|The Burgenland Bunch Genealogy Group
Genealogists researching the multi-ethnic heritage of the Burgenland of Austria and adjoining areas of former West Hungary.
Subject: [BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER-L] BB News No. 113 dtd Dec. 31, 2002
Date: Tue, 31 Dec 2002 08:05:52 EST
THE BURGENLAND BUNCH NEWS -No. 113 DEDICATED TO AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN BURGENLAND FAMILY HISTORY (Issued monthly by Gberghold@AOL.com) December 31, 2002 (c) 2002 G. J. Berghold-all rights reserved) HAPPY NEW YEAR! NEXT NEWSLETTER JANUARY 31, 2003. ***BE SURE TO READ "HISTORY OF POPPENDORF" TRANSLATED BY FRITZ KÖNIGSHOFER (NEWSLETTERS 113A & B)-A GLIMPSE OF BURGENLAND DURING OUR ANCESTORS' TIME. RECIPIENTS PLEASE READ: You are receiving this email because you are a BB member or have asked to be added to our distribution list. If you wish to discontinue these newsletters, email Gberghold@AOL.com with message "remove". ("Cancel" will cancel membership, homepage listings and mail.) Send address and listing changes to the same place. Sign your email with your full name and include BB in the subject line. Send no attachments or graphics unless well known to me. Please keep changes to a minimum. To join the BB, see our homepage. We can't help with non-Burgenland family history. Appropriate comments and articles are appreciated. Our staff and web site addresses are listed at the end of newsletter section "C". Introductions, notes and articles without a by-line are written by the editor and reflect his views. Please exchange data in a courteous and cooperative manner-not to do so defeats the purpose of our organization. ***NOTICE-KLAUS GERGER NEEDS SOME HELP. HAVE YOU SCANNED HIS WONDERFUL HOUSE LISTS AVAILABLE FROM THE BB HOMEPAGE? IF YOU'D LIKE TO SEE MORE, CONSIDER HELPING HIM (ESPECIALLY IF YOU ARE RESEARCHING THE OBERWART REGION). KLAUS WRITES: "Due to many requests I will continue the "House List" series with Oberwart district. I started taking pictures of the lists but at the moment I have not time to enter the names into the PC. I would be glad if I could find volunteers for help." Burgenland Co-Editor & BG liaison: email@example.com (Klaus Gerger, Austria) ***TABLE OF CONTENTS*** This first section of our 4-section newsletter includes: 1. Mogersdorf/Mayer & Korpitsch Families -Bob Strauch & Denny Mayer 2. Splitter From Rust-Gerhard Lang 3. Splitter Re Rhine-Mosel River Trip-Elaine Grace 4. Croatian Holiday Traditions-Margaret Kaiser 5. German Names of Present Hungarian Villages 1. MOGERSDORF/MAYER & KORPITSCH FAMILIES (from Bob Strauch and Denny Mayer) *Bob Strauch writes: I've corresponded with BB-member Denny Mayer from North Carolina. His grandparents also lived on Jordan St. in Allentown, PA. * Original Message ----- From: denny mayer , To: firstname.lastname@example.org October 31, 2002 , Subject: Allentown Robert, as a child in the 1940's I had many friends from your neighborhood. My grandparents were Frank Maier and Augusta Korpitsch both from Burgenland. They lived on Jordan Street and attended the various ethnic clubs. My father was Roland Mayer. Any chance your family knew any of them? *From: "Bob Strauch" To: "denny mayer" Subject: Re: Allentown 4 Nov 2002 I do know of several local Mayers with Mogersdorf connections. This past summer at one of the local picnics I was introduced to an Esther Lentz (I think from Allentown), whose mother was a Mayer from Mogersdorf. Esther said her grandfather had been mayor of the village. Also, my mother remembers having contact with a Steve Mayer whose people were from Mogersdorf, but this was over 10 years ago and she can't even recall how she knew him. As for the Korpitsch name, I have an acquaintance that lives down in Coopersburg named Rosi Dalkner, née Korpitsch, who came to Allentown from Mogersdorf in the 1960's. She's married to John Dalkner, whose parents came here from Dobersdorf in the 1920's. I also know the name Korpics from Bethlehem, but those people came from ethnically Slovenian/"Windish" villages still located in Hungary, just across the border from Mogersdorf: . They come from Rábatótfalu (Windischdorf) and Szakonyfalu (Eckersdorf), where the name is still common. It's also been found in Mogersdorf for quite some time: the house list of 1857 contains 5 Korpitsch names.The "cs"-ending is the Hungarian equivalent of the Germanized "tsch". Rosi Dalkner once mentioned hearing someone in her family say something about her Korpitsch ancestors (her grandfather?) originally coming from thereand moving to Mogersdorf. Also, there's a folk, orchestra popular in the Slovenian/"Windish" villages across the border in Hungary called the " Korpicova Banda", led by Ladislaus (Laszlo, or "Laci" for short) Korpics. For examples of their music (mp3), go to www.slovenpages.hu. Choose a language ("SLO" or "HUN"), then "KULTURA", and then either "Lacija Korpica" or "Korpics Laci", depending on language chosen. The first 8 or 9 mp3's are of the Korpics band, the rest are of the Avgust Pavel Slovenian Chorus from Felsöszölnök/Oberzemming. Here's a strange coincidence: Last night I was reading the latest issue of the Burgenländische Gemeinschaft ("BG") newspaper, which arrived last week. I am one of the Lehigh Valley reps for the BG. They have a column which names and profiles the first known emigrants to leave the various Burgenland villages ("Erstausawanderer"). Mogersdorf is among the villages this time. I'll translate the paragraph for you: "The first emigrant to America from Mogersdorf was Franz Maier (house # 96) in 1890. He went to Allentown, as did almost all the other emigrants of this time. His son Franz (1876-1937) also went to Pennsylvania and was married to Rosa Korpitsch, from Mogersdorf, House # 89 (housename "Türk" - housenames were nicknames given to houses to distinguish among families with the same name). After her death, he married her sister Augusta (1883-1937)." The secretary at the BG office in Güssing is Renate Dolmanits, née Ehritz, who is a native of Mogersdorf and still lives there. Her husband Walter is the mayor of Mogersdorf. I will forward your e-mail to her. Maybe she'll know if you