christian Church, and died in 1880, at the age of thirty-seven years. By her first marriage she became the mother of nine children, eight sons now living: James P., W. T., J. H., Joe E., L. D., C. C, J. C. and Frank H. Mr. King moved to Arkansas in 1876, settling in Baxter County, and there remained until 1887, when he moved to this place. He had very little means when first coming to this county, but he is now the owner of a tine residence with some three or four acres of land worth about $1,000 or 11,200. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, R. A. M., and is also a member of the I. O. O. F. In politics he is a Republican. He is a minister in the Christian Church, and was ordained in 1881.

K. J. Lacy, blacksmith and farmer, Newburg, Ark., came originally from Tennessee, his birth occurring in 1830. Mr. Lacy has won an enviable reputation as a farmer, and none the less is his reputation established as a first-class blacksmith. His father, Robert Lacy, was a native of North Carolina, born in 1793, and came to Tennessee about 1813 or 1814, where he was united in marriage to Miss Annie Miller, in about 1816. He was a farmer by pursuit, and was also a minister in the Methodist Church. After remaining in Tennessee until 1861, he settled on White River, in this county, but after a residence there of only one year, moved to Knob Creek, where he purchased a farm. There he closed his eyes to the scenes of the world in 1870. He still continued to preach after coming to this State, and was associated with the American Tract Society for a number of years previous to his death. He was a Democrat in polities. His wife was a native of Georgia, and died in 1870 at the age of seventy-three years. She was also a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In their family were the following children: W. Mc., Mrs. Mary A., wife of George Bussey; Mrs. L. J., widow of John Bussey; Kibble J. (the subject of this sketch), and James W. The paternal grandparents were from Ireland and England, respectively. The maternal grandfather was a German by birth, and came to this country when a boy. He served during the greater portion of the War for Independence. At the age of twenty years K. J. Lacy began learning the blacksmith trade, and at that age he commenced life for himself, doing journey man's work in Tennessee for fifteen years. In 1860 he came to Arkansas, and took charge of Col. Black's farm on White River, where he was overseer of the negroes for one year. He then went to Lunenburg, opened a shop, and continued there until 1870. He joined the army in 1862, but was discharged on account of disability. He was conscripted two or three times afterward, but succeeded in being released, and was taken prisoner one time by the United States soldiers, but was soon released by the Confederates. In 1870 he rented a farm from Dr. Watson on White River, and remained there for ten years, when he bought a farm on Knob Creek. At the end of four years he sold out, purchased another farm, improved the same, and built good houses, barns, etc. He made two trades afterward, one for the farm on which Judge Grimmett now lives, and the other for his present property. This farm consists of 100 acres with thirty-five under cultivation, with fair houses, etc. Mr. Lacy has been twice married; first, on the 15th of November, 1858, to Miss Mary E. Hairendon, and four children were the result, three now living: William H. lives in this county; Robert F., James M. and Sarah J., wife of Ole Brown, and lives in this county. Mrs. Lacy died in 1870, and was a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. Lacy's second marriage was to Mrs. Martha A. Womack (Wolds), and two children have been born to them: Laura B. and George T. Mr. and Mrs. Lacy are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Socially he is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and the I. O. O. F., and Encampment of that order. He has filled the office of Worshipful Master in the Masonic fraternity, and nearly all others of this order, and has held the office of N. G. in the I. O. O. F. He is a Democrat.

R. L. Landers, sheriff, Melbourne, Ark. R. L. Landers, was born in Bedford County, Tenn., in 1845, and is the son of George T. and Jane (Browning) Landers, natives, respectively, of North and South Carolina. The parents came to Arkansas in 1851, and settled in Izard County, where they reared a family of five children, four now living: Robert L. Nanny J., wife of Guston Rose; Mary T.. wife of J. F. Driskill; and G. R. a farmer of this county. The father, George T. Landers, only lived three years after coming to Arkansas. He was Democratic in his political principles. When he came to this State, he brought with him fourteen negroes and considerable money, and was quite successful, financially, after coming here. The mother died in 1885. R. L. Landers was early taught the principles of farm life, and a limited education was obtained in the subscription schools of Tennessee, and Izard County, Ark. When seventeen years of age he superintended his father's plantation, and at the age of twenty-one. he commenced life for himself. In 1862 he enlisted as a private in Company E, Forty-seventh Arkansas Infantry, under Capt. Gibson, and served west of the Mississippi River, until 1804. He was sergeant of his regiment at the time he was discharged. After the war he commenced tilling the soil, which occupation he followed until 1869, when he was elected sheriff, and held the office until 1875. He then returned to the farm and cultivated the soil until 1881, when he was again elected sheriff, and held this position for one term. In 1886 he was again chosen to discharge the duties of this office, and is the present incumbent. Mr. Landers seems to have a peculiar fitness for this position, and his long service in this capacity has proven that he is surely the right man in the right place. During 1884 and 1885, he served as justice of the peace. By his marriage, which occurred in 1804, to Miss Sarah E. Shannon, were born the following living children: Mary E.. wife of A. E. Feltz: W. T., G. R., Frances T. and Rosa L. Mr. Landers is the owner of about 500 acres of land, with 140 acres under cultivation, and also has considerable town property. He is Democratic in his political views, is a Royal Arch Mason, and is also a member of the Odd Fellow order. He and wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church.

E. G. Landers, merchant, Melbourne, Ark. In publishing an account of the industries and mercantile resources of the town of Melljourne, the house of Mr. Landers' must not be forgotten, as it constitutes a most important factor in the commercial fabric of the town. Mr. Landers was born in Bedford County, Tenn., on the 7th of May. 1840, and came with his parents to Arkansas in 1854. He attended the subscription schools, but only received a limited education, and at the age of twenty-two started out in life for himself, first as a laborer in a gin. He then followed the carpenter's trade for some time, and in 1804 joined the Confederate army, remaining in service until June, 1805, when he surrendered at Jacksonport, Ark. He was with Gen. Price on his raid through Missouri, in 1864 and 1865, and participated in nearly all the battles fought on the raid. In 1877 he engaged in merchandising at Lunenburg, under the firm title of Landers & Bros., and continued thus until 1880, when his brother sold out and a new partner, S. R. Hinkle, took his place. The firm is now Landers & Co., and do the largest business in the place. They carry a stock of goods that invoices at about $10,000 at the least, enjoying an annual trade of about $40,000. When first starting out in this business the firm had a capital of $1,500, Mr. Landers putting in $750. Aside from his flourishing mercantile business, he owns about 400 acres of land and considerable town property. His marriage was consummated in November, 1867, to Miss Martha A. Hinkle, and by her he became the father of six' children, five now living: Leanora (wife of William Blair), Robert O. (deceased), Maggie, EfiSe G. J. H. and Maudie. Mr. and Mrs. Landers, with the two eldest children, are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and he is a Democrat in politics. Mrs. Landers is a member of the lady's department of the Masonic fraternity, and also of the Odd Fellow's order. Mr. Landers started with very little means, but he is now one of the most successful men of the county. He is the son of Roland and Martha G. (Landers) Landers, natives of North Carolina. The father was born in 1810, and died in 1878, and the mother's birth occurred in 1813, and she died in February, 1884. Roland Landers was coroner of Izard County for several years, and was a cabinet maker by trade, although in his latter years he was engaged in tilling the soil. He accumulated considerable property previous to the war, but was not a slave holder. By his marriage, which occurred in Tennessee, he became the father of these children: Rebecca J. (wife of W. Joe Arnold, of Melbourne), Sarah A. (wife of G. W. Gray), Mary Frances (wife of G. W. Owens), H. B. (farmer), Charlotte T. (wife of T. H. Adams), E. G., Genora D. (wife of W. Z. Craig), George W. (of Batesville), John F. (farmer), and Joe L. (farmer).

Nathan J. Langston is one of the oldest native residents of Izard County, and when his parents, Nathan and Patty (Weir) Langston, made their first settlement in this region, Arkansas was a territory. They came here from their native State of North Carolina in 1814, and Mr. Langston and Col. Stewart erected the first mill in the county, he and four brothers being the ones to build it. They carried the logs on their shoulders, and had the mill completed in six days, and although it was a very rude construction, and only ground about a bushel of corn a day, yet it was sufficient to supply the demand, as the settlers at that day were very few. Nathan Langston, Sr., was only connected with this mill for about six months, when he turned his attention to farming, at which he was fairly successful, and in early days he also carried the mail for twelve years from Mount Olive, in Izard County, to Thomasville, Mo., a distance of 160 miles, there being only four offices on the entire route. According to Mr. Langston the first postoffice in this county was at North Fork, which was also the first county seat. In 1838 it was moved to Calico Rock, afterward to Athens, at the mouth of Piney Bayou, next to Mount Olive, and thence to Melbourne, where it now is. When Mr. Langston first came to Arkansas Batesville consisted of two pole cabins, and from Batesville to the mouth of the Big North Fork there were only five families living on the east side of the river. The west side was inhabited by the Indians, who were very numerous at that time. The first year of his location Mr. Langston had to go to Helena, Ark., for flour, and to Little Rock, Ark., to attend circuit court. He died in 1870, at the age of seventy-nine years. He was married twice, and by his first wife became the father of sixteen children, and by his last, three. Those living are Absalom, Thomas B. and Nathan J., whose name heads this sketch. The latter was born in the year 1830, was reared to a farm life, and at the early age of nineteen years was married to Miss Rachel Adams, who died in 1856, leaving four children, three of whom are living: Alex., Mary, wife of Johnson Holfora, and Matthew R. Mr. Langston married his second wife in 1859, she being a Miss Lucy A. Churchill, and five of their eleven children yet survive: Luvinia J., wife of James Brothers; Dempsia M., Rebecca A., Acenith B. and Albert W. Mr. and Mrs. Langston are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and in his political views he is a Democrat. He owns a good farm comprising 120 acres, and has twenty-five acres under cultivation. Among his numerous acquaintances and friends the respect shown him by them is in full keeping with his well-established reputation for honesty of purpose and hospitality. Mr. Langston remembers many interesting facts connected with the early history of this county, which the limited nature of this volume will not admit of insertion.

William Lawrence, farmer, Melbourne, Ark. In the early settlement of Izard County, Ark., Mr. Lawrence bore a prominent part in developing and opening the way for civilization and is one of the representative men of the county. He was born in Alabama, in 1823, and is the son of James and Cynthia (Franks) Lawrence, natives of Tennessee. James Lawrence moved to Alabama, in 1822, settling in Marion County, and after remaining there a short time removed to Fayette County, where he remained until 1839. From there he journeyed to Louisiana, entered land and followed farming for about two years, when ho moved to Izard County, Ark., and settled in Sylamore, now in Stone County. After a residence there of two years, he moved to the western part of the county, where he improved some government land. Two years later he moved to the eastern part of the county and remained there until a short time previous to his death, when he went to live with his son, William Lawrence, and died there in 1859, at the age of sixty-live or. seventy years. He had held the office of justice of the peace in the county for four years, and was an excellent citizen. He was twice married, his first wife being a Miss Tucker, who bore him five children, two sons and three daughters, all living at last accounts. They are named as follows: Martin, Edward, Sarah, Catherine and Mary. His second marriage was to Miss Cynthia Franks, and to them were born nine children, two now living, William and James, who reside in this county. Mrs. Lawrence died in 1865. Both were members of the Baptist Church, and in politics he was a Democrat. William Lawrence was married in his twenty third year, and commenced work for himself by farming on his own land, which ho had purchased in the central portion of the county. He sold this farm in 1850 and entered his present property, which he has improved and which consists of 200 acres. He now has about seventy or seventy-five acres of cleared land, all the result of his own efforts, unassisted by any of his family. In 1802 he joined the Confederate army and served under Gen. Thompson and Capt. C. C. Cook until the close of hostilities, when ho returned to his farm. He has been three times married, his first wife being Elizabeth King, whom he led to the altar in 1846, and the fruits of this union were six children, all living: James, G. W., John, Isaac, Thomas and Edward. Mrs. Lawrence died in 1859, a worthy member of the Baptist Church. His second marriage took place in 1801, to Miss Eliza both Clark, who bore him five children, all living: Henry, Cynthia A., wife of J. W. Freeman; Mary F., at home; Rebecca J., at home, and Walter, also at home. The mother of these children was a member of the Baptist Church, and died in 1879. Mr. Lawrence's third marriage was to Mrs. A. N. Ivins (Bryant), a member of the Christian Church. He is a member of the Baptist Church, belongs to the Masonic fraternity, and in his political views is a stanch Democrat.

