"The busy world shoves angrily aside
The man who stands with arms akimbo set
Until occasion tells him what to do."


HARP COUNTY, lying in the northern tier of counties in Arkansas, is bounded north by Oregon County, Mo., east by Randolph and Lawrence, south by Independence, and west by Izard and Fulton counties, in Arkansas. It has an area of 290 square miles, or about 377,600 acres, of which nearly 60,000 belong to the United States, about 20,000 to the State, and the remainder to individuals, and to mining, timber and railroad companies.
The boundary lines of the county are as follows: Beginning at the southeast corner of Township 15 north. Range 4 west; thence north on the range line to the line between Townships 18 and 19 north; thence east on the township line to the south-east corner of Section 85, Township 19 north. Range 3 west; thence north on section lines three miles; thence west on the section line one mile; thence north on section lines live miles; thence in a northwesterly direction on the line between Sharp and Randolph Counties to the State line; thence west, about eighty rods, to the line dividing Ranges 4 and 5 west; thence south on the range line to the northeast corner of Township 19 north, Range 5 west; thence west to the northwest corner of said Congressional township; thence south to the southwest corner of the same; thence west on the township line to the northwest corner of Section 1, Township 18 north, Range 7 west: thence south on section lines to the middle of said township; thence east one mile to the range line; thence south on the range line to the northeast corner of Section 36, Township 16 north. Range 7 west; thence west one and a half miles; thence south on sub-divisional lines to the middle of Township 15 north; thence east on section lines to the line between Ranges 4 and 5 west; thence south on the range line to the line between Townships 14 and 15 north; thence ea.st on the township line to the place of beginning.
The most of the surface lies high and dry, and is drained by waters flowing south tributary to White River, and others flowing east tributary Black River. It is classed in the State with the northern barrens and hill region. Its surface presents a variety of features, some portions being join it from the north. Many smaller streams also hilly and broken, others rolling or undulating, with summit plateaus, while still other portions eshil)it a level or flat surface. The ridges, which are from fifty to three hundred feet high, show outcroppings of sandstone and cherty limestone.
The principal difficulty encountered on some of the uplands consists in the loose rocks and bowlders lying scattered on the surface or slightly embedded in the earth; but, when these are removed, there remains a light soil, easily cultivated and always possessing to a greater or less extent the elements of fertility. The valley and bottom lands are dark loams, very rich and productive, usually drained by clear and never-failing streams of wholesome water. The latter, however, compose but a small percentage of the area of the county. A large portion of the uplands, as well as all of the valley lands, are comparatively free from rocks, and as the growth of timber is light upon the former it is easily cleared for the plow.
Spring River, flowing from the great Mammoth Spring of Fulton County, enters Sharp from the north, near the middle of the north line of Township 19 north. Range 5 west, flows thence in a southeasterly direction across the county, and contains several good mill seats on its route. South Fork, its principal tributary from the west, enters the county at the northwest corner of the Congressional township just described, and empties into Spring River in the same township.
Martin's Creek rises in the extreme northern portion, and flowing southwardly, empties into Spring River, in Range 3 west. Many smaller streams empty into this river within the county. Strawberry River enters from the west, and flowing a little south of east on its general course, crosses the south central portion, its route also offering a number of desirable sites for mills. Piney Fork, another important stream, makes its appearance from the west a few miles south of Strawberry River, and empties into the latter in the southwest part of Township 17 north. Range o west to William's, or South Big Creek, and also Reed's Creek flow into Strawberry River from the south, while North Big Creek. Mill and Harry's Creeks find an outlet here. Polk Bayou and Sullivan's Creek, rising in the southwestern portion of the county, flow into White River. Cave Spring, a large body of water, flows through a cavern a few yards from the road leading from Evening Shade to Batesville. at a point about ten south of the former place. There are numerous miles springs in this vicinity, all producing cold, clear and pure water unexcelled in quality. Good well water can also be obtained in many places at a moderate depth, but where springs are not convenient, cisterns are generally in use. The streams mentioned are not sluggish, but run with a swift current, thus making the water pure and healthful for stock.
Sharp County lies in the mineral belt, and zinc has been successfully mined and smelted at Calamine, on Section 22, Township 16 north. Range 4 west, in its southeast part, and also on Sections 12, 28 and 29, Township 18 north, Range 4 west, and there are indications of its existence in other localities. Evidences of the presence of copper have been discovered in Section 32, Township 17 north. Range 6 west. Some two miles from Calamine, in Sections 22, 23, 25 and 30, Township 10 north. Range 4 west, and the surrounding region, lies an immense bed of pot iron or looking-glass ore. Here, before the late war, iron was successfully made in a rude furnace, operated by Bevens & Co. The iron was of a fine quality, and found a ready sale then. The supply of ore is said to be almost inexhaustible. Hematite is found in various parts of the county, cropping out and lying loosely about the ground. Lead ore has also been found in the county, but its extent has not been ascertained. The of lime has been made at Calamine and other best points, and a light-gray, nearly white, marble, which takes on a fine polish, and has been used for grave-stones, lies in illimitable quantities near Highland, and but a few miles from Hardy. Good building stone may be had in various sections.
The timber growth of this county includes pine, all the varieties of oak, walnut, hickory, ash, sycamore, elm, gum and cedar. In the southwestern portion is a belt of yellow pine, of excellent quality. This pine region is about fifteen miles long and from two to five miles wide. Several good sawmills are now at work in this region, converting the pine trees into lumber for the local trade. *
The resources of the county are almost entirely agricultural, but the natural mineral and horticultural provisions, if developed, might be made very profitable. But little scientific farming has been done. Clover and the tame grasses, though they are said to do well, have scarcely been introduced. Individuals seem content to raise such crops of cotton and corn as the land will produce without re-fertilizing it. More thorough methods of farming must come. In 1880 the county contained 1,183 farms and 44,674 acres of improved land. The vegetable productions for the year 1879, as shown by the United States census of 1880, were as follows: Indian corn, 432,570 bushels; oats, 52,241 bushels; wheat, 18,908 bushels; hay, 282 tons; Cotton, 4,350 bales; Irish potatoes, 4,285 bushels; sweet potatoes, 5,917 bushels; tobacco, 10,070 lbs.
The number of head of live stock, as given by the same census, was: Horses, 2,186; mules and asses, 960; neat cattle, 8,653; sheep, 8,458; hogs, 19,731. The number, as shown by the assessment rolls for 1888, was: Horses, 2,311; mules and asses, 1,003; neat cattle, 11,149; sheep, 7,535; hogs, 14,497. The apparent decrease in the number of sheep and hogs is accounted for by the fact that the assessment rolls show only those on hand when the assessment was taken, and do not, like the census of 1880, include the number slaughtered and otherwise disposed of during the year. The census of 1890 will show a large increase over that of 1880. The county is well adapted to the raising of live stock, the winters being so mild and the range so extensive that but little shelter or feed are required. The stock industry can easily be made a very profitable occupation.
In 1880 the real estate of Sharp County was assessed for taxation at $426, 363, and the personal property at $363,420. making a total of $788,783, on which an aggregate amount of taxes to the extent of $11,596 was charged. In 1888 the real-estate assessment was $754,901, and personal property, $502,085, making a total of S1,256,9S6. The total taxes reached $12,752. This comparison shows that since 1880 the taxable wealth of the county has increased nearly sixty per cent, while the amount of taxes charged is only a trifle more.
The Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis Railroad passes through and across the northern part of the county, in the valley of Spring River. It is assessed for taxation here at $173,406.
The population of the county in 1870 was: White, 5,286; colored, 114; total 5,400. In 1880 it was white, 8,871; colored, 176; total 9,047. This shows an increase from 1870 to 1880, of a little over sixty-seven per cent of the white population and a little over fifty-four per cent of the colored. The immigration being somewhat rapid, the next census will probably present a still larger growth.
The organization of this territory was in accordance with an act of the General Assembly of the State, approved in July, 1868. It was named after E. Sharp, one of the representatives of the district composed of Lawrence, Randolph and Greene Counties, and who presented the bill for its formation. The territory composing it was nearly all taken from Lawrence County. By subsequent acts of the General Assembly, the original boundary lines have been slightly changed so as to conform to the present limit, as elsewhere noted. The county is now divided into eighteen municipal townships.
Upon the organization of the county the seat of justice was located at Evening Shade, where it still remains, though strenuous efforts have been put forth for a change to a more central point. Soon after the seat of justice was determined upon, work was commenced for the construction of a courthouse which was completed not later than 1870. This house was a two-story frame, about 40x60 feet in size, with office rooms below, and the court-room above. It stood until 1879, when it was consumed by fire, together with nearly all of the public records. It is not known how the fire occurred. Since then the county has rented and still continues to rent a building for a court-house. A very substantial wooden jail with an eighteen-inch wall made of planks securely spiked together, containing two rooms with a "cage" in one of them, was constructed soon after the county was organized. It is still standing and is in use. The county owns a "poor farm" consisting of 165 acres, located in Washington Township, on which there are good and comfortable buildings for the use of the paupers of the county, and the superintendent of the farm. The contract for the keeping of the paupers is annually let to the lowest responsible bidder. The poor are here well cared for.
Among the pioneer settlers of (now) Sharp County were John King, who settled where Center postoffice is now located; Robert Lott, who located two miles west; Nicholas Norris and his son-in-law, William McKinley, who settled on Strawberry River, all about the year 1810. Prominent among the pioneers along Spring River were William Morgan, at the mouth of Rock Creek; William J. Gray, William Williford, Solomon Hudspeth, Colby Crawford, Stephen English, Robert J. Moore, Joseph Kellett, John Walker, Samuel Beasley and L. D. Dale. Ferguson B. Boothe settled at the head of Martin's Creek, John C. Garner and his four sisters farther down, and Joseph Kellett at the mouth of the same creek. Mr. Garner and two of his sisters, Mrs. Wilkinson and Mrs. Baker, all at a very advanced age, are living at this time. John and Joseph Hardin, R. P. Smithee, John Milliggan and J. W. Mobley were early settlers on Reed's Creek. John M. Vanhoozer, William Norris and Serrel Mobley early made a home on South Big Creek. The first settlers in the southwest part of the county were John Luce, Josiah Richardson, Plummer Baxter, A. J. Hodges and Judge A. H. Nuun, whose settlement dates from early in the '40's, and Col. William G. Matheny, a pioneer of 1849.
The many very old people now residing in the county, who have lived here nearly all their lives, prove that this is a remarkably healthy section, notwithstanding all that can be said to the contrary. Several of the old settlers named are over eighty years of age, and two ladies, Mrs. Sarah Galloway and Miss Mary Caton, mention of whom should not be omitted, are ninety-eight and eighty-eight years of age, respectively. In 1876 there were in the county, by actual count, seventy-four persons each over seventy years old.
The county court of Sharp County convenes for its regular sessions on the first Mondays of January, April, July and October of each year, and the probate court on the first Mondays of February, May, August and November. The circuit court convenes for its regular sessions on the first Mondays of June and December of each year. This county belongs to the Third judicial district, of which J. W. Butler, of Batesville, is the present judge.
The legal bar of the county consists of the following named attorneys: Col. J. L. Abernethy, S. H. Davidson (present State senator), John B. McCaleb, W. A. Turner, and A. J. Porter, the present county judge.
There has never been an execution for the offense of murder committed within Sharp County. A few years ago, however, one Joseph Camp was tried at Evening Shade, upon a change of venue from another county, for the killing of one Hulsey, was found guilty, and was hanged for the offense. For crimes committed within the county, there has been no conviction for murder in the first degree, and but one in the second degree, and two for manslaughter. Neither have there been but few homicides. The laws are generally well enforced, and the citizens are law-abiding.
At the beginning of the Civil War of 1861-65, the citizens of this locality were, with only a few exceptions, in full sympathy with the proposed Southern Confederacy, and did all in their power to help establish it. There were but a few Union men, and they refugeed to the North. A number of companies of soldiers commanded, respectively, by Capts. William Adams, William G. Matheny, A. H. Nunn, M. V. Shaver, and perhaps others, were recruited and organized in Lawrence County, from that part which now composes Sharp, for the Confederate army, in which they served during the war. No engagement worthy of mention took place here, until the spring of 1864, when Col. Freeman and Maj. M. V. Shaver, with the Third Missouri Confederate Cavalry, met Col. Woods, with a Kansas regiment of Federal cavalry, on the Baker farm on Martin's Creek, in what is now the northern part of the county. On this occasion the Federal troops were routed and compelled to fallback toward headquarters, at Batesville, suffering some loss. There was no bushwacking among the citizens during the war, but several persons were killed by scouting parties passing through. The territory was generally over-run and devastated of its provisions, in consequence of which considerable suffering resulted for the want of food.

