Articles From "The Crossing Place" Newsletter
Kwong Sing & Co. Casino
Written by Hilton Fatt
Frank Fatt came out from China in the late 1800's to work for his uncle in the department store in Glen Innes known as Kwong Sings. He could not read or write English and worked in the store till 1929. He met Laura and they were married and had four sons.
In 1929, with a growing family, he thought it time to spread his wings and so he moved to Casino, as it was the hub of the North Coast at the time because of its strong rural ties. He purchased a small fruit and vegetable store in Barker St where Westlawn is currently situated. At the time Casino had 3 major department stores. Being a keen storekeeper, business prospered even though it was the start of the Great Depression. To quell the sentiment that he was doing too well, he made light that monies were being forwarded from China, when in fact it was not.
In 1930 Oscar Fatt, Frank's eldest son, left school at 14, to assist in the growing business. As time passed all the other sons, Horrie, Aubrey, Ronnie and daughter Elaine worked in the business. They had the motto of "the noted cheap store" and "we can supply everything from a needle to an anchor". In the middle of World War 2, Oscar married Norma Wong and business prospered due to Oscar's strong networking in getting stocks in short supply.
In 1952, on land purchased at 96 Barker St, Kwong Sings was elevated to a major department store. This is where the Kwong Sings Arcade currently stands. All departments were catered for. Some of the departments were milkbar, hardware, groceries, mercery, haberdashery, manchester, ladies wear, footwear, electrical, etc.
In 1958, where DIY Hardware currently stands, Kwong Sings was expanded, with the drapery moved to the building at 98 Barker St. All ladies departments, manchester and furnishings was moved to this buildings with portals for the free movement of traffic from one store to the other. At this stage Kwong Sings employed about 60 fulltime staff. The use of "casuals" or "part time" was unheard of.
With the onslaught of self selection Kwong Sings opened Casino's first super market in 1964. The remaining brothers in the business, Oscar, Horrie and Ronnie have always been able to maintain the business due to their open outlook on trends and fashions.
In the early 70's with the advent of 4 weeks holiday pay and loading, plus the move by K Mart and more specialistretail moving into country areas, department stores were the new dinosaurs. Oscar understood that retail was becoming more specialised and in 1975 it was decided to downsize certain departments into business's, running from individual stores in an arcade which was erected down the centre of the main building at 96 Barker St. The building at 98 Barker St which housed the drapery was leased to the supermarket chain, Cut Price Stores.
During the 70's the family tried its hand at importing dry goods from China via Hong Kong. This had a moderate degree of success but was too time consuming for the ageing brothers. The family continued to run certain businesses in the arcade, whilst leasing out the other stores.
Hilton, Oscar's oldest son returned to the business in 1980 due to Horrie's pending retirement and Oscar’s relocation to Sydney to be near family. The businesses were maintained through the 80's with the introduction of video rental and photo processing. Other stores still run by the family were menswear, footwear, manchester, kidswear, ladies sleepwear and lingerie.
As time has marched on the business has changed again in the 90's with the closure of the video rental. With the death of Ronnie and a lessening demand from the family, a downsizing of the business has taken place. In 2004 after almost 30 years as a supermarket the store at 98 Barker St was leased to a Thrifty Link franchise. It is known as DIY Hardware Casino. In 2007 the Kidswear business was sold off with the space used to accommodate the expansion of the family footwear business. In the same year the menswear store, which was more like a surf store, was sold to a loyal staff member of 22 years, Tony Laarhoven.
2010 was another year of change with the ladies sleepwear and lingerie shop being moved over to the front of the arcade after the closure of the rented cafe. The surf shop was also moved to the front of the arcade.
At present Kwong Sings run business' comprise a large family footwear store and ladies lingerie, sleepwear, manchester store.
In late 2010, Hilton's youngest daughter, Sabina, was instrumental in the purchase of a specialist card and gift store in Balgowlah, Sydney. Known as Pulp Creative Paper it is Kwong Sings foray into internet selling and has established Sabina as a fourth generation shopkeeper.
Kwong Sing & Co did a lot for the charities of the area and each year ran Kwong Sings Ball.
Kwong Sing & Co. were responsible for sending 300 x £100.0.0 Christmas parcels to all the boys from the Casino District fighting all over the world and in Australia during WW2.