Dr. Samuel M. Lewis, farmer and physician of Izard County., Ark., was born in Bledsoe County, Tenn., December 14, 1832, his parents. Reason and Patience (Peters) Lewis, being also natives of that State, the former's birth occurring in Bedford County, in 1809. Their union took place in Bledsoe County, and to them were born four sons and five daughters, seven of their family being now alive, and all residents of the State of Tennessee except our subject. The father yet lives in Tennessee, and owns 600 acres of as good land as there is in the State. He is a member of the Baptist Church, as was his wife, who died in 1875. Dr. Samuel M. Lewis, after acquiring a good common school education, entered the Hamilton College with the intention of studying medicine, having chosen that profession as his calling through life. After his marriage, which was celebrated on the 19th of September, 1858, to Miss Margaret Turk, he remained in his native State until 1807, at which time he settled in Maxfield, Sharp County, Ark.. but for a long time has been a resident of Izard County. He has been very successful in his practice, and has always commanded a large and paying patronage, and occupies an enviable place among the medical brotherhood of Izard County. In addition to this work he has been engaged in farming, and is now the owner of about 640 acres of land, with about 330 acres under cultivation, of which 150 are in Sharp County. He has shown his approval of secret organizations by becoming a member of the Masonic fraternity, and in this order has held the highest office. He and wife are classed among the worthy citizens of the county, and are consistent members of the Methodist Church. Their children are as follows: Charles W., Henry R., James J., George T., Joseph R., William D., John R. Aque M. and Lora A. Mrs. Lewis is a daughter of George and Malinda Turk, both natives of Tennessee.

Capt. Ransom W. Luther was born in the "Keystone State" in 1837, and is a son of Enoch Luther, whose birth occurred in Sugar Creek, Penn., in 1787. The latter received a limited education, and when quite a youth, learned the carpenter's trade, which occupation he followed for a number of years, then learning the wheelwright's trade. He was married in his native State, in 1807, to Miss Polly Bennett, her father being Elisha Bennett, and to them a large family of seventeen children were born, ten of whom are living at the present time: Rosweir, David, Enoch, Elliot, Ransom, Burton, Laura, Mary, Angeline and Adaline. Mr. Luther served in the War of 1812, and after hostilities had ceased, he returned home, and entered a tract of land embracing 160 acres, which lie farmed for several years; then erected two large saw-mills and a grist-mill, which have been rebuilt, and are in good condition at the present time. For services rendered in the War of 1812, he received a grant to 160 acres of land in Knox County, Ill., from the government, and at the time of his death, on the old " Luther's Mill Farm," in Pennsylvania, in 1859, he was the owner of 300 acres of laud. Capt. Ransom Luther received a good business education in the "Luther's Mill Farm" school, and he has since put the education he acquired in this institution to the best use. He learned the millwright's trade under his father, afterward worked at the carpenter's trade, and in time became a very tine architect, although in more recent years he has given his attention principally to milling as his chief calling. He is an experienced carpenter and builder, and many evidences of his ability and skill in this direction are to be seen in his native State, Illinois, Iowa and Arkansas. He has always been of an enterprising disposition, and in 1856 started out in life for himself, and moved to the State of Illinois, but two years later went back to his old home, and was married there, in 1859, to Miss Sarah Knapp, a daughter of Charles Knapp, by whom he had one child, Alice. He wedded his second wife, Miss Edna C. Scott, of Cherokee, Iowa, in 1871, and two interesting children, Eugene W. and Maud S. have blessed their union. Capt. Luther removed from the State of Iowa to Benton County, Ark., in 1878, and purchased eighty acres of land near Maysville, which he used as a small cattle ranch. From this place he went to Eureka Springs, in 1880, and erected a neat little cottage on Spring Street, near the Crescent Spring, his place being generally known as "Eagle Cottage," and it is of his own architecture. Here he resided until 1883, when he sold out to Dr. Swartly, of Chicago, for $2,350. After this the Captain and his family traveled for some months, and visited various places of interest in Missouri, Illinois, Dakota and Arkansas, and in 1884 returned to this State, and located on Lafferty's Creek, six miles west of Barren Fork, where, with his brother in-law, Mr. Scott, he erected a large saw-mill, which has been of great benefit to the surrounding country. In 1889 he sold his interest to Mr. Scott, and erected a grist-mill and cotton-gin just south of his former place of business, and at the present writing he is preparing to erect a commodious residence, and build a large dam to afford water power for his mill. In 1888 he ginned 150 bales of cotton, and in his new mill he expects to bale at least 300. Capt. Luther is a jovial and hospitable gentleman, a thoroughly capable business man, and is ever ready to assist any good cause, either practically or financially. He approves of secret organizations, and is an active member of the I. O. O. F. His wife and daughter, Alice, are consistent members of the Baptist Church. In 1861, upon the bursting of the war cloud, which had threatened the country for some time, he enlisted in the infantry, under Col. Dodge, of Pennsylvania, and was in the battles of Williamsburg, Four Oaks, Richmond and Melbourne, and was also in the seven days' retreat at Harrison's Landing. He entered as a private, but for gallant services rendered, he was promoted to the rank of captain. He was honorably discharged, in 1865.

James McCuistion is one of the men of this section who has won life's battles, and by energy and pluck, which are so necessary to success in any pursuit, he has become one of the leading agriculturists of Izard County. He was born in Jefferson County, East Tenn. in 1815, and is a son of Joseph and Rachel (McGuire) McCuistion, the former's birth occurring in North Carolina, in 1775. In 1789 he removed to Tennessee, with his parents, and in this State received a fair education in the common schools. In 1809 he entered 160 acres of land, and lived on it until 1838, when he sold out and moved to Bays Mountain, where he died, in 1862, being followed to his long home by his wife in 1868, both having been members of the Old Presbyterian Church. The children born to them were Catherine, James and Elizabeth. James' youth was spent in attending the schools of Tennessee, and in 1842 he was married, in Jefferson County, of that State, to Miss Mary Ann, a daughter of John Kimbrough: and Lafayette, Eveline, Rachel A. (who died August 7, 1889), Virginia, Francis (who has been dead some twenty years), Mary E. and Josephine are their children. Mr. McCuistion emigrated from Tennessee to Izard County, Ark., in 1850, and took up 299 acres of land, of which be has now about fifty-five acres under the plow. His first house was a log cabin, which he has since converted into a comfortable frame residence. His land is devoted to raising cotton, corn and the small grains, and he has plenty of good fruit. He and his wife and children are all members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and he has given freely to public institutions for the good of his fellow-men. He has twenty four grandchildren, ten boys and fourteen girls, and two great-grandchildren, both boys.

Alfred N. McNairn was born in Georgia, in 1842, and is one of seven sons and four daughters born to Alfred T. and Prudence (Horton) McNairn, and is a grandson of Edwin Horton. Alfred T. McNairn was born in North Carolina, December 15, 1813, and was reared on a farm, but in 1826 moved to Georgia, where he followed the occupation of farming; he was also engaged in preaching the Gospel, being a minister of the Missionary Baptist Church, and there reared his children, whose names are as follows: Larkin H., Spencer B., Edwin B., Joseph U., William L., Alfred N., Alvin C., Martha J., A. L., Eliza M. and Rosa A. Both parents died in the State of Georgia, his death occurring in 1870, and hers in 1868, at the age of fifty-eight years. Alfred N. McNairn emigrated from Georgia to Izard County, Ark., in 1869, and was here married, in 1872, to Miss Nancy E. Duren, a daughter of James E. Duren. Of the eight children born to them the following are living: Thomas E., Mary L., Francis P. E., Dolores A., Zef R. and Newton A. In 1873 Mr. McNairn purchased eighty acres of woodland, but he now owns 100 acres of good land, with forty-eight acres under cultivation, it being well improved and furnished with one of the finest fruit orchards in this section of the country. He and wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and he belongs to the I. O. O. F., and in his political views is a Democrat, and always supports the men and measures of that party. He espoused the cause of the Confederacy during the rebellion, and in 1802 enlisted in the Fifty-second Georgia Infantry, and served until the close of the war, when he surrendered at Kingston. Ga. He was a member of Company I, under Capt. Russell, and was in a number of hard fought battles.

A. A. Marchant, farmer, Melbourne, Ark Among the leading men of Mill Creek Township none arc more prominently identified with the farming and stock raising interests of the same than Mr. Marchant. who by his industry, perseverence and integrity, is considered one of its first-class farmers. He was born in Bedford County, Tenn., in 1841, and when nineteen years of age started out in life for himself, his first venture being to hire out to one man as a farm hand for two years. When twenty-one years of age he donned his suit of blue, and enlisted in the First Arkansas Infantry, United States Army, Company C, and served for six months, when he was discharged at St. Louis, Mo., in December, 1863. After this he drove a team for the government,and acted as guide until 1864, when he enlisted in the Forty-eighth Missouri, Company E, for twelve months, and served only nine months, when he was discharged again at St. Louis, on the 1st of July, 1865. At the close of the war he was at Chicago, Ill. guarding the prisoners. After cessation of hostilities he came home and engaged in farming, which he followed on rented land until 1871, when he bought land in Baxter County. He only remained on this land one year, but continued in the county until 1874, when he moved to Izard County, and, in 1879, bought his present property consisting of 163 acres, with about 100 acres under cultivation. At the close of the war he had only about $50 or $60 in money, and not a horse, hog or cow. On the 16th of July, 1865, he wedded Miss Amanda F. Dixon, a native of Izard County, although they were married in Miller County, Mo. They became the parents of these children: W. B., lives in the Choctaw Nation; T. J. (deceased); J. W., at home; Rufus, at home, and Minnie M. Mr. Marchant is a member of the I. O. O. F., is a member of the Christian Church, and is a Republican in his political views. Mrs. Marchant belongs to the Baptist Church. The parents of Mr. Marchant, W. B. and Nancy (Byler) Marchant, were natives of Alabama and Tennessee, respectively. After reaching manhood W. B. Marchant went to Tennessee, but left that State in 1850, and came on a flat-boat to Napoleon, thence by steamer to Little Rock, and from there with teams over-land to Izard County. He settled on Hidden Creek, bought an improved piece of land and there resided for six years. He then sold out and bought a farm close to where Melbourne now is, remaining there only two years, when he traded his farm for one close to Calico Rock, in Izard County. In 1862 he joined the United States Army, and was sent to St. Louis, where he died in the hospital. He was married three times; first, to Susan Cox, who bore him four children, three living: W. B., Minerva and T. J. After her death, Mr. Marchant married Miss Nancy Byler, mother of the subject of this sketch. Three children were born to this marriage, only one, A. A., now living. Mrs. Marchant died in 1844, at the age of twenty-eight years. She was a member of the Missionary Baptist Church. In 1845 Mr. Marchant married Miss Ena Taylor, of Tennessee, and by her became the father of nine children, eight now living: W. S., Richard E., Mary T., Silas A., Joseph E., Martin B., Susan A. and A. M. The oldest child, Martha, was killed on the road from Little Rock to Melbourne, having accidentally fallen out of the wagon, by which she was ran over. This was in 1850, and she was buried in White County. Mr. Marchant was an old line Whig, but was not active in politics. He was once a member of the Know-Nothing party, was a member of the Baptist Church, and at one time was constable of Rocky Bayou. His last wife still resides near Calico Rock, and is a member of the Baptist Church. The maternal grandfather of A. A. Marchant, John Byler, was a private in the War of 1812, and was in the battle of New Orleans. He died about 1871, at the age of eighty-live years.