Sharp County can boast of no large towns, but it has a number of small villages distributed to suit the convenience of the people.
Ash Flat, located on Section 10, in Richwoods Township, contains four general stores, a drug store, a grocery and saddlery store, two blacksmith shops, two church edifices (one of which is also used for school purposes), a grist and flouring-mill and cotton-gin combined, a saw-mill and cotton gin combined, one hotel, a lodge each of Masons, Eastern Star, and Knights and Ladies of Honor, one physician, and has a population of about 200. It is located in the best agricultural district of the county, and enjoys a considerable trade.
Some time prior to 1849 a post office was established in the hollow south of the east end of what is now the business street of Evening Shade. The office was so situated that after 3 o'clock P. M. of each day it remained in the shade of the tall pines standing on the rising grounds south and west, and for this reason it was named Evening Shade, the name that the place still retains. In June, 1849, Samuel Cammack opened the first store here. The site of its location is now occupied by the business street of the town, immediately in front of the present store of R. D. Williams. The building containing the goods was a canvas tent, with the rear end boarded up, the lock used at the front being a large and savage female bull-dog. In September following, J. W. Shaver joined Mr. Cammack in the business, and together they formed the firm of Shaver & Cammack. About 1852 a party of natives met J. M. Hiland, a young man from Tennessee, in a saloon kept by one William Vanghan, and there gave him rum until he became intoxicated, after which he was induced to play cards. The victim was soon dispossessed of his money considerable amount. Upon sobering up, he exclaimed: "They gave me rum, and hooked my money." In consequence of this. Evening Shade was, for many years, vulgarly called "Hook Rum."
At the beginning of the Civil War, Evening Shade contained three stores and a saloon, and about 100 inhabitants. It now has two general stores, two groceries, a drug store, bookstore, two hotels, mechanic's shops, a large public school house, three church edifices, three grist-mills, two cotton-gins, five saw-mills, in the town and its immediate vicinity; two shingle-mills, two wool-carding mills, a bed spring manufactory; a lodge, Chapter and Eastern Star lodge of the Masonic fraternity, and a lodge each of Odd-Fellows, Knights of Honor and Knights and Ladies of Honor, also five physicians, a real estate agent and an insurance agent. Society is refined and cultivated; the town offers attractive advantages; it is a pleasant place in which to live, and a large amount of business is transacted. The population is about 350. The Sharp County Record, a weekly newspaper, in its twelfth volume, is published here by E. G. Henderson, its proprietor. It is well edited and advocates Democratic principles, though ably serving the general interests of its community.
Hardy, located on Spring River and on the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis Railroad, consist* of the railroad buildings, a general store, drug store, saloon, blacksmith shop, cotton-gin, a school house, church and Masonic hall combined, and about twenty families. Williford, on the same river and railroad, ten miles below Hardy, has three general stores, a saloon, cotton-gin, blacksmith shop, railroad section house, a school-house used also for religious services, and two stone quarries.
At each of these places is a post office, the one at Evening Shade being the only money order office within the county. Other postoffices and post-hamlets, the latter having a store or blacksmith shop, and sometimes both, are Armstrong, Calamine, Canton. Center, Coats, Grange, King's Mills, Loyal, Martin's Creek, Maxville, Polk Bayou, Poughkeepsie, Reed's Creek, Sidney and Winsted.
The subject of education has not been lost sight of in the progress and advancement of other matters. In 1873 a two-story frame college building, 40x80 feet in size, was erected at Evening Shade, and a college was incorporated, but never supplied with a faculty. The building, however, was used for school purposes until 1882, when it was consumed by fire. In general, the people of Sharp County are in favor of popular education. This is evidenced by the fact that nearly, if not all, the districts recently voted a local school tax for 1889. The following statistics are taken from the official report of the State superintendent of public instruction for the year ending June 30, 1888: Scholastic population — White 3,909; colored 66; total 3,975. Enrollment in the public schools White, 2,228; colored, 13; total, 2,241. Number of districts 06; number reporting enrollment 45; teachers employed 45; number of institutes held 2; number of teachers attending 33: average monthly salaries paid teachers — first grade, males $42.50, females $40.00; second grade, males $37.50, females $35.00; third grade, males $27.50; females $25.00. If these figures indicate a true condition of the schools of the county, it readily appears that only 57 per cent of the white and only 20 per cent of the colored scholastic population attended the public schools. In submitting the above figures to the State superintendent, P. H. Wilkerson, the county examiner, complaining of the failure of school directors to make full reports, said:
"The reports are never correct excepting the number of children; all other data are almost entirely neglected." Evidently the school law should be thoroughly revised, so as to compel full and complete reports of all school officers. It is argued here by those most favorable to popular education that all school tuition taxes should be levied by the State, collected into the treasury, and distributed pro rata to the scholastic population of the State. This would give to each and all an equal share of the school fund, and dispense with all contention and quarreling in school districts about the levy of taxes. The amount expended in Sharp County for the support of the public schools for the year referred to was $7,499.75.
The religious denominations of Sharp County are the Methodist Episcopal, South, Baptist, Christian, Cumberland Presbyterian and one or two organizations of the Methodist Episcopal and Methodist Protestant Churches. The Methodist Episcopal Church at Evening Shade belongs to the Evening Shade Circuit, the other appointments all being in Izard County, where proper mention is made. Ash Flat Circuit of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Rev. F. M. Smith, pastor, has eight appointments: Ash Flat, Shiloh, Liberty Hill, Bethlehem, Pleasant Hill, Pleasant Ridge, Stacy Church and Hickory Flat the latter two being in Izard County with an aggregate membership of 320. The Mammoth Spring Circuit, composed of Mammoth Spring, in Fulton County, and Hardy and Williford, in Sharp County, Rev. J. F. Troy, pastor, has a membership of forty-five, as given in the last conference minutes. The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, at Maxville, in this county, belongs to Bethesda Circuit, in Independence County. All these belong to the Batesville District. An organization of this denomination at Calamine, another at Cross Roads and another in that vicinity belong to the Calamine Circuit, of Newport District. Other appointments outside of the county belong to this circuit. Rev. S. W. Register is the pastor, and the aggregate membership is 231.
The Baptist Church organizations within the county are Evening Shade, Ash Flat, Bethlehem, Pleasant Hill, George's Camp Ground, and Big Creek. Rev. J. L. Foard is pastor of all except the latter, of which Rev. William Johnson has charge.
Of the Christian Church the following organizations are well known: Ash Flat, Evening Shade, Center, Blannville, Poughkeepsie, and one in the Higginbottom neighborhood, in the northeast part of the county, none of which have a regular pastor at this writing.
The Cumberland Presbyterians have a congregation at Mt. Carmel, one near Calamine, and one near Highland. Rev. A. C. Evans is pastor at Mt. Carmel.
The Methodist Episcopal Church has an organization at Powell's Chapel, six miles east, and one at Pine Hill, four miles northwest of Evening Shade. The Methodist Protestants have an organization at Liberty Hill.
The following is a list of the names of the county officers of Sharp County, together with the date of terms served by each from the organization of the county to the present time:
Judges: Solomon Yeager, 1868-72; commissioners, 1872-74; C. G. Wilson, 187-4-76; C. G. Hunn, 1876-78; A. J. Porter, 1878-80; W. G. Matheny, 1880-86; J. M. Montgomery, 1886-88; A. J. Porter, present incumbent, elected in 1888.
Clerks: N. McLeod, from August, 1868, until after election; W. T. Cunningham, 1868-72; J. P. Cochran, 1872-76; J. M. Wasson, 1876-78; T. J. Davidson, 1878-80; J. M. Wasson, 1880-82; R. E. Huddleston, 1882-86; Joshua Waim, present incumbent, first elected in 1886.
Sheriffs: James K. Jones, 1868-72; T. Y. Huddleston, 1872-80; A. C. Higginbottom. 1880-83; George R. Hall, present incumbent, appointed in 1883, elected in 1884, and served continuously since.
Treasurers: D. C. Wolfe, 1868-72; Robert Gray, 1872-78; T. J, Spurlock, 1878-80; W. G. Horton, 1880-82; E. G. Henderson, 1882-84; C. W. Shaver, present incumbent, first elected in 1884, and served continuously since.
Coroners: J. G. Wolfe, 1868-72; J. T. McCord, 1872-74; A. R. Hipp, 1874-80; J. D. Hankins, ——— ; A. T. Porter, 1884-86; Charles Horn. 1886-88: B. H. Couch, present incumbent, elected in 1888.
Surveyors: W. B. Leverton, 1872-76: T. A. McGea, 1876-78: W. W. Hill, 1878-80; T. J. Gay, 1880-82: W. W. Hill, 1882-86; D. D. Spurlock, 1886-88; Horace Hill, present incumbent, elected in 1888.
Assessors: T. Cunningham, 1868-71; F. Goss, 1871-72; J. R. Metcalf, 1872-74; J. J. T. McAdams, 1874-76; J. W. Bristow, 1876-78; R. B. Bellany, 1878-84; A. C. Higginbottom, 1884-86: John Norman, 1886-88; A. C. Higginbottom, present incumbent, elected in 1888.
The political aspect of the county is shown by the number of votes cast for candidates as follows: At the September election in 1888, for governor, James P. Eagle (Dem.), 983; C. M. Norwood (combined opposition), 711. At the November election for president, Cleveland (Dem.), 913; Harrison (Rep.), 115: Streeter (U. L.), 407: Fiske (Pro.), 2.





Mr. J. L. Abernethy of Evening Shade, Sharp County, Ark., was born at Morganton, on the Little Tennessee River, in Loudon County, East Tenn. on the 3d of March. 1835. He is the youngest son of Rev. Berry and Myra (Cobb) Abernethy, formerly of Lincoln County, N. C. The Abernethy family are purely Scotch-Irish blood. As early as the sixteenth century. Rev. John Abernethy, a dissenting minister of the Presbyterian faith, in the Highlands of Scotland, attained great distinction as a theologian and author. Later, Dr. John Abernethy, another member of the family, who emigrated to London, was greatly renowned as a physiologist and surgeon. He was a pupil of Sir Astley Cooper, and gave medical lectures for thirty-five years at St. Bartholomew Hospital. He wrote and published many books on medical and kindred topics. McIlwain, in 1835, published a book entitled " Memoirs of Abernethy," which was re-published in America by the Harpers, and is extensively read. Mr. Abernethy' s ancestors came to America prior to the Revolutionary War, settling first in Virginia and then in North Carolina. To a man they stood for the colonies, and against the British. His parents emigrated from North Carolina to Tennessee seventy-four years ago. Rev. Berry Abernethy was licensed to exhort by Bishop Asbury. and to preach by Bishop Roberts of the Methodist Church. In his day, he was a minister and revivalist, and well known in the Holston conference. In 1844 he went with the Church South, and fully maintained his Christian character as a minister and a citizen for about sixty years, and died at Rhea Springs, Rhea County, East Tenn., in 1871, aged eighty-eight years. Mr. Abernethy's mother is still living, at the age of eighty-nine years, and is a hale, hearty and active old lady — a woman remarkable for her strong native intellect, and is thoroughly posted in the great events which have transpired during her long and pleasant life. The parents had eight children: Eliza D., Susan R., Martha M. and Artie A. John C. A. Sylvester, James T. and Joseph L., Eliza D. and Sylvester are dead; balance, except the subject of this sketch, now living in East Tennessee. Dr. John C. Abernethy is an eminent physician and surgeon. He was surgeon of the Sixty-second Tennessee Confederate Regiment and Brigade, surgeon of Gen. Vaughan's brigade at Vicksburg. James T. who was residing in Missouri at the beginning of the war, adhered to the Union side of the controversy, and became colonel of the Tenth Tennessee Cavalry. The subject of this memoir was educated at the Morganton Academy, under the Rev. T. K. Munsey, and Hiawassee College, under Profs. Doak, Bruner and Duncan. He first studied medicine with Dr. Bickwell, at Madisonville, Tenn., and attended lectures in 1855-56 at the University of Nashville. Subsequently, in 1861, he enlisted in the Confederate service. He enlisted as a private in Capt. Cawood's company, Forty-third Tennessee Regiment, commanded by Col. J. W. Gillespie and Lieut. Col. D. M. Key, now United States judge, residing at Chattanooga. He was soon transferred to the medical service, and was assigned to duty at Loudon Post, in charge of the sick and wounded, where he remained until the spring of 1863. He then resigned for the purpose of aiding Col. John A. Rowan in raising the Sixty-second Tennessee Regiment, with a view of being surgeon in the field. After the formation of the regiment, he was, on account of domestic afflictions, compelled to decline the position, and his place was filled by his brother. Mr. Abernethy retired to Rhea Springs, and had no further connection whatever with the war of the States. He began the study of law in August, 1863, and gave it unremitting attention for more than two years, when he was licensed to practice by Judge E. T. Hall, of Knoxville, Tenn., and Chancellor D. C. Trewhitt, of Chattanooga, Tenn. He was first admitted to the bar at Washington, Rhea County, Tenn. Subsequently, he removed to Knoxville, and practiced there until 1870, when, having professional business in Arkansas, he visited that State, and was so well pleased with the country, and especially with his prospective wife, that he removed to the State of Arkansas, and located at Evening Shade, the county seat of Sharp County, where he has since remained, engaged in the practice of the law, and in farming. In 1880 Mr. Abernethy was the Democratic elector on the Hancock and English ticket, for the Fourth Congressional district of Arkansas, and made a thorough canvass of the same. He is now serving his third term as State's attorney for the Third judicial circuit of Arkansas, and is faithfully discharging the duties of the office to the best of his ability. In 1858 he was married to Miss Mary A. Johnston, a daughter of James H. Johnston, a leading citizen of Monroe County, Tenn. By her he had three children. One, Joseph L. is dead; the others, Allie and Effie, their mother having died July 9, 1863, he brought to Arkansas in 1871. They are accomplished young ladies. John B. McCaleb, an attorney of good promise, married Miss Allie, and they have three children. Robert E. Huddleston married Miss Effie. They reside at Ash Flat, and have charge of the high school at that place. Mrs. Huddleston is an accomplished music teacher, and now has charge of a large class of pupils. In the fall of 1871, Mr. Abernethy married the widow of James S. Shaver, on Reed's Creek, Sharp County. She was the daughter of James P. Monger, deceased, and is a native of Roane County, East Tenn. The Shaver and Shelby families are closely connected, and were noted people in Southwestern Virginia, and Upper East Tennessee many years ago. Mrs. Abernethy had one son by Mr. Shaver, James R. Shaver, who is now engaged in the study of law in his step-father's law office. Mr. and Mrs. Abernethy had three children -Artie and John Loudon living, and Elsie Pearl, who is dead. Mr. Abernethy owns a farm of about 400 acres, situated on Piney Fork of Strawberry River, one and a half miles from town. On this he has two neat and substantial residences, and about 110 acres in cultivation. His home residence is in the suburbs of Evening Shade, surrounded by shrubbery, flowers, forest trees and orchards of the different kinds of fruits. He calls it "Forest Home." Evening Shade is

"The loveliest village of the plain,
Where health and plenty cheer the laboring swain."

At the beginning of the National troubles in 1860-61, Mr. Abernethy doubted the expediency and right of separate State action, and was in favor of remaining in the Union, but after the disruption was an accomplished fact, and the tragedy of war began, he allied himself to the cause of the South, and remained faithful thereto. He believes in maintaining the supremacy of Federal States and individual rights under the laws, and in a revenue tariff, and in a strict construction of the constitution in every article and section thereof. Whilst he is a Democrat from principle and choice, he is conservative, and is neither loud nor illiberal in the expression of his political opinions. He is not a member of any church, but believes all denominations of Christians are meritorious and doing good, more or less. In matters of faith, he is attached to the old-fashioned Methodist doctrines and polity, and thinks the best religion is to live well, die poor, and go to Heaven.

William Jasper Adams, a farmer of North Township, one mile south of Armstrong postoffice, was born in Pulaski County, Mo., May 16, 1836, being the fourth child of a family of nine children. He was raised in Missouri, receiving his limited education in the common schools. September 2, 1859, he married Miss Sarah M. Lee, who was born in Phelps County, Mo., September 2, 1842, and died January 13, 1878. She was the mother of seven children (five of whom are living): William M., John H. (deceased), Elizabeth (deceased), Halcoyn (wife of Alex. Smittle), Orlena, Bethelda and Thomas S. Mr. Adams married his second wife, the widow Gardner, in February, 1879; she was a daughter of Wiley and Matilda Jones, of Tennessee, who were among the early settlers of Phelps County. They have had two children: James M. and Nettie M. Our subject worked three years in Public Iron Works, was two years in the livery stable business, and has been a farmer. In 1887 he came to Sharp County, Ark., where he now resides. He has about 120 acres of land, some eighty-five under cultivation. May 11, 1861, he enlisted in Company G, Confederate army, and served about four years, having been wounded in the right arm by a gunshot. He was in the battle of Lexington. He is a member of the Knights of Honor; in politics is a Democrat, having cast his first presidential vote for Buchanan. His wife is a member of the Baptist Church. Our subject's parents were William and Charlotte (Malone) Adams, who were born and raised in Washington County, Ky. he having been born in 1808 and she in 1811. Mr. Adams was a farmer, and came to Pulaski County, in 1833, his nearest neighbor being twenty miles away. He returned to Kentucky in 1840, remaining till 1843, when he returned to Pulaski County, his father coming with him, and settling on the Merrimac, in Dent County. He died August 18, 1885. He was a son of Coonrod and Rebecca (Hawk) Adams, who died in 1846 and 1848, respectively. They were about the first settlers of Dent County, and were of Dutch descent.