have any relatives still there. I will also try to find out from Rosi Dalkner whether or not their might be a connection. * From: denny mayer To: email@example.com November 05, 2002 Subject: Turk House ....thanks! Our family always understood that our house was referred to as the "Turk" house because it was located at the site of a famous battle with the Turks. My grandmother said the government considered making it a memorial but it was torn down instead. We all understood ourselves to be German, but my father had black curly hair. When I would ask him where it came from he would laugh and say that it must have come from the Turks. Was our house referred to as the Turk house because of a genetic connection with Turkish people? I have recently become under the impression that "itsch" endings are Croatian. Would you have any opinion as to our ethnicity? *From: Bob Strauch , To: denny mayer , November 05, 2002 Subject: Re: Turk House Mogersdorf was the site of a very famous battle where the Turks were defeated. I have a booklet (in German) detailing every step of the battle, from the build-up to the aftermath. The memorial to the battle is on a hill above the town. The way Renate talked, the Türk house is still standing (or maybe a new house was built on the same site). The housename probably does hark back to that period. Who knows, maybe one of the Turkish soldiers defected to or collaborated with the European forces, survived the battle and settled in the village? Maybe somebody in town will have an idea as to how the housename originated. I think of Korpitsch as a Slovenian/"Windish name. Like I said, there are many Korpics' in the ethnic Slovenian villages across the border in Hungary. One must have moved to Mogersdorf. Since Mogersdorf was German-speaking, they would have been assimilated and the Slovenian identity and language would have been lost. There are many Burgenländers with Croatian names who insist until they are blue in the face that they aren't Croatian. The main reason being that they don't speak Croatian. But then there was also a stigma attached to being a Croatian. Nevertheless, it is still one's family background, whether or not they know the language. *From: "Bob Strauch" To: "denny mayer" Subject: Re: Allentown 5 Nov 2002 Talked with BG secretary Renate Dolmanits this morning. She seemed to think there might be a connection between you and Rosi Dalkner, in that Rosi's Korpitsch people (several generations back) possibly also came from House # 89 (housename "Türk"). Renate said she'll ask some of the elderly people in town about what they remember, also to see if there might be a connection between your people and any Mayers still living in Mogersdorf. Since your great-grandfather was the first Mogersdorfer to leave for America, maybe his name has become a part of the "village folklore". I have a copy of a yearbook from 1951 called (in English) "German-Hungarian Family Calendar: a Yearbook for Germans from Banat, Batschka, Burgenland, Slavonia, Hungary, and Austria in America". In other words, for Germans that came from areas not only in present-day Hungary, but also areas formerly part of Hungary but now in Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Austria. It was published by a newspaper from Chicago called the "Heimatbote" (Homeland Messenger). At the back of the yearbook is a listing of subscribers, organized geographically, with hometowns and addresses included. In the Allentown/PA section I notice 3 Mayers, all originally from Mogersdorf: Mayer, Adolf, from Mogersdorf, Bgld., 316 Railroad Street. Mayer, Adolf, and mother, Theresia, née Deutsch from Mogersdorf, Bgld., 316 Railroad Street. Mayer, John, and Rose Lederer, both from Mogersdorf, Bgld., 547 Park St. Possibly relatives? *From: denny mayer Bob, I can't thank you enough for the time and effort you have spent on my behalf. The news you sent me was exciting and stunning. Your continuing efforts mentioned in your last paragraph are very much appreciated 2. SPLITTER FROM GERHARD LANG (from Rust- received in October) Last week I was elected chairman of the musical district of Eisenstadt ("Bezirksobmann"). It will cost some of my time, visiting the orchestras and their concerts and there is also some administrative work to do. With "Singkreis Grosshöflein" (Grosshöflein choir) we supplied music for today's church service. A nun celebrated the jubilee of her "golden profess" (in the fraternity for 50 years). She comes from Grosshöflein. Pater Leopold Prizelitz and the local priest Msgr. Haider - celebrated high mass and afterwards I had the chance to talk with Pater Leopold. I told him about translating and sending his articles of Grosshöflein to you and thanked him for his permission to do that. He was really pleased and asked me to send his greetings and best wishes to BB-members. He told me about his travels to the U.S.A. Last week Martina's (Lang) Grandmother Fiedler died in her 94th year. She was bedridden for a few months. Today was one of our first misty days, Autumn is here. Yesterday I was out playing for a birthday party, back home at 4:00 in the morning and up at 8:00 to attend Singkreis for the mass. After the mass the choir-members were invited for lunch - one of the members had his 50th birthday and invited us to a local "Heurigen". They served liver-dumpling and "frittaten"-soup, Schnitzel, roast pork, roast chicken (and - never seen before at an inn: roast apples!!!), rice and French fries, home made coleslaw and "Erdäpfelsalat" (potato salad). For dessert we had "Kardinalschnitten" (made from biscuit pastry, whipped cream and - what they call "Eischnee" = whipped egg white- put together with some currant jelly. That's my favorite pastry! I guess I'll have Martina prepare some on your next visit!!! Later on I had to vote - today was election day for Austrian parliament. 