Nature abounds in Montgomery County, Arkansas

Wildlife need all the help they can get!

In Montgomery County, Ark. skunks, more white than black waddle down the gravel roads, white tailed deer, turkey hens and roadrunners run across the roads day and night, box turtles stop in the middle, coyotes and the little Bobwhite quail trot down the Hog Jaw roads. Wild turkey can be seen on the verges on the way to Mount Ida and down the forest service roads ready to fly into the pines and bald eagles swoop across out of dead trees - a magnificent site. Woodpeckers frequent the trees and butcher bird or scissor tail impaled grasshoppers on the barbed wire fences. Beavers slap their tail in Fiddlers and Brushy Creeks. Canoeing down the Ouachita River you might view mink, bobcats, snakes, fish (alligator gar) and birds of prey and swallowtail butterflies at Shirley Creek Recreational Area.

In June 2008 a big black bear was photographed behind Oden Lake and another adult black bear was seen up Brushy Road in June 2009. At night in June you might see fire flies, Luna moths during the clear incredible night skies with satellites and Iridium flares and skunks, armadillos digging and hear bull frogs, tree frogs and the barred owl hoot "Who cooks for you, who cooks for all". Thousands of species of animals and plants can be found in the Natural State.

In September 2010 a black bear with two young cubs was seen near a pond down Brushy Rd, Oden. The mother and cubs ran up a tree. The cubs were very agile and were seen running back and forth along the branches. Coyotes were coming very close to the chicken houses at night, found a dog killed by coyotes and a chook. Their shrill yips woke us each night and sound was real close to the house in the south field. It was not like that twenty years ago. While walking through the woods near Norman saw four armadillos during the day. Saw a one, an armadillos road kill, on Brushy road with a stunted tail.

Taken 2000 near Collier Springs.

The turtle is a three-toed box turtle Terrapene carolina triunguis. The Ouachita National Forest also has the Eastern box turtle which is similar. On the back legs, the three toed box turtle has three toes versus the four toes on the hind legs of the Eastern Box Turtle. During mid May to mid June many box turtles can been seen on the roads, when it is the mating season. Many get run over. Don't take them home for pets - another contributing factor to their mortality, and they smell when placed in the back seat!. A box turtle average life span is 25-30 years and it takes about 7-to 10 years before they start laying eggs.  On any of the nature trails a variety of  mushrooms bloom.

Taken 2000 near Collier Springs.

Mud puddle. Taken 2000 near Collier Springs.
Toad eggs 

June 2010. A true North American toad.
Dwarf American Toad - Lake Ouachita S.P. - June 2010

Taken 2000 near Collier Springs.


Little wild violets, Manfred Rd, March 2008

May 2009, alongside Little Brushy Creek.
What type of toadstool? Bight berries and bright toadstools are often poisonous.

What is it? Dec. 2008 A dried seed pod.

Taken in the woods in June 2010, near Norman. 

Beaver activity along Little Brushy Creek in 1995.

Beaver activity Oct. 2015, at pond down Brushy Rd. Saw three beaver. A large lodge.

Arkansas Chocolate Tarantula, is Arkansas' biggest spider and only tarantula, harmless, June 2010 Montgomery Co. AR

May 2009. What type of bird built this nest?  A crane
Same pond where we saw the kingfisher.

Blue belted kingfisher, Brushy Rd, Oden, AR Dec. 2009
Blue belted kingfisher at pond down Brushy Rd, Oden, AR Dec. 2008

Bass Dec. 2008 - catch and release practised.
Fishing is good here. This is the same pond where we saw the kingfisher.

Summer 2010 - catch and release, a perch.

Near Oden, May 2009.

Opossums can climb.       

Their are many North American Opossums around the county. They often become road kill because of their slow ambulating gait. Possums are omnivores, meaning they will eat almost any kind of food with their 53 teeth especially persimmons. Possums will walk into a tent to look for food. Possums will hiss and snap or play dead to protect themselves and I have seen one walk in a 7 feet circle, to the right, for twenty minutes early one morning at a service station. Opossum hides fetched less than a dollar each during the 2007-2008 Arkansas harvest season. A captured wildlife by code is to be released alive and unharmed outside a municipalities boundaries within 24 hours. Traps must have the name an address, vehicle operator's license number or vehicle license number of the people setting them.