Jeremiah Pitt Baird, one of the early settlers and leading farmers of Union Township, residing one and one-half miles east of Williford postoffice, was born in Smith County, Tenn., October 10, 1824, the son of Jeremiah and Mary (Pennington) Baird. His father, of Scotch descent, was born in Rowan County, N. C, about 1785, and died in Lawrence County, Ark., in 1857. He married in North Carolina, emigrated from that State to Kentucky in 1817, resided there for one year, when he moved to Smith County, Tenn., and from there to Lawrence County, Ark., in 1841. Mrs. Baird was born in Montgomery County, N. C, near 1791. and died in Lawrence County, Ark., about 1851. Our subject, the only child living of a family of nine, received most of his education after arriving at maturity, his parents being poor, and he being obliged to work instead of attending school. After coming to Arkansas he lived with his parents till their death. In 1859 he married Miss Susan A. More, who was born in Tennessee about 1830, and died October 8, 1884, in Lawrence County. In 1888 he married Isabelle (Wassen) Crawford, a widow. Mr. Baird enlisted in 1863, in the Union Army, in Company C, First Missouri Cavalry, participating in the battle of Jenkins' Ferry, and was discharged in 1865. He has resided on Spring River since 1841, and has about 200 acres of laud, eighty-five under cultivation. He has held the office of justice of the peace several terms in Lawrence County, and was one of the assistants of the county court, when it consisted of the judge and two justices. He is a Republican, voting first for Zachary Taylor. He and his wife are members of the Christian Church, as was his first wife. Mr. Baird is an influential citizen, well-to-do and highly respected.

James P. Cochran, of the firm of J. P. Cochran & Son, general merchants and dealers in farming implements, was born in De Kalb County, Tenn., in 1832. His parents were William T. and Jane K. (Duncan) Cochran, of Smith and DeKalb Counties, Tenn., respectively, being married in the latter place. The parents moved to Dresden, Weakley County, Tenn., when James was very young, and resided there until their decease, Mr. Cochran dying in 1802, and his wife several years after their arrival. The elder Cochran was a tailor and clothier, and, later in life, established a general merchandise store. He built up a large trade, and was one of the most popular merchants of that section in his day, bearing a reputation for honesty and enterprise that has been well guarded by his son. He fought in one of the Indian Wars, and was a member of the I.O.O.F. His father, Henry Cochran, of Scotch-Irish descent, died in Smith County, Tenn., where he had resided for a great number of years. The mother of James P. Cochran was a member of the Christian Church, died in that faith. Her father, Josiah Duncan, was an old resident of De Kalb County, Tenn. where he died. James P. Cochran is the eldest of two sons and three daughters. He was educated at the Dresden (Tenn.) Academy and schools in the vicinity, receiving a good English education and business training. At thirteen years of age he held a position of trust with a firm in Dresden, and remained with them eight years. The experience gained in commercial life during that time made him one of the shrewdest business men in his section, although just attaining his manhood, and shortly afterward he entered into partnership with his father, in the same place, and continued with him until an excellent opportunity was presented at Hickman, Ky. to which place he removed and established a livery business. Mr. Cochran's marriage occurred at Dresden, in 1857. to Julia, daughter of David and Harriet Shaver, natives of Tennessee, where Mr. Shaver died, when his daughter was very young. The mother afterward moved to Sharp County, where she died a few years later. Mrs. Cochran's death occurred on the 27th of December, 1866; she was the mother of one son and one daughter. Mr. Cochran was again married on January 10, 1870, his second wife being Miss Martha M. Shaver, a sister of his first wife, this lady dying March 23, 1886. In 1861 he moved to Salem, and established himself in business, but was compelled to close up on account of the war. In 1865 he was appointed clerk of Fulton County, and in 1866 was re-elected, and held the office for three years. He moved to Sharp County, in 1869, and in 1872 was elected clerk of Sharp County, holding that office for four years. He next occupied the present building and commenced a commercial career, and since then has been one of the most successful business in Sharp County. The firm have a fine stock of goods valued at $5,000. Besides this, Mr. Cochran owns several good farms and some 2,000 acres of land in Sharp County. He is a representative merchant, a shrewd and fair-dealing business man, and one of the most progressive citizens of this section. He has in his possession the first dollar and he ever earned, and has kept it as a memento of the early days when he had nothing in the world but his own pluck and determination to succeed. In politics Mr. Cochran is a Democrat, and in religious faith a Methodist, as also were his two wives.

David Collins, a farmer of North Township, nine miles northeast of Afton postoffice, Fulton County, was born in Indiana, June 2, 1835. His grandfather, Aaron Collins, who was born in North Carolina and married there, moving to Morgan County, Ind., and afterward coming to Missouri about 1884, where he died. David's father, Stephen Collins, was born in Kentucky about 1800, but came to Indiana with his parents when quite young; there he married Mary Lang, moving to Missouri in 1837, and in 1803 went to Lawrence County, and died there in 1864. Our subject's mother was born in Ohio about 1801, and died in Fulton County, Ark., in 1881. She was the mother of five children. David being the third; he was raised in Douglas County, Mo., his schooling being limited to three months. He lived at home till after his father died, and in 1867 married Miss Martha Hopper, who was born in Indiana in 1841. They have a family of twelve children: Lee, Aaron T., Rosa T. Daniel N., David (infant), now living. Mr. Collins was a resident of Lawrence County for six years, and has resided in Sharp County since 1869. He has 160 acres of land, twenty-five acres of which are under cultivation. In 1862 he enlisted in the Confederate army, and served about two years. In politics he is a Democrat, his first presidential vote being for Cleveland. He is a good citizen and highly respected.

Sam H. Davidson, of Sharp County, was born near Camden, Benton County, Tenn. January 29, 1846. He is a son of John Wallace and Susan L. (Prance) Davidson, born in Huntsville, Ala., in 1814, and Montgomery County, Tenn., in 1818, respectively. The parents were married in Humphreys County, Tenn.. in 1836, and lived in that State, at Camden, until 1805, when they moved to Graves County, Ky. In 1866 they lived a short time at Jackson, Mo. but during that year changed their residence to Randolph County, Ark., and in 1867 to Doniphan, Ripley County, Mo., thence to Evening Shade, Ark., in 1869, where the father died in October, 1870. Previous to 1852, the elder Davidson was clerk of the circuit court of Benton County, Tenn., and after that year he practiced law up to the time of his death. In 1859-60 he was a member of the Tennessee legislature, representing Benton and Humphreys Counties in the house, and was present at the extra session that paved the way for the secession of Tennessee, giving earnest support to the vigorous war measures of the governor, Isham G. Harris. For many years he was a zealous Mason, and was a member of the Methodist Church from 1865 until his death. His father, John Davidson, was born in Virginia or North Carolina during the latter half of the eighteenth century, removed to and was an innkeeper in Huntsville, Ala., and died there in 1815. His mother was Mary Wallace, of Scottish ancestry, noted for her beauty and culture among the early settlers of North Alabama. The father of John Davidson was Abraham Davidson, a native Pennsylvanian, a soldier of the Revolution, who settled in North Carolina, and afterward in Montgomery County, Tenn., and who died in Benton County, Tenn., in 1838. The father or grandfather of Abraham, James Davidson, was a native of Scotland, who came with his family, and settled near the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, and claimed to be the first Davidson to settle in North America. The mother of Sam H. Davidson is still living, a devout Christian, and has been a member of the Methodist Church for more than forty years. She is a daughter of John Prance, of Scotch and Irish descent, who died in Montgomery County, Tenn. His wife. Mary Cooper, was born in Montgomery County, Tenn., and died in McCracken County, Ky. Sam H. Davidson is the seventh child of five sons and five daughters, of whom seven are still living. He attended the Camden Tenn. Academy until 1861, when the Civil War closed up the schools of West Tennessee, after which he pursued his studies at home until the latter part of the war, when he enlisted, serving first in the Tenth and afterward in the Nineteenth Tennessee Cavalry, and taking part in many sharp engagements and brilliant dashes, under Gen. N. B. Forrest, during his operations in Tennessee, Kentucky and Mississippi. In 1866 he began the study of law with his father, and in 1868 he was examined and admitted to practice in all the courts of the State of Missouri, by the circuit court of Ripley County, at Doniphan. In 1869 he came to Evening Shade, and at the first term of the circuit court of Sharp County, held by Judge (afterward Governor) Baxter, he was admitted to practice in the inferior courts of Arkansas. A few years afterward, on examination, he was licensed to practice in the supreme court of Arkansas, and his practice has extended through Fulton, Izard, Sharp and Independence Counties, and in the supreme court at the capital of the State. In 1870 he served as county attorney for Sharp County; in 1872 the Governor appointed him county superintendent of public schools. In 1872-73 he was editor and part owner of the Sharp County Herald, a Democratic newspaper. He has frequently been called by his brethren of the bar to preside as special judge of the circuit court in Fulton, Izard and adjoining counties. In 1874 he was defeated for delegate to the constitutional convention, but in 1876, after a sharp contest, he was elected to the lower branch of the General Assembly, and after his term expired he was re-elected without opposition, and at the organization, in 1879, received a very flattering vote for speaker of the house. He never sought office afterward, but in 1888, without any solicitation on his part, he was nominated by the Democratic party of the Second senatorial district as their candidate, and, after a hotly-contested campaign, defeated the Union Labor and political Wheel nominee for State senator, carrying every county in the district, his majority reaching nearly 2,000; and, while he did not seek the place in any sense, he lacked but three votes, on several ballots, of election as president pro tem of the senate (lieutenant-governor) at the close of the legislative session of 1889. Mr. Davidson is a holdover senator, and will be a member of the session of 1891. He has been a Mason for about eighteen years, holding membership in the Lodge, Chapter and Council, and has been Master of his Lodge and District Deputy Grand Master, and for more than ten years has served his Chapter as High Priest. He is also a member of the Knights of Honor, and has held the offices of Past Dictator, Reporter and Grand Representative. In the State conventions of his party he has served several times on the committee to formulate a platform, and, in 1884, he was secretary of the convention held in Little Rock which nominated candidates for State offices, and selected delegates to the National Democratic Convention, at Chicago, that nominated Cleveland. Mr. Davidson was married in 1870, to Virginia, daughter of William and Frances French, and has live children. He has a pleasant and comfortable home at Evening Shade, a number of town lots there and in other villages, and about 1,000 acres of land in various portions of the county. He is devoted to his family and his friends, and an earnest worker for the promotion of the material prosperity of Arkansas.

Dr. John O. Durham, a prominent physician and druggist at Ash Flat, was born in Shelby County, Tenn., in the year 1851. He is a son of the Rev. Dennis and Sarah (Harper) Durham, the former a noted and eloquent divine who was born in Georgia, in the year 1824, and the latter in North Carolina in 1832. The parents were married in Shelby County, where the mother is still living. The Rev. Durham during his life had been a Missionary Baptist minister for twenty years, and his fame as an eloquent and gifted speaker was widespread. He also served sixteen days in the Confederate army with General Forrest, and in the short time of his stay in the army he made many warm friends among the boys in gray. Mr. Durham died in 1873, after a long and useful life. His father was Grisham Durham, of Irish descent, who was born in South Carolina, and in after years moved to Lawrence County, Ark., where he was appointed county surveyor for a number of years, and died in 1850. The mother of Dr. John O. Durham was a daughter of James Harper, of North Carolina, a brick mason by trade, who was one of the first settlers of Memphis, Tenn., and helped to build the first brick building in that city. The Doctor is the oldest of four sons and three daughters, and spent the greater portion of his younger days on a farm. When eighteen years of age he began the study of medicine with Dr. Ed. Irby, and Dr. B. A. Mathews, of Cuba, Tenn., and under these able instructors he acquired a thorough knowledge of the intricate study of medicine. In 1873 the Doctor commenced to practice, and since that time he has steadily raised himself to the top of his profession. He was married, in 1870, to Miss Elizabeth J. Smith, a daughter of James and Lucy Smith, of Lawrence County, Ark., her father being at one time one of the most illustrious of Lawrence County's citizens. Mr. Smith served in the Confederate army through the war, and was taken a prisoner to Little Rock, where he died, his wife following him to the grave in 1869. The Doctor and his wife have had nine children, of whom one son and two daughters are still living. In 1876 he moved to Calamine, Ark., where he practiced for about one year, and then came to Ash Flat, where he has been residing ever since. His skill as a physician has given him a large practice, and as an individual he has won a host of friends. He is a self-made man in the true sense of that term, and is in every way worthy of the success which has fallen to his lot. In politics the Doctor is a Democrat, and has also been a member of the A. F. & A. M., of Ash Flat, since 1880, holding the offices of Secretary, Junior Warden, and at the present time Senior Deacon. He also belongs to Royal Arch Chapter No. 50, Evening Shade, and was at one time Master of Third Vail. He is now a Royal Arch Captain, and a member of Eastern Star, Adah Chapter No. 32, of Ash Flat. He is also a member of the Knights and Ladies of Honor, and has been Protector and Treasurer. The Doctor and his wife are both members of the Missionary Baptist Church, he for a period of twenty-two years, and Mrs. Durham for fifteen years.

Wiley Marshal Edwards, a leading farmer, was born in Wilson County, Tenru, January 8, 1836, where he was reared and received his limited education. In 1859, while yet unmarried, he started West to seek his fortune, locating in Sharp County, Ark., where he has since resided. His parents were Michael and Sarah (Bennett) Edwards, who were born in Tennessee in 1812 and 1815, respectively, his father having died in 1886 in Tennessee, where he had always resided, with the exception of 1871 and 1872, when he was in Arkansas; the mother of Wiley died in Tennessee in 1876. His grandfather, William Edwards, was a native of South Carolina, but came to Tennessee in an early day. In this family there were seven children, four of whom are living: Sarah (residing in Tennessee), Rebecca (residing in Tennessee), Robert H. (residing in Jackson County, Ark.), and the subject of this sketch, who was the second child. In June, 1861, Mr. Edwards enlisted in the Confederate Army, Company E, Twenty-first Arkansas Regiment, under Capt. Nunn, and served for four years, participating in the battle of Corinth, Miss. At the close of the war he returned to Sharp County, and married Mrs. Maria (Simson) Barnett, a widow, in 1874; she was born on the farm where our subject now resides, in 1849, and died in 1879. By this marriage there were three children, John B., Marshall AV., William O. In 1880 he married Anna Lock, a native of Tennessee, she having been born in 1858. They have six children: James C. George, Etta, Orra and two not named. Mr. Edwards has 800 acres of land, about 200 cultivated, located on Strawberry River. This is a fine stock farm. Mr. Edwards is a member of Masville Masonic Lodge, and is a Democrat, having cast his first vote for Gen. Scott.