3. SPLITTER FROM Elaine Grace, Subj:Comments on Rhine Mosel River Trip -GRABERTELA@aol.com My husband and I enjoyed your write-up on your recent trip with Grand Circle. We were on the same trip, starting in Lucerne on August 13, then on the River Rhapsody to Antwerp. It was definitely one of the best trips we have been on. We were in Vienna several years ago on a Go Ahead Trip and only had 2 days in Austria. We did not get to Burgenland to visit my grandparents homes in Deutsch Tschand. and Tobaj because of difficulties with transportation but had dinner with Klaus Gerger and spent a wonderful evening with him. We have booked a trip with GC for next August, the one from Paris to Nice. Thanks for doing all the work with the BB and the newsletter. I have learned a lot of my family history and am at a stand-still right now. I have also been in contact with several relatives of my grandparents thru the BB. We did not know of each other until our names were listed with you. Hope to see you on a future trip with Grand Circle. 4. AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN CROATIAN HOLIDAY TRADITIONS From: Margaret Kaiser. Burgenlaenderin@aol.com I received this from the Austro-Hungarian Rootsweb list. Perhaps the Croatian Heritage Museum would be of interest to some of the BB members. Message Board URL: http://boards.ancestry.com/mbexec/msg/an/jgC.2ACI/282 Message Board Post: The Croatian Heritage Museum located in Eastlake Ohio helps keep Croatian holiday customs alive by creating an exhibit each Christmas season. The exhibit includes a large jaslica (manager) with figures dressed in historic Croatian nos"nija (folkdress), a tree decorated with traditional ornaments which one may have found in the selos (villages) of Croatia as late as the early 1900s, a photo exhibit traditional holiday foods povitica (nutroll), burek , krus"kovac (pear brandy), mlince. We also have a full scale kuc"a as typical of those found in the selo, with mannequins dressed in beautiful antique nos"nija gathered around the Christmas table. Many items which can be purchased. The exhibit will open Sunday, December 1, from 1 PM to 5 PM. We will have live traditional music as well as some wine, cheese, kobasica, and homemade Croatian kolac". There is no charge and all are welcome - dobro nam dos"li! The exhibit will remain until after Orthodox Christmas. Hours are Friday evening from 7 PM to 10 PM and for the Christmas season, the museum will be open each Saturday evening and Sunday afternoon. The museum operates on gifts and donations and is staffed by volunteers. The Croatian Heritage Museum is located at: 34900 Lakeshore Blvd (at Rte. 91) 5. GERMAN NAMES OF HUNGARIAN VILLAGES One of the things that moved me to start the BB was the difficulty of locating villages whose names changed as a result of political shifts. I can usually find both by using a gazetteer (see newsletter archives) or Albert's list (from the BB Homepage), the on-line phone books, my Austrian and Hungarian atlases or even the LDS microfilm index. When the villages are not from Vas Megye but rather from Moson or Sopron (or some other Hungarian county)-you have to look at a lot of lists. If, after searching our lists, the village still eludes you, try asking us. Case in point is the member who asked where Leiden was located. I struck out and asked the staff. Hannes Graf replied: LEIDEN is the German name of LEBENY / Moson district. Newsletter continues as no. 113A.
Subject: [BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER-L] BB News No. 113A dtd. Dec. 31, 2002
Date: Tue, 31 Dec 2002 08:06:23 EST
THE BURGENLAND BUNCH NEWS -No. 113A DEDICATED TO AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN BURGENLAND FAMILY HISTORY (Issued monthly by Gberghold@AOL.com) December 31, 2002 (c) 2002 G. J. Berghold-all rights reserved This second section of our 4-section newsletter contains: HISTORY OF POPPENDORF (Part 1- by Fritz Königshofer) Preface My great-grandfather Adolf Königshofer was born into a family of teachers in Neudau, Styria, right at the historical border (Lafnitz river) between Austria and Hungary. He studied at the teacher preparation schools in Graz and Oberschützen. After finishing his education in 1882, he applied for a position in Olbendorf, then in Hungary, which meant that he also needed to apply for home rights in Olbendorf and Hungarian citizenship. He worked in Olbendorf till 1886, became schoolmaster in Gamischdorf where he worked till 1898, when he received his final appointment at the Roman Catholic elementary school in Poppendorf, succeeding the retired Emil Langasch, great-grandfather of Gerry Berghold. Poor health forced Adolf to retire in 1914. He died in Poppendorf in 1921, just before Burgenland came into existence as part of Austria. Adolf was a correspondent for Der Volksfreund, a German weekly published in Szombathely. Some of his contributions to the newspaper, especially his stories on emigration and on major events in Poppendorf, have already been published in earlier editions of the BB newsletter. In the unfortunately few personal effects we were able to save within our family, there is a manuscript of a "History of Poppendorf" which he must have worked on in the second decade of the 20th century. A first excerpt from this manuscript was published in issue 39A of the BB newsletter of July 15, 1998, an issue that was dedicated to the village of Poppendorf. It is important for readers to recognize that the following manuscript clearly was at an early stage (with the entire two sections about the time between 1872 and 1915/20 still missing), and that Adolf was a village teacher, not a historical scholar. Phrases in square brackets (including question marks) denote marginal notes by Adolf which he apparently planned to work on, or correct in, the next drafts, while normal parentheses are either as used by Adolf in the manuscript, or provided by my minimal interpretations (as should always be clear from the context). The following represents the entire saved manuscript and additional, clearly related sheets. History of Poppendorf (by Adolf Königshofer) (Transcribed and translated by his greatgrandson Fritz Königshofer, version of November 28, 2002) Introduction Poppendorf lies along the river Lafnitz at the left side of the Lafnitz valley, near the foot of a slowly rising chain of hills. The main street through the village leads toward Styria, passing over one stone bridge and two bridges of brick masonry. To the left and right of the road lie the 74 houses covered with straw or with brick tiles [and having vine railings]. Some of the houses on the left side, in the direction of the flow of the river, already are located on the slope of the hills, and thus are more distant from the road than the others. To the right of the road, some village oaks [?] approach very closely, as do the fertile, not "comassierten" (i.e., re-organized) Hofäcker (i.e., the usually small farmland around the houses in the village itself) which - like the grass and vegetable gardens - are partly separated from the main road by live beech fences. On a small elevation at the lower half of the village lies the widely visible village chapel built in Gothic style [grocery Hacker, or Hartler?]