T. J. Mathews is a merchant and farmer, residing at Calico Rock, and was born in Benton County, Tenn., being a son of Capt. R. C. and Nancy (Migell) Mathews, who were also Tennesseeans, and came to the State of Arkansas in 1860, settling in Izard County. Capt. Mathews embarked in merchandising in the house in which his son T. J. is now doing business, and he was also engaged in farming. In the spring of 1861 he moved to Pineville, where he conducted a general store for about one year, then joined the Confederate army, and was elected captain of his company. After serving for one year, he was taken sick and returned home, and here continued during the remainder of the war. After the cessation of hostilities, he again embarked in merchandising, and continued this occupation with success for twelve or thirteen years, when he sold out to his son, S. E. Mathews, and turned his attention to farming and stock raising, on the property where he now lives. His business ventures have been attended with good results, and the property he now owns has all been acquired since the war, as his losses during that time were very heavy. He was married about 1835, and his children's names are as follows: Margaret E., wife of W. McNeil; S. E., a merchant of Pineville; Clarissa E., wife of Dr. J. A. Schanks; Mary A., wife of Rufus P. Jones; and T. J., the subject of this memoir. Mrs. Mathews died in March, 1879, having been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for many years, her death occurring on her birthday, at the age of sixty years. Mr. Mathews is a Democrat, and belongs to the F. & A. M. T. J. Mathew's birth occurred on the 6th of September, 1855, and his early education was received in the schools of La Crosse, Prof. M. Shelby Kennard being his instructor, and at the age of twenty-five years he began life for himself as a merchant, this being the occupation to which he was reared. He has continued to follow this business up to the present time, and has been remarkably successful, for, on starting for himself in 1880, his stock of goods amounted to $160, and his annual sales now aggregate between $12,000 and $16,000, and he has an excellent tract of land, amounting to 538 acres, with nearly 164 acres under cultivation, all of which he has earned by good business management and industry, since the above-given date, and with the aid and assistance of his worthy wife. Her maiden name was Mollie Wood, their union taking place on the 30th of October, 1879, and they have an interesting little family of four children: Henry H., born October 4, 1880; Shelby S., born December 15, 1882; Troy G., born February 3, 1885; Roads, and Winford F., born May 23, 1887. Mrs Mathews was born in Izard County, on the 28th of November, 1863, and she and Mr. Mathews are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he belongs to the F. & A. M. and is a Democrat politically.

Dr. R. H. Morton, Franklin. Ark. Dr. Morton is one of the oldest practitioners of Franklin Township, and one of the oldest in the county. He owes his nativity to Bedford County, Tenn., and is the son of Jacob and Annie (Fisher) Morton, natives of North Carolina. Jacob Morton received an average education in his native State. and came to Tennessee at an early date. He purchased a farm in Bedford County, and was one of the first settlers of Shelbyville. In connection with farming he also carried on the blacksmith trade, but his principal occupation was tilling the soil, which he gave his attention until his death in 1857. He was married in Tennessee, and he and wife commenced housekeeping on Duck River, where they reared a large family of children, eight now living: Minerva, wife of B. F. Whitworth: Sophronia (deceased) was the wife of Michael Shofner; G. W. C. (deceased), whose family resides in Bedford County, Tenn.; Daniel C. resides in Coffee County, Tenn.; Nancy, wife of Edward Whitworth; Christina, wife of W. Tune; Emily, wife of Newton Neal; Ann, wife of B. F. Smawling. D. E. resides in Bedford County, Tenn.; Dr. R. H., Jessie E., wife of T. N. Smith: Elijah A. resides in Bedford County, Tenn., and Martha (deceased), wife of T. N. Smith. The father of these children served in the War of 1812. as a private, and participated in the battle of New Orleans. Mrs. Morton died about 1869. Both were members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Mr. Morton took an active interest in politics, and was a very strong supporter of Old Hickory. Dr. R. H. Morton divided his time in early youth between assisting on the farm and in attending the free and subscription schools of Tennessee, where he received a good English education. He attended medical lectures at Nashville, Tenn., in 1856 and 1857, and opened his first office at Poplin's Cross where he practiced for two years previous to graduating. He was then located in Missouri, from 1858 to 1861 (Texas County). In the spring of the last mentioned year he served in the Confederate service as surgeon, and thus continued until 1863, when he resigned and located in Izard County, where he has since resided. He graduated at the American Medical College, at St. Louis, in 1878, and is the oldest practicing physician in the county. He has almost abandoned the practice of his profession in late years, and is now interested in agricultural pursuits. The Doctor was married in September, 1857, to Miss Emma A. Nichols, of Tenn., but they have never had any children. He is quite well fixed financially, and enjoys life to the fullest extent.He is a member of the A. F. & A. M. is also a member of the I. O. O. F. and has been Treasurer of the former lodge, holding the position of Vice Grand, Commander, and others in the latter lodge. He is a Democrat in politics, but has never been an office seeker. He is a member of the Christian Church. The Doctor owns considerable land, and has on his home place about seventy-five acres under cultivation. He has good barns, outbuildings, etc. His residence is one of the finest in the county, and there he entertains his friends in the social pleasant manner peculiar to him, and the stranger also meets with a ready welcome from the Doctor and his agreeable wife. Although children were denied their union, the Doctor and wife have reared several who were left orphans.

Jacob Mosier, Sr., was born on the Potomac River, in Lincoln County, N. C, in 1821. His father, Barnett M. Mosier, was also a native of that State, his birth occurring in 1799, and was married there to Margaret, a daughter of Corb. Gobble, their union taking place when he was eighteen years of age. In 1832 he removed with his family to Independence County, Ark., and purchased and entered land there to the amount of 320 acres, which land he was engaged in farming up to the time of his death, in 1864. His children are: Mary J., Allen B., George W., Henry A., Jacob and Jack. Jacob Mosier removed to Arkansas with his parents, and on his father's farm, in Independence County, he learned the details of farm work, which occupation has received his attention up to the present time. He is one of the leading husbandmen of this vicinity, and has 250 acres of well improved and well cultivated land. He was one of the pioneers of the State, and during its early history he carried the surveyor's chain through this section, this being some fifty years ago. He is one of the hard working men of Izard County, and owing to his many worthy characteristics, chief among which may be mentioned his generosity and honesty, he is respected and esteemed by all. In 1854 he took a trip to California. He was married, in 1846, to Miss Melissa A. Romenor, by whom he has a family of seven children: Mary J., William H., Jacob, Charles M., Cordelia. Sarah A. and Martha. Mr. Mosier and his wife are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and he belongs to the I. O. O. F.

James H. Mullins was born in the "Old Dominion." on the 18th of March, 1839, and is a son of Hiram R. Mullins, who was born in North Carolina, in 1794. and was educated in that State. He moved to Tennessee in 1815, and was there married to Nancy Singleton, a native of Virginia, and to their union eleven children were born, six of whom are living, three being residents of Arkansas and three of Kentucky. The father was one of the honest sons of the soil, and upon his death, in 1850, was the owner of 220 acres of productive and valuable laud. His wife died in Arkansas, August 13. 1886, both having beenmembers of the Methodist Church, and he a member of the Masonic lodge. James H. Mullins was educated in Tennessee, near Tazewell, but being of an energetic and enterprising disposition he determined to seek his fortune in what he considered a more favorable locality, and accordingly, in 1863, moved to the State of Arkansas and engaged in business for himself, his capital consisting of a span of horses and the energy and pluck which nature had bestowed upon him. He immediately engaged in farming, and that he has been successful is shown when the fact is mentioned that he owns 250 acres of land, with about 125 acres under cultivation. Notwithstanding that he was severely wounded in the left wrist, in the year 1862, at the battle of Oak Hill, being left a cripple for life, he has succeeded far beyond his expectations, and can look back over a useful and well spent life. He and wife, whose maiden name was Minerva King, and whom he married on the 23d of June, 1863, are worthy and consistent members of the Baptist Church, and both are liberal contributors to all charitable and other worthy enterprises. He is a Mason, has been postmaster of Evening Shade for three years, constable two years, and deputy sheriff six months. His children are: Eliza A. (Mrs. T. D. Starkey), Albert F., Hiram R., Josephine, Robert C, Nancy M., Sarah R. and William C. In the late war Mr. Mullins served from 1862 till November, 1864, under Col. Greene.

William S. Nail was born in Lawrence County, Tenn. in 1820, and his father, Archie, was a native of Alabama, but was married in Tennessee to Miss Morrow, by whom he reared a family of four children: William, Franklin, Thomas and Mary A. Archie Nail was a soldier in the War of 1812, and died in the State of Tennessee, in 1830, he having followed the occupation of farming and blacksmithing all his life. William S. Nail learned these occupations of his father, and in addition to farm work, which has always received his attention, he has been faithful to the hammer and anvil also. In 1845 he removed from Tennessee to Mississippi, and was there engaged in blacksmithing until 1856, when he came to Independence County (now Izard County), Ark., and purchased land to the amount of 120 acres, and in 1867 built a cotton-gin on this farm which has been in operation ever since. His land now comprises 280 acres, seventy-five being in a tillable condition, and a portion of his mountainous land is underlaid with valuable minerals. He raises cotton, corn, and small grains on his cultivated lands, and is acknowledged l)y all to be one of the most reliable and enterprising citizens of Lafferty Township. In 1840 he was married to Miss Melinda, the daughter of Thomas Williamson, of Mississippi, and of eight children born to them, the following are living: Thomas, Mary E., Catherine F. and Charley L. Mr. Nail belongs to the I. O. O. F., and he and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church.

Thomas A. Nail is one of the industrious farmers and law abiding citizens of Izard County, Ark., and has a good farm of 100 acres, which he has acquired by his own energy and good management since the close of the Civil War. His property is located on Lafferty' s Creek, and is considered very valuable, as it is underlaid with mineral ore in paying quantities. Twenty-five acres are under the plow, and are in an exceedingly fertile condition. Mr. Nail was born in the State of Mississippi, in 1842, and at the early age of eighteen years he was united in the bonds of matrimony to Miss Sallie Brown, a daughter of Levi Brown, of Izard County. To them were born a family of three children: William A., Mary F. and Charles F. When the Civil War broke out he, in 1862, joined the cavalry under Capt. George W. Rutherford, now of Independence County, Ark., and was in many important engagements during his service. He surrendered at Jacksonport and returned home, and has since given his attention to farming with the above mentioned results. He is a son of William S. Nail, whose sketch precedes this.

Joel D. Patterson has been familiar with farm work from his earliest youth, and is now ranked among the prosperous farmers of Izard County. He was born in North Carolina in 1826, and is a son of David and Mecca Holder Patterson, who were also born in the "Old North State." In 1846 David Patterson removed to Kentucky, where he engaged in farming, having previously worked at house carpentering and cabinet making in his native State. He was also married there in 1825, and to him and wife were born eight children, five of whom are living: J. D., Caroline, wife of La Fayette Wright, of Kentucky Susan, wife of M. V. Belma, of Kentucky; Francis M., a black smith, also residing in Kentucky, and Mary, wife of C. C. Ashworth. of Tennessee. Mr. Patterson volunteered, but did not serve in the War of 1812. He died on the 16th of May, 1855, at the age of sixty six years, followed to his long home by his wife in 1883, her death occurring at the age of seventy-eight years. They were members of the Baptist Church, and were worthy and honored citizens. Joel D. Patterson attended the common schools of North Carolina, and, after his removal to Kentucky with his parents, he gave his attention to agricultural pursuits. with the exception of two years, when he worked in a wagon shop. In 1859 he moved to Izard County, Ark., and entered 160 acres of land near the town of Philadelphia, where he resided two years, then, upon the opening of the Civil War, he returned to Kentucky, where his attention was given to farming for four years. He then came back to his farm in Izard County, but about two years later traded it for another place, but also disposed of this at the end of two years. He then purchased and has since resided on his present farm (which amounts to 277 acres, with eighty acres improved, with good buildings and under cultivation), with the exception of about twenty months, when he resided in Fulton County. He was married, in ]8r)8, to Miss Miranda Egbert, of Kentucky, and five of their eight children are now living: James R., who is now residing in Smithville, Ark., but expects soon to go to Texas; Joel B., residing in Indian Territory; Francis L., Marcus L. and Hiram E. Mr. and Mrs. Patterson are members of the Baptist Church, and he is a Democrat politically, and is decidedly in favor of all movements which promise to benefit the community in which he resides.