Charles W. English, a farmer, of Union Township, four miles west of Ravenden postoffice, was born in Sharp County, Ark., June 19, 1S50, the son of Edward N. and Sarah (Hudspeth) English. Edward N., a farmer, of English descent, was born in Tennessee; he was in the service of the Confederate army, was taken prisoner, and died at Alton, Ill., in 1864. He came from Tennessee, with his parents, to Sharp County, in an early day. his father being one of the first settlers. Our subject's grandfathers were Samuel Hudspeth and Stephen English. His mother was born in 1826, and reared in what is now Sharp County; she is yet living, and the mother of six children, of whom Charles W. was the eldest. He was educated in the common schools of Sharp County: in 1867 married Miss Sarah Williford. who was born in 1850, and reared in Sharp County, and died in 1871. She was the mother of three children, none of whom are living. He married Miss Mollie Fair in 1873: she was born in Sharp County in 1857, and died in 1883. By this marriage he has four children, three living: Green T. E., Saphronia and Rhoda B. In June, 1888, he married Miss Nancy S. Howard, who was born in Lawrence County, Ark. in 1860. Mr. English has resided where he now lives since 1878, having 270 acres of land, about sixty acres on Spring River bottom, all in cultivation. He is a Democrat, having cast his first presidential vote for Greeley, and is a good citizen, highly respected and well-to do.

David R. Ford, a well known farmer, ginner and miller, of Sullivan Township, was born in Smith County, Tenn. in 1827, and is a son of James G. and Martha (Rowland) Ford, of Smith County, born in 1803 and 1802, respectively. The parents lived in that cotinty until the year 1844, and then moved to Arkansas, and settled on White River, in what is now Stone County, where they lived among the early settlers for the rest of their days. The father died in 1866, and the mother in 1868, both members of the Methodist faith. The elder Ford was a farmer by occupation, and a soldier in the Seminole War, in Florida. He was a son of Zachary Ford, of Virginia, one of the early settlers of Smith County, Tenn., where he farmed and held the office of justice of the peace for a great many years. The Ford family are of French descent. David Rowland, the father of Mrs. J. G. Ford, was born and reared in North Carolina, and was also one of the early settlers of Smith County, Tenn., where he died at an advanced age. David R. Ford is the third child of three sons and five daughters, and moved to the State of Arkansas with his parents in 1844. In 1855 he was married to Martha P. Headstream, daughter of John and Harriet Headstream. The father was a native of Sweden, and a sailor for a number of years before coming to America. He was married in Tennessee, his wife's native State, and moved to Phillips County, Ark., afterward to Monroe County, where he died. Twelve children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Ford, of whom eight sons and one daughter still survive. Soon after their marriage they settled at a point about eight miles above Batesville, where they resided until February, 1887, when Mr. Ford concluded to move to their present farm, some ten miles south of Evening Shade. He now has 350 acres of land under cultivation, owning altogether about 700 acres, besides operating a cotton-gin, corn-mill and thresher, and his present prosperity is due entirely to his own enterprise and energy. Before the war Mr. Ford was captain of a company of militia, and when the outbreak occurred he enlisted in Newton's regiment of cavalry, Arkansas' troops, and served about one year and a half. After the war he was elected justice of the peace, and held the office two years, and in 1874 was elected assessor of Independence County, a position he filled with distinction for the same length of time. He is a Democrat in politics, and a valuable man to his party, being a strong supporter of his principles.

John C. Garner, one of the early settlers of Sharp County, and postmaster of Martin's Creek postoffice since its establishment in 1876, in his residence, was born in Williamson County, Tenn., December 4, 1808, son of John and Sally (Cochran) Garner. John was born in Tennessee, and was drowned in Spring River, Arkansas, about 1820. He was one of the first settlers of Sharp County, having come from Illinois about 1818. The mother of our subject was born in Tennessee, about 1778, of Welsh descent, and died in Sharp County, near1860. She was the mother of six children, three of whom are now living, our subject being the first. He was of Scotch and Irish descent, raised in Sharp County, and never saw a schoolhouse till twenty years of age, and never went to school. John C. has been a resident of Sharp County since about 1818; he helped to clear the farm on which he resides, and endured many hardships incident to pioneer life. He was a noted hunter, and shot many deer where Monmouth Spring Village now stands. In 1828 he married Miss Anena Gray, born in Boone County, Mo., in May, 1811, and who died in 1854; she was the mother of ten children (five of whom are living): Milton (deceased), Redman (deceased), Sally (deceased), Hiram, Betsey (wife of William Ratcliff), Lewis (deceased), Calvin (deceased), Nancy (wife of Elijah Ratcliff). Helena (wife of James A. Graves) and Harden. In 1857 John C. married Mrs. Mary (Farris) Rice, who was born and raised in Tennessee. She was born in 1805, and died in 1887. Our subject has resided on the place he now owns, for some forty years, and has sixty acres of land. He resides with his son, Hiram, who farms the place. It contains 120 acres, forty under cultivation. Hiram was married, in 1859, to Miss Martha Rice, who was born in Tennessee, in 1837, and who died in 1881, She was the mother of six children, two of whom are living. Mary (deceased), Sarah (deceased), Rosetta (deceased), Permetta, Indiana (deceased) and Arazana. Hiram was married the second time in October, 1882, to Melinda (McCanny) Brown, a widow. The subject of this sketch is a member of the Christian Church, as are Hiram and his wife. Hiram served in the Federal army about one year, and has held the office of constable two years. John C. is a Republican, and cast his first presidential vote for Martin Van Buren. Hiram cast his first presidential vote for Bell, of Tennessee.

John L. Gawf is a well-to-do farmer of Washington Township, and grandson of Edmond Gawf, of North Carolina, who died in Tennessee. John's father, George W. Gawf, was born in Tennessee, in 1818, and went when a boy with his parents to Tennessee, where he married. He was a farmer, and in 1852 he went to Carroll County, Ark., and to Sharp County in 1864, where he is still living. He is of Dutch descent. His wife was Mary A. Doss, born in 1819, by whom he had eight children, six of whom are living: William, James P., Margaret Stoddard, Mary Ann Montgomery, Jerusha Shaw, and John L. the subject of this sketch, the eldest, who was born in Henderson County, Tenn., December 25, 1840; he was raised until eleven years of age in Tennessee, w^here he received part of his schooling, and the remainder in Sharp County, In 1867 he married Miss Margaret C. Johnson, who was born in Tennessee, Knox County, in 1847, and whose father was Jahue Johnson, a Baptist minister, and old citizen of Sharp County, where he now resides, and whose mother was Rebecca Johnson. Margaret is the mother of nine children, eight of whom are living: William W., Mary A. R., Jehu L., John H., Catherine E., James M., Samuel N. and Dora B, Mr. Gawf has a farm of 280 acres, on which he has resided since 1870, 150 acres of which are cultivated. He served in the Confederate Army, in Company G. Fourteenth Arkansas Regiment, in the battles of Pea Ridge (Ark.), Corinth and Iuka (Miss.), Delhi (La.), and various other skirmishes, and was discharged in 1865. He is a Democrat in politics, and is an influential citizen and well-to-do. His two eldest children are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Dr. William A. Gibson,one of Mill Creek's leading citizens and physicians, was born in Franklin County, Ala., in 1840. He is a son of W. N. and Nancy (Crocker) Gibson, both born in the year 1815, the former in Tennessee, and the latter in North Carolina, and were united in marriage in the State of Alabama, where they have resided ever since, with the exception of several years' sojourn in Texas. In religious faith both parents have been Primitive Baptists for a great length of time, and the father for a number of years was tax collector and assessor of Walker County, Ala. He is at present justice of the peace of his county, and has hold that office several years, having also been a member of the A. F. & A. M. for the past forty years. His father was Jacob Gibson, of Tennessee, who resided in Alabama some length of time, but died in the State of Arkansas. The father of Jacob Gibson was Jacob Gibson, a Revolutionary soldier of early days, who died in Walker County, Ala. On the mother's side, James Crocker, Mrs. W. N. Gibson's father, was an Irishman, who emigrated to the United States when a young man. His wife was also a native of Ireland, but they were married in North Carolina, and, after a long residence in Alabama, both died in that State. Dr. William A. Gibson is the second child of two sons and one daughter. He was educated at the common schools, and, by a close application to his studies himself, and, after having thoroughly mastered his books, he taught school for a number of years, in the meantime reading physic all the while. After the war was over he attended the Mobile Medical College, and immediately set out to carve his name in the temple of fame. He practiced in Alabama until the year 1874, and then moved to Sharp County, Ark., where he still resides. The Doctor owns 160 acres of land on Mill Creek, of which forty- live acres are under cultivation. When he first arrived in Sharp County he had very little, if anything at all, in the way of wealth, but, by his shrewdness in trading, his energy and his natural abilities, besides being a skillful physician, he soon placed himself in an independent position. In 1867 the Doctor was married to Mrs. Eliza M. Wilkins, a daughter of Thomas and Sidney Price, of North Carolina, and by this marriage has one son, Ellis Lee. In politics he is Democratic, and gave his vote to Cleveland in 1888. He has been a member of the A. F. & A. M. since his twenty-first year, and at present belongs to Smith ville Lodge No. 29. Mrs. Gibson has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for twenty-four years.

J. W. Graddy & Bro., farmers and proprietors of a saw-mill, are sons of Lewis and Matilda (Ford) Graddy. The father, a farmer of Scotch and Irish descent, was born in Tennessee, and died in 1862. His widow was born in North Carolina, and is now living. They were married in Alabama, and came to Mississippi, where they resided till 1858, when they removed to Arkansas. Matilda is the mother of seven children (five now living): Edward F., G. W., Mary J. (deceased), Sarah F. (deceased), Nancy C, J. B. and J. W. J. B. Graddy, the oldest child and junior partner of this firm, was born in October, 1846, in Alabama. He lived in Mississippi till the age of twelve years, when he came to Sharp County, Ark. He attended school in both States. In October, 1865, he married Miss Mahala E. Bell, who was born in Kentucky in 1845; they have had seven children: Lewis W. Charles S. Clara E., Margaret C, John H. George W. and Lucy E. Mr. Graddy served all through the war, a part of the time in the Confederate army, in Capt. Nunn's company, and the remainder in the Union army. He has eighty acres of land, twenty acres being under cultivation. J. W. Graddy, the second child, and senior partner of this firm, was born in Alabama, August 8, 1848, and received his education in Mississippi and Sharp County, Ark. In 1869 he married Miss Alice Hamilton, who was born in Arkansas in 1849. Their family consists of six children: William A. (deceased), Benjamin F., James P., Winnie A., Martin L. and Artie M. He has eighty acres of land, about thirty-five being under cultivation. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. In 1887 this firm erected a saw-mill and cotton-gin at a cost of $2,000, the capacity of the mill being 8,000 feet per day. Both are good business men, and have secured a good trade. They are Democrats in politics, and J. W. served one term as justice of the peace.

William P. Hamilton, of the firm of Hamilton & Tindel, proprietors and owners of the Hamilton flour and saw-mills and rail factory, one mile east of Evening Shade, was born in Independence County in 1850, and is a son of James A. and Catherine E. (Metcalf) Hamilton, natives of North Carolina, and born in 1822 and 1830, respectively. The parents were married in that State, and in 1849 moved to Independence County, Ark. The following year they came to what is now Sharp County, and located near Evening Shade, and in 1868 the family settled on the farm where William P. Hamilton now resides. The saw-mill was erected in 1865, and purchased by the elder Hamilton in 1868, who immediately established a flour mill and rail factory, which business he continued with great success until his death, in 1884. The present firm, however, was established in 1872. The flour-mills have a capacity of 100 bushels of wheat and 200 bushels of corn per day; the sawmill a capacity of 1,200 feet of lumber per day. The elder Hamilton was a member of the A. F. & A. M. Evening Shade lodge, and with his wife attended the Christian Church a great number of years. Mrs. Hamilton, who is still living, is a daughter of Andrew K. Metcalf, of North Carolina; he was born in that State in 1808, moving to Independence County in 1849, where he resided six years, and then came to what is now Sharp County. His wife is still living at the age of seventy-nine years. William P. Hamilton was married, in 1872, to Ruth J., daughter of Young and Jane Richie. His wife was born in Mississippi, where her mother died when this daughter was very young, and where the father still resides. She moved to Arkansas with au uncle, and was here married to Mr. Hamilton. This union has given them two sons and one daughter. Mr. Hamilton has lived on the old farm ever since 1808, and has about forty-five acres of land under cultivation, owning altogether 160 acres. He is a Democrat in politics, and has been a member of the I. O. O. F. since 1874, holding the offices of secretary and grand secretary during that time. He also belongs to the Evening Shade Masonic Lodge, and has held the offices of junior warden, master and several others. Mr. Hamilton and his wife and oldest son are members of the Christian Church. They are a well-known family in this vicinity, and are held in the highest esteem by their neighbors.

E. G. Henderson, editor of the Sharp County Record, was born in Catoosa County, Ga. in 1850, and is a son of Charles and Sophia A. C. (Ussery) Henderson, born in Halifax County, Va., in 1803, and Charlotte County, Va., in 1810, respectively. The parents were married in North Carolina in 1830, and shortly afterward settled in Virginia. They remained in that State a few years, and then moved to Alabama, and from there to Georgia, where the elder Henderson died in 1853. The family continued in Georgia several years after the father's death, and in 1856 moved to Izard County, Ark. From that place they changed their residence to Batesville, where they resided until 1869, and then moved to Little Rock. A few years later the mother came to Evening Shade, where she still lives. She is a daughter of John Ussery, a native of Virginia, who enlisted in the War of 1812, but who never engaged in active service, as peace was declared shortly after his entrance into the ranks. E. G. Henderson is the youngest of five sons and five daughters, of whom four are yet living. He was educated in Batesville, and in his eighteenth year went to Little Rock, where he remained one year, learning the printer's trade. He then moved to Jacksonport, and farmed in Jackson County for two seasons, but as the sea is to the mariner, so was printer's ink to young Henderson, and he gave up his agricultural pursuits to enter the office of the Herald, in Evening Shade, as a compositor. He remained in that capacity until the year 1874, and then, in partnership with J. W. Clark, he established the North Arkansas Democrat. In 1870 he was made postmaster, and at the same time engaged in the grocery and stationer's business, continuing in that until 1882, when he was elected treasurer of Sharp County, and held the office for two years. In 1884 he purchased the Sharp County Record, which paper he still edits and publishes, and has not only made it the leading exponent of Democratic principle's in Sharp County, but also a magnificent news gatherer. Mr. Henderson was married in September, 1879, to Miss Minnie Turney, daughter of the Rev. Daniel M. and Isabella B. Turney, now residents of South Dakota. Mrs. Henderson was born in Mattoon, Ill., and died June 23, 1889, at her home in Evening Shade. Three children were born to this marriage, of whom two are still living. Mr. Henderson is a member of Evening Shade Lodge No. 143. A. F. & A. M., "Rural" Royal Arch Chapter No. 50; I. O. O. F., and K. of H. His eldest brother served in the Confederate army, and fought almost through the entire war. He was killed in 1864, about twenty-five miles above Batesville, on the White River, by a scouting party. Another brother, Charles E., gave two years' service to the Confederate cause, and was severely wounded at the battle of Augusta. Ark., in 1865, but recovered, and is now a farmer of Sharp County. The mother of Mr. Henderson, of Sharp County. The mother of Mr. Henderson, although very near the advanced age of eighty years, is still living and is as active and capable of doing as much work as many other women fifteen or twenty years younger. Mr. Henderson, in the rush and hurry of his active life, still finds the time to devote to her, and though stern to the outside world as a rule, he is one of the gentlest of sons.