. On the main road near the chapel, one finds the large inn ("Einkehrwirtshaus") of the current inn-keeper Julius Medl. In the middle of the village stands the old chapel together with old linden trees, at which the road branches off which leads to Poppendorfbergen which is about 20 minutes away [old cemetery??]. Over the street to the right there are the "Millenium" (thousand year old??) linden trees [Berghold inn, Jani (?) store]. At the upper half of the village on the left lies the Catholic schoolhouse with its frontyard, and 100 steps further down on the right hand side, the Lutheran schoolhouse with its orchard and vegetable garden. In the schoolhouse, there is also the post office [just opposite the civil office where Franz Berghold runs his store]. The teacher also serves as postmaster. Above the Catholic schoolhouse flows a little brook which comes from the hills; during longer lasting spells of dry weather, this little brook dries out. On the other hand, when it rains heavily, the brook carries such huge amounts of water that they cannot all flow under the bridge and thus have to take their way over the road, flooding vegetable beds and adjoining lawns and thus creating damage. Above the just mentioned bridge, there stands an old cross surrounded by acacia and linden trees. At many of the houses of Poppendorf one can find fruit trees, so that from far away it looks as if the entire village is immersed in a large orchard grove. Just outside the village are four houses at the lower end of the village, while there is one house at the upper end, towards Eltendorf [houses of craftsmen]. The village proper ("Hotter") is poor in flowers. Most frequently one finds the Pechnelke (catch-fly, viscaria vulgaris), Knabenkraut (orchis), Augentrost (eyebright, euphrasia officinalis), Vergissmeinnicht (forget-me-not, myosotis), Gänseblümchen (daisy), Huflattich (tussilago farfara), Löwenzahn (dandelion), Glockenblume (hare-bell, campanula), Tausendguldenkraut (centaury, erythraea), and in the autumn on the meadows the Herbstzeitlose (autumn crocus, colchicum autumnale) [poisonous snakes?]. The meadows on the left bank of the Lafnitz have sweet grass, while the ones on the right bank have grass which is only usable as horsefeed. Poppendorf is also not rich in timber. The most frequent tree is the forest pine ("Kiefer"). The people incorrectly call it "Tanne" (fir). One can also find spruce trees, but only in small numbers; also beech and oak trees. Vine growing is still practiced here and there in the hills [Poppendorfbergen]. The Lafnitz river lies about seven minutes away from the village. The Lafnitz [or Lan (??) as the people call it] has roughly the same width throughout. Its greatest width, about 8 meters (26.5 feet), is at the so-called Heubrücke (hay bridge). There are several spots where the depth of the river reaches 10-12 meters (33 to 40 feet), for instance near the field belonging to Jost. The river bed is uneven, often like a trough, and is either muddy or solid. Due to the effects of washing out, the banks of the river are often vertical, and contain lots of underbrush and old trees and treetrunks that have fallen into the water. About 20 footsteps downriver from the Heubrücke, one can still see a large, very old oak trunk which extends into about a third of the river's width. This trunk must have lain there for ages as even the oldest inhabitants of the village, as far as they remember it, have found the trunk at this place. This oak tree perhaps stood near the river bank, and fell into the Lafnitz as the result of a heavy storm or the erosion of the river bank. It can hardly have come there from flooding. There are no branches anymore on this trunk. One can only see the trunk of about 80 centimeters (32 inches) diameter of which half can be seen above the water during dry periods with low water levels. When it rains extensively, or after torrential downpours, the Lafnitz often rises above its banks and floods the nearby fields and meadows. The river leaves its bed at its left bank about 100 footsteps upriver from the Heubrücke, and also downriver from the same bridge, at the meadows belonging to Spitzer, and over its right bank just downriver from the Eltendorf flour mill. As for fish, the most frequently found is the Zinkel (perhaps meaning the Zingel, belonging to the perch family), a bottom feeder and predator, reaching a weight of up to half a kilogram [a bit more than a pound]. This fish has a very tasty meat. Apart from carps, pikes, Wels [Scheiden?] (catfish), which can all reach respectable sizes, the latter 60 to 80 kilograms (135 to 180 pounds), one can find many other kinds such as Weissfisch (literal translation: white fish, a generic term for small fish often belonging to the carp family), Barsch (perch), Barben (a rather large species belonging to the carp family), and Platten (??) as the people call them. Catching the fish is very difficult. First of all, the fish find enough food and therefore do not bite into bait, while, secondly, a fishing line or net easily gets caught in the thicket that lies at the bottom of the river. The unevenness of the bottom also prevents results with casting-nets. When the water is high, one may have some success. People also go fishing during the time of spawning. Everybody is allowed to fish by fishing net; it's free. One is supposed to have a fishing card (a permit), but