E. S. Pearson is a member of the mercantile firm of Sanders & Pearson, of Oxford, Ark., and also of F. AV. Pearson & Co., of Thayer, Mo., both of whom carry a varied assortment of goods, which can not fail to satisfy every want of their patrons. He was born in McMinn County, Tenn., in 1829, and is a son of Edmond and Cynthia E. (Hardwick), natives of South Carolina and Alabama, respectively. The father removed to Tennessee in 1824, where he farmed, in connection with preaching the Gospel, and for ten years he was an elder in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In 1832 he settled in Jackson County, Ala., but he afterward moved to Talladega County, where he died in the fall of 1847, at the age of fifty-two years, having been a minister of the Gospel for twenty-eight years. He and wife became the parents of the following children: Charles D. (who died, leaving a family in Texas), F. A. (deceased, left a family in Mississippi), B. T., F. C. (a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, residing in Texas), F. C. (also a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Texas, besides engaged in farming), Martha C. (wife of Marion Simmons, of this county), Cynthia E. (the deceased wife of Carroll White, her family residing in Mississippi), Mary C. (wife of D. B. White, of Texas), Watson H. (a Methodist minister, residing in Izard County), and W. W. (deceased, was also a minister of the Methodist Church, and died in Mississippi, in 1871). E. S. Pearson was reared on a farm, and educated in the schools of Alabama. Upon reaching the age of twenty-one years he began farming on land which he owned, but this work he gave up, on the breaking out of the war, to enlist in the Confederate service. He joined Company F, under Gen. Forrest, and served as his commissary for three years, and, in 1865, surrendered at Corinth, Miss. He then returned to Mississippi, where he had located in 1850, and began farming and merchandising at Houston, but, four years later, he moved to Lee County, and engaged in farming. He took up his abode in the State of Arkansas, in 1889, and, after residing for some time on a farm of 400 acres, he sold out and went to Newburg, where he was engaged in the mercantile business for three years. From that time until 1880 he again farmed, and then followed merchandising once more. He sold this establishment to Garner & Richardson, and up to March, 1889, his attention was given to agriculture alone. He has since followed merchandising, and has also managed his farm of sixty-five acres. His home place is also under cultivation, and in the two enterprises to which he has given the most of his attention he has met with flattering success, and, besides the income which he derives from his farm, the sales in his mercantile establishment will amount to about $12,000. He was married, in 1850, to Miss Ellen Morris, of Pontotoc County, Miss., and by her he became the father of eleven children, seven of whom are living: C. Elizabeth (wife of John M. Smith, of Polk County, Mo.), F. W. (a merchant at Thayer, Mo.), Alice M. (wife of Joseph Harklerood, a farmer of Fulton County, Ark.), Mary E. (wife of Jasper Rader, of Fulton County), Emma (wife of W. Martin, a farmer of Izard County), Thomas W. and Josie L. (the latter two at home with their father). Adolphus L., the eldest child, died in 1883 (he wedded the daughter of Judge Hunter, of Fulton County); W. W. died in his twenty-third year, in 1876, and two died in infancy. Mr. Pearson was called upon to mourn the death of his wife in 1879, she having been an earnest member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and, in 1880, he wedded Mrs. Sarah J. (Hancock) McCollough, a daughter of Joel and Sarah (Hall) Hancock, natives, respectively, of Kentucky and South Carolina. Mrs. Pearson was reared in Ohio, to which State her father was taken when he was a small boy, and from this State her father enlisted in the War of 1812. He was a farmer, and he and wife were the parents of the children whose names are here given; Robert T. (of Ohio), L. B., J. K., J. H., J. B., J. R., Harriet (wife of Ezra Clark, of Indiana), and Sarah J. (Mrs. Pearson). Mr. Hancock died in 1803, and his wife in 1875, both being earnest members of the United Presbyterian Church at the time of their deaths. Mrs. Pearson was first married, in 1848, to Aaron Michael, in Ohio, soon afterward emigrating to Arkansas, and settling in Jackson County, where Mr. Michael died, in 1857. In 1874 Mrs. Michael was united in marriage with William McCollough, who died in 1878. He was a Confederate soldier, and was with Price on his last raid through Missouri. He was a member of the Baptist Church, and belonged to the A. F. & A. M. Since 1884 Mr. Pearson has been a licensed minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, with which church he united in 1880. While residing in Mississippi, in 1868, he became a licensed minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Politically, he is a Democrat. Mrs. Pearson has in her possession a bed-spread, with a double-woven top, in blue and white, and on the under side is the year (1837) in which it was woven, and also the name of the weaver, she having herself spun the thread, of which the bedspread was made, when a girl.

James Perrin is one of the wealthy agriculturists of this region, and at the present time is the owner of a fine tract of land consisting of 900 acres, of which there are about 100 acres under cultivation, all being the result of his energy, determination and attention to details. He was born in Lexington, Ky., December 1, 1844. but was educated in Independence County, Ark., to which place his parents moved at an early date. He was there also married, his wife being a Miss Ellen Street, and a daughter of William and Anna Street, their nuptials being celebrated on the 2d of March, 1869, at Batesville. To them were born four sons and three daughters, the following of whom are living: Jessamine, Claud B., Horace, and William F., all residing at home. During the rebellion Mr. Perrin served in the Third Arkansas Cavalry from 1862 to 1865, the first hard battle in which he participated being at Helena. After his return home he engaged in grist-milling, and now in addition to his farm work he is furnishing railroad timber supplies, such as telegraph poles and ties. He and wife belong to the Presbyterian Church and are worthy and honored citizens of the county. He is one of three surviving members of a family of two sons and three daughters born to the marriage of David Perrin and Nancy M. Baldwin, the former a native of Michigan, born in 1786. He was also educated in that State, but moved to Ohio, and was there married, his wife being a sister of Rev. S. D. Baldwin, who was the author of the "Baldwin's Prophecy," and was pastor of the McKendry Church at Nashville. Tenn. Mr. Perrin was a millwright by trade, and was a member of the Masonic lodge, and at the time of his death, on the 2d of April, 1869, he was buried with Masonic honors in the cemetery at Batesville. He removed from the State of Indiana, where he had resided for some time, to Arkansas, in 1850. settling near Batesville, where he erected the first bridge ever built over Polk Bayou. His wife died May 28, 1877, both being members of the Old School Presbyterian Church.

Judge R. H. Powell, Melbourne, Ark., is one of whom it can be said:

With an equal scale
He weighs the affairs betwixt man and man

He is a prominent man of Northern Arkansas, and judge of the district in which he resides. His birth occurred in Sussex County, Va., on the 8th of April, 1827, and he is the son of Thomas P. and Jane P. (Roland) Powell, both natives of the Old Dominion, the former born in 1808 and the latter in 1806. The father was of Welsh descent, and was reared and married in his native State. He moved to Tennessee in 1832, settling in Bedford County, and was a very successful tiller of the soil, being the owner of about thirty negroes, and some fifteen or twenty field hands. He was a Whig, and a very decided partisan, although he never held office. He split off from the Democratic party in 1834 and joined with the Clay faction. His first Whig vote was cast for Hugh L. White and Baily Peyton. He bade a final adieu to this world in 1853, and died as he had lived, an honored, upright citizen, one universally respected. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, of which his wife was also a member. She died in 1840 or 1841. To their marriage, which occurred in 1824, were born nine children, all of whom lived to maturity, and eight still survive: Dr. R. J. (resides in Izard County), R. H. (subject), Mary A. (wife of Dan Morten, and makes her home in Tennessee), Martha H. (wife of J. W. Nailer, resides in Tennessee). Margaret V. (wife of S. H. Winston, resides in Stone County, Ark.), Miranda (wife of James McCuistion, resides in Izard County), W. S. (deceased), Sarah J. (widow of Dr. David Deason, resides in Tennessee), and Harriet T. (wife of Town Scruggs, resides at Bell Buckle, Tenn.). The paternal grandfather of these children, Robert Powell, was a native of Virginia, and was a boy at the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, but was present on that auspicious occasion. The youth of Judge R. H. Powell was passed in laboring on his father's farm and in attending the common subscription schools. When twenty-one years of age he entered the Salem Academy, remained there but three or four months and then engaged in teaching school, which profession he followed until about twenty-eight years of age. He then attended law school at Lebanon, Tenn., under Judge Abram Caruthers and Judge Greene, and after passing a very rigid examination received his license. He subsequently commenced practicing at Louisburg, Marshall County, Tenn. (1855), and there remained until 1860, being first a partner of Gideon B. Black, of Tennessee, and later a partner of James H. Thomas, of Columbia. In 1860 he came to Batesville, Ark., remained there but a short time, and then moved to Izard County, in 1861. He was first married to Miss Jane Temple, in June, 1849, and the fruits of this union were six children, who lived to be grown: Dr. Dempsey T. (resides at Thayer, Mo., and is an assistant surgeon of the Kansas & Missouri Railroad), Robert T. (attorney at Greenwood, Ark.), Nancy J., Mary W. (wife of John W. Woods, who is an attorney in Melbourne), Henry Lee (wife of Ewing Kennard, who is a druggist at La Crosse), and William W. (an attorney). In 1862 Judge Powell joined Company B, Freeman's battalion, Shaler's company, and, although entering the ranks as a private, he was afterward elected by his company to the position of first lieutenant, in which capacity he served until December, 1868. He was taken prisoner near Batesville, and was sent to Little Rock, Ark. At the time he was taken prisoner he had been assigned to duty as commissary and quartermaster, by Gen. Price, and had in his possession some valuable papers and about $1,500. The United States forces secured the papers but failed to get the money. Mrs. Montgomery (sister of Capt. James Rutherford, of Batesville) managed to slip the money from the outside pocket of his overshirt, and sent it to Col. Freeman. After being sent to Little Rock, he was shortly afterward removed to St. Louis and quartered in the McDowell College, in February, 1864. The following April he was removed to Johnson's Island, and was there retained until the 9th of January, 1865. On the 29th of the following month he was exchanged and then came home on a sixty days' leave of absence, and had started back to rejoin his command, when he heard of Gen. Lee's surrender. He surrendered at Jacksonport on the 5th of June, 1865, and after returning home engaged in agricultural pursuits, which he continued until 1866. He then began practicing his profession in this and surrounding counties. In 1862 Judge Powell was elected to represent his county in the legislature, and this was the first legislature that met after the secession of the State. In 1866 he was elected judge of this, then the Seventh circuit, and served until after the reconstruction of 1868, when he was disfranchised. From 1868 to 1874 he was interested in mercantile pursuits, and followed this business in La Crosse, Lunenburg and Newburg, Izard County, and at Paraquet Bluff, Independence County. He lost his wife in 1870. She was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In 1873 the Judge wedded Mrs. Harriet Herbert (nee Harris), and two children were the result of this union, both of whom died while small. Mrs. Powell died in 1870. She was also a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Judge Powell was again married in 1878 to Mrs. Elizabeth Davidson, widow of Dr. Davidson. Her maiden name was Gardner, and she was a native of Tennessee. Two children were born to the last union: Guy and Ruth H. In 1874 Judge Powell attended strictly to the practice of his profession, for four years remained thus engaged. In 1878 he was elected judge of the Third circuit, and tilled that position until 1887, when there was a division in the circuit, and he was placed in charge of the Fourteenth judicial circuit. He has been judge ever since 1878 (now twelve years) without any intermission, and his term expires in 1890. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. Blue Lodge, R. A. C. and Council, and is also a Knight Templar. He is a straight Democrat in his political views, and he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

William M. Ray removed from his native State of Tennessee (he being a native of Bedford County, born in 1828), to Independence County, Ark., in 1858, and purchased and entered the land on which he is now residing, which comprises 300 acres, 100 acres being under cultivation. The tillable portion of his land he devotes principally to cotton, corn and small grain, and the manner in which he conducts his farm shows him to be well posted on all matters pertaining to the work. He was reared, educated and married in his native State, the latter event taking place in 1850, and being to Miss Nancy J. Holland, a daughter of William Holland. Seven of their nine children survive: Alexander, Joseph R. George F. Sarah J. James, William M. and Dorinda. Mr. and Mrs. Ray are members of the Christian Church, and he is an active member of the I. O. O. F. During the Civil War he espoused the cause of the Confederacy, and served in the infantry and cavalry for about six months during 1802. His parents, Alexander and Isabella (Scott) Ray, wore born in North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively, and were married in the latter State, in 1810, to which State ho came with his parents, when near twenty-six years of age. He was badly crippled when about twenty years of age by white swelling, but notwithstanding this drawback he became quite well-to do, and was the owner of 240 acres of land in Tennessee. Of the seven children born to himself and wife, only one is now living, William M., our subject. He died in Tennessee, July 30, 1850, his wife, who was a daughter of John Scott, of Tennessee, dying at the and age of thirty-five years.

T. H. Ray is a Tennesseean, born in Wayne County on the 10th of March, 1849, his father, E. W. Ray, being born in Warren County of that State, in 1812. He was reared, educated and married there, the latter event being to Miss Elizabeth Ford of the same State. Of four sons born to them, two are still living, and both reside in the State of Arkansas. E. W. Ray was a fairly successful agriculturist, and died in the "Lone Star State" in 1881, his wife having died in Tennessee in 1855. Mr. Ray moved from Tennessee to Arkansas in 1860, and at the time of his death and that of his wife they were members of the Presbyterian and Methodist Churches, respectively. T. H. Ray was educated in Flat Woods, Tenn., but after reaching manhood was married in the State of Arkansas to Miss Sarah A. Moser, she being a native of the State, and their union was consummated on April 11, 1809. Of a family of seven sons and three daughters born to them, there are but six children living, all of whom reside at home: Mary F. Ida T. Henry J. Oscar H. Lemon B. and Delbert A. Mr. Ray has been engaged in the occupation of farming from earliest boyhood, learning the details of the work from his father, who was an enterprising agriculturist. He owns an excellent farm n Dry Town Township, comprising 124acres,of which about ninety are under cultivation. He has always been found ready and willing to support enterprises of a worthy character, and as a citizen and neighbor, is highly esteemed and respected. His wife is a communicant in the Presbyterian Church.