In a Nutshell.
Great snake,
Boy quake.
Horror froze
Garden hose.

Redbud Acres, Brushy Road. May 2005. A 5 ft long harmless black king snake and an alligator gar.
Most snakes are harmless but a snake with a triangular shaped head is often poisonous. Copperheads, rattlesnakes, water moccasins and coral snakes (rare in these parts) are the only poisonous, indigenous ones in Arkansas. A common water snake has round pupils.  When the weather starts to warm up snakes start to move. King snakes are about three to five feet long with salt and pepper coloring.

Arkansas’ s-s-s-s-nakes By Tom Dillard Arkansas Democrat-Gazette September 6, 2009 Pages 84
I recently came across a small timber rattlesnake in my backyard, a reminder that living in the country amid towering hardwood trees does have a certain danger about it. Our ancestors certainly knew the dangers posed by poisonous snakes—and a whole lore has grown up around these reptiles.... Folklorists such as Vance Randolph and Otto Earnest Rayburn collected hundreds of stories about snakes, many of them fanciful if not outlandish. Randolph, in his 1951 book We Always Lie to Strangers, found that "nearly all old-timers believe that a certain kind of snake puts its tail in its mouth and rolls hoop fashion through the hills." In his 1941 book Ozark Country, Rayburn reported on a hoop snake attacking a woman, with the stinger barely touching her skirt. She washed her dress, and the poison "turned three tubs of wash water plumb green!" Interestingly, in none of the folk stories does the hoop snake actually sting a human-the victim usually being a tree. The tree usually dies quickly, often after swelling up considerably. Another bizarre folk belief involved snakes sucking milk from cows. Vance Randolph reports that he has "known sober, serious-minded adults to declare that they have actually seen big snakes milking cows in the pasture." Randolph is skeptical: "It seems to me that a snake's mouth, full of needlelike teeth pointing backward, would make milking difficult." When I was growing up in the rural Ouachita Mountains during the 1950s and 1960s, it was commonly believed that the coachwhip snake would chase people. Randolph reports that coachwhips were known not only to chase humans, it was especially prone to chase and actually whip truant boys. A large body of folktales deal with warding off snakes, as well as treating snake bites. Randolph says that many old timers believed there was something about the smell of gourds that repelled snakes, and many settlers grew gourds about their cabins. Tales of gigantic snakes dot the historical record. ...  Arkansas does have a richness of snakes. In the 1950s, zoo directors from across the nation came to Grassy Lake in Hempstead County in southwest Arkansas to collect poisonous snakes. Marlin Perkins, who would later gain fame as the host of Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom television series, was among the visitors who sought out specimens of copperheads, water moccasins, rattlesnakes, and coral snakes-the four poisonous snakes of north America. Forty-five species and subspecies of snakes are known to live in Arkansas. The largest venomous snake in Arkansas is the western diamondback rattlesnake. The most common of our venomous snakes is the copperhead-which is found in practically every county in the state. For me, the most frightening is the cottonmouth or water moccasin-which is not as retiring as most snakes, and will open its mouth to display the distinctive white interior. 

Lake Ouachita - Canada geese and four goslings, 19 May 2009.
Note the water level is high

A blue gill perch - catch and release with barbless hook. Brushy Rd, Oden, May 2008

A beautiful old oak tree down Brushy Rd.  Note were the cattle have been rubbing the lower branches. May 2005. 0800 in the morning.

Sunset. Redbud Acres. Nov. 2004.

Barn swallow nest May 2009, Brushy Rd, they will come back to the same place year after year. Swallows are rather common across Arkansas and Texas. They built nests under bridges, culverts and eaves of buildings. They build nests of caked mud and moss attached a wall or an object and is wide mouthed. Barn swallows are sleek birds with steel-blue backs and a forked tail. They fly on long, narrow pointed wings with shallow and slow wing beats.

Woodpecker hole, Dec. 2005.  Branches broken from 2000 ice storm.

Is this a woodpecker hole?  About three feet off the ground. Note tree is in a fence line.  

The red spotted Purple not the Diana Fritillary butterfly which is the Arkansas state butterfly symbol. Photo June 2009, Brushy Rd, near a pond, Montgomery Co. AR More Arkansas butterflies. The female is black with dark blue markings. Plants and animals that are limited to a particular area are called endemics — and Arkansas is home to many such limited communities of plants, animals and insects.