nobody cares about it. There are also fishotters in the Lafnitz. During wintertime, they have often been seen sitting on the ice [they damage the fish stock]. The people don't go after them. The owner of the Poppendorf hunting lease, Josef Medl, sometimes chases them. There are no crayfish in the Lafnitz. Some years ago, they all perished from the Krebsenpest (crayfish plague?). Some people say that the dirty water that flows from the channels of the factories in Fürstenfeld into the Feistritz river was the reason for the extinction of the crayfish, but this explanation has to be doubted because, if dirty water were the reason, fish should also have perished. One can still find crayfish in the little tributary brooks of Eltendorf and Zahling. The disease affected mostly only the main waters. Ancient History No sources exist on the ancient history of the village. There are neither legends nor songs. There is just the conjecture that the first inhabitant had the last name Popp, and that this is how the name Poppendorf came into being, i.e., the village of the Popp(s). There is perhaps an alternative, as the legends of Gamischdorf say, in that there was a little hill there where the red Pfaffen (popas) lived, Greek-catholic clergymen which are called Popen, and that a similar situation existed in Poppendorf and could be the source of the name of the village [which, however, is very doubtful]. As grave sites from Roman times have been found in nearby Königsdorf, this could also indicate a settlement in Roman times, because Poppendorf was on the same road which led from Sabaria (Szombathely) to today's Styria. However, there are no direct traces from Roman times in the entire village proper. Real History Of The Community The real history of Poppendorf can be divided into four parts: the history before 1848; the history from 1848 till the Comassierung (redistribution of land to eliminate the many small, separate parcels to allow more efficient farming) in 1872; then from 1872 till 1903 when count Dénes Draschkovits of Güssing allowed the people of Poppendorf to purchase his Herrschaftsgrund (properties of his domain) there; and finally, from 1903 till the present. Before 1848 As was the case with all nearby communities, the inhabitants of Poppendorf were subjects of the Herrschaft (domain) Battyany of Güssing, therefore they were bonded serfs. As such they had to provide the so-called robot for the land holder ("Grundherr"), and also had to give the so-called Zehent (tithe). The farmers had to provide 13 (??) days of robot per year, the Söllner (cottagers, i.e., house owners or renters with no or negligible farmland) 15 days. In total, there were 33 farmers and cottagers in Poppendorf (??, Adolf was not sure about the number). They were completely dependent on the whims of the land holder. Therefore, the inhabitants were a poor and abandoned people for whom - as long as they did their bonded duties - nobody cared a hoot. The village judge (mayor) was put in place by the landlord. He was the most powerful person in the village who could hang any recalcitrant person into the "Stock" (put into the stocks?, pillory?) or have him/her beaten up [the last of these victims was Michael Spitzer]. Both farmers as well as cottagers had own land, but mostly in the form of forests and the so-called "Au" (river meadows). The forests extended from outwards the village proper to the cemetery, while the river meadows reached from Heiligenkreuz to the road. From the current meadows of the notary and of the school endowment, and along the Lafnitz to the so-called Szellischen (?) meadows and from there extending to the road, everything was river meadow. There were 1,000 years old oak and alder trees on these river meadows [These were the property of the land holder. People were allowed to collect Klaubholz (fallen timber). Nevertheless, much timber was just taken without asking and without qualms.]. With the domain administration's permission, people could let their livestock graze on the river meadows from spring to October, such as horses, cattle and pigs under the supervision of herdsmen. A typical farmer had one to two pieces of cattle. The ploughs were made of wood, and farmers helped each other out. They could not afford to have more cattle because the river meadows comprised only the Lang (?) and the bridge meadows, the grass was too acidy, and there was too little of it for the entire village. Behind the yard of Simitz, where there was also the place for cutting clay into bricks (the brickyard), there stood the village's hay barn. This is where the hay was collected from the village meadows. If anybody needed this hay in the winter, he was able to purchase it from there. Obviously, hay was often scarce. The poor cattle often had to live through the winter just from straw. This led to the situation that in the spring cows were sometimes too emaciated to stand up without the help of humans. This proves that livestock farming was at a very low level during these times [perhaps also due to low selling prices such as only 15-20 florins apiece; only farmers Baumann, Bosch, Drauch and Heber had enough cattle to be able to harness their own oxen pairs for ploughing. ??]. Holding horses was somewhat better understood, yet not too well either. It was not possible to earn much additional income from hauling, because before 1848 farmers simply had to spend too much time on performing their robot work for the domain. First came the domain, then the farmer's or cottager's own livelihood. The village judge did not care whether the inhabitants had time to sufficiently tend to their own fields, as his superiors were only interested in that the domain got its due. Pig farming was better developed. Often, a farmer had 6 to 8 pigs. They did not require much attention. In the spring, they were herded onto the river meadows, where they fed on acorns and grass till October. Back at home, some of them were slaughtered, the others were very cheaply sold [20-25 Kreuzer per pound, often without using a scale; apparently the innkeepers were sometimes the buyers]. (continued in newsletter 113B) Newsletter continues as no. 113B.