Thomas I. Herrn, teacher, also a farmer and stock dealer in Highland Township, was born in Independence (now Izard) County, in 1861. His parents were John and Malinda (Finley) Herrn, of Tennessee and Arkansas, respectively, who were united in marriage in Independence County. The father was a farmer by occupation, who died in Ozark County, Mo., in 1863. He was a son of Thomas Herrn, one of the pioneers of Arkansas. His wife's father was Isaac Finley, who settled in Izard County, Ark., at a very early day, and died there in the year 1865. Thomas I. Herrn received but little schooling until bis thirteenth year, and then attended Evening Shade high school for three years. He subsequently went to the State University at Fayetteville, and afterward taught school himself for four years. In 1883 he was married to Kate, a daughter of James P. and Julia Cochran, whose history appears in this volume. By this marriage he has had one son and two daughters, the latter living. After his marriage Mr. Herrn moved to Evening Shade, and taught school for two years, but gave that occupation up to commence farming at South Fork. He now has 600 acres of land, with about seventy-five acres under cultivation, which, on his arrival, was destitute of improvement. In politics he is a Democrat, and is zealous in upholding the principles of that party. Mr. Herrn is one of that type of men who present a strong example for the younger generation to follow. He was thrown on his own resources at the age of thirteen, and went to work for $8 a month, on a farm.

Jasper N. Higginbottom, whose success as a farmer and stock raiser has seldom been equaled, was born in Independence County, in 1846. His parents were James and Nancy (Ward) Higginbottom, who were born in Kentucky, in 1801, and South Carolina, in 1809, respectively, and were married in Perry County, Tenn., about the year 1840. The parents moved to Independence County, Ark., in 1846, and four or five years later changed their residence to Lawrence County, where the father died. The elder Higginbottom was a well-known boatman on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and in his later days quite an extensive farmer. His father was Oglesbury Higginbottom, a native of Ireland. The mother of Jasper died in 1877, in the religious faith of the Christian Church. Jasper was the eighth child of eight sons and six daughters, of whom only two sons and one daughter are yet living. His education was somewhat limited on account of the facilities for attending school not being so good as they are at the present day, but his natural shrewdness and quickness of comprehension made up for any deficiency in that respect. In 1868 he was married to Miss Sarah Wilmuth, a daughter of Edward and Mary Wilmuth, of Kentucky, and by this marriage has had twelve children, of whom seven are still living. Mr. Higginbottom continued to reside in Lawrence County until 1877, when he moved to his present farm, in Sharp County, where he owns about 600 acres of land, and has some 120 acres under cultivation. In addition to his farm, he deals in stock on an extensive scale, and has the reputation of being one of the best men in the business in that section. He is noted for his fair dealing in all business transactions, and is one of the most popular men in Sharp County. In politics, Mr. Higginbottom is a Democrat, and that party has in him a representative who strongly supports their principles and men.

Kussel Jordan, justice of the peace, a prosperous farmer and stock raiser, is the youngest of three sons and six daughters. He was born in St. Clair County, Ala., December 22, 1827, and is the son of Stephen and Sarah (Deerman) Jordan, of South Carolina, where they were reared and married. The parents removed to St. Clair County, Ala., soon after their marriage, where the father died when Russel was but two or three years old. The mother married a second time, her next husband being Peter Roadland. who died shortly before Russel left St. Clair County, and the mother's death occurring after the war. The elder Jordan was a farmer, and a soldier in the War of 1812, fighting under Gen. Jackson at the battle of New Orleans. He was of Irish descent, as was also the father of Mrs. Jordan, William Deerman. Upon looking over the thousands of schools and colleges now in every part of our country, it is hard to conceive the difficulty that early settlers had to contend with in order to procure an education for their children. But the facilities then were not near what they are now, and where there is no excuse for any civilized being to be uneducated at the present day, at that period it was entirely different, and the children who were eager for an education, in the unsettled portions, were unable to attend school. This was the case of Russel Jordan, but, though seriously handicapped as he was, he managed to obtain a few years' study at the common schools, and when unable to attend, applied himself to his books and mastered what he desired to learn. On January 2, 1847, he was married to Martha, daughter of Levi and Jane Watson, of North Carolina, who moved to Sharp County, in 1852, where they have since died. Mrs. Jordan was born in St. Clair County, Ala., where her parents resided some time, and died in 1861. Six children were born to this marriage, of whom three are yet living. His second marriage was in 1862 to Nancy J., daughter of Harvey D. and Josephine Worthington, of North Carolina and Kentucky, respectively. The parents moved to Arkansas, about the year 1856, and settled in Prairie County, where the father died. Mrs. Worthington is now residing in Kentucky, her daughter's birth place. Seven sons and four daughters were born to Mr. Jordan's second marriage, all of them still living, and, remembering his early experience in attending school, he has spared no pains in giving them the best education obtainable. In 1852 he moved to Mississippi, and from there to what is now Sharp County, Ark. the following year, where he settled on a farm. His land at that time had but seven or eight acres cleared, but now he has over 100 acres cleared and under cultivation, and owns about 210 acres altogether, all the result of his own industry and good management. Mr. Jordan is a well-known and popular man in his vicinity, and mingles in public life considerably, having for the past thirty years held several public offices, such as deputy sheriff, justice of the peace (his present official capacity) and others. In politics he is a Democrat and a stanch adherent to that party. He enlisted in the Confederate army during the war, becoming a member of Col. Freeman's regiment of cavalry, and performed some excellent work in a numlier of battles. Mr. Jordan is a member of the A, F. &. A. M., and has been master a great many years of Curia Lodge No. 144. He also belongs to "Rural" Royal Arch Chapter No. 50, at Evening Shade, and has held several of the offices, and is a member of Eastern Star, having been for some time past worthy patron. At one time he was commissioned to organize chapters of his fraternity throughout North Arkansas, and succeeded in establishing quite a number.

John B. McCaleb, a prominent attorney at Evening Shade, was born at Evening Shade, Ark., October 24, 1856. He is a son of Col. James H. and Frances A. (Jenkins) McCaleb, of Knox County, Tenn., and Bowling Green, Ky., respectively. The mother was married in her fourteenth year to William French, and soon after moved to Little Rock. After a short residence in that place, they came to Evening Shade, at a time when there were but one or two families living there, and where Mr. French died. In 1854 Mrs. French was married to Col. McCaleb, who had come from Tennessee, and both have resided in Evening Shade up to the time of their death. The father was a farmer and hotel proprietor for twenty-five years, and was one of the best known hotel men in Northeast Arkansas. In earlier days the elder McCaleb held the office of justice of the peace. He served almost through the entire war. and performed the duties of a soldier in different capacities in the Confederate army, and was colonel of a regiment of militia in the home guards stationed at Pocahontas. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M., and was master of Evening Shade Lodge for a number of years. Col. McCaleb's father was James H. McCaleb. of North Carolina, who died in Evening Shade after a few years' residence. Col. McCaleb's forefathers originally came from North Ireland to this country. and the lineage of that family extends back to the earlier part of the eighteenth century. The father of Col. McCaleb's wife was William Jenkins, a Kentuckian. who moved to Illinois at an early period, and died there about the year 1873. His daughter, Mrs. McCaleb, had three children by each husband, of whom John McCaleb is the oldest of three brothers — sons by the last husband. John McCaleb was educated at Evening Shade, and began life for himself when fifteen years of age. In 1878 he commenced the study of law with the Hon. Sam H. Davidson, teaching school in the meantime. In 1881 he was admitted to the bar by Judge R. H. Powell, and since then has practiced his profession in Sharp, Izard, Fulton and Baxter Counties, also holding a license to practice in the supreme court of Arkansas and Missouri, and is one of the most promising attorneys in Sharp County. On January 10, 1883, he was married to Allie, daughter of Col. Joseph L. Abernethy, and has had four children by this marriage, one son and two daughters still living. Mr. McCaleb owns some town property, besides about 1,500 acres of wild land in Sharp County, and his prosperity is due entirely to his own enterprise and shrewdness. In politics he is a Democrat and is chairman of the county Democratic Central Committee. He has been a member of the A. F. & A. M. since his majority, belonging to Evening Shade Lodge No. 143, and has held almost all of the offices, being master for two terms. He is also a member of Royal Arch (Rural) Chapter No. 50, and has been high priest. Also a charter member of Knights of Honor, and Knights & Ladies of Honor, and is dictator of the former.

John C. McKinney, a leading farmer of Lawrence County, Smithville postoffice, was born in Alabama, February 20, 1839, a son of James and Patsey M. (Holder) McKinney. James was born in North Carolina, April 3, 1819, was reared and married in Alabama, came to Polk County, Mo. about 1844, and in 1857 moved to Sharp County, where he resided until his death, in 1863. His father, Francis McKinney, of Scotch and Welsh descent, was born in South Carolina. He served throughout the Revolutionary War, and died in Polk County, Mo. Our subject's mother was born in Alabama in 1820; she died about 1867, being the mother of ten children, five of whom are now living: Thomas M., Elizabeth A., William B. Samuel B. and John C. our subject, who came to Polk County, Mo. at the age of eight years, where he received his education. On March 4, 1860, he married Lucinda Daily, who was born in Polk County in 1839, and died in September, 1882. She was the mother of six children, all living: Sarah J., wife of William Hollen: Melvina J., wife of Jeff D. Estes; Mary A., Davis L., Milliam G., Dora J. In November, 1884, he married Hannah Williams, who was born in Louisiana in 1855. Mr. McKinney has 285 acres of land, about 100 cultivated, located on Strawberry River. He enlisted in Company F, Shaffer's regiment. Seventh Arkansas Infantry Volunteers, and served until May, 1865. He was a private the first year, corporal the second, and afterward captain of a company till the close, when he returned home and resumed farming. He has been a resident of this county since 1875, and has held the office of justice of the peace two years. He is a Democrat, having cast his first presidential vote for Breckinridge. He is a member of Masonic Lodge No. 29, at Smithville. His wife is a member of the Baptist Church.

William C. Matheny, retired farmer and ex county judge, was born in Roane County, Tenn., September 9, 1824, his parents being Samuel and Sytha (Grimsley) Matheny. The former, whose birth occurred in Virginia, June 18, 1796, was a son of Elijah and Mary (Davis) Matheny, natives of Virginia, the Mathenys being of French descent. His parents moved in 1799 to East Tennessee, where he was raised and where Samuel died (in Overton county) in 1881. The latter was a farmer, although he served an apprenticeship at the cabinet trade. His wife Sytha Matheny, was born in Washington County, Tenn., in 1793. and died in Roane County, that State, in 1838. Her parents were natives of Culpeper County, Va. and moved, to Tennessee in an early day. She was the mother of twelve children. Eleven grew to maturity and married, and five are now living, all in Tennessee, except our subject, who also has two half sisters and one half brother by his father's second marriage. His parents being poor, William C. received but a common school education, and that in Tennessee, where he was raised. December 13, 1849, he married Miss Louisa F. Terry, who has born in what is now Putnam County, Tenn., November 9, 1831. She is a daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth Terry, the father having died in Tennessee, where the mother is still living, though blind. The family of our subject consists of seven children — Allison B., born September 30, 1850; Sarah E., born January 14, 1853, wife of James W. Smith, of Sharp County; Mary A., born November 15, 1855, wife of Milton T. Ofield, of Izard County; Columbus D., born January 14, 1858; Elijah, born July 23, 1861; Grimaley H., born April 7, 1806, and Ira J., born August 24, 1868. In May, 1847, Mr. Matheny enlisted in Capt. Huddleston's Company, Fourteenth Regiment, United States Infantry, in Overton, Tenn., and served in the Mexican War, being with Gen. Scott at the taking of the City of Mexico, participating also in the battles of Contreras, Cherubusco, Melina Delva, Castle of Chapultepec, and at the gates of the city, being discharged as second sergeant at New Orleans July 25, 1848. He now draws a pension of $8 a month. In 1861 He he organized a company in Sharp County, and was mustered into the Confederate service in September of the same year, and served as captain until May 8, 1862, when he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-first Arkansas Regiment of Infantry, which position he held until the close of the war. May 17, 1863, he was captured at Vicksburg and taken prisoner to Sandusky Bay, Ohio, and kept there till exchanged, March 3, 1865, at Richmond, Va. At the battle of Corinth, Miss., October 3, 1862, he received a bullet wound left forearm, breaking the bone. In 1866 he was elected representative of Lawrence County (which then included Sharp), and served one term. In 1872 he was again elected to represent Sharp County, serving one term. In 1880 he was elected county and probate judge of Sharp County, and served for three consecutive terms, and is one of Sharp County's most influential citizens. Politically, he is a Democrat, and himself and wife are members of the Primitive Baptist Church. He has a farm of 160 acres, about 70 of which are cultivated.

John S. Medley, owner and proprietor of the extensive saw and planing-mill and shingle factory two miles south of Evening Shade, was born in Parke County, Ind., in 1848. He is a son of Capt. Philip and Rachel (Barnes) Medley, of Indiana and Kentucky, respectively, who were married in Indiana, and in 1853 removed to Fulton County, Ill., and from there to Schuyler County, Ill., after the war, where the father died about the year 1870, and his wife one year previous. Both were members of the Union Baptist faith. The elder Medley was a miller by occupation, and a man of fine business ability. In 1862 he joined the Thirteenth Illinois I, serving about six months, when he was forced Infantry, and commanded Company to resign on account of poor health. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M., and a son of Rev. Samuel Medley, of Scotch-Irish descent, a noted preacher of Kentucky, who died in Illinois. The grandfather of John S. Medley, James Barnes, was a farmer, and died in the State of Indiana. John S. Medley is the third child of eight sons and three daughters, of whom eight are yet living. received his education partly at the common schools and by self-tuition, and at the age of seventeen years his ability was so well recognized that he was taken into partnership with an extensive saw mill firm, and has continued in that business ever since. He thoroughly understands the business, and has met with success in every instance. In 1869 Mr. Medley moved to Evening Shade, where he resided up to 1870, when he married Mrs. Nancy Sharp, a widow lady, of Indiana, who died six months after their wedding. In 1889 he in the was again married, his second wife being Miss Lily Green, of Illinois. Mrs. Medley's mother is still living, but the father died when she was a young girl. Mr. Medley owns about 1,200 acres of land in the vicinity of Evening Shade, and has about 125 acres under cultivation, with several good buildings and barns. His mills have the reputation of turning out some of the best work in Sharp County, and. as a citizen and business man, he enjoys a popularity that must be gratifying even to the most egotistical, although Mr. Medley is as modest as he is popular. His mills have a capacity of about 8,000 feet of lumber, and about 20,000 shingles per day, and has also a planing attachment. In politics he is a Democrat, and has been a member of the I. O. O. F. since his maturity, holding all of the otfices during that period.