Brushy Rd, Oct.13th 2010.
The Pearl Crescent, common in the state. Oct. 2010.

???  On a pink coneflower

June 2010, on the back lawn, Montgomery Co. AR
Giant Swallowtail

Brushy Rd, Oden Oct.13th 2010.
Cloudless Sulphur, common in the state. Oct. 2010.

Brushy Rd, Oden Oct.13th 2010.
The Red Admiral, common in the state. Oct. 2010.

Brushy Rd, Oden Oct.13th 2010.
The common Buckeye. Oct. 2010.

Brushy Rd, Oden Oct.13th 2010.
The Hayhurst Scallopwing, uncommon statewide.

Brushy Rd, Oden June 2010.
Checkered White on white clover. June 2010

Checkered White on sneeze weed. June 2010

What Love is Like

True love is like a butterfly;
It hovers low, it flutters high:
And once you catch it in your net
It's beauty you will ne'er forget.

True love is like a firefly bright,
It glitters best in darkest night.
In times of peace it burns the same -
Disaster fans it into flame.

True love is like a budding rose,
It lends a fragrance as it grows,
The rose if plucked will soon decry,
Let love and roses have their way.
- Otto Ernest Rayburn

Arcadian Life Magazine
, July-August, 1939, #41 page 37
Published in Caddo Gap, Arkansas - 15c a copy

This medium sized stream lined male lizard, the Prairie Racerunner, was in the water, down a well seeking a cool spot. The throat and belly are blue. June 2009, Brushy Rd. Hatchlings exhibit a blue tail that turns to brown with aging.

Oct. 2010
Prairie Lizard, gray, with a series of approximately 8 dark, jagged crossbars on the back, well camouflaged, found statewide.

Green snake, woods Manfred Rd,
A small, wiry Northern Rough Greensnake, found statewide, also known as a Grass Snake. Oct. 2010

Brushy Rd. Oct. 2010. I didn't see the nail until I was looking at the photo.
A young garter snake, Oct. 2010

An  armadillo road kill, on Brushy road, Oden, Oct. 2010. It was a male with a stunted tail.
Driving around Montgomery Co. in Oct. 2010, there were very few road kills. They were soon cleaned up by the turkey vultures. You often saw then circling overhead. Smelt a couple of skunks, walked passed a couple of small skeletons probably grass snakes and saw a dead butterfly and a whitetail deer dead on the side of the road. In May the roads are just covered with turtles trying to cross. In June saw a couple of dead squirrels and skunks and that is about it. The busier the road the fewer road kills. Amos

Privet growing wild in a fence line. May 2009
Privet growing wild in a fence line., Brushy Rd, Oden May 2009

Same track. 19 May 2009, summer.

Same track. Oct. 2010. bearing tree to the right. It was a dry Oct. No rain for the last 3 weeks, burn ban in effect.

Same track, 25 Dec. 2008

Butterfly weed grows wild in a pasture down Brushy Rd. Cattle leave it alone.

Common milkweed and it's cousins, swamp milkweed, and butterfly weed, to name a few in the milkweed family, are crucial to the Monarch butterfly. Photo taken in the woods near Story 30 May 2015.

A whitetail hind near Story, 30 May 2015. Deer feed on forbs (any herb that is not a grass or grasslike.)
Photos below taken on a hillside near Story 30 May 2015 within an acre.


Learning about mushrooms fast forward to 1:35:00 handouts. Most mushrooms do not have common names -Latin names. Fungi form one whole kingdom. First step find the genus. Look for species.
 A reference guide: Mushrooms Demystified by David Aurora. online. Pictorial key - tabular key.
A field guide. Peterson. The National Society Field Guide to Mushroom. Can print key online
Take along: A camera and a Jovie - tripodstand, convertable pants, record location information, tuck pants into socks, (to avoid ticks), bug spray, (poison ivy antidote) tecnu. Observe combination of features. Mushroom shape differs. No stalk or growing on wood. Size of caps. Funnel shaped, gills, how they are attached, parasol shape, growing on trunk.Spore color does not change. Colour of cap changes a lot -wet, dry, young - old. Spore print. Take cap and place down on white paper or glass. Practice making a spore print. About 30 minutes spores fall -note colour of spores. Pink spores, black spores, white spores, light brown spores, dark brown spores.