K. W. Rector, farmer, Arkansas. No worthy reference to agricultural affairs of this county would be complete without mention of Mr. Rector, among others engaged in tilling the soil, for, although young in years, he has already attained an enviable position in the ranks of the farmers. owes his nativity to Izard County, his birth occurring on the farm where he now resides, in 1858, and he is the son of J. W. and Ann E. (Cooper) Rector, natives of Kentucky. J. W. Rector came to Arkansas in 1852, settled in Izard County, on the place where his son, K. W., now resides, and tilled the soil for many years. He was at one time surveyor of the county. During the late war he was a lieutenant in Capt. Cook's company, and served four years, participating in a number of battles on the east side of the Mississippi River, where he was on duty a part of the time. He surrendered at Jacksonport, Ark. on the 5th of June, 1865, after which he immediately came home, and engaged in farming to replenish his fortune, nearly all of which had been lost during the war. He owned, at the breaking out of strife, quite a number of negroes, and a large number of stock of all kinds, which he lost. He was also the owner of about 800 acres of land. This was a very thinly settled country when he first located here, and he suffered many inconveniences, his nearest neighbor being about live or six miles distant, and the nearest mill ten miles away. After the war he tilled the office of supervisor, or county judge, which position he occupied only one term. He was married in 1850, and to him and wife were born nine children, eight now living: J. M. (resides in this county), Mrs. Mary Richardson, G. S. (resides in this county). Miss Ellen J. (resides in Van Buren County), K. W., Mrs. Sarah E. Sheid (resides in Texas), J. L. (resides in this county), Nancy E. (makes her home with her father, in Texas) and Joseph I. (with his father). J. W. Rector moved to Texas in January, 1885, and bought land in Palo Pinto County. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and he and wife are members of the Baptist Church. He was born on the 3d of December, 1826, and Mrs. Rector was born on the 30th of August. 1830. Both are enjoying good health, and bid fair to live many years. At the age of twenty-one years K. W. Rector began life for himself by farming, and this occupation he has since followed. He was married, on the 25th of September, 1879, to Miss He Martha C. Bigham, of this county, and they are the parents of five children: Margaret E., born September 12, 1880; Samuel B., born September 15, 1882; Effie J., born March 8, 1884; Joseph L., born March 3, 1886, and Rufus S. born September 5, 1888. Mr. Rector started life with little capital, but with the assistance of his life companion is now the owner of about 400 acres of land in one tract, and with fifty or sixty in another, considerable stock, and is one of the leading farmers of the county. He has about 145 acres under cultivation, with good buildings, outhouses, etc. Mrs. Rector in the daughter of Samuel and Susanah (Woods) Bigham, natives of Tennessee, who came to this county at an early day, and here reared a family of four children, three now living: James W., Mary B., Mrs. Martha Rector (wife of the subject of this sketch), Ursulla C. (wife of Rufus Landers). Mr. Bigham was killed during Gen. Price's raid through Missouri, in 1864. He was a member of the Christian Church. Mrs. Bigham was married the second time, in 1867, to Joseph H. Russell [see sketch]. Mr. and Mrs. Rector are both church members, he a member of the Baptist Church, and she of the Christian. In politics, he is Democratic. Mr. Rector is a man who is in favor of all public improvements, and is deeply interested in educational matters.

William S. Richardson is one of the oldest pioneers of Izard County, and was born in Crawford County, Mo., in 1828, being a son of Joshua and Mary (Stafford) Richardson2, who were from the State of Maine. The father removed to Missouri about 1816, and entered land in Crawford County, the country at that time being in a very wild and unsettled condition and thinly inhabited. Here he was married in 1827, and made his home until 1844, when he moved to the farm in New Hope Township, Izard County. Ark., on which his son, William S., is now residing, and here he passed away in 1873, at the age of seventy-three years, his wife having died in Missouri in 1830. Of six children born to this union only William S. is now living, and after the mother's death Mr. Richardson married a second time, his wife being a Mrs. Sarah Romine (nee Barley), who bore him eleven children, the following of whom are living: Alex., James C, Francis R., Martha (wife of James Stubblefield), Nancy (wife of James Smith), Sarah (wife of Richard White), and Wilmoth (wife of John Smith). The mother of these children died in 1872, and both she and the first Mrs. Richardson were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, although Mr. Richardson was a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. William S. Richardson was reared on a farm and educated in the common schools of Izard County, and after attaining his majority he began farming for himself on his own land in Izard County. When the war broke out he dropped his farming implements to engage in the struggle between the North and South, and joined the Union forces at Rolla. Mo. enlisting in Company G, Phelps' regiment of Missouri Volunteers, and at the end of six months entered the Missouri State service for six months. In 1805 he returned to the State of Arkansas, and after serving for some time as first lieutenant of his company, he was promoted to the rank of captain, and held this office until his company was disbanded. He was at the battle of Pea Ridge, and at this engagement had a brother killed. After the war he served as courier for the Freedmen's Bureau, in Izard County, for some time. After his return home he found nothing left to show for his early toil, except his land, all his personal property having been destroyed, but he immediately resumed his farming operations, and has since increased his acreage from 160 to 270, a large portion of which he has under cultivation. He is a Republican in his political views, and is a liberal contributor to all charitable enterprises, educational and otherwise, and he belongs to the A. F. & A. M. He and wife, whom he married in 1851, and whose maiden name was Elizabeth Wells, are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and of a family of twelve children born to them they have reared five: Alex. S., Fannie J. (wife of John Largeant), Ellen, Emma, Nettie V., Catherine (the deceased wife of James B. Byrd), and Martha (the deceased wife of John Fuller).

Joab M. Rodgers, a prosperous farmer of this region, was born in Georgia, in 1854, and is a son of Avery Rodgers who was a Tennesseean, and a farmer by occupation. The latter was married to Miss Polly A. McCullum, a daughter of Joab McCullum, their union taking place about 1840, and to their marriage the following children have been born: William, John B., Mary A., Sallie E. and Joab M. Avery Rodgers enlisted in the Confederate army in 1861, serving in the infantry, and was killed in 1862. In 1867 his wife married William Anderson, of Georgia, by whom she became the mother of three children: Hardy L., Doney and Clinton, and in 1870 they moved to Izard County, Ark., and are here now living, both being consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Joab Rodgers, the subject of this sketch, was married to Miss Sarah M. Wethers, of Dade County, Ga., in 1873, she being a daughter of Johnsey Wethers, and four daughters and three sons have been the result of their union: Effie. Leter P., Veronia, Hattie B., Ward J., Garland and Benjamin. Mr. Rodgers removed with his mother and step father to Arkansas, in 1870, but since his marriage has been doing for himself, and by industry, economy and good management, he has become the owner of 112 acres of land, forty-six of which are under cultivation and well improved. He built a commodious and substantial residence in 1888, has a fine fruit orchard, and in connection with his farming he is engaged in stock raising to some extent. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Reuben Rogers was born in the State of Tennessee, in 1820, his parents, William and Elizabeth (Hicks) Rogers, being natives of Alabama and Tennessee, respectively, the former's birth occurring in 1795. He was familiar with the duties of farm life from earliest boyhood, and in 1881 was married to Miss Hicks, by whom he became the father of six children: Reuben, John, Peter, Allie, Sarah and Ada. From Tennessee Mr. Rogers removed to Independence County, Ark., in 1843, where his death occurred the following year, he being a member of the Baptist Church at that time. His widow married Henry Newman, of Independence County, in 1845, and to them three children were born: Henry N. Matilda and Annie E., all of whom reside in Izard County. They own eighty acres of land, and both are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Reuben Rogers was married to Miss Nancy Newman in 1869, a daughter of Henry Newman by his former wife, and their union resulted in the birth of two children: William R. and Reuben F. In 1854, becoming possessed with the "gold fever." Mr. Rogers took the overland route to California, to seek his fortune, and like a great many others in those days, failed to find it and returned to Arkansas in 1868. After living on eighty acres of land in Independence County, until 1876, he moved to Izard County, and purchased the place where he is now living, consisting of 160 acres, a portion of which is mountainous, and is finely adapted to grazing. The rest is in the valley and about fifty acres are under cultivation, well watered and improved with good buildings, orchards, etc. He and wife have been members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church for a number of years, and he is one of the men who has assisted largely in making Izard County the fine agricultural region which it now is. Mr. Rogers is a severe sufferer from cancer of the stomach.

Joseph Ruminer was born on Blue Grass soil, in Hickman County, June 22, 1835, his father, John Ruminer, having been born in Bedford County, Tenn. in 1809. The latter was educated in his native State and county, and was married there to Miss Elizabeth Harris, who was a Kentuckian, their union resulting in the birth of six sons and five daughters, only one, Joseph, being now alive. Mr. Ruminer was a farmer by occupation, and at the time of his death, in 1862, was the owner of seventy seven acres of land. He held the office of justice of the peace for two terms, and was a man whom all respected and esteemed. His wife, who was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, died the same year as himself, but a few months afterward. Joseph Ruminer received a very limited education in his youth, but this defect he has remedied in a great measure by reading and conducting the business affairs of life. After reaching manhood, he was married on the 24th of February, 1859, to Miss Sarah Coalson, whose birth occurred in the State of Mississippi. Although the family born to them consisted of ten children, only five are now living: Mary E., Samuel R.. Sheffield, Robert and Harris H. Mr. Ruminer is a successful agriculturist, and his farm consisting of 368 acres is one of the best in the county, with about seventy-five acres under the plow and twenty acres cleared of wood and brush, with which it abounded. His first purchase of land was some forty acres, but as can be seen he has been remarkably successful, and now ranks among the first farmers of the county. He enlisted in the army in 1863, and his first hard fight was at Helena. He was a member of Dobbins' regiment, but when the rest went to Jacksonport to surrender he returned home. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. and he and wife worship in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

J. H. Russell, farmer, Melbourne, Ark. Mr. Russell is one more of the many residents of Izard County, Ark., who were originally from Bedford County, Tenn., and who, since their residence in this State, have become leading men in whatever calling in life their tendencies have led them. Mr. Russell was born in 1821 and is the son of Joseph D. and Mary (Hightowor) Russell, natives, respectively, of North Carolina and Tennessee. The father was born in 1777 and the mother in 1800. They were married in Hickman County, Tenn., about 1820, and afterward removed to Bedford County, of the same State, where they remained until 1829. They then located in Scott County, Mo. and after stopping there for several years went to Webster County, of the same State, and here the father passed his last days, his death occurring in 1847. He was twice married, first to a lady whose name is not remembered, and by her became the father of two children: William B. and Daniel D. By his second marriage, to Miss Mary Hightower, he became the father of five children, four of whom lived to be grown: J. H. subject of sketch; Louis, was killed during the war with Mexico and after being discharged, it is supposed by Indians; Louisa (deceased), was the wife of John Cox, the family living in Missouri; John W. (deceased), whose family reside in Fulton County, and one who died in infancy. Mrs. Russell died in Kentucky, in 1827, while Mr. Russell was on his way to Missouri. She was a member of the Baptist Church, of which Mr. Russell was also a member until about six or eight years before his death, when he joined the Christian Church and died a member of the same. He was a school teacher, farmer, and also a carpenter, but followed the teacher's profession principally after reaching mature years. He was an old line Whig, but not active in politics. He was well-to-do while living in Tennessee, but lost nearly all he had by going security for his friends. J. H. Russell had very poor chances for an early education, but this he made up to a great extent by observation and reading. In 1862 he moved to Arkansas, settled in Izard County, and still continued to till the soil, the occupation he had followed while living in Missouri. While residing in Howell County, of that State, he was appointed one of the three to organize the county, and served as county judge, being elected to that position afterward (or one of the associate justices), and was once elected justice of the peace of his township. He was first married to Miss Elizabeth Sweet, of North Carolina. His second marriage was in 1807, to Mrs. Susanah (Bigham) Woods, a native of Tennessee, who bore him one child, Margaret L., who died in infancy. Mrs. Russell was the mother of four children by her first marriage (three now living): James (deceased), Mary E. (at home), Martha C. (wife of K. W. Rector), and Ursula C. (wife of G. R. Landers). Mr. Russell has one son; his name is Robert F. He is now in his twenty-third year. At the time of the Mexican War Mr. Russell joined the army at Springfield, Mo., but the company was not received, although he was very anxious to go, and had hired a man to run his farm. He was suffering with poor health during the late war. He bought 400 acres of land in Izard County, in 1868, and resides on that farm at present. There were about forty acres improved at that time, and he now has 135 acres under a fine state of cultivation, with good buildings, barns, etc. He and wife are both members of the Christian Church, and he is a member of the Masonic fraternity. In his political views he affiliates with the Democratic party, and was originally a Whig.