Did you Know? Jeffrey Wayne "Jeff" Fatt AM, is a son of Oscar Fatt. He is a Chinese Australian musician and actor and is best known as a member of the children's band The Wiggles and the 1980s and 90s band The Cockroaches. As part of the Wiggles, Fatt became one of the "most popular Asian performers in the world. As a Wiggle, Fatt wears a purple shirt. He originated the Wiggles character Henry the Octopus, and performed his voice when other actors took over the role. His gimmick is sleeping at odd times, which led to a Wiggles' catch-phrase and the title of one of their songs, "Wake Up, Jeff!" Fatt is the oldest Wiggle and is well-known for his "laid-back personality".
Life 50-60 Years Ago
Written by Leticia Wilkes after interviewing her Grandparents Barbara & Rex Wilkes for a school project. She was asked to talk to people who could remember what life was like 50 or 60 years ago, and to find out how food and our eating habits have changed over the years.
Grandpa was born in 1930 in The Great Depression. There was huge financial turmoil all over the world. In America prices of shares on the Wall Street Stock Exchange had collapsed and Banks and Governments ran out of money. Millions of people lost their jobs and the governments in those days did not pay Social Security Pensions! If you were sick or out of work you got no money. People could not pay off their homes or pay their rent so they were evicted and had to live in tents. There was one big "tent city" in Casino in the park where the BMX track is now and another out at Piora.
Grandpa's parents lived in a tent outside Kyogle and because there was no car to take his Mum to hospital (and probably no money to pay for the hospital!) the midwife came in her horse and sulky, to deliver the baby. Living in a country town like Kyogle or Casino did have advantages that people living in the slums in big cities did not have. In country towns people usually had a big back yard where they could have a garden, a place for some chooks and even room to keep a cow. For those who did not have space in their back yard there was land set aside as a "Town Common" where people could keep a cow or run their horse. Until very recent times the Casino Common was on the land that is now used for the Miniature Railway Track.
Very few people had a car . Grandpa's parents never owned one. "We had one but it was only for my father to get to his place of work. My mother like many women of her era never learnt to drive".
Not many people had a refrigerator. Most homes had an ice chest and the ice man would deliver a block of ice each day if you lived it town. One block just fitted in the top of the ice chest and on very hot days it would probably be melted away before the next delivery. You had to remember to empty the drip tray regularly or the melt water ran on to the floor! There was no way to keep icecream! If you lived in the country you might have had a coolgardie safe which kept the food inside cool by the evaporation of water from wet hessian bags draped all around it. Some times food such as a water melon or butter (in a tightly sealed tin), could be put in a hessian bag with the top tied tightly and lowered into the well. A couple of days down in the cold water worked wonders.
There were no supermarkets. There were lots of small grocery stores within easy walking distance where ever you lived. They would have had a refrigerator so you could easily walk there after you had eaten your meat and vegies, and buy a cardboard carton of ice-cream for dessert. The grocery shop was very different to the supermarket of today! You did not choose the things you wanted off the shelves. You stood on one side of the counter and the shop keeper got the items you asked for, or weighed out the amount you wanted of flour or sugar or vegetables. You put them in your basket or string bag and walked home with them. You could give the grocer an order and that would be delivered to you. In the country the cream carrier who came out to pick up the cans of milk and cream from the farms, would deliver your order to the cream box on the road side. He would also bring fresh bread two or three times a week! It was not sliced or wrapped in plastic. In town the bakers delivery man would put what he thought you might want in his big basket and bring it from his delivery van into your kitchen for you to choose what you wanted.
Lots of things we take for granted these days were not available or had not been invented. There was no such thing as a plastic bag. Some things such as tea came pre-packed in cardboard boxes or big tins. There was no such thing as a tea bag! You put the tea leaves in a teapot, added the boiling water then let it infuse before pouring it into a cup.
Flour came in fabric "flour bags" and when the bag was empty it was washed well and the material was used to make children's undies. You were lucky if the printing on the bag was removed in the washing process otherwise you might have had "Defiance Flour" where today young people think it is trendy to have a "smart remark". Larger quantities of flour came in closely woven, heavy hessian bags. These were greatly prized as they were waterproof and when folded in half like a child's pixi hood and put on your head they covered the your shoulders and back and kept you really dry but left your arms free to work. Well washed and stitched together, they were covered with some pretty curtain fabric and became a warm (but heavy!) blanket for your bed. There was a very big flour mill in the town of Wagga Wagga in southern NSW, and their bags would have had the name of the town stamped on them. This type of blanket became so common that today any hessian blanket is called a Wagga.