Woodland mushrooms in Montgomery County, Arkansas.

Amanita bisporigira, aka the Destroying Angel
. Amanita bisporigira, aka the Destroying Angel. Leave it strictly alone. Deadly. Grows in woodland, leaf litter, mostly white, prominent cup at base, skirt that hangs down, white spore print and had free gills. Cap is smooth.

Hen of the Woods (Grifola frondosa), tend to grow on stumps, on bases on trees, note if growing on hardwood or conifer.



Spring coming out of the ground, 30 May 2015.

How it was done.
Angler firm,
Little worm:
Silly fish,
Dainty dish.

Canada geese at Twin Creek, 2nd July 2017.

Deer- Joplin campground 29 June2017.

Twin Creek 2 July 2017. Cicadas have prominent eyes set wide apart, short antennae, and membranous front wings.

Moth at Twin Creek, 2nd July 2017. What type?

Otto Earnest Rayburn was really taken with Caddo Gap, Norman, and other places in the Ouachitas but, he never quite stopped combining the Ouachitas in with the Ozarks! Arcadian Life was published in Caddo Gap for a while. In fact, issue 41 seems to have been published not long after Otto E. Rayburn arrived in Caddo Gap. He writes glowingly of the countryside: "I have discovered an Arcadian paradise where Nature greets the eye like a princess on parade." He also notes: "Dead must be the soul of the man who cannot thrill at the sight of these emerald mountains and silver streams!"

The Arkansas Historical Quarterly July 1, 1999
Otto Ernest Rayburn (1891-1960) spent virtually his entire adult life publishing magazines about the Ozarks region. He envisioned the Ozarks as an American Arcadia, with breathtaking scenery and a stalwart AngloSaxon culture, and published thousands of pages promoting its attractions. Gradually, however, it dawned upon him that the more people knew about his Arcadian paradise, the less like paradise it would be. Rayburn never made much money at publishing regional magazines. He persisted, however, for more than forty years and earned a place among the romantics, scholars, and promoters who, in the first half of the twentieth century, recorded the culture and lore of the southern mountains...

Natural Heritage by Tom Dillard, May 24, 2009 Editorial, Pages 88
Tom Dillard is head of the special collections department at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. Email him at

In honor of this month being Arkansas Heritage Month, with the theme of celebrating the state's natural heritage, today's column features plants and animals that appear nowhere else but this state. Plants and animals that are limited to a particular area are called endemics-and Arkansas is home to many such limited communities of plants and animals. In 1995, biologist Henry W. Robison and entomologist Robert T. Allen published a 121-page book titled Only in Arkansas, which identified 117 species and subspecies of plants and animals that are believed to be endemic to Arkansas. The 106 animals include a large number of invertebrates-two worms, eight snails, three mussels, 21 crustaceans, and various crayfishes, and millipedes. Endemic insects number at least 30, including mayflies, stoneflies, and at least 10 beetles. Robison and Allen note that animal habitats do not follow state boundaries, so many species of limited presence in Arkansas are also found in neighboring states and thus are not endemic despite their limited range. Arkansas' interior highlands, the Ozarks and Ouachitas, have long been known to harbor small endemic populations of many plants and animals. Over millions of years these uplands might have been safe havens for species that suffered during various periods when much of the continent was not habitable.

Among the score or so beetles endemic to Arkansas is Scaphinotus parisiana, a large one discovered on Magazine Mountain in Logan County-an area rich in endemics and rare species. The species name, parisiana, honors Paris, the Logan county seat. Interestingly, this beetle feeds exclusively on escargot. The beetle has evolved a narrow head that allows it to push far into the shell and extract the snail.

Three mussels are endemic to Arkansas. The Arkansas Fatmucket mussel is found only in a few rivers in the Ouachita Mountains. The speckled pocketbook is found only along the upper Little Red in Stone and Van Buren counties. Many mussels are threatened or endangered.

Among the animals with the most limited distribution is a crayfish that lives in streams within Hell Creek Cave in Stone County. The 1,500-foot long limestone cave was home to the fewer than 50 such creatures reported by Robison and Allen in 1995. In reaction to its dark habitat, the crayfish lacks pigment, has a reduced body size, and small eyes.