W. E. Sanders, M. D., of Oxford, Ark., was born in the " Palmetto State" in 1846. and is one of six living members of a family of seven children born to the marriage of Dr. W. R. and F. H. (Simons) Sanders, the former of whom removed to Georgia in 1851. He was a graduate of the Charleston (S. C.) Medical College in 1838, and was an extensive and successful physician. He was married in 1839, and died in 1853. being a member of the Old School Presbyterian Church, and a member of the A. F. & A. M. In his political views he was a Democrat. His wife died in 1869, at the age of fifty-two years. Dr. W. E. Sanders attended the graded school of Newman. Ga., up to the breaking out of the late war, and at the early age of fourteen years and eleven months, he joined Company E. Twentieth Alabama Infantry, and was an active participant in forty-six hotly contested engagements, among which were Baker's Creek, Chickamauga. Lookout Mountain. Missionary Ridge, Raymond, Dalton. Vicksburg. and in all the battles from Dalton to Atlanta, Ga. At the battle of Franklin he was wounded by a bayonet, while he and his comrades were trying to take possession of the Federals' ditch. Thirty days afterward he took part in the battle of Nashville, although he had not fully recovered from his wound. He surrendered at Greensboro, N. C. He served as a private, and on five different occasions, when the color bearer was shot. Dr. Sanders carried the colors of his regiment out of the engagements, and was offered the position of color bearer by his colonel, but declined, saying he would rather carry a gun. After his return home he began the study of medicine, and for some time before entering college he was engaged in practicing, and was well fitted to perform the duties of a physician from the fact that his father and all his brothers were practicing physicians. At the age of twenty years he entered the Medical University at New Orleans, but at the end of one term entered the Medical College of Philadelphia, graduating therefrom in 1868, and immediately began practicing in Clinton, Ala. At the end of five years he moved to Fayette County, Texas, and three years later settled in Independence County, Ark. In 1878 became to his present location, and the same year opened a mercantile establishment in Union, Fulton County, Ark., but removed his goods to this county in 1884, and formed a partnership with J. E. Ford. This partnership was dissolved in 1888, and the Doctor has since been connected with E. S. Pearson, the style of the firm being Sanders & Pearson. They are doing a prosperous business, and fully deserve the patronage which they are receiving, for they are honest and upright in all their dealings, and are accommodating and agreeable gentlemen. The Doctor was married, in 1876, to Mrs. Addie Hodges, of Independence County, but a native of Tennessee, and to them have been born four children: Mary A., William C, Edward C. and Kittie. Dr. and Mrs. Sanders are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he is a member of the I. O. O. F., and is a Democrat politically. is now examining physician for the Pension Bureau, and a thoroughly reliable, successful physician.

Dr. Joseph A. Schenck is a leading physician of Calico Rock, and in connection with this practice is also engaged in merchandising. He was born in Owen County, Ky. in 1847, and is a son of Julius P. and America (Applegate) Schenck, natives of Kentucky. The father was a captain on a steamboat plying between Cincinnati and New Orleans, and he was also engaged in farming and merchandising, following the latter occupation in Vevay, Ind., while at work on the river. He owned a one-half interest in the "Switzerland," which was the name of his boat, the other half being owned by Jesse Teets, and they were also the proprietors of several other boats which plied on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, in the interests of the Government during the war. He died in 1862, leaving his family well provided for, but during the war much of their property was lost. He was married about 1842, and he and wife became the parents of eight children, four of whom are living: J. P., who is a merchant of Worthville, Ky. Delia, the wife of Dr. J. F. Costillo, resides in Kansas; Amy is the wife of James Grubbs, a telegraph operator, and J. A., the subject of this sketch. Mrs. Schenck died in 1887, having been a worthy member of the Christian Church for many years, her husband being a member of the Baptist Church. He was a Democrat politically, and belonged to the I. O. O. F. Dr. Joseph A. Schenck received his early schooling in Vevay, Ind., and in 1873 he took his first medical lectures in the University of Louisville, Ky., and graduated from this institution in 1880. He had, however, begun practicing in Jackson County, Ark., in 1874, but at the end of one year removed to Izard County, Ark., and has been a successful practitioner at Pineville ever since. Since 1885 he has been engaged in merchandising, in partnership with Dr. T. K. Goodman, their paid up capital upon starting in business, amounting to about $300, but on the 6th of October, 1886, they were burned out with, a loss of about $1,600, their insurance reaching the sum of 11,000. They He opened their store on the 12th of the same month, with a stock of goods worth $200, and have since been very successful, and are now doing an annual business of $18,000. In addition to this property Dr. Schenck owns 288 acres of valuable land, with 150 acres under cultivation, and all this property he has earned since coming to the State of Arkansas, as he then (in 1874) only owned a horse and saddle and about $150 worth of drugs. The Doctor still continues to practice his profession, but not so extensively as formerly. He was married in 1876 to Miss Ellen Matthews, a daughter of Capt. R. C. Matthews. She was born in Tennessee in 1849, and by Dr. Schenck is the mother of the following family: Amy D., Rena Z., Joseph E. and America E. (twins), Lunford P. Y., Carrie M., Julius P., John M. and Robert C. Mrs. Schenck is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the Doctor belongs to the A. F. & A. M. and I. O. O. F., having advanced to the Encampment in the latter order.

John Sharp, farmer and stock raiser, Evening Shade, Ark. Originally from Independence County, Ark., Mr. Sharp's birth occurred on the 15th of September, 1843, and he is the son of Hon. William and Catherine (Barnes) Sharp, the former born in Indiana, and the latter in Ohio. William Sharp came to Independence County, Ark. (near Sulphur Rock), in 1838, and engaged first in farming, which occupation he continued for two or three years. He then embarked in the tannery business, and established the second yard in the county. It is now known as the Gelpin tanyard. Mr. Sharp was a practical tanner, and followed this pursuit until 1852, when he moved to what is now Sharp County, and settled close to Evening Shade. He purchased a mill, rebuilt it, and it is now known as Sharp's mill. This business he followed until his death, which occurred in 1804. In 1860-61 he represented Lawrence County in the legislature, was a member when the State seceded, but was opposed to secession. During 1863 and 1864 he was at home attending to his mill, and was also engaged in tilling the soil. He was one of the old land-marks in the early settlement of Northeast Arkansas, and was one of the prominent men of his section of the county. He was a man well read, and although he had never attended school but about three months, he was a much better informed man than many who had every advantage for schooling. He died in his fiftieth year. He was a Democrat in politics. He was married in Ohio, about 1835, to Miss Catherine Barnes, and eight children were the fruit of this union, five of whom lived to be grown: Isaac E. died in was quite a prominent man in Northeast Arkansas after the war; Zaccheus (deceased), Mary (deceased), John, Rachel, wife of E. Berry, resides in Dent County, Mo.; Margaret, wife of William Martin, resides in Independence County; Elijah resides in Dent County, Ark., and Ephraim (deceased). Mrs. Sharp died in 1855, in full communion with the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1857 or 1858 Mr. Sharp married Mrs. Louisa Simpson, nee Douglas, and they became the parents of four children, one now living, Samuel, residing in Washington Territory. The second Mrs. Sharp died in 1864. John Sharp, the subject of this sketch, joined the Confederate army in 1861, under Capt. Nunn, and served cast of the Mississippi River until after the fall of Vicksburg. He was engaged in two prominent battles, Champion's Hill and Black River Bridge. He was taken prisoner at the last named place the day before the siege of Vicksburg, and was sent to Fort Delaware, thence to Point Lookout, Md., and was retained from the 17th of October to the 24th of December, when he was paroled. He then returned home, remained there until 1864, when he enlisted the second time as a private under Capt. Huddleston, and served the remainder of the war, surrendering at Jacksonport on the 5th of June. 1865. He was with Gen. Price on his raid through Missouri in 1864, and after the surrender he returned home, where he worked in the mill until 1867. He then engaged in tilling the soil on his present farm, which now consists of 800 acres, with 300 under cultivation. Part of this is in Sharp County, but all joins except one tract of 253 acres, which is, however, within one-fourth of a mile from the home place, with eighty-five acres under cultivation. Mr. Sharp was married the first time in 1865, to Miss Catherine Summers, and they be came the parents of these children: William, married and resides on the farm; Anna, wife of Dan T. Taylor, resides on the home place; Mary E., wife of Jeff Davis, resides in this county; Emma died at the age of nine years; Robert I., at home, and one unnamed. Mrs. Sharp died on the 13th of December, 1876. She was a member of the Baptist Church. Mr. Sharp's second marriage was to Miss Susan J. Yeager. in 1878. and they have a family of five children (two being deceased): Katie, Prussia, John C. Frank and one unnamed. Mr. Sharp is a member of the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Honor. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He is a Democrat politically, but though well posted, does not take an active interest in politics.

J. M. Shaver ranks among the successful and frugal farmers of Guthrie Township, Izard County, Ark., and is now residing on the farm on which he was born in 1853, his parents being John S. and Mary (Cox) Shaver, Tennesseans by birth. John Shaver came to the State of Arkansas in 1851, and purchased the farm in Guthrie Township, in connection with which work he was engaged in merchandising. Here he made his home until 1862, when he was killed by Federal soldiers, he having previously served in the Home Guard Confederate service. He was also a soldier in the Mexican War, holding the rank of captain, and when returning home came via New Orleans. He was married in 1848, and he and wife became the parents of seven children: D. C., Marietta (wife of J. R. Metcalf), J. M., Mattie (wife of E. A. Taylor), Addie (widow of T. H. Montgomery), Hattie (wife of Will Collins), and Belle (wife of C. E. Taylor). Mrs. Shaver still survives her husband, and makes her home with her children. She is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Capt. Shaver was a member of the A. F. & A. M., and in 1858 was elected to represent Fulton County in the State legislature. J. M. Shaver, the immediate subject of this memoir, received his early schooling in Izard County, and made his home with his mother and sisters until 1884, when he was married to Miss Georgia Smith, and made a home for himself. He has now seventy-five acres of his land cleared, and besides making a good living, slowly but surely laying by capital for a rainy day. He was at one time engaged in merchandising in Oxford, but has given his attention to farming only for some time. He is a Democrat politically, and on that ticket was elected to the office of deputy sheriff of the county for four years. He is also a member of the A. F. & A. M. His wife belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and they are the parents of two children: John S. and Mamie L. Mrs. Shaver is a daughter of S. J. and Levica (Chastine) Smith, natives of Georgia.

John J. Shultz was born in the State of Illinois on the 16th of August, 1851, and like the majority of German-Americans is one of the substantial residents of the county, and is industrious and frugal. By energy and close attention to the details of farm work he has become the owner of 160 acres of good land, and of this there are about fifty acres under cultivation, well improved and well stocked. He is now tilling the office of justice of the peace, which position he has occupied for the past fourteen years, and he and wife, whose maiden name was Mary E. Bean, and whom he married on the 11th of October, 1865, are members of the Christian Church. Of six sons and five daughters born to them nine are still living, and all reside at home: William A., Walter E. John M., Caswell B., Mordecai M., Mary E., Amanda V. Albert F. and Maggie E. Mr. Shultz is a son of John Shultz, a native German, born in 1784, he being educated in his native land. He was also married there to Holy Homsan, by whom he became the father of seven children, six sons and one daughter. Six of this family are still living, three being residents of the State of Kansas, two of Illinois and one of Arkansas. The father was a farmer, and at his death, in 1838, he owned a good and fertile farm of 160 acres in Illinois, he having moved from Germany to the United States in 1832. His wife died in 1871, both belonging to the German Lutheran Church.