Sugar came to the shop in a big finely woven hessian bag and the amount you wanted was weighed into a brown paper bag by the shop keeper. The sugar bags were also prized. They could be turned into rough hand towels or used as a base through which you threaded scraps of wool or strips of cloth, to make warm bedside mats.
Before Grandpa turned ten, World War 11 started and millions of young men became soldiers and left to fight on battlefields all over the world. To make sure there was plenty of food and resources for them the government introduced laws which restricted the amount of petrol the people could purchase. Farmers and other essential services got the most but the general public was allowed only a very limited amount. The consumption of certain foods, such as butter, sugar, tea and meat was also strictly controlled. Each person was issued with ration books for those items and you could not purchase any without handing over a coupon from your book. Honey became very popular as a replacement for sugar and bartering and swapping became common. rabbits were in plague proportions and people in the country could go rabbit trapping to extend their limited meat ration. Most mothers knew lots of ways to cook rabbit or a pair of rabbits could be sold to the neighbor or the butcher to make some pocket money. Keeping a house cow or chooks in the backyard was even more popular than before and everyone had a choko vine and some fruit trees growing.
Coupons were also vital for the purchase of fabric items, such as dress materials, clothing, towels, sheets and blankets. Lollies were a rare treat and most children wore clothing that was either a "hand me down" or made from the best parts of a grown up's castoff clothing.
As a child growing up in those difficult times was just so different to the free and easy life today. You ate what you were given and in our house if I would not eat what was on my plate at the evening meal it was put in the ice-chest to be eaten before I got my next meal. I quickly learned to like whatever I was given as it tasted better first time round! You were not allowed to waste food. We did not have the huge range of choices available today. we never went to restaurants. Some of the big department shops in the city had cafeterias where you could have a meal if you were in town for the day. You could choose a meal already set on a plate and pay the cashier and take it to the table to eat. In a way it was like McDonalds is today but there was no McDonalds then.
We did not have canteens at school but one day a week the pie man would come to the school I went to in Brisbane. He had a small utility truck with a pie warmer in the back. This had a wood fire in the base which he had to keep stoking to keep the pies hot. If you were lucky and had lots of pocket money you could have mushy peas and potato too! Ordinary school lunches were usually sandwiches spread with peanut paste, vegemite or jam. They were wrapped in lunch paper and packed in a tin. There was no plastic to safely carry a drink. Glass bottles were too dangerous so we had water from the bubbler or had fruit.
"Almost everyone had a pushbike and lots of children rode home to have their lunch. Even years after the War finished people working in the shops in Casino rode their bike to work and would ride home to have lunch".
During the War, as well as the restrictions on the use of petrol and the difficulties imposed with the use of coupons, one other restriction governed people's lives. You were not allowed to have light showing. Car lights had shades over them and the windows in houses had heavy blackout curtains. You were in big trouble if you showed any light which could give the enemy a target to attack. To save money the owners of some houses painted the glass black. A house we were renting after the war still had the black paint embedded in the fancy floral pattern of glass windows. It was impossible to remove!
It was a very different world back then. Let's hope we never have to go back to times like that again!
Rev. Charles Ferdinand Brigstocke(1808-1869)
Maternal Great Grandfather of (Member) Ian Campbell
Born at Llawhaddon Vicarage, Wales, on 9th April, 1808 the ninth child and seventh son of The Reverend Thomas BRIGSTOCKE and his wife Elizabeth, nee PHELPS. He was educated for the church at St. David's College, Lampeter, and ordained by the Bishop of Worcester. His first appointment was to Bristol, and then as a curate to the Rev. Dr. Humphrey, at Tenby. With a recommendation from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and the approval of the bishop of London, he was appointed a chaplain in New South Wales on 31st March, 1838 by the Colonial Office, with an allowance of £150 ($300) for outfitting and passage.
He arrived in Sydney on 5th December, 1838 on the barque "Fairlie", having for fellow passengers Major-General Sir Maurice O'Connell, Lady O'Connell and family. His stipend of £150 p.a. ($300) began on his arrival and he was appointed under the Colonial Government to the Diocese of Sydney on the 6th December, 1838. Numerour references state that he was stationed for some time at Ryde before being sent by Bishop Broughton to the new Parish of Yass as an itinerant missionary. His period at Ryde could only have been for, at the most 3 weeks, as it took four or five days to get to Yass and the first entry in the registers is the burial at Murrumbateman of Joseph Park on the 8th January, 1839.