Crayfish are also endemic to the lowlands, including a large and handsome burrowing species found in a single location in Union County. A species endemic to Howard and Pike counties is a colorful crayfish with some specimens sporting tan bodies and purplish pincers. This species builds multi-branched burrows in marshy areas. Colonies are usually small-four to nine burrows.

A number of vertebrate animals are endemic to Arkansas. At least five species of bony fishes are found only in the state; two are madtom catfishes and three are darters-all quite small. The Ouachita madtom is found in very small numbers in the Saline River basin. Another endemic Arkansas fish is the Caddo madtom, found only in Montgomery, Pike, and Polk counties in the upper reaches of the Caddo River. Two amphibian species are endemic to Arkansas, both being salamanders. The Caddo Mountain Salamander is found only in Montgomery, Polk, and Howard counties in the Ouachitas. The other endemic salamander is the Fourche mountain salamander, found in Polk and Scott counties-also in the Ouachitas. The sleek creature is distinguished by two rows of spots running its length.

In comparison to animals, only a few plants are endemic to the state. Perhaps the best known of these is Moore's delphinium. Discovered in 1935 by the dean of Arkansas botanists, Dwight M. Moore, this two-foottall delphinium sports beautiful sky blue flowers. It is found only in the Ozarks and Ouachitas. The maple-leafed oak is not only endemic to Arkansas-it is found only on Mount Magazine. It takes its name from its broad leaves which resemble those of the maple. Seldom reaching 20 feet, the maple-leafed oak is usually multi-trunked, and it produces very small acorns. Perhaps Arkansas' nickname as the natural state is more than a slogan.

Natural Heritage - Tom Dillard May 17, 2009 Editorial, Pages 84 Publication: Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (Little Rock)
The topic this week is the natural heritage of Arkansans, which is in recognition of this year's Arkansas Heritage Month theme "Exploring Our Natural Heritage."
Thousands of species of animals and plants can be found in the Natural State. This column will focus on a few of the animals that once called Arkansas home.
Early explorers and settlers in Arkansas were unanimously impressed with the wildlife. De Soto, the Spaniard who led an expedition through Arkansas in 1541-42, was greeted by vast herds of deer, while bison and elk were also found in numbers. Black bears were so common-and universally hunted by settlers for their meat and oil-that Arkansas was known as The Bear State. Trappers and hunters periodically converged on Oil Trough, a city on the White River where bear oil was stored for shipment to New Orleans. Buffalos were relatively plentiful in colonial Arkansas. University of Arkansas zoologist John A. Sealander believed "the major buffalo herds in Arkansas were found in prairies, cane brakes and open woods in the Gulf Coastal Plain along major rivers such as the Red, Saline, Arkansas, and St. Francis . . . ." By the time Arkansas was acquired in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, buffalo were already in rapid decline. The last large herd, about 150 animals, was killed in the Saline River bottoms in 1808. German traveler Frederick Gerstaecker reported a few remaining buffalos in the Cache River bottoms in 1837. Early settlers reported many wolves in Arkansas. They were systematically hunted. Gerstaecker wrote of several wolf encounters, including one occasion when he unsuccessfully pursued a large black wolf with a white patch on his chest. Gerstaecker regretted his failure, for as he noted, "a wolf's scalp is valued at three dollars in Arkansas." By 1910 wolf sightings were rare enough to be mentioned in local newspapers. Among the animals that no longer live here due to extinction are two birds whose vast numbers awed early Arkansans, the passenger pigeon and the Carolina parakeet. ...

Natural heritage
By Tom Dillard
May is Arkansas Heritage Month, and this year's theme is "Exploring our Natural Heritage." While our nickname as the Natural State might be challenged occasionally with good reason, Arkansas remains a natural wonder.
This article was published May 10, 2009
Editorial, Pages 82 on 05/10/2009

1928: Here only a few years ago roamed great numbers of deer and turkey; here also were many bears and foxes, and a little further to the east of the Ouachita River there were beaver. Quail also raccoon and 'possum may be found along water courses. The streams abound with fish. A great variety of forest trees and wildflowers. On the heights may be found cedar, mountain laurel, rhododendron, locust, cucumber (magnolia acuminata) hickory, red and white oak. Lower down, the pin oak, blackjack oak, chinquapin, elm and beech. Along the water courses, cottonwood, sycamore, water oak, gum and dog wood.