William C. Sims is worthy of being classed among the many prosperous farmers of Izard County, for by his own exertions he has become the owner of about 420 acres of fertile land, of is which 300 are in Izard County and the rest in Sharp County. One hundred and seventy acres of this farm are under cultivation, and in addition to his farm work he gives much of his attention to raising a good grade of stock. He was born in Itawamba County, Miss., on the 7th of September, 1844, and is a son of Gray and Marinda (Mann) Sims, who were from the State of Alabama. Of two sons and four daughters born to them, the two sons only are living. The father, at the time of his death, was the owner of 160 acres of good land. He and wife were members of the Baptist Church, and after his demise, in 1846, his widow became the worthy companion of John Pressley, to whom she bore a family of four sons and three daughters. The mother's death occurred on the 22d of June, 1863. William C. Sims was educated in Mississippi, and at the age of fourteen years moved to Van Buren County, Ark., remaining there until 1861. Then he volunteered in the Confederate army, and was mustered into service on the 14th day of July, 1861. After the war he located in Sharp County, and was married to Mrs. Sarah C. Wainwright, who was a Tennesseean, their marriage being consummated September 4, 1867. This union resulted in the birth of eleven children, three sons and eight daughters, but only two of the family are now living. After the death of Mrs. Sims, on the 18th of March, 1881, Mr. Sims was married, August 10, of that year, to Miss Sallie P. Haile, a Mississippian. He has attained a high rank in the I. O. O. F., and he and wife are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

Ephraim Sipe has been a resident of his present well cultivated and fertile farm of 240 acres in Izard County, Ark., since 1857, and has about 100 acres in an excellent state of cultivation. Like the majority of German-Americans he is thrifty, industrious and enterprising, and his property has been acquired through his own good management and business ability. After remaining single until 1865, he was united in marriage to Miss Betsey Deal, their union taking place in Independence County, Ark. Four children are the result of their union: Martha M., Malinda E., Ephraim and Robert R. He and wife belong to the Missionary Baptist Church, and he is a member of the I. O. O. F. He is a son of Jacob Sipes, who was also born in Lincoln County, N. C. his wife, Mary Delp, being also born there. John, Jacob, Joseph, Abraham, Ephraim, Peter, Franklin, Noah and Susan are their children. The father died in 1846. Our subject's wife was a daughter of Robert Deal and wife, the latter of whom was born in North Carolina in 1806, and is still living, and makes her home with her daughter, Mrs. Sipe. Although she has passed her allotted three-score years and ten, she is still active, and bids fair to reach one hundred years.

E. F. Smith, farmer and miller, Melbourne, Ark. All his life Mr. Smith has followed, with substantial success, the occupation to which he was reared and in which he is now engaged — farming — but in connection has also been largely interested in the milling business. He was born in Massachusetts, in 1S88, and is the son of Roswell and Jane E. Smith, who were also natives of Massachusetts. Roswell Smith was a farmer by occupation, and was a man of only limited education. He was drafted in the War of 1812, but was not in any engagements. He was married about 1807 and became the father of fourteen children, twelve of whom lived to be grown, E. F. Smith being the only one residing in the South. At the age of seventeen the latter came to this part of the United States, located first in Tennessee, and later, or in 1859, in Arkansas. He was employed on the Memphis & Little Rock Railroad, and after that was finished he settled in Jacksonport, where he followed the carpenter's trade. In 1861 he joined the Confederate army under Gen. Hindman, and served on the west side of the Mississippi River, participating in the following battles: Pea Ridge and Pleasant Hill, and was in the quartermaster's department. He surrendered at Marshall, Tex., in 1865, returned home and located at Evening Shade, where he engaged in merchandising, and which he continued for two years. He then resumed the carpenter's trade, which he followed until 1880, when he commenced farming. He bought his present property, consisting of a merchant mill and cotton-gin combined, with a nice residence. He owns, besides this property, two farms in the county, with about eighty acres under cultivation, all the result of his own labor since the war, for at the close of that eventful period he had but $2. He was married on the 18th of October, 1866, to Miss Melissa J. Wasson, and they are the parents of two children: Ella G., at home, and Leander G.. also at home. Mrs. Smith is the daughter of Lee and Jane (Mathews) Was son, natives of Tennessee. Mr. Smith votes the Democratic ticket, is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

Dr. James L. Smith has acquired an enviable reputation in Izard County, Ark., as an able physician and surgeon, and the extensive territory over which he travels to alleviate the suffering of the afflicted is a sufficient proof of his popularity, He was born near Melbourne, and is a son of S. R. and Jane (Walker) Smith, the former a native of Tennessee, and the latter of Arkansas. In 1849 S. R. Smith came to Arkansas, and settled on the farm with his mother, near where he is now residing, five miles southwest of Melbourne. He served in the Confederate army during the rebellion, and was with Price on his raid through Missouri, but in 1864 he was severely wounded by a gun-shot, which resulted in the loss of his left leg. He was captured and taken to Alton, Ill. thence to St. Louis, and received his parole from this city in 1865. He returned to his farm in Izard County, only to find it destitute of buildings, fences and stock, but he set manfully to work, and by good management he is now in comfortable circumstances. He and Miss Walker were married in 1855, and moved to the farm where he is now living, and eight of the nine children born to them still survive: James L., Joseph M., Mary E. P., wife of J. P. Gray; W. T. (deceased), W. A., Jeff. D., John H., Solomon and Robert L. Mr. Smith has been constable of Lunenburg Township for several years, and is a member of the I. O. O. F. His wife belongs to the Christian Church. The paternal grandfather was a soldier in the Mexican War, and bore the name of James. His wife was a Miss Orphia Byler. The maternal grandparents were Joseph and Sarah (McCubbin) Walker. Dr. James L. Smith remained with his father on the home farm and attended the common schools until 1876, when he engaged in farming on his own responsibility, continuing two years, and in. the meantime he was engaged in the study of medicine under Dr. J. K. P. Black. In 1880 and 1881 he attended his first course of lectures in the Hospital Medical College of Memphis, Tenn., and in 1881 entered upon his practice, continuing until 1887, when he again returned to Memphis and graduated from the same institution in 1888. He has been very successful, and is held in high esteem by the medical brotherhood of Izard County. The Doctor is a Democrat, a member of the I. O. O. F. , and he and wife, whom he married in 1883, and whose maiden name was Mary Croom, are members of the Christian Church. Dr. and Mrs. Smith have three interesting little children: Robert O., Bertha J. and Erskin. Mrs. Smith was born in Izard County, January 28, 1865, and is a daughter of Wiley and Sarah J. (Pearson) Croom, both Tennesseeans, and the parents of nine children Mary, D. F. H. F., Ida J., wife of A. H. Colwell; Benage, Susan E., Annabel, Thomas W. and Grover.

William A. Spence is one of the enterprising agriculturists of La Crosse Township, and since 1868 has been the owner of an excellent farm of 187½ acres in Izard County. He was born in Davidson County, N. C, in 1837, but in his youth, which was spent in that State, he received a limited education. Upon emigrating to Arkansas, in 1862, he settled in Independence County, but since 1868 he has been a resident of the farm on which he is now residing. In 1857 he was married to Miss Emily C. Grills, a daughter of William D. Grills, and by her he is the father of six children: Mary, Harriet G., Martha T. L., Ive T., James D. and William E. Mr. Spence is one of the live farmers of his community, and the success which has attended his efforts is fully deserved, for throughout life he has been industrious and frugal. He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He began doing for himself in 1857, in Wright County, Mo., where he homesteaded eighty acres of land, but in 1862 moved to Independence County, Ark. as above stated. He is a son of Joseph Spence, who was born in North Carolina, and the latter was married in his native State to Miss Rachel, a daughter of James Hurley, and by her became the father of three children. Their union took place in 1834. In 1855 Mr. Spence moved to Wright County, Mo., and was engaged in farming there until 1863, at which time he moved to Independence County, Ark. and, bought 160 acres, which he farmed successfully for several years. He died here in April, 1878, at about the age of seventy-three years.

O. P. Stroud is a prominent farmer and stock man of Izard County, Ark., and is one of the old settlers of Guthrie Township, having come here in 1851, and has been residing in the house in which he now lives since 1857. He was born in Tennessee, August 10, 1820, and was reared on his father's farm, receiving a common school education, and at the time of his location in this State the country was almost a wilderness, and wild game was quite abundant. Mr. Stroud was fond of hunting, and on one of his hunts killed six deer in one day, this being in 1856, when the snow was very deep. At one time he took fifty-three deer hams to Mount Olive, to market, receiving for them $53. The woods abounded with wild turkeys, and Mr. Stroud says they were easier killed than the common domestic fowl of to-day. Although he did not take an active part in the Civil War he served in the commissary department for two years. He lost heavily during the war, principally in personal property, however, but owned 800 acres of good land. He now has 400 acres, with about 140 acres under cultivation, furnished with good buildings and otherwise well improved. He was married in 1844 to Miss Martha Jourdan, of Mississippi, and to them have been born a family of fourteen children, eleven of whom are living: John A., William L., George R., Martha E. (wife of W. Pierson), James M., Lawson R., O. H., Mary F. Richard A. Robert H. and Taylor M. Mrs. Stroud is a daughter of John and Edith (Alexander) Jourdan, who were born in the State of North Carolina, and became the parents of nine children. Both parents died in Texas in 1856. Mr. and Mrs. Stroud are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he is a Democrat in his political views. His parents, Thomas and Lucy (Jarvis) Stroud, were of German descent, and were born in the "Old North State." At an early day Thomas removed with his father to Tennessee, and was there reared to manhood on a farm. He served in the War of 1812, under Jackson, and was in the battle of New Orleans, his father also being in service in that war. Gen. Jackson was an intimate friend of the Strouds, and made their house his home a great portion of the time, and lived with them during the period he was making the race for the presidency. Thomas Stroud became a wealthy man, and to his marriage, which occurred in 1813, a family of fourteen children were born, ten of whom are now alive: Sarah, wife of William McSpade; A. L., O. P., Elizabeth, widow of John McAfee, Thomas J., Resi, Marcus L., Fannie, widow of William Sapp; Hettie and Minerva, wife of Robert Henderson. In 1872 Thomas Stroud died on the same place he settled when he first came to Tennessee. His father's death occurred in 1840, at the age of seventy-four years. The maternal grandfather was in the Revolutionary War, being severely wounded in one of the battles. He settled in Tennessee, also, and there died.

J. A. Stroud is one of the rising and energetic young agriculturists of Izard County, and was born in Mississippi in 1840, being a son of O. P. Stroud, whose sketch precedes this one. In 1851 be removed to Arkansas with his father, and remained with him, assisting on the farm until he was twenty-one years of age. Besides working at farm labor his youth was spent in attending school, and he acquired a fair practical education in the subscription schools of Izard County. Upon attaining his majority he began fanning on rented land, continuing for two or three years, then purchased his present property, which consists of 230 acres. There were only about ten acres of this improved, and on the land were no buildings, but by industry he has put sixty-five acres in good farming condition, and has erected a good frame residence and barns. His property is also further improved by a small orchard, which will in time bear an abundance of fruit. Mr. Stroud is a Democrat, a member of the A. F. & A. M., and donates freely to churches and educational institutions. Like his ancestors, he is quite fond of hunting and fishing, and, as good sport can still be had in the vicinity of his home, he frequently indulges in these amusements. Miss Euphemia Guest became his wife in 1874, and by her he has an interesting family of five children: Jeffie A., Lillie B., Dorothen N., Perry L. and Fannie C. Mrs. Stroud was born in Tennessee, and is a daughter of Morgan and Eliza (Dennison) Guest, who were also Tennesseeans. In 1859 they came to Arkansas, and from this State Mr. Guest enlisted in the Confederate army, and died during the war. Of the four children born to them Mrs. Stroud and Robert M. Guest are living. Mr.s. Guest still survives, and makes her homo with Mr. Stroud.

John K. Suttle is a well known merchant of Izard County, Ark., and was born in Henry County, Tenn., September 24, 1850. His father, Edward J. Suttle, was born in Pennsylvania County, Va., and he was reared and educated in that State, being also married there to Mintie Marrow, a native of the State. The ten children born to them (five sons and five daughters) are all living, and four reside in the State of Arkansas. Mr. Suttle removed from Virginia to Tennessee, and from that State to Arkansas, in the fall of 1854, locating in Big Spring Township, Izard County, where he entered a large tract of land, consisting of 460 acres, on which he made his home until he was called from earth October 20, 1862. He was followed to his long home by his wife October 23, 1873, they having been earnest members of the Hard Shell Baptist Church for many years. The father served for a short time in the Confederate army during the rebellion, and after his death his property was divided among his children. John K. Suttle was educated in the Mountain school house, in Izard County, his early days being employed in assisting in tilling the home farm. In March, 1873, he was married to Miss Sarah Edwards, a daughter Wiley and Martha Edwards, and a native of Tennessee. Of four daughter and three sons born to them, only three children are now living: Ora A., Dee E. and Archie. Mr. Suttle has been engaged in merchandising at Barren Fork, for some time, and his stock of goods will invoice at about $1,500, his annual sales netting him a fair income. His wife is a member of the Baptist Church.