Subject: [BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER-L] BB News No. 113B dtd. Dec. 31, 2002
Date: Tue, 31 Dec 2002 08:07:08 EST
THE BURGENLAND BUNCH NEWS -No. 113B DEDICATED TO AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN BURGENLAND FAMILY HISTORY (Issued monthly by Gberghold@AOL.com) December 31, 2002 (c) 2002 G. J. Berghold-all rights reserved This third section of our 4- section newsletter contains: HISTORY OF POPPENDORF (Part 2- by Fritz Königshofer)-continues from Part 1 in newsletter 113A: Before 1848 (cont.) There was no dearth of firewood and limber. Farmers and cottagers (Söllner) had their forests. Sometimes, one or the other went to the forest belonging to the domain to get whatever he/she needed. Of course, one had to avoid getting caught. The easy availability of wood is also the reason why houses and cellars were often built of timber, because this method incurred the least cost. Clothes were of linen [self-spun]. Trousers were wide (baggy). Shirts were held together by bands at the neck and the hands. The shirt fell down outside the trousers. Therefore, a colored apron was worn above it [women's clothes, fur trousers]. In winter times people wore a sheep-skin (as in Styria). This fur was tanned red or white, with flowers (??) on the back. In the Simitz yard stood the Brechelhütte (hut for breaking the flax). That's where people brought their flax to for breaking. The people coming for the breaking were well received and served with food. Otherwise, people mostly stayed at home. Rarely did anyone venture to other places. Rather, he or she stayed with the parents and shared the poverty with them. Therefore, there were many old bachelors and spinsters. When the parents died, one moved into the back room of the house, the other into the front room. It was not allowed to divide the land. The siblings peacefully lived with each other and ate from the same bowl. They also found themselves employment as farmhand or maid with a yearly remuneration [2 shirts, 2 trousers, apron, etc.]. At marriage, rarely was the groom younger than 30. For military service, the community had to make available either one or two men. It often happened that the military came to the village at night, got all young men out of their beds, and put them into the uniform on the spot. [At some times, the duty was for the village to provide half a man. In these cases two villages would jointly make one young man available for the draft.] If the young men had any advance warning of the arrival of the military, some would hide in the hay or the vineyard's cellar. The hapless drafted man would receive 40 to 50 florins from the village community. Then came the revolutionary year 1848 which for the Hungarian farmers brought the abolition of both bondage and tithe [Protestant chapel in 1846]. 1848 - 1872 The abolition of bondage meant -generally speaking - little immediate change for the community. The farmers now (from 1860 onwards) (still) had to deliver the "Zehnt" (tithe).This was the tenth part of their grain harvest. In the same vein, each vineyard owners had to hand over one "Mass" (old standard measure, perhaps one to two liters) of wine. The tithe was gathered together at the domain's manor farm ("Maierhof"), today's house no. 21, family Schlener. The last lessee of the manor farm, who lived at house no. 21, had the last name Knoblauch. Times, however, changed for the owners of horses. A tobacco factory was built in Fürstenfeld, and cotton mills came into operation in Burgau and Neudau. Since the railway did not exist yet, the tobacco and cotton had to be carted. Thus Poppendorf became part of the newly emerging hauling business. The carters carried tobacco from Molnári (probably the village of this name near Letenye in southern Zala county) to Fürstenfeld. They received 50 Kreuzer per "Zentner" (hundredweight, probably about 50 kilograms at the time). For four days of hauling, they could make 23 florins, while for (the shorter distance from) Szalaegerszeg (sic) they could make 16 florins. It often happened that the tobacco carters removed some of the tobacco from the bales, then refilled the void with stones or bricks, or soaked the bale with water, so that proper weight was restored. The (Hungarian) tax inspectors were constantly busy in searching for (hidden?) tobacco. The people were hiding it in their hay barns, the fields or the forests. A lot of smuggling took place. Michael Spitzer, of house no. 17, and Andreas Schlener vulgo (original house name) Ruster Schlener (?) enticed the inn-keeper Johann Berghold to (illegally) haul tobacco. However, they were caught near Kanizsa (likely Nagy Kanizsa in south Zala county), and Berghold lost horse, tobacco and cart (presumably these were confiscated). Grain and limber were also hauled, even as far as Graz and Vienna. The remuneration for hauling goods from Fidisch (likely today's Rábafüzes) to Fürstenfeld was 2 Florins and 50 Kreuzer per day, and from Poppendorf to Szentgotthárd it was one Florin and 50 Kreuzer. By now, the farmers were on the road with their horses and carts most of the time, and did not come home during the week anymore. The money they earned, however, was easy to count. Most of it was spent en route at the inns. The entire burden of tending house and farm now rested on the shoulders of the wife. She lived at home with the children and brothers, and did as best as she could to manage. Meat cows and pigs were left grazing on the river meadows, and the horses were away hauling goods. Therefore, there was neither time nor means available to gather manure. As a consequence, the fertilization of the arable land became neglected, and thus quality and amount of people's nourishment also started to suffer. People mostly lived on bread, the so-called "Rubenfuszn" (?? beets?) [sugar?] and Heidensterz (steamed and roasted buckwheat). In the stone mills of the flourmills, everything was milled "flach ohne Beutl" (flat without bag?), into coarse meal. In the bread made from