Arkansas' natural heritage is as diverse and interesting as its cultural history.

Caddo Gap is a break in a great blue hogback looming on the right from Glenwood on Sate 27.

Census 1880 - Tenth 1st June 1880.

The surface of the county is sparsely populated with an average of nearly 7 persons per square mile. The crops are corn, cotton, wheat, oats and potatoes, the first names having the largest acreage. Cotton comprises 17.9 per cent of the lands in cultivation, and the averages but 4.2 acres per square mile. The product per acre is less than half that of the state at large.
There are areas of metamorphic rocks in the county comprising chloritic slates, etc. The fertile portion of the county is said to be Caddo Cove, on the southwest, where much limestone appears.
Abstract G. Whittington, Montgomery County, March 23, 1880.
The lowlands consist of ten first bottom lands of South Fork creek and the Ouachita river. The uplands are rolling and the level table-lands well timbered. The lands devoted to the cultivation of cotton are the mahogany uplands, mostly level, the black loam of the south fork of the Ouachita, and the light upland timbered lands. The most important is the mahogany or hickory upland, extending in each direction about 25 miles, and having natural timber growth of pine, hickory, red oak, ash, walnut, dogwood and sassafras. The soil is a silty and gravelly loam, clayey in places, varying in colour from brown or mahogany to blackish or black and is 18 inches in depth. The subsoil is heavier than the soil. The soil is cultivated with difficulty in all seasons, is early and warm, and is best adapted to corn and wheat. The chief crops of the region are cotton, corn, wheat and oats. One tenth of the tillable land area is devoted to cotton, which grows to a height of 4 feet and runs to weed on all lands of the county under cultivation 9unmanured) for twenty years, is 1,000 pounds of seed-cotton per acre. Fourteen hundred and twenty five pounds are required, either from fresh or old lands, for 475 pounds of good ordinary lint. Crab-grass and cocklebur are the most troublesome weeds on all lands of the county. None of the land lies "turned out." Cotton is badly injured by early frosts after a wet, late season, especially in the rich bottom lands. Cotton is shipped to Hot Springs, and thence by rail to market.
Cotton production: 1,819 bales, average cotton per acre, 0.52 bale, 780 pounds seed-cotton, 0r260 pounds lint.
The Ouachita river bottom lands extend east and west about 20 miles, and have a natural timber growth of water, overcap , and bur oaks, walnut, elm, ash and mulberry.
The light-timber upland and the second-bottom lands have a natural growth of white and post oaks, elm, and sweet gum.

Annual report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas 1892

Caddo Gap. — Caddo Gap is a deep gorge through which the Caddo River, in the western part of 4 S., 24 W., crosses one of the main novaculite ridges. Beyond, to the west, the ridge rises again to a height of 580 feet, and continues toward the head waters of the Little Missouri River.

In the ridge on the west side of the Caddo River, and immediately north of the village of Caddo Gap, a stain of iron occurs in the novaculite at the contact of that rock with the shale, on both sides of the ridge, and occasionally small masses of ore are seen. . These exposures can be followed thence westward, but the quantity of the ore is insignificant and of no commercial importance. "
S Crossing" — Such occurrences as those just mentioned at Caddo Gap, are again seen on a trail crossing the main ridge about two miles west-by-north from the village of Caddo Gap. The trail passes through a circuitous gorge, from which the name " S Crossing " has been derived. In places on the south slope of the mountain, on this trail, the novaculite is stained a deep rusty color, and contains thin seams and pockets of iron ore like that just described as occurring at Caddo Gap. These vary from one to eighteen inches in thickness and occur in a belt of novaculite about fifty feet wide. They are not in workable quantities.

North Mountain — North Mountain is the name locally applied to the novaculite ridge running north-of-west in 4 S., 26 W., about two miles north of Fancy Hill Post-office. It is the continuation of the ridge at Caddo Gap. On the slopes of the mountain the iron and manganese stratum occurs in the gray- novaculite, near its contact with the shale, and follows the strike of the rocks along the ridge. Both the iron and the manganese ores are in very small quantities, the latter especially so, and the ore-bearing stratum is usually marked only by a ferruginous stain or by small seams or bunches of iron ore.