James J. Vest was born in Alabama, in 1821, and is a son of James and Sallie (Harvey) Vest, the former a native of Georgia, born in 1791, and to their union, which occurred 1809, a family of eight children were born: Albert, James, John, George, William, Lucy, Martha and Nancy. The mother of these children died in Alabama, in 1827, she having been a worthy member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for many years. Mr. Vest wedded his second wife, Margaret Canady, in 1828, she being a daughter of Felix Canady, and the following children were born to their union: Henry, Martin, Jonathan and Sarah. Mr. Vest from earliest boyhood was reared to a farm life, and received his early education in the common schools of Georgia. He served as a captain in the Alabama State Guards, State Militia, and in 1833 was elected to the office of constable of Morgan County, Ala., and after remaining in office for several years he was (in 1838) elected sheriff of the same county, holding the position until 1840. Two years later, he was elected to represent Winston County, Ala., in the State legislature, and died in this county in 1868, followed by his wife two years later, and they lie side by side in the Old Mount Nebo Cemetery, Ala. James J. Vest received his early instructions in farming from his father, and in 1857 removed to Izard County, Ark., from which State he enlisted in the Confederate army in 1862, under Gen. Price, and after serving for a short time in the infantry, he joined the cavalry, and was a participant in all the principal battles which occurred west of the Mississippi River. He surrendered at Jacksonport on the 25th day of June, 1865. When a young man in his native State, he studied for the ministry, and in 1838 was licensed to preach in the Methodist Church, and was a minister of that denomination for several years. In 1865 he was ordained to preach in the Baptist Church, and although he was the owner of a tract of land, he has divided it among his children, and devotes his time to the cause of Christianity. He is a stanch Democrat, a Royal Arch Mason, and also belongs to the I. O. O. F. His wife, who was formerly a Miss Delaney Kent, and whom he married in 1840, was born in the State of Alabama, and she and Mr. Vest are the parents of the following family: Albert, James, William, Martha and Mary living, and John, Malviney and Sallie deceased.

James A. Walker is a native of Izard County, Ark. born in 1849. His father, who was born in the State of Kentucky in 1807. was reared to a farm life, and after he attained his majority, he learned the blacksmith's trade. As early as 1820 he removed to the State of Arkansas with his parents, the country then being a territory, and from that time up to the day of his death was engaged in farming, becoming one of the leading agriculturists of this region. He owned an excellent farm of 200 acres, the principal part of which he devoted to the raising of cotton, corn and tobacco. He was married, in 1830, to Miss Sarah McCubbins, whose people were residents of Marion County, Ark., and to their union a family of ten children were born, six sons and four daughters, all of whom lived to maturity: Robert T. W., William M., John A. W., Greene, James A., Jane, Phoebe, Elizabeth, Harriet C. and Mary L. In 1869 James A. Walker married a daughter of Joseph and Sarah Woody, of Izard County, but Tennesseeans by birth. Her name was Izora E. Woody, and by Mr. Walker she became the mother of four children: Lillie, Leroy, Oleen and Charley. Mr. Walker has devoted his attention to farming from his youth up, and by paying strict attention to his work, and being ever ready to adopt new methods, he has met with good results, and now has a fertile farm of 127 acres on Rocky Bayou, the fifty acres which are under the plow being devoted to the raising of cotton, corn and small grain. Mr. Walker is a gentleman who possesses many worthy qualities, and he and wife make the best of neighbors, and are very hospitable. They are members in good standing of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he belongs to the I. O. O. F.

T. J. Williamson is a man who seems to be especially fitted for the occupation of merchandising, for he has met with more than the average degree of success, and his earnest and sincere endeavor to succeed in life is well worthy of imitation. He was born in Independence County, Ark., December 22, 1852, and is a son of R. P. and Catherine (Bowman) Williamson, who were born in Franklin County, Tenn., and North Carolina, respectively, the former's birth occurring November 15, 1819. He was educated in Hardeman County, Tenn., near Bolivar, and after his removal to Arkansas, in 1849, he settled in Independence County, and was there married. He and wife became the parents of two sons and two daughters, and being people of wealth and position, they have given their children good educational advantages. They own about 1,500 acres of land, and have some 750 under cultivation. The mother is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. T. J. Williamson, their son, was educated in Bellefonte, Boone County, Ark., and he was married there to Miss Sarah Murray on the 20th of December, 1877, she being a native of that State, and a daughter of Alfred Murray, who was a Tennesseean. To Mr. and Mrs. Williamson were born seven children, of whom four are still living: Clarence R., Kittie N., Pauline and Alexander; those deceased are: Oscar W., who died June 14, 1889; Viola, who died October 5, 1888; and Elloena, whose death occurred on the 14th of September, 1888. Mr. Williamson has been engaged in merchandising since he was twenty-one years of age. He holds the highest office in the I. O. O. F., and has been a delegate to the Grand Lodge. He and wife are members of the Methodist Church, and are well known and highly esteemed citizens.

W. H. Winkle was born in Iredell County. N. C., July 8, 1838, and is one of five surviving members of a family of ten children born to Harvey and Sarah Winkle, who were born in Tennessee and North Carolina, the former's birth occurring in 1806. Harvey Winkle was educated in his native State, and his occupation through life was that of a farmer and mechanic. His death occurred March 24, 1866, and his wife's in April, 1850, she being a member of the Lutheran Church at the time of her death. After receiving the advantages of the common schools and attaining manhood on his father's farm. W. H. Winkle was married on the 14th of February, 1866, to Elizabeth Fulbright, who was born in the State of Arkansas, but her death occurred on the 28th of September. 1868, she leaving him with an infant daughter, Mary Jane, to care for. His second wife, Sarah Jackson, was also born in the State of Arkansas, and their marriage was consummated on the 24th of January, 1866, his wife being a daughter of John and Mary Johnson. The second union also resulted in the birth of one daughter, who died on the 19th of November, 1872. Mr. Winkle possesses an exceedingly fertile farm of 160 acres, of which eighty acres are under cultivation, and much of his attention is given to raising a good grade of mules and other stock. He has attained a high rank in the I. O. O. F., and in every enterprise in which he engages he is progressive and energetic, and consequently is successful as a rule. He and wife belong to the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

James B. Woods, farmer, Melbourne, Ark. Among the prominent young farmers of Izard County appears the name of James B. Woods, who, like many others of the representative men of the county, is a native of Bedford County, Tenn. His parents, John and Lucinda (Richardson) Woods, are natives of the same State. John Woods came to Arkansas in 1854, settling in Izard County, and bought a farm near Melbourne, or rather near the present site of Melbourne, where he resided until his death in 1860. He was in his twenty-ninth year at that time, and was a member of the Christian Church. He had always taken an active interest in politics. In 1858 he had been elected sheriff of the county, and had just retired from office at the time of his death. The mother died in 1879, at the age of forty-eight years. To their union were born six children, four now living: Margaret, wife of Alex. L. Sublett; James B., Mary, wife of W. L. Stroud; Sarah J. (deceased), wife of Joseph E. Freeman; Thomas R. (deceased), and Martha C. wife of, Daniel S. Freeman. James B. Woods was born in February, 1852, and was reared to agricultural pursuits in this county. He received a good, practical education in the subscription and free schools of Arkansas, and when twenty-one years of age started out to fight life's battles for himself. He first tilled the soil on his mother's farm, but two years later bought a house in Melbourne, moved there, but rented land and still cultivated the soil. In connection with this he also teamed and followed the carpenter's trade for two years, after which he sold out and bought his present property. his consists of 151 acres, with about forty or fifty acres cleared, and with good buildings, etc. He was married, in 1874, to Miss Fannie Dixon, daughter of W. C. and Eliza (Clarada) Dixon, natives of Tennessee. To this marriage have been born five children: Ora A., Lillian A., Owen D., Robert L. and Margaret. James B. Woods is among the prosperous young farmers of the county and deserves especial credit for the start he has made in life. He is public-spirited and takes an active interest in educational matters as well as all other public enterprises. He and wife are both members of the Christian Church. In politics he casts his vote with the Democratic party. Socially he is a member of the Masonic fraternity.

S. H. Wren is the oldest living pioneer of Izard County, and was born in Warren County, Ky. (near Bowling Green) in 1824, and at the age of six years was brought by his parents, James and Elizabeth (Hightower) Wren, to Izard County. James Wren was born in North Carolina, and in 1819 moved to Kentucky, and settled in Warren County, where he engaged in farming, and lived until the above mentioned date, at which date he located in Arkansas, near Lunenburg, and gave his attention to farming. He served as justice of the peace of the county several terms, and held the office of county judge from 1842 to 1847, having no opponents during this time. He was also elected to the office of county trustee, to distribute the international and school fund for the purpose of improving the public roads, there being three candidates, and Mr. Wren received every vote polled in the county with the exception of one the only case of the kind on the county records. He was popular with all, and justly so, for he was ever very public-spirited, and his efforts in aiding in the improvement of the county will always be highly appreciated. His death, which occurred on the 28th of April, 1888, at the age of ninety seven years and twenty-eight days, was much regretted by all who knew him. He had been a member of the Missionary Baptist Church from the time he was thirty two years of age until his death, and in his political views was a Jeffersonian Democrat, and during the war a leading Secessionist. His wife, who was born in the "Palmetto State," died on the 6th of June, 1883, at the age of eighty-eight years. Their son, S. H. Wren began life for himself at the age of twenty years, first as a farmer, and October 6, 1845, he moved to the Platte Purchase, in Missouri, remaining there about one year. Upon his return to the Izard County, Ark., he was engaged in rafting lumber for two years. In 1861 he was living in Fulton County, Ark., and was a candidate on the Union ticket for a seat in the convention opposed to secession, and was victorious over his opponent, but the county clerk gave the certificate of election to the defeated candidate. The race was made three times, and each time Mr. Wren secured the greatest number of votes, but before the case finally settled the State seceded. Owing to the views held by Mr. Wren in regard to secession, he was arrested and tried for treason to the Confederate government, the trial being held at Little Rock, before Judge Ringo, but he was acquitted after they had examined two prosecuting witnesses. He then returned home, in February, 1862, and remained here until the arrival of Gen. Curtis, when he went to Rolla, Mo., and remained connected with the Union army for two years, selling goods at Batesville. After his return home, at the close. of the war, he found all his buildings and fences destroyed, but he set to work to again improve his property, and now has his farm, which consists of 120 acres, well improved with good buildings, and has eighty one acres under the plow. He has owned 1,200 acres, but has lost most of it in going security for his friends. His wife owns 146 acres, with 100 acres under cultivation. He was elected to the office of justice of the peace two terms, making six years in all, and during that time did not have a decision reversed or a change of venue taken, and not a cent was charged up to the State of Arkansas. He is a Republican in his political views, but usually votes for whom he considers the best man, regardless of was party. He has been twice married, the first time to Miss Nancy J. Hayley, in 1854, and of six children born to them, three are deceased: James M., William C., and Martha J. (Mrs. James Cole) living in Franklin County, Ark. Mrs. Wren was a member of the Missionary Baptist Church and died in 1865. Mr. Wren's second union took place on the 24th of November, 1867. his wife being a Miss Margaret Evans, and of nine children born to them, four are living: W. G., S. R.. Thomas H. and Mary C. Mrs. Wren is a member of the Christian Church, and he is a member of the I. O. O. F., and the Agricultural Wheel, taking a warm interest in commendable enterprises.

Transcribers Notes:
1. Teaching
2. From Richardson Memorial - By John Adams Vinton 1876:
"Joshua Richardson born in Chatham, N. H., about 1799 ; he has been married twice.
He went to Ohio with his father's family in 1806 ; in his child- hood, but while yet very young, went beyond their knowledge, perhaps enticed away, and his friends heard nothing from him for twenty-six or more years. It then appeared that he had obtained a home in Little Rock, Arkansas. He died there about 1870. Some of his sons were in the rebel army."

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