this very coarse flour, one could find complete (grain) skins and bran. Despite of this, people were strong and sturdy, and reached a high age. Their raw strength made them better resistant to illnesses. It gave them energy and the means to reach a high age. The increasing variety of food prevents today's generation from reaching the same full strength of the body. Another reason for the robustness of the previous generations was the fact that the scarcity of owned land - the largest parcel was owned by Spitzer of house no. 16 who harvested 40 X (measures?) of wheat in 1860 - meant that the workload for the individual was light. Young men and women, therefore, were able to take life relatively easy ["Scheiben spielen," "Alte Burschen Strasse"], and none of them went far away. Young men stayed at home all the time, or spent their time with entertainment/games. On the place where Wallkovits has his house today, there was a skittles lane (rural bowling). Another pastime was the game of "Zwak" (or Zwek?). The daily wage for threshing [provided the person was sufficiently fast with the flail] for young men was 10-12 Kreuzer, "auf die Tür" (??, perhaps meaning "with delivery to the house) 25 Kreuzer. This was work done merrily and happily, whereby it was possible to express one's joy by singing, a fact which, on the other hand, some people in the village envied a bit. [The threshing was carried out with the "Drischel," and cleaning up was done with the shovel. 1860.] There was very little money around. Only one or two families in the village had a bit of it, but even these only in modest measure. The poorer class had no money at all. If someone had a few 100 Florins, he was considered rich [usury]. Such wealthier ones were Schlener at house no. 50, Spitzer at no. 16, Schlener at no. 28, Gibiser at no. 29. (However, these names were all struck through in the manuscript, and the following names written above them: Lorenz Medl, Sulzer or Salzer.) The most festive days of the year, the so-called "meat days," were the days during Fasching (carnival, Shrovetide, i.e., the time before Lent), and for the poorer classes the days of vine harvest and pressing, and the days of grain and hay harvesting. Winegrowing was popular among the inhabitants. In contrast, not much attention was given to fruit growing which stagnated completely. Winegrowers harvested about 30 to 40 pails of grapes. The best years for the wine harvest were 1868 and 1869. The grapes were noble Hungarian varieties, mostly red ones. Livestock-farming did not develop due to the scarcity of fodder. Prices also stayed depressed. For example, in the year 1860, Johann Berghold sold two horses in Graz for 64 Florins, and (with the proceeds) purchased two cows, one for 17 Florins, the other for 24. The price for a suckling calf ("Tuttelkalb") was 5-6 Florins, while a "Tuttelfadl" (suckling pig) cost 50 to 60 Kreuzer in 1860. Despite the rather low prices, very few in the village were able to afford buying enough meat for eating, as money was lacking everywhere. Those who - on top of this - still frequented the inns, lost house and farm ("Haus und Hof"). This fate happened to Andreas Gröller of house no. 51 who had a large farm but eventually died in the hospice for the poor of Güssing. [Gotzy and Zach also lost their properties the same way.] During the winter months of the years 1860 to 1870, military were quartered in Poppendorf, namely, Dragoons and Uhlans. Their riding school was at the brickyard near the arboretum [?], where the community grazing meadows ("Hutweiden") are today. There were two kinds of inns (Gasthäuser) in the village, firstly the inn owned by the domain which was leased by the land holder (Herrschaft), and secondly the village inns which the village community had leased out, and which had the right to pour (serve) wine from October to April. The night watch was carried out by a "Nachwächter" (night watchman) (a note suggests the possible name Hahn for this man) who was hired by the village and armed with a halberd ("Hellebarde," a kind of lance) which is still kept today in the vulgo Ruster house. The night watchman had the duty to be on the road from 9 PM to 4 AM, and cry out each full hour, by singing a short rhyme as follows. "Meine Herren und Frauen lasst euch sagen, der Hammer der hat xx geschlagen. Gebt Acht aufs Feuer und aufs Licht, damit euch der liebe Gott behüat. Hat xx geschlagen. Gelobt sei Jesus Christus." (Translation: Gentlemen and ladies let me tell you, the hammer of the clock has struck the hour of xx. Take good care of fire and light, so that the Lord may protect you. It is xx o'clock. Praised be Jesus Christ.) The postal service first operated from Heiligenkreuz, but came to Eltendorf in the year 18xx (Adolf apparently did not know the exact year when he wrote the draft). The first postmaster was J. Nikitscher. Several times a week, a mail carrier went from Poppendorf to Eltendorf. The first mail carrier was the Herzlieb Nädl ("the old Herzlieb"), a 70-year old granny. The first notary was a Radó from Minihof. He was succeeded by Rudolf Ebenspanger in 1871. Previously, the writing duties were carried out by the teacher, and/or by the overseer ("Mahr") of the manor farm who was capable of reading and writing. In the year 1872 the land of the village was "comassiert" (see meaning above). (This ends the contiguous text of Adolf's draft for the section covering 1848 to 1872, and thus the entire, clearly unfinished, manuscript. However, his papers contain an additional loose leaf as follows:) With the abolition of the Leibeigenschaft (bondage), the tithe supposedly been abolished too. However, the aristocratic land holders (in this case, the counts Draskovits) nevertheless demanded the tithe. This enraged the farmers and they did not want to hand over the tithe. In Poppendorf, it was Schlener, house no. 47, who dissuaded the people from paying the tithe. He also managed to get the people of Zahling (village north of Eltendorf) on his side. The district