When he arrived at Yass there was neither church nor parsonage and his stipend included £80 p.a. ($180) for forage for 2 horses and 60 p.a. ($120) for a house until he has one of his own, he lived in a hut. Although he was, in March, 1839, appointed as Secretary to the Yass Church Fund services were conducted until 1840 in the old Court House, then in a temporary church which was situated on what is locally known as Mud Island. He was also appointed as Secretary of the Yass Subscription Library
He was appointment as surrogate for granting marriage licences on 20th March 1840. Services were conducted on three Sundays a month in Yass and he visited widely scattered stations and town in a district which included Tumut, Gundagai, Binalong, Boorowa, Adelong and Tarcutta. Like other itinerant ministers at Queanbeyan and Collector he sometimes served in the 'no-man's land' outside his district, and in 1840 Bishop Broughton lamenting the lack of religious instruction in the young, the apathy of the adults and the absence of regular church services, referred to the immense size of Brigstocke's task and the need to divide his parish.
The Census of 1841 shows him living in Rossi Street, close by the site of the present parsonage, and shows 4 males aged between 21 and 45 and one boy aged between 7 and 14, one was born in the colony, one arrived free and three were in private assignment, all were anglicans. One was described as a professional person, two were domestic servants - shepherds or gardeners etc.
About the end of 1841 an anonymous letter appeared in the Sydney Herald charging Mr. Cornelius O'Brien ' with breaking the Sabbath and countenancing moral laxity in the neighbourhood by riding the hounds on the Sabbath'. Rumour attributed this letter to Brigstocke and Mr. O'Brien brought an action against him and got a verdict for £50. When the case appeared in the Herald on 1st March, 1842 the Bishop at once took action and Mr. Brigstocke was cited to appear at St. James' Church vestry, and show to the Revs. Allwood, Clarke, Turner, Bobart and Forrest that he believed the assertions made in the anonymous letter were true. These gentlemen, after examining four witnesses and hearing the depositions of three others, decided that he had grounds for so believing, and accordingly acquitted him, at the same time expressing their regret that he should have published anonymously a letter containing such grave and serious charges. This trial was declared informal.
On 19th May, 1843 his licence was suspended by Bishop Broughton 'for the period during which an investigation will be made into charges preferred against him by Richard Hardy, Esq., Justice of the Peace, in a letter to His Excellency the Governor'. On 29th May Rev. William Lisle was licensed as locum tenens at Yass and Revs. Allwood, Hassall, Forrest, Wood and Stone were appointed as commissioners of inquiry. They sat in Berrima in September to carry out a 'careful comparison between the handwriting and peculiarities of the said letter and the usual style and character of the avowed handwriting of Brigstocke'. They found that although there was considerable suspicion there also was insufficient evidence that he had written the letter, and they recommended that the Bishop take no further proceedings. Brigstocke was reinstated as incumbent at Yass in January, 1844. He won an action in the Supreme Court for malicious libel, but was awarded damages of only one farthing (about a quarter of a cent) instead of the £1000 ($2000) he claimed.
At Yass on 9th April, 1844 he was married by the Rev. Wm. Sowerby to Susan, daughter of Dr William ADYE and his wife Harriet, nee HOWELL who had arrived in Sydney in October, 1841 with their family and settled at "Boambolo", Murrumbidgee.
Although several other ministers were appointed to the southern districts, his parish remained very large. In June 1845 he was allowed £13 ($26) for religious instruction in remote districts and in April 1846 an additional £15 ($30) for the religious instruction of convicts at Yass.
Apart from his clerical calling he was involved in many other civic activities and records show:- "12th October, 1847, Signed request to Henry O'Brien to call a meeting to discuss erection of first Yass Hospital -- 14th October, 1847, Meeting re trustees and contributions to church building fund -- 21st October, 1847, Attend meeting to discuss proposed hospital -- 26th July, 1848, Signed request to Henry O'Brien to call a public meeting to discuss the claims of small agricultural settlers - 15th August, 1848, Present at meeting to discuss price of Crown Lands and to petition the Queen, also signed letter to Hamilton Hume re the request -- 20th January, 1849, Elected to Hospital Committee - 17th April, 1849, Together with Noel Chapman (Policeman), sureties for John Styles, the Clerk of Petty Sessions (The purpose of the surety not stated) - In 1850 was active in the movement to have a bridge constructed over the Yass River.