A similar ore occurs in a hollow separating this hill from the mountain to the north, and in one place a bed ten feet thick was seen. In many other places in the neighborhood, both to the east and to the west, in the direction of the strike of the rock, similar though somewhat smaller outcrops occur. The ore intermittently blends into the shale and disappears. Caddo Mountain. — Caddo Mountain bears east and west through the extreme southwestern part of 3 S., 26 W., and into 3 S., 27 W. It runs parallel to and on the immediate south side of the Caddo River, rising about 400 feet above it. The crest and the upper parts of the ridge are composed of gray novaculite, and the black siliceous shale occurs on the slopes. On the summit are numerous outcrops of a black or dark gray iron ore, with a bright submetallic lustre, frequently in globular, stalactitic, or mamillary forms. It is in thin seams- and pockets, from a fraction of an inch to a foot in thickness, and generally forms the cement of a breccia of novaculite fragments. It decomposes on the surface into a brown, earthy-ore. The mixture of ore and rock is from ten to forty feet in width. It was followed for two miles along the crest of the ridge and is doubtless traceable for a still greater distance. The amount of ore, however, in any one place is small, as the novaculite fragments compose by far the larger part of the ore- bearing stratum. The ore, though sometimes in small pockets free from rock, is generally in the form of thin layers or films in the novaculite.

Centennial History of Arkansas By Dallas Tabor Herndon pg31 (1922)

In Arkansas the only recognized
Cambrian exposure occurs in Montgomery County, in a valley between the headwaters of the Ouachita and Little Missouri rivers. This valley is from one to three miles wide and about fifteen miles long. The formation (known as Collier shale) is composed chiefly of a dark shale and a bluish-gray or dark limestone, interspersed with layers of chert. None of the limestone is adapted for building purposes, and very little of it is suitable for the manufacture of lime, on account of the impurities it contains. The shale beds are believed to be five hundred feet or more in thickness.
Other geologists assert that the lower part of the novaculite formation belongs to the Devonian period. The novaculite (whetstone) area occurs in the hilly regions south of the Arkansas River, especially in the Zigzag Mountains about Hot Springs, in the Ouachita Mountain system south of the Ouaehita River, and extends from the eastern part of Hot Spring County almost to the Oklahoma line. Concerning the finest quality of this novaculite, commercially known as Ouachita oilstone, Owen says : "

Next in geologic age is the Lower Silurian, or Ordovician — the oldest certainly recognized sedimentary rocks in Arkansas. They consist of magnesian and siliceous limestones, sandstones and cherts. A geological map of Arkansas published by the United States Geological Survey in 1907, shows two well defined Lower Silurian areas. The first, in the northern part of the state, the second area, south of the Arkansas River, includes the larger part of Garland, Saline and Montgomery counties, the southwestern part of Pulaski. a triangle in the eastern part of Polk, a small section of the northern part of Pike, and a belt across the northern part of Hot Spring County.

page 34
The Stanley shale occurs in Clark, Garland, Hot Spring, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk and Sevier counties. In Pike County it is about six thousand feet thick. Quartz veins in this formation in Sevier County contain antimony, lead and zinc, but the deposits have never been fully developed.

page 474
About 1839 Ira B. Whitmore, of Little Rock, became associated with Tapley H. Stewart, who had been interested
in the mines amount Dahlonega, Georgia, and the two men visited one of the old Spanish diggings in Montgomery County. They brought back to Little Rock a few specimens of gold ore, but it does not appear that they made any effort to develop the mines in that locality.

page 475
Dr. John C. Branner's report for 1888 may have been responsible for some of the activity that followed immediately afterward. In that report he says: "There is a very enticing field for prospectors northeast of the Bellah and Davis mines, as far as Silver
City (in Montgomery County), along a narrow belt and in a southwestward continuation of the same belt indefinitely into Oklahoma.
In his report for 1920 the commissioner of mines, manufactures and agriculture mentions but one concern engaged in silver mining. That was the Silver King Mining Company, a Hot Springs corporation, which was organized for the purpose of developing the Waterloo mine, near old Silver City, Montgomery County. In June, 1921, this company published a report stating that ore from the lower levels of the mine had been sent to St. Louis for examination and assayed $380 of pure silver per ton. If this report be true, silver mining in Arkansas may become a reality.