William G. Meeks, a pioneer farmer of Sullivan Township, was born in Breckinridge County, Ky., in 1819. He is a son of the Rev. William and Nancy (Goatley) Meeks, of North Carolina and Maryland, respectively, who moved to Kentucky, and were married there at a very early day, and when young William was sixteen years old, settled in Spencer County, Ind., where the father died about 1846, and the mother some time afterward, in Illinois. The elder Meeks was a Baptist minister, and well known for his eloquence in the pulpit. He is a son of Priddy Meeks, of North Carolina, who was one of the first settlers of Kentucky, and an associate of the famous Daniel Boone. William G. Meeks' grandfather, John Goatley, was a native of Scotland, who came to America with his parents when four years old. He served through the Revolutionary War, with the exception of one year, in which he was badly disabled, and died in Kentucky, with honors showered upon him for his record through that period. William G. Meeks is the seventh child of eight sons and four daughters, and in his youth received a very limited education, as the facilities for attending school were quite scarce in those days. He commenced in life for himself at the age of twenty, and, in 1843, was married to Millie, daughter of Pleasant and Rebecca Galloway. Mrs. Meeks' mother is still living at the age of ninety-six years, but the father died in the State of Indiana, where Mrs. Meeks was born. In 1840 Mr. Meeks came to what is now Sharp County, but did not move on his present place until 1849, which was then but very little improved. He now owns about 280 acres of land, with some 120 acres under cultivation, all the result of his own energy, and is one of the most enterprising farmers of Sharp County. Mr. Meeks enlisted in the Confederate army during the war, and was enrolled in Company D, Fourteenth Arkansas Infantry, holding the rank of lieutenant. He afterward became a member of Freeman's regiment of cavalry, and later took part in Price's raids through Missouri and Kansas. Mr. Meeks performed some creditable work during the war, and won a reputation as being a gallant and efficient soldier. He surrendered at Jacksonport in June, 1865. and returned to his home. When Mr. Meeks first settled in this vicinity the country was nothing but a wilderness, and had no inhabitants but a few venturesome spirits like himself, who were seeking a home in the West, unless, indeed, the wild animals that infested the country at that time could be called its inhabitants. His nearest postoffice and trading post was at Batesville, some twenty miles distant; but since that period he has lived to see this portion of Arkansas grow up into a populous and thriving country, and can now tell the younger generation how the streets and by-ways of the present civilization were once the path of the fleet-footed deer and the prowling wolf. The names of Mr. Meeks' children are: Nancy, wife of Francis Kent; Sarah, wife of A. J. Green; Benjamin F., Thomas J., Eliza, wife of J. E. G. Ball, and Willie Ann, wife of J. D. Cargle.

Isaac N. Morgan, a substantial farmer of Morgan Township, is a native of Tennessee, having been born in Franklin County in 1837. His father was Harris Morgan, who was born in Tennessee, in June, 1810, and who is now living in Sharp County. Ark., where he came in 1840, Morgan Township being named in his honor before the war. He was a blacksmith by trade, but carried on farming in connection therewith. His wife was born in North Carolina in 1816, but died in Sharp County in November, 1881. She was the mother of ten children, three of whom are now living. Elizabeth, Sarah and Isaac, all of whom reside in Sharp County. Isaac N. acquired most of his education after reaching manhood, but received what little schooling he had in Sharp County. In October, 1865, he married Miss Salina Carver, who was born in Mississippi in 1843. Her parents were J. D. and Frances Carver, natives of Mississippi, who came to Arkansas in 1851. The father is dead, but the mother still lives in Sharp County. The family consists of three daughters and three sons: Tennessee B. Amanda L., Mary, William T., Joseph and Isaac B. Our subject entered the Confederate service in 1861, in the Seventh Arkansas Volunteers, under Col. Robert Shaver, participating in the battles of Shiloh, Corinth and Bowling Green, and at the close of the war returned to Sharp County and resumed farming. He has a good farm of 347 acres, about 100 of which are under cultivation. He is a Democrat, and both he and his wife are members of the Baptist Church.

Judge Addison H. Nunn, one of the pioneers of Sullivan Township, was born in Williamson County. Tenn., in 1814. He is a son of William R. and Rebecca W. (Stone) Nunn, the former born in Pendleton District, S. C., about 1783, and the latter in Mecklenburg, Va. The parents were married in Williamson County, Tenn., and resided there until the year 1855, when they moved to Texas, where the father died in 1862. The elder Nunn was an extensive merchant and real estate dealer, and a very successful business man, financially. He first started in life without a dollar, but by his natural abilities, shrewdness in business transactions and enterprise, he left a fortune at his death. He held the office of justice of the peace for three years, and was a member of the I. O. O. F. His father, Francis Nunn, was a North Carolinian, and when William R. was about three years old removed first to Georgia and then to the State of Tennessee in 1806, where he died at the age of sixty years, his wife, Marcy (Rice) Nunn, dying in Tennessee, at the age of eighty-five years. The Nunn family are of French origin, but on the mother's side the family are English. Judge Nunn's grandfather, William Stone, came from England with his parents, and settled in Virginia, and were afterward among the first settlers of Maury County, Tenn. Judge Nunn was the eldest of thirteen children, who received their education in the early days at a log cabin school. In 1837 he was married to Amanda, daughter of Jeremiah and Catherine Baxter, born in North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively. Eleven children were given to this marriage, of whom four sons and three daughters are yet living. His second marriage was in 1863, to Mrs. Mary Bowman, a widow lady, and a daughter of Merriman Arnn, of Virginia, where his daughter was also born, in Pittsylvania County. Ten children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Nunn, of whom three sons and five daughters are still living. In 1843 Judge Nunn moved to Arkansas, and pitched his tent upon the same spot where he now resides. This section of Arkansas was then a wilderness, whose only inhabitants were wild animals, the nearest postoffice and trading point being the town of Batesville, which was then a very small place. He has made this his home ever since, and at one time owned over 2,00O acres of land. He now owns about 1,00O acres, and has 100 acres under cultivation, owning one of the finest farms in Sharp County. In 1861 he organized Company I, and joined McCarver's regiment of Arkansas infantry, and for the first four months was stationed at Pocahontas, then at Fort Pillow, and lastly at Corinth, where he was discharged after six months' service. After the war he returned home, and for several years was justice of the peace, an office he also held in Tennessee. In 1845 he was elected county and probate judge of Lawrence County, and at the expiration of his term, on two different occasions, was re-elected. In 1 874 he was elected supervisor of Sharp County, and in 1878 county and probate judge for two years. Before the war. Judge Nunn established the Sidney postoffice, and was postmaster for three years; and after peace had been declared he had the office restored, and was appointed postmaster again. In politics, he has been a Democrat ever since the war, and was a Whig before that event. He became a member of the I. O. O. F. in 1845, and a Mason several years later, and is a member of the Royal Arch Chapter. Judge Nunn is well known and universally respected throughout Northeast Arkansas. He is one of its oldest inhabitants, and has lived to see that portion of the State grow up from its infancy, to be dotted with productive farms, thriving towns and enterprising citizens. He has been a member of the Presbyterian Church since his fourteenth year, as also were both wives, and was an elder for over forty years.

Abner J. Porter, judge of the county and probate court of Sharp County, and a leading attorney of that place, was born in Williamson County, Tenn., in the year 1831. He is the son of William C. and Judith R. (Owen) Porter, the former born in Rockingham County, N. C. in 1803, and the latter in Davidson County. Tenn., in 1804. The parents were married in Williamson County, Tenn.. in 1824. and resided there until the year 1830, when they moved to Weakley County, Tenn., and from there to Springfield, Mo., in 1856. 1860 they settled in Sharp County, Ark., where the father died in 1878, and the mother in 1881. The elder Porter was a prominent farmer and a leading citizen of Sharp County during his life, and was held in the highest esteem by his fellow-citizens. He was a son of Dudley Porter, of North Carolina, who removed to Tennessee in 1811, and died three months after his arrival. His father was John Porter, who lost another son at the battle of Charleston, during the Revolution. Judge Porter's parents had eleven sons, of whom seven are living: Their names are Robert G. a resident of Sharp County;. William G., a tobacconist of Springfield, Mo.; Judge Abner J. Porter; Rev. Peter O. of Sharp County; Jesse W., residing in the same county; Henry W., of Randolph County, and Felix R., a prominent lawyer of Springfield, Mo. Five of them gave their services to the Confederate cause — Abner J., John W., Jesse W., Benjamin F. (who was captured and died in prison at Chicago), and Felix R. In his youth Judge Porter received a common school education, and also applied himself to the higher branches of education, which he mastered without the aid of a teacher. He had commenced the study of law at Springfield, Mo., when the war called him from his books, and he joined Capt. Thomason's company of the Fifty-second Volunteer Tennessee Infantry. In the spring of 1862 he was sent home on furlough, on account of disability, but after recovering from his afflictions he re-joined the army under Gen. Forrest's command, becoming a member of Col. Wilson's Tennessee regiment. He held the rank of orderly sergeant in Capt. Dudley's company, and served about one year longer, taking part in a number of engagements during that time. Judge Porter was married in Weakley County, Tenn., in 1866, to Miss Mary J. Carter, a daughter of Jerome and Mary (Matthews) Carter, of North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively, and they are the parents of five sons and three daughters: Ada J., William C., Thomas J., James O., Ida R., Mary E., John W. and Granville D. In 1867 the Judge arrived in Sharp County, and located at In Evening Shade, where he entered the grocery business, and practiced law until 1875. He then settled on his present place of residence, and commenced farming, and now has about 100 acres under cultivation, owning 320 acres altogether in two farms. He is considered to be one of the best farmers in Sharp County, and has also continued the practice of law, with gratifying success, both in the justice and circuit courts. In 1878 he was elected judge of the county and probate courts for two years, and filled the office with distinction. The soundness of his judgment and the correctness of his views made him the most available man for that position, and he was again elected in 1888. In politics he is a Democrat, and has been one all his life. He is strong in upholding the principles and men of his party, and is one of its stanchest adherents. The Judge has been a member of Evening Shade Lodge No. 141, A. F. & A. M., since 1867, and is also a member of Royal Arch Chapter No. 52, at Evening Shade. He belongs to the Baptist Church, while his wife is a Presbyterian.

Elijah Ratliff is a farmer of Union Township, near Martin's Creek postoffice. His grandfather was one of the first settlers of Pike County, Ky. where he died. Robert R. the father of our subject, was born in Kentucky, about 1816; was married there to Polly Edwards, and in 1854 emigrated to Texas County, Mo. being one of the early settlers of that county. In 1862 he moved to Arkansas. He was a soldier in the late war, was captured and taken prisoner to Alton, Ill., where he died in 1866. His wife, who died about 1865, was the mother of nine children, our subject being the sixth. He was raised and received most of his schooling in Texas County, Mo. In 1871 Elijah married Miss Nancy Garner, who was born in Sharp County, Ark., in 1849, the daughter of John and Rena Garner. They have six children living: John R., William H., Martha E., Mary J., George W. (deceased), Albert and James. Mr. Ratliff has resided in Sharp County since 1870, and has about 400 acres of land, about ninety of which are under cultivation, 200 acres in Fulton County, Ark., and '200 on Martin's Creek. In politics he is a Democrat. Laving cast his first presidential vote for Cleveland. Our subject and his wife are both members of the Christian Church.

Michael Van Buren Shaver, farmer and merchant, was born in Sullivan County, East Tenn., April 7, 1832. His parents were David and Harriet (May) Shaver. David, Jr., was born in Sullivan County, Tenn., in 1799, where he always resided, and died in 1843. He was a son of David Shaver, Sr., merchant and slave owner, who was born in Buncombe County, N. C, and whose father (Michael's great grandfather), was killed in the Revolutionary War. The Shavers are of French, German and English descent. Michael's mother was born in Tennessee, in 1800, and died in Sharp County, Ark., in 1881; her parents were Samuel and Catherine May. Mr. May was born in London, England, and was a physician by profession, and a wealthy citizen. His wife was a Shelby, of one of the old families of the United States. Isaac Shelby, an uncle of Catherine, was governor of Kentucky, and a noted man. Ferdinand M. and our subject are the only children living of a family of eight. M. Van was raised in Tennessee, where he received a common school education. At the age of nineteen years he came to Independence County, Ark. The next year he located in Fulton County, cleared a farm in the woods, and in May, 1866, married Mary Livingston. They have had five children (four of whom are now living): Shelby L., Hattie M., Jimmie (deceased), Emma and Mattie. In 1861 he raised a company of infantry in Fulton County, Seventh Arkansas, of Col. Robert Shaver's regiment, under Gen. Hardee; was captain of his company one year, when he came home, formed a battalion, was elected major, and served in that capacity during the war. At Augusta, Ark., he was wounded in the left leg, where the bullet still remains. He was also with Gen. Price on his raid through Missouri. After the war he returned to Fulton County, of which he was appointed sheriff by Gov. Murphy, and served two years, when ho removed to where he now resides. He has a natural stock farm of 350 acres, 125 of which are under cultivation, the same being finely watered by Reed's Creek. In 1880 he erected a grist mill at a cost of $4,000, and in May, 1882, it was totally destroyed by high water; having no insurance, it was a total loss. In 1866 he opened a general store where he now resides, but retired in 1880 on account of health, and in 1887 resumed business in partnership with his son. He is a Democrat, having cast his first presidential vote for Buchanan. Mr. Shaver was engaged in a hard fight on Martin's Creek, and selected the battle ground for the first fight in Fulton County.

Ferdinand May Shaver, farmer and merchant, two and a half miles west of Grange postoffice, is a brother of M. Van Shaver, and was born in Sullivan County, Tenn., July 14, 1836, where he resided till the age of fourteen years, and received his schooling, which is very limited, and came to Arkansas with his parents in 1850, where he has since resided. In 1870 he married Miss Mary J. Gardner, who was born in Lawrence County, Ark., in 1847. She is the daughter of John H. R. and Susana Gardner, her father a Baptist minister, who came to Independence County in the early days. Mr. Shaver's family consists of six children, Julia M., Edwin V., David L., James F., Lulu B. and an infant. The subject of this sketch served in the Confederate army as a cavalryman, from 1862 till the close of the war, taking part in the Augusta fight. He was engaged in business in Fulton County previous to the war, and in 1867 opened a general store in Sharp County, where he has since been in business, carrying a valuable stock of goods. He has about 700 hundred acres of land in Sharp County, 200 acres under cultivation; 300 acres in Independence County, and eighty acres in Lawrence County. Politically, he is a Democrat, having cast his first presidential vote for Breckinridge.