The foundation stone St. Clement's, to be built to the design of E. T. Blacket, was reported in the Sydney Morning Herald of 4th December, 1847 as having been laid. The opening being on 30th March, 1850, and Brigstocke was also responsible for the building of a rectory and school. His salary from the Government was now £200 p.a. ($400), £ 42/10/- ($85) forage allowance and a rectory.
On 17th July, 1852 he visited Gundagai after the catastrophic flood when the Murrumbidgee River completely washed away the village and buried the seventy three inhabitants who were drowned.
He was active in the Yass Mechanics' Institute in 1857, owned 9 blocks of land at what is now North Yass and although his salary was increased in 1858 to £ 266/131- p.a. ($533.30), plus the rectory, he was not well off.
His death occured at the Rectory on 11th October, 1859 aged 51 years after a lengthy illness, and having been incumbent for 20 years. His wife and five of their seven children survived him, the youngest child not being quite two years of age.
He is buried outside the vestry door of St. Clement's Church in what is termed a prismatic tomb on the side of which is inscribed: Charles Ferdinand Brigstocke, Clerk. Died Oct. X1th. A.D. MDCCCLIX, Aged L1 years.
And on the reverse side, "The Memory of the Just is Blessed".
A subscription fund was opened for Memorial Plaques, which are inside the church, his headstone and a residence for his family.Written & Submitted by Ian Campbell
Centenarian Lillian Maria Knight 1911-2011
Written & Submitted by Cherryl Mison
When I began to write this story it was to be a celebration of the fact that my husbands aunt had reached the amazing age of 100. Unfortunately within hours of speaking to her son to try and get a little more information about her life I received a phone call informing me of her death. I was then asked if I would deliver the eulogy at her funeral and so my story became a eulogy.
Aunty Lil was born Lillian Maria Knight on 22.03.1911, the 2nd child of Eli and Louisa Knight at Casino. She spent her early years on the family dairy farm at Dobies Bight. Along with her brother, Frank and sisters Hazel, Pearl, Ivy, Ruby and Myrtle (who have all pre-deceased her) she helped her parents on the farm. She attended The Bend Primary School. On the 12th September 1936 she married Ronald Thomas (who was known as Don) and moved to Tatham where she and Don share farmed with Don’s parents and later with Don’s brother Lou (who had married her sister Ruby) until Lou and Ruby moved to the farm next door. Don’s parents had moved to the beach and many weekends were spent there visiting. I am told she loved the beach. She loved farm life and the farm animals especially her ducks, chooks and turkeys.
She and Don raised 3 children Allen, Neil and Narelle. She led a busy life helping Don run their farm but still found time for family and friends, continuing to enjoy country dances and breeding and raising race horses with some success.
After the death of her husband in 1977 and her son Allen in 2005 Lil moved to the BCS Mid Richmond Services Nursing Home at Coraki. She has happily spent the last few years there and looked upon it as her home.
She saw many changes in her life time. She rode a horse to school on a gravel road. She would have learnt to cook on a wood stove, had to help milk by hand, not had a telephone and to get the 8km to town she would have had to ride a horse or take a horse and sulky. Entertainment would have been listening to the radio, playing cards or going to dances (where we believe she met Don).
Neil remembers his mother as someone who was always ready to lend a helping hand and if you turned up at meal time there was always room made at the table.
Narelle told me of the many wonderful and happy memories she and her family have of Aunty Lil going on holidays with them up the Queensland coast. She wasn’t passed hopping on a train and going to Narelle and Ross where ever they might be living and spend a week or two with them and the girls. Selena, Shannon and Nicole have been remembering these times and admit they gave their Nanna a bit of a hard time playing jokes on her during these visits. I think she would have thoroughly enjoyed the time she spent with them. She celebrated her 100th Birthday surrounded by family and friends at Coraki and on the morning of her birthday she was heard to say "I made it".
Aunty Lil is survived by her son Neil, daughter Nacelle, granddaughters Jeanette, Selena, Shannon and Nicole, 10 great grandchildren and 2 great great grandchildren. (She will also be sadly missed by Allen’s stepchildren Graham, Bruce and families.)
A true lady she attributed her long life to the fact that she worked hard and never smoked.