Annual report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas 1892
The Bud Jones claim No. 2. — The Bud Jones claim No. 2 is in 3 S., 23 W, section 23, the southwest quarter. It is less- than a mile south-by-east from the last locality. Fragments- of iron ore, similar to the first kind described at the last place, are scattered over the surface. The ore is not seen in place, as the main deposit is concealed by loose material. The surface fragments are frequently made up of a mass of thin stalactite branches, from a sixteenth to a quarter of an inch in'
The Bud Jones claim No. j. — The Bud Jones claim No. 3 is in 3 S., 23 W., section 29, the north half. This claim is on the north side of a novaculite ridge and half way up its slope. The gray novaculite forms the summit and upper part of the ridge; the siliceous shale forms the lower slope. The rocks all strike east-west and dip steeply to the north. A seam, two and a- half feet in thickness, of a porous brown iron ore, occurs in the gray novaculite, and is often coated with a brilliant red ochre. Unlike most of such exposures, however, this deposit of ore is not interbedded with the rock, but dips at about 70° east, and strikes north and south directly across the stratification. On the slope of the ridge, the gray novaculite forms an almost vertical ledge for ten or fifteen feet above its contact with the siliceous shale, and then slopes upward more gradually. In the face of this ledge a cross section- of the ore deposit is well exposed. Twenty feet above the shale the deposit thins out to a few inches in width. Sections- of similar though smaller deposits, from one to twelve inches in thickness, are seen in the face of the ledge. Sometimes- thin layers or small pockets of the same kind of ore follow the contact of the two rocks in the normal interbedded manner. The deposits across the bedding probably represent crevices filled with ore derived from the bedded deposits or from iron scattered through the surrounding rocks. The ore is in too-small quantities to be of value as a source of iron.

Analysis of iron ore from the Bud Jones claim No. j, Montgomery
Iron 54.54
Silica 0.84
Phosphorus 1.79
Manganese 0.30
The analysis shows the ore to be of good quality in its high percentage of iron and low percentage of silica, but its value is injured by its large percentage of phosphorus. The Dunney claim. — The Dunney claim is in 3 S., 23 W., section 30, the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter. It is about a half a mile west of the last claim and on the summit of the same gray novaculite ridge. The ore deposit consists of a breccia of soft, angular, novaculite fragments, from a fraction of an inch to six inches in diameter, cemented by a bright, submetallic, steel-gray iron ore.* The ore is generally in the form of thin seams, a fraction of an inch in thickness, cementing the rock fragments, though sometimes pure masses several inches in diameter are seen. Occasionally it is in mammillary or stalactitic forms, or in small, flat nodules stuck to the novaculite fragments. The breccia runs along the ridge, but rapidly thins out in either direction. This ore is too much mixed with the rock to be of value, and the quantity is too .small to pay to concentrate it. An examination of the breccia shows that, though the fragments of the rock are separated by thin layers of ore, the angles of any two pieces of rock directly opposite each other would almost always fit together if the ore were removed. It is probable, therefore, that the brecciation is caused by the shattering of the rock in place, and not by the cementing together of novaculite fragments indiscriminately mixed. The Golden Gate claim. — The Golden Gate claim is in 3 S., 23 W., section 31, the northwest quarter. Here the same breccia is seen as at the last place, except that the iron ore has a brown, dull, earthy, porous appearance, instead of a bright subnietallic lustre ; a fact, however, which may be due to surface weathering. The thickness of the outcrop is not seen on account of the covering of loose material, but fragments of ore are scattered for a distance of over two hundred yards along the north slope of the mountain. Occasionally masses of pure ore are found, weighing from one to two hundred pounds. Township 4. S., 24. W. — The main novaculite ridge of this region passes through township 4 S., 24 W., from northeast to southwest, in a series of zigzag folds. Small quantities of iron and manganese ores are found in the novaculite at many places in the hills, but both are in quantities of no importance whatever and do not require further mention.  Map  Minerals in AR by county. Quartz

The early bird catches the worm, taken throgh a window at Brushy Rd.
Early one morning Brushy Rd, Montgomery Co. AR. A pretty Eastern Blue Bird with an orange breast. Taken through a window screen. Map

Hickory Nut Mt trail
Little Missouri Falls ONF map photo

Montgomery County ArkansasGenWeb Project