Thomas C. Sims, a prominent farmer and stock raiser of Sullivan Township, was born in Rutherford County, Tenn., in 1832. His parents were the Hon. Leonard H. and Louisa (Beatty) Sims, born in North Carolina in 1807, and Virginia in 1808, respectively, and were united in marriage in Rutherford County. Tenn. In 1839 the parents removed to a point near Springfield, Mo., but in 1847 returned to Tennessee, and in 1859 they came to Independence County, Ark., where the father died in 188(3, and the mother in Tennessee the following year. The elder Sims was at one time one of the most brilliant politicians in Tennessee. He twice represented Rutherford County in the legislature, and from 1842 to 1845 or 1846, represented Greene County, Mo., in the State legislature. During the Polk administration be was a member of the National Congress from Missouri (at large), and in 1860 was elected to represent Independence and Stone Counties in the State senate. He was again elected in 1874 for the long term of four years, and his oratory while a member of that body was noted for its eloquence. He was a man of superior abilities, a close observer of men and events, and a shrewd politician, and never suffered defeat in a political contest. When a member of the senate he served on the committee on Federal returns, and was one of the ablest men of that body, and was also an ardent advocate for the payment in full of the State debt. During his first term in the Arkansas State senate he delivered the memorial address on the late Senator Lusburrow, who was the senator from Pulaski County during that session, but had recently committed suicide while the senate was in session. This was one of the most eloquent and able addresses ever heard in the senate chamber, and Mr. Sims was the recipient of many flattering compliments and considerable praise on this occasion. He was also a prominent member of the A. F. & A. M. Curia Lodge, and of the Royal Arch Chapter. In politics he had been a Democrat all his life, and was a strong supporter of that party. Thomas C. Sims was the fourth child of seven sons and five daughters, and received a good common school and academic education. In 1854 he was married to Sarah J., daughter of Judge A. H. Nunn, and by this marriage has had ten children, of whom four sons and three daughters are still living. In 1855 he moved to what is now Sharp County, and settled on a farm with but very little improvement, but since that time he has placed 145 acres under cultivation, owning altogether some 346 acres, besides a number of town lots in Hardy, and all the result of his own industry, business tact, and good management in farming and trading. He taught school for several years before and since the war, and, on the outbreak of hostilities between the North and South, he enlisted in Company G, of Col. Shaler's regiment, and served almost three years in the Confederate army, holding the rank of first lieutenant for two years. He fought in a number of battles in Missouri, Kansas, and portions of the Indian Territory, and was with Price on his raids through Missouri and Kansas. He was present during the surrender at Jacksonport, in 1865, and returned home after the war was over. In politics, Mr. Sims has always been a Democrat, and was appointed postmaster of Sullivan Springs for several years. He is a member of Evening Shade Lodge No. 143, A. F. & A. M., and, with his wife, has been a member of the Presbyterian Church for over thirty years. His grandfather, Swepson Sims, of NortNorth Carolina, resided in Rutherford County, Tenn., for about forty-five years, where he was a noted physician in his day. His father was Leonard Sims, a Scotchman, who settled in North Carolina at a very early period. William Beatty, the grandfather of Thomas C. Sims, was a native of Virginia, and died in Rutherford County, Tenn., where he had resided a great many years. Joseph Sims, the great-uncle of Thomas C. Sims, first settled at Welchmere, now known as Lebanon, Tenn. and, was the first man to cut down a tree in that place. Leonard H., the father of Thomas C. Sims, was a great hunter in his younger days, and a celebrated shot. His early experience with the Indians had given him a skill with the rifle that was marvelous, and to the present day many a tale may be heard of the great work done by him in the far West.

James G. Sims, an enterprising and popular farmer, of Sharp County, was born in Greenes County, Mo. in 1841. He is a son of Hon. Leonard H. and Louisa (Beatty) Sims, of whom an extended sketch is given in the biography of T. C. Sims. When, in his seventh year, Mr. Sims removed with his parents to Tennessee, where they resided until the year 1859, and then came to Independence County. He was reared on a farm, and received a good common school education in his youth, and in early youth displayed the disposition and characer of a man whose future life would be successful. He was imbued with the same traits of energy and force which characterized his illustrious father, and though not following directly in the footsteps of the elder Sims, he has made a path for himself that may serve as an example for many others. In 1861, he joined Company K, of the First Arkansas Infantry, and served one year through Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas and the Indian Nation, taking part in the battles at Wilson's Creek, Pea Ridge and others. The same company soon after re-organized, with Mr. Sims a member of it, and took a leading part in the memorable Battle of Shiloh. His next campaign extended through Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee and Kentucky, and he took part in the battle at Richmond on Kirby Smith's raid through Kentucky: afterwards at the battles of Chickamauga and Atlanta, and then returned with Hood to Tennessee, where he fought in the battles at Franklin and Nashville. Shortly after this campaign, he returned home and resumed his farm work, and, in 1867, was married to Miranda, daughter of Perry and Margaret West, of Arkansas. Mrs. West died when her daughter was a child, and the father died in 1874, in Sharp County. Mrs. Sims was born in Texas, and with her marriage to Mr. Sims, has had nine sons and one daughter. In 1808 they settled on their present farm, about four miles northeast of Evening Shade, where Mr. Sims owns 700 acres of land, and has about 200 acres under cultivation. He is one of the leading farmers and citizens of Sharp County, and is held in high esteem by the entire community. In politics he is a Democrat, and was a member of the board of equalization of Sharp County. He was also a member of the Agricultural Wheel, and in 1888 was vice-president of the Sharp County Wheel. He also belongs to Evening Shade Lodge No. 143, A. F. & A. M., and has been a member since 1874.

John T. Sparks, a farmer of Strawberry Township, Smithville postoffice, Lawrence County, was born in Alabama, February 8, 1843. His father, John Sparks, was born in Alabama about 1811, and died there in 1847, and Sarah (Bowlen) Sparks, his mother, was born in Georgia in 1815, dying in Lawrence County in 1887.The family consisted of eight children, three of whom are living: John, James L. and Isaac, all residing in Sharp County, our subject being the eldest, John T. was raised in Alabama till the age of eleven years, when he went to Tennessee with his parents, remaining there till he was eighteen years of age, when his mother and family removed to Lawrence County, Ark., living there a short time, and finally moving to where our subject now lives. He received his education in Arkansas, and, in 1869, married Miss Susan Webb, who was born in Polk County, Mo. in 1845, and died in 1871: she was the mother of two children, both living; Mary J. (wife of James Wheeler) and William N. In 1872 Mr. Sparks married Miss Alvira Hill, who was born in Lawrence County, Ark., in 1850, the daughter of Daniel and Delia Hill, Mr. Hill being a native of "Virginia, and one of the early settlers of Lawrence County, where his wife was born. By this marriage there was a family of five children, three living: Ellen O., Causette and Edward B. In April, 1862, our subject enlisted in the Confederate army, serving under Capt. Huddleson until 1865: he was in all the battles west of the Mississippi River, in the cavalry. At the close of the war he resumed farming, and has also held the offices of constable of his township and justice of the peace four years. He is a Democrat, and he and his wife are members ofthe Missionary Baptist Church.

Ashley Taylor, a prominent farmer of Richwoods Township, is a son of J. Millidge and Hester A. (Cravens) Taylor, of Missouri and Arkansas, respectively. J. Millidge Taylor moved to the State of Arkansas, with his parents, in 1819, and met the lady who became his wife in Lawrence County, where Ashley was born in 1816. The elder Taylor was a son of J. W. Taylor, one of the earliest settlers of Lawrence County, and died in 1852. his wife surviving him a good many years. They were the parents of ten children, of whom Ashley was the seventh, and four of them are still living: William W. and Millidge, residents of Texas; Mary, wife of John Saffell. and Ashley. Ashley Taylor remained on the home place until the year 1863, when he joined the Confederate army, becoming a member of one of the Arkansas regiments, in which he did gallant service. On September 12, 1864, he was captured at Thomasville, Mo., and taken to the prison at St. Louis. From there he was changed to a prison at Alton, Ill., but again returned to St. Louis, where, with five others, he was sentenced to be shot. The six men awaited their doom with the greatest fortitude, realizing that what was to be was according to the fortunes of war, but shortly before the hour set for the execution a kind Providence saved them from the fate they expected, and others were chosen instead to face the executioners. He was then returned to Alton, Ill., and afterward to Rock Island, where he was held until June 22, 1865, and then released. On his return to Arkansas Mr. Taylor ran a carding machine at Evening Shade for several years, and finally commenced farming again, his occupation previous to the war. He was married in 1875. to Miss America E. Barnett, a daughter of James and Jane Barnett, of Sharp County, and by this marriage has had one son and four daughters. Mr. Taylor lost his wife on September 21, 1887. He resided in Lawrence County until 1885, and then moved to Sharp County, but did not settle on his present place until 1887. The land comprises 200 acres, of which 120 acres are under cultivation, all of it being accumulated by Mr. Taylor himself. He is a Democrat in politics and a strong supporter of his party. Mr. Taylor is a member of Ash Flat Lodge No. 159, F. & A. M., and of Royal Arch Chapter No. 50. at Evening Shade. He is also a member of the Famous Life Association of Little Rock, his wife, during her life, being a member of the same association.

S. Price Turner, one of the leading merchants of Ash Flat, was born in Dent County, Mo., in 1862. His parents were George W. and Leon E. (Dougherty) Turner, both natives of Tennessee, who resided in Dent County, Mo. before the war. The family moved to Baxter County, Ark. in 1864, and from there to Izard County, and, in 1866, settled in Sharp County, coming to Ash Flat one year later. The father entered into commercial life on his arrival, and was a successful business man up to the time of his death, in January, 1885, being one of the most prominent merchants and leaders in mercantile affairs in that place. He was an officer in the Confederate army, and served through the war with great distinction, and was also a member of the A. F. & A. M. and, Knights and Ladies of Honor. His start in Ash Flat was, similar to that of other self-made men, on almost nothing, but, being a man of energetic and determined spirit, he made a success where many others would have made a failure, and, at the time of his death, left a considerable fortune. Mr. Turner and his wife were both members of the Christian Church, and Mrs. Turner still survives her husband, at the age of fifty- four years. She is a daughter of Sakiah Dougherty, a brave officer, who met death at the battle of Wilson's Creek, in 1861. S. Price Turner has resided in Ash Flat ever since five years old, with the exception of one year at Fayetteville. He attended the State University in his youth, and at the age of eighteen was taken into partnership with his father, and remained with him until the elder Turner's death, when he succeeded to the business. He has carried on the business in the same enterprising manner that characterized the father, and has upheld the reputation made by the elder Turner. Mr. Turner, in connection with other members of his family, owns over 1,200 acres of land in Sharp County, besides considerable real estate in Ash Flat, and in the State of California. He was married, February 19, 1885, to Miss Fannie Davidson, a daughter of Dr. Benjamin H. and Atella J. Davidson, both deceased, the former being one of the leading physicians of this county during his life. Mr. Turner and his wife are the parents of one son and two daughters, and they comprise one of the most interesting and happiest families in Ash Flat. In politics he is a Democrat, and in 1884 cast his vote for Cleveland. He is also a member of Ash Flat Lodge No. 159, A. F. & A. M., and was senior warden for two terms. Royal Arch Chapter, Evening Shade, claims him as a member, as do the Knights and Ladies of Honor.

Anderson Huston Vance, farmer and justice of the peace, of Washington Township, was born in Alabama, November 15, 1837. His parents were William and Sarah (Hudson) Vance. William was born in North Carolina about 1776, and died in March, 1866, in Sharp County, Ark., when about eighty-six years of age. He emigrated from North Carolina to Tennessee in an early day, with his parents (who were born in Ireland), and from Tennessee to Arkansas, in 184S, and located five miles south of where the county seat now is. He was a farmer. His wife died in October, 1858. in Sharp County. She was the mother of fourteen children, all of whom grew to maturity, only four of whom are now living: Nancy Clark, Claring Norman, Anderson H. and Mary A. Shirley. All but Mary reside in Sharp County, and she in Independence County. The subject of this sketch, the eleventh child, was raised in Sharp County, where he received his limited education. In 1859 he married Miss Margaret C. Johnson, who was born in East Tennessee, September 2, 1840, and died June 26, 1878. She was the mother of three children, one of whom is living, William Huston. December 3, 1888, he married Sarah J. (Hardester) Douglas, a widow, who was born in Independence County, in 1851. Mr. Vance was in Evening Shade before the town was thought of. In June, 1862, he enlisted in the Confederate army. Company F, under Col. Bob Shaver, serving four years, and participating in the battles of Pleasant Hill (La.) and Jenkins' Ferry (Ark.). He is, and has been since 1867, a member of the Masonic order, and once represented his lodge in the grand lodge. In 1874 he was elected justice of the peace of Washington Township, and served eight successive years, and was again elected to the same office in 1888, and is now serving his fifth term. He is a Democrat in politics. He has 174 acres of land, and cultivates seventy-five acres of it. He and his first wife were members of the Missionary Baptist Church, his present wife being a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

Samuel J. Walker, general merchant and stock dealer, was born in Stewart County, Tenn., in 1829. His parents were John and Susan (Thomas) Walker, the former born in Virginia in 1804, and the latter in Tennessee in 1806. The parents were married in Stewart County, where they resided until the year 1852, and then moved to what is now Sharp County, and lived there until the time of their death. John Walker's father was Samuel Walker, who was born in Ireland and fought in some of the early wars of this country. He was a blacksmith and woodworker by trade, and moved to Tennessee when John was a boy, where the latter grew to manhood and was married. Samuel J. is the fourth child of a family of eight sons and four daughters. He moved to Sharp County, Ark., with his parents, and was married in that place to Miss Elizabeth Baker, a daughter of Newton and Harriet Baker, of Sharp County. Mr. Walker lost his wife in 1874, after a happy married life, and also a son. His second wife was Mrs. Mary Duncan, a widow lady, and a daughter of Ephraim and Olive Perkins, of Missouri, and by this marriage he has three children: Minnie J., Maudee and Samuel. With the exception of one year's residence in Randolph County, Mr. Walker has lived on his present place ever since his arrival in Arkansas. He then had only two acres of land under cultivation, which he had fenced in a very primitive manner, but has increased the number to 300 acres under cultivation, and owns about 1,500 acres altogether. He is also an extensive dealer in stock, merchandise and general trading, and is one of the most successful and energetic men in Sharp county. Mr. Walker has secured all of his prosperity by his own efforts since the war. Before that event he had considerable real estate and farms, but lost everything, and after peace had been declared he started in life without a dollar. He served three years in the Confederate army, and was a member of Wood's battalion, on Gen. Price's staff. After two years' service he was discharged on account of disability, and six months later re enlisted in Col. Love's regiment as a private, where he remained until the close of the war. Few men served their country better than Mr. Walker did, while fighting for the Confederacy. He took part in a great many engagements, and was with Price on his memorable raids through Missouri. At home he was captured by the enemy and taken prisoner in the fall of 1863, and was held about two months at Pilot Knob, afterward taking the oath of allegiance. Later on he was forced into the service again, and surrendered at Jacksonport. In politics, Mr. Walker was a Whig, and cast bis first vote for Scott, in 1852, but since the war he has become a true Democrat. He has been a member of the A. F. & A. M. (now belonging to Wilson Lodge No. 132, at Hardy for twenty years, and has in that time helped to organize two lodges, also holding all of the principal offices. He is also a member of the Knights & Ladies of Honor, and the Famous Life Association at Little Rock, having belonged to the latter for five years. Mrs. Walker is also a member of the same association. Mr. Walker is a gentleman of great popularity in this locality, and also counted as one of its wealthiest men. full of energy and life in all enterprises, and Sharp County has in him a citizen of whom she may feel proud.