Protect your Family from Identity Fraud
Written by Lorrie Barzdo for the Caloundra Clipper Newsletter Nov. 2010
This explanation of Identity Fraud is worth passing on.
Perhaps it hasn't happened to you or those you know yet, but fraudulent use of information including full names, dates and places of birth are very sensitive issues in the community today. Why make it easier for unscrupulous crooks to obtain your information?
At a recent meeting of our Family History Society, a representative of the Police Fraud Squad gave all a shakeup when explaining how the current wave of crooks don't break into your house these days to steal your plasma TV but to grab a few bills off the fridge or office desk to get your bank details, names and addresses and other identity information. He also gave severe warnings of posting full details of your family on the internet in one of many of the commercial Family History sites.
A name and birth details can often be used to apply for a birth certificate, then a driver's licence, bank account and then to full identity information. Suddenly, you have lost your identity!
I don't have any problem with people submitting perhaps the 'bare bones' of present day family, e.g. just your first and last name, country of birth and year, same for your parents and grandparents and then maybe having extra information for far older generations. However, beware if you make a Gedcom (or .ged file) from your genealogy software program and send it straight to a web page, or to a friend or distant family member, who ignores your request to not share it all with the world. It could easily be added to their tree on Ancestry, Findmypast, GenesReunited or one of many other sites, in the blink of an eye. When it's gone, it has gone.
Here are some tips on how to add some protection -
If you want to transmit data from your computer program, first temporarily "privatise" your tree, (always read the Help Section of any of these programs), select the part or branch that you want to share and then create a Gedcom or .ged file. After you have saved this type of file, you can go back to your main file and "unprivatise" to
go back to normal.
Privatising means that names and data for those who could be still alive will not be shown. For example, if your Aunty Jane was born in 1928 and you haven't included a death date in your data because she is either still alive or you don't know when she died, she will only be shown as a "living individual" attached to her parents.
The same "protection" will apply for yourself, your children and grandchildren.
An option - If you don't wish to go to the full extent of sending someone a gedcom file, which I rarely do for anyone these days, because it can be easily and simply added to another person's tree, then do the following:
You can just share small parts of your tree or information in a 'Word' document as a text file that you can copy easily from most genealogy software programs.
Copy a "text report' of part of your tree into 'MS. Word' or your text program and then "prune the tree" and take out the twigs or side branches that you don't want to send to someone. If they want to put some of that data into their tree, then they will have to type it in themselves and hopefully check that theirs matches correctly when doing so!
Remember that in many countries now, it is illegal for you to give out personal details about
anyone, unless you have their written permission.
Would you like the details of your previous marriage, other children, parents and their personal details out there for the entire world to see? This doesn't mean you can't share your information, but just a warning to be careful and vigilant about what and with whom you do share.
If you are doing your research in a sensible and correct manner, you will have spent some (or even quite a lot of) money and time on your hobby, or shall we call it your obsession?
Only pass your information along knowing how and where it will be used.
The Old Petrol Tin
An item that once was so common, but today is so seldom seen
Is the four gallon tin used for petrol, and its ditto to hold kerosene
After these tins had been emptied, they were used in so many ways
How they played such a major part, back in those good old days
They were made into buckets and dishes, and household utensils galore;
For feed troughs out in the chook yard, and ornaments beside the front door
They were sat on the fence for a mailbox, out in the country towns
And made into excellent flytraps' out in the western downs
The tinkers who travelled the country, in the depression days
All made use of this grand old tin when making their gadgets and trays
You would find them along any roadway where a driver had filled up his car
Or in any pub you might visit for a slop bucket under the bar
You used them for boiling the washing, in the days before washing machines
When everything had to be scrubbed by hand and wrung by primitive means
They were made into food bins for storage of flour, sugar, dried fruits and tea
When you bought your groceries in bulk lots and for small goods whatever they be
And the cases these tins were packed in were made from the best grade of pine
These were made useful in so many ways back in the pre-war time
For furniture, cupboards and shelving and repairs to be done round the place
You were never short of timber or nails when you had an old petrol case
Now I think over these years gone by and remember the things that we did
How we managed in so many ways to get the most out of a quid
Below: Wash up dish
Right: During the Great Depression, people lost their homes and were forced to 'make
do' as best they could. Some built their own huts using saplings for the frame and flattened and folded kero tins for the walls and roof