David D. Walker, a retired farmer, residing in Hardy Village, was born in Stewart County, Tenn. November 16, 184:4, but came to Sharp County with his parents, who were among the early settlers, in the winter of 1852. His father, John Walker, died in Sharp County, and his mother, Susan (Thomas) Walker, died in the same county in 1874. Of a family of twelve children our subject and a brother are the only living members, David being the eleventh. He was raised in Sharp County, but his education was very limited, he having had no opportunity of going to school. In 1866 David married Miss Permelia Webb, who was born in Tennessee, in 1844, the daughter of Thomas J. and Batharba Webb. Mr. Webb was born in Arkansas and his wife in Tennessee, both having died in Arkansas. Mr. Walker's family has consisted of eight children (two of whom are living): Sarah H. (deceased), Susan M. (deceased), Mary E. (deceased), Samuel J. (deceased), Lucy Ann, John W. (deceased), Margie E. (de-ceased) and Newton R. Mr. Walker has about 300 acres of land in Hardy Township, some 200 being under cultivation. In 1864 he enlisted in Capt. Adams' company, in the Confederate army, and served till the close of the war, participating in the battles of Martin' s Creek and Dardanelle. He is a member of Wilson Lodge No. 132, A. F. & A. M., at Hardy, and is a Democrat in politics, having cast his first presidential vote for Seymour and Blair. He and his wife are both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

Joshua Wann, county and circuit court clerk of Sharp County, was born in Jackson County, Ala. in 1836. His parents were the Hon. Joshua and Lydia (Collins) Wann, born in North Carolina in 1796, and Virginia in 1800, respectively, who emigrated to Kentucky with their parents, and were there married. They afterward moved to Tennessee, and from there to Alabama, where young Joshua was born, and then came to what is now is Sharp County, Ark., where the father died shortly He is after their arrival. The mother was a Missionary Baptist, and died in that faith in the year 1879. She was a daughter of Thomas Collins, a native of Virginia and of English descent. The elder Wann commanded a company of soldiers during the removal of the Indian tribes from Alabama and Georgia in the earlier days, and later in life was a representative from Jackson County, Ala., when the capital was situated at Tuscaloosa. He held the office of assessor and collector of that county for several years, and was a member of the A. F. & A. M. in good standing. He was in the battle of New Orleans, in the War of 1812, and died in Jackson County, Ala., before young Joshua was born. Joshua Wann is the seventh child of four sons and six daughters. One of his uncles, William Wann, was at one time a member of the Tennessee legislature, and died in Lawrence County, Mo. His brother, Landen A. fought in the Mexican War, and died at Tampico during the campaign. Joshua Wann received his education at the common schools, and early in life, the father being deceased as well as the elder brothers, the support of the family devolved upon him. In 1860 he was married to Miss Zilpha J. daughter of Dr. Burwell and Edith Dawson, of North Carolina. Dr. Dawson located in Independence County, Ark., about the year 1857, and wrote for his family to join him there, but upon their arrival they found that death had been before them, and the husband and father had passed away. Mrs. Dawson survived her husband until after the war, and died in Sharp County. Mr. and Mrs. Wann have one daughter, Laura A., wife of G. S. Jernigan. family resided on a farm in Scott Township until 18S6, when Mr. Wann was elected to his present office, and then removed to Evening Shade. He was re elected in 1888, and has filled the office in a highly creditable manner. He gave three years' service to the Confederate cause, and held the rank of captain of Company B, Thirty-fifth Arkansas Infantry, for three years, performing heroic work in Texas, Louisiana and Missouri. He was at the battles of Prairie Grove, Little Rock, Saline River, Jenkins' Ferry, and many others, and later on joined Gen. Price's army, and commanded a company of cavalry in Col. M. D. Baber's regiment. He was present in all the raids through Missouri and Kansas, and was actively engaged until the surrender at Jacksonport, in 1805. In politics, Mr. Wann has been a Democrat all his life; in 1874-75 he represented Sharp County in the legislature, and was present during the first session after the adoption of the new constitution. He is a charter member of Reed's Creek Lodge, A. F. & A. M., and has been master, warden and secretary. He also belongs to the Knights and Ladies of Honor and Eastern Star at Evening Shade. Mrs. Wann has been a member of the Missionary Baptist Church since her youth, and is a devout Christian. Mr. Wann's success has been due entirely to his own shrewdness and ability, and he is one of the most popular and influential citizens of Sharp County. He has an interest in a small farm in Scott Township, and is an enterprising and progressive man.

Capt. John M. Wasson, a prominent citizen of Sharp County, Ark. is the oldest of a family of six children, and was born in Lawrence County, Tenn., in 1835. He is a son of William Lee and Jane (Matthews) Wasson, born in 1810 and 1813, respectively, in the State of Tennessee, where they resided until 1841 and then moved to Searcy County, Ark. but soon afterward came to Lawrence County, Ark. The elder Wasson was one of the pioneers of that section, and settled on a large farm, which he made one of the most successful in Lawrence County, and in connection with which he ran a blacksmith shop until his death, in 1867. The His father, John Wasson, of Scotch Irish descent, died in Lawrence County, Tenn. Capt. Wasson's grandfather, Thomas Matthews, was a successful farmer during his life, and is also buried in Lawrence County, Tenn. The Captain received a "log cabin" education in his youth, and studied one term in Smithville. Upon reaching his maturity he was offered a position in one of the firms at Smithville, and remained with them for several years, afterward going into partnership in the grocery business at Evening Shade with L. S. Bobo, under the firm name of Wasson & Bobo. In the fall of 1861 he enlisted in Company B, of the Twenty-first Arkansas Infantry, and commanded that company as captain until the fall of Vicksburg, where he was captured and paroled and then came home. He was again captured at home in 1863 and imprisoned for a short time at St. Louis, and from there taken to Camp Chase, Ohio, and then again transferred to Johnson's Island. Ohio, where he was held until May, 1865, and then paroled and returned to his home. Altogether he was kept a prisoner for one year and a half, and soon after his release he surrendered in June. 1865, at Jacksonport. Capt. Wasson fought well for the cause he undertook, and received many words of praise for his gallant actions during the war. His operations extended through Arkansas, Alabama and Mississippi, and he took part in the battles at Corinth, Baker's Creek, Black River, siege of Vicksburg and many others. While at the first named battle he received a gunshot wound in the right leg and left arm, and in his career through the war had many thrilling escapes from death. In 1866 he was married to Amanda, a daughter of William and Frances French, born in Bowling Green, Ky. in 1820 and 1824, respectively, who immediately after their marriage moved to Arkansas and settled in Lawrence County, where the father died when Mrs. Wasson was a little girl. The mother was afterward married to Col. James H. McCaleb, who died in May, 1885. Mrs. Wasson was born in that portion of Lawrence County which is now Sharp County, and is the mother of nine children, of whom seven are living. After the war Capt. Wasson entered into commercial life at Evening Shade, but finding that farm life was more congenial, he carried on that business, and at present has a fine farm, consisting of seventy-five acres under cultivation, about eight miles north-west of Evening Shade. In 1876 he was elected clerk of Sharp County and served two years, and was again elected in 1880, filling the office with credit. He has been a Democrat in politics all his life, and is a member of the Masonic order at Evening Shade, also belonging to the Knights of Honor at the same place. Mr. and Mrs. Wasson, both, have been members of the Christian Church in good standing for several years.

Allen Weaver, one of the first settlers of North Township, resides at what is known as Indian Camp Spring, located near Martin's Creek. His great-grandfather, William Weaver's father, was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and fought by the side of Gen. Washington. The grandfather was also William Weaver. His wife was Kesiah Weaver, who died in Tennessee at an advanced old age. The father of our subject, James Weaver, was born in 1812, in North Carolina, but came to Tennessee with his parents when two years old. He was there married to Jane Whitted, in 1836. She was a native of North Carolina, and died January 29, 1875, in Sharp County. In 1851 James Weaver came to Polk County, Mo. in 1852 went to Crawford County; the next year to Oregon, and in 1857 to where our subject now lives, where he died June 18, 1889. On coming to this place he purchased from the government 240 acres of land, at 12½ cents per acre; there are now eighty acres under fence. The subject of this sketch is the only child of James and Jane Weaver, with whom he resided until their deaths. His education was limited, and mostly received at home. September 7, 1865, he married Miss Josephine Hollinay, of Knox County, Tenn., born in 1840, a daughter of Zachariah and Eliza Hollinay, her father born in North Carolina, and her mother in Tennessee. Mr. Allan Weaver's family consists of six living children, two having died: Eliza J. (deceased), born September 15, 1866; William A., born September 7, 1867; Margaret E., born October 3. 1862 (deceased); Joseph L., born August 15. 1870; Delila D., born March 21, 1873; Joseph N. born April 14, 1876; John W., bom December 12, 1877, and Orlean S. born November 26. 1881. died November 28, 1883. Mr. Weaver enlisted, on the 12th of September, 1863, on the Federal side, in Company D, Tennessee Regiment of Light Artillery, and was discharged July 20, 1865, at Nashville. He was in the battle of Nashville, and numerous skirmishes. September 2, 1878, he was elected justice of the peace for North Township, and reelected in 1880 for another term, having been an able and efficient officer. In politics he is a Republican, but was formerly a Democrat. He owns 200 acres of land, having given forty to his son, William, who was recently married. Winsted post office was established at Mr. Weaver's house July 1, 1888, he being appointed postmaster. When he first located here the nearest postoffice was ten miles on Martin's Creek, called Red Bank, and his nearest neighbor two miles away. He and his wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church. On this farm are traces of an ancient silver mine, supposed to have been worked by the Spaniards.

J. M. Williams, proprietor and owner of Evening Shade carding factory and saw and corn-mills, was born in Sharp County, in 1858. His parents were John W. and Margaret (Worley) Williams, of North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively, who were married in Tennessee, and came to what is now Sharp County, about the year 1854. where they resided until the demise of the father, in 1871, and his wife, in 1888. Both were members of the Baptist faith for many years. The elder Williams fought in the Confederate army almost from the beginning to the end of the war, and had many a narrow escape from both death and the enemy, although on one occasion he was severely wounded, and at another time was captured. He was a son of Joseph Williams, of North Carolina; he was a member of the A. F. & A. M. Evening, Shade Lodge. Michael Worley Deitch, the grand-father of J. M. Williams, died in Tennessee, and was a well known resident of that State. J. M. Williams is the fourth son of three sons and five daughters, and did not receive much cdncation, owing to limited school facilities. He began farming for himself at the age of twenty years, and continued in that occupation for three years. He then turned his attention to milling, a business for which he seems to be especially adapted, and has remained at it ever since. In August, 1879, he was married to Sarah, daughter of Lewis Graddy, but lost his wife in 1884, and by this marriage had two children, one of them, a daughter, still living. In 1886 he was married to Mattie, daughter of John W. and Emma Bristow, natives of Boone County, Ark., who moved to Sharp County after the war, where Mrs. Bristow died. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Williams, of whom one daughter is still living. Mr. Williams is a member of the A. F. & A. M. (Evening Shade Lodge), and has been junior deacon for two years, and is also a member of the Order of Eastern Star. He is one of the most enterprising and popular citizens of Sharp County, and a man who takes every opportunity to make that county one of the most progressive in Arkansas.

Samuel Yates, farmer, of Union Township, six miles north of Martin's Creek postoffice, was born in East Tennessee, July 24, 1830; son of Nathaniel and Margaret (Davis) Yates, both natives of Tennessee, born in 1803 and 1805, respectively, where they each died. Nathaniel Yates was a soldier in the Revolutionary War. Our subject was the fourth of a family of seven children, live of whom are now living. He was raised in Tennessee, receiving his education in the common schools. In 1853 he married Miss Jane Davis, born in Tennessee in 1829, the daughter of Benjamin and Eleanor Davis, who both died in Tennessee. Mrs. Davis is the mother of eight children, all living: Eleandora (wife of C. C. Heaves), Mary M. (wife of Robert Wood), Nancy C. (wife of Broadfoot Wells), John, William (in Texas), Thomas A., Benjamin N. and John S. In 1871 Samuel Yates came to Independence County, Ark., resided there till 1881, when he removed to Sharp County, where he now lives. He has 160 acres of land, about fifty of which arc under cultivation. He is now serving his third term as justice of the peace of Union Township, and gives good satisfaction. He is a Democrat in politics. Mrs. Yates is a member of the Baptist Church.

Lemuel A. Yeagor, a well known and prominent farmer of Piney Fork Township, was born in White County, Tenn., in 1827. He is a son of Solomon and Nancy (Dearing) Yeager, born in East Tennessee and South Carolina, respectively, and married in White County, Tenn., where they resided until the year 1850, and then moved to what is now Sharp County. Ark., the father dying there in December, 1885, and the mother several years previous, both of them being members of the Baptist faith. The elder Yeager was a farmer, and for twelve years justice of the peace in White County, Tenn. He was afterward elected county and probate judge of Lawrence County, for two years, and for six years in the same capacity at Sharp County. He was a son of Solomon Yeager, of Virginia, who fought in the Revolution, and whose parents came originally from Germany to this country. Lemuel A. Yeager's grandfather, John W. Dearing, was a South Carolinian, who lived many years in White County, Tenn., and died in the northern part of Missouri. Lemuel was the second child of two sons and one daughter, and received a good common school education in his youth. He was married, in 1840, to Louisa, daughter of John and Elizabeth Robinson, of Virginia and North Carolina, respectively, who resided in White County, Tenn., when Mrs. Yeager was born. Nine children were the results of this marriage, of whom eight are still living. In 1850 Mr. Yeager and his family moved to what is now Sharp County, Ark., and, in 1861, settled on the farm where he now resides. The land was but very little improved at that period, and covered with timber, but since then he has cleared sixty acres, and put them under cultivation, and owns altogether about 240 acres. In 1868 he was elected sheriff of Lawrence County for four years, but when Sharp County was brought in he refused to move to Lawrence County, and resigned his office after one year's service. In politics, he was formerly a Whig, but is now a Republican.

* Quotations from North Arkansas Land Company's description of Sharp County