judge ("Stuhlrichter," the highest civil servant of the district) arrived from Güssing with the intention to settle the conflict. In this case, however, the story goes that the people of Zahling locked the district judge into a pigsty and roughed him up with pumpkins. Now military was called in, and all the leaders and instigators received 25 (with the cane) on their posteriors. The old Angerhacker (family Hacker who perhaps lived at the village border -- the "Anger"?) of house no. 39 also got his 25 laid on. As for Schlener, he had been hiding in the bed of Schabhüttl, house no. 60, but was betrayed. The Pandurs (a military formation of southeastern Hungary, originally set up for small-scale warfare during the TurkishWars of the 17th and early 18th century, but later onwards evidently used to quell civil disturbances) surrounded the house, some of them entered it, and found Schlener in the bed under the straw. He was carried to the castle of Olmütz (now Olomouc in the Czech Republic) and nothing was ever heard from him again. (Another loose leaf seems to note the first appearance in certain documents (perhaps the parish records) of family names of Poppendorf. Some of the names are underlined, i.e., probably the names that still existed in the village in the early 20th century. In the following transcript, these underlined names are enclosed by slashes:) 1717: /Drauch/, /Koller/, /Gröller/, /Weinhofer/, /Gibiser/, /Medl Michael/, /Jany/, /Hans Homer/, /Josef Gerger/, /Berghold/, Klananzky, Weidinger Mathias, Scholl 1718: /Juschiz/, Popposchüz, Niklisch, Brunner (?), Hos Matthias, /Spitzer/, Dromor, Schram, Loibenpöck, /Zach/, Milner, Lacker 1720: /Bosch/, Lacky Andreas, Leiner, /Unger Andreas/, Eberhard Georg, Simonich, Plaukovisch Andreas, Schaukovitsch Michl, Nikischer Stöffel (Stefan), Laschiz Georg, Golles Michl, Praunstein, Matthias Jakis, Maas(t) Jakob, /Gamler Michel/ 1723: Jaundl, Chatharina (?), /Stelze(r)/, Schräml Michl, Latzer (?) Georg, Schmid Stöffl, /Pauman Josef/, Stary Andre, Georgy Rassner, /Zwikl Jacob/, Breiner Michl, /Scheme(l) Adam/, /Zieger Josef/, Hos Michl, Neubauer 1725: Michl (Mühl?), Schwarz Hany, Georg Fenz, Told Christian, Catharina Plaizer, Niklos Hoss, /Schabidl Georg/ 1726: /Tautsch Stöffl/, Schröml Mihel, /Schlener/, Krauthobl Mihel, /Foanadl/, /Jamell/, Hexerei, Maaxl, Mödl (??) (End of Translation) ED. Comment: I consider this one of our more important articles. It is the first time that we have offered a translation of a locally written, unpublished historical village document. I hope more of these may be found but it is unlikely that many have been written, much less survived. Given some 400 Burgenland villages, many have not published a history. Poppendorf has been mentioned in some of the surrounding village histories (i.e. Eltendorf, "200 Jahre Evangelische Pfarrgemeinde A. B. Eltendorf) but it has never had its own history addressed. Our deep appreciation to Fritz Königshofer for, one-finding this manuscript and two-translating it into English. The fact that it has my own paternal village as a subject is reward enough for my work with the Burgenland Bunch. Thank you Fritz! Newsletter continues as no. 113C
Subject: [BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER-L] BB News No. 113C dtd. Dec. 31, 2002
Date: Tue, 31 Dec 2002 08:08:06 EST
THE BURGENLAND BUNCH NEWS -No. 113C DEDICATED TO AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN BURGENLAND FAMILY HISTORY (Issued monthly by Gberghold@AOL.com) December 31, 2002 (c) 2002 G. J. Berghold-all rights reserved This fourth section of our 4-section newsletter contains: 1. Searching For A Town?-various 2. Xmas Greetings From Original BB Member-Eric Kumbusch 3. Burgenland Immigrant From Uruguay-Albert Schuch 4. Burgenland In Former Days (Part 5, continued from 111)-Gerhard Lang 1. SEARCHING FOR A TOWN? (various members) As previously stated, when I started the BB, one of the most pressing reasons was to locate the various villages of origin of immigrant ancestors. The Burgenland inhabitants; however, were not restricted solely to the confines of today's border, so we do get occasional spill over into the surrounding locales. We take pride in being able to locate any of today's Burgenland villages regardless of their name in other languages. We are not so good about identifying those in nearby countries. When we strike out, we call for help. Here is another case in point. If you are having trouble we can help you, just don't go too far a field-stay in Central Europe! *From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Janet Alesauskas) I am searching for a town by the name of Ballac, Austria. This is the Place of Residence listed on the ship manifest for my relative Karolina Schweitzer arriving in the US on May 11, 1914. I have checked my resources and have been unable to locate it. *Answer from BB: No such place in Austria-nor can I find a Hungarian village. Possible it could be a Czech or Slovenian village. Might also be a bad spelling. I've copied some of our people to see if they can help. G. Berghold *Fritz Königshofer replies: Dear "birder," According to the Ellis Island record you refer to, the entire Ellis Island immigration party in 1914 comprised Franz Schweitzer, 25, a baker, his wife Karolina, 24, and two children, Emma, age 2, and Alma, age 4 months. The children are listed as US citizens, i.e., it appears that this family had lived in the US before, but went back to the old country, and then again came to the USA. The same manifest states that the group was going to join the father of Karolina, a P. Schweitzer, who lived in Chicago. As the closest relative back in the home country, they listed Peter Schweitzer, father of Franz, in Ballac. The data in the manifest suggest that Karolina's maiden name had also been Schweitzer, just as her married name. The birthplace of the group of four is listed as something like Ballaczam in Bukovina. As Anna Kresh has pointed out, this information points to the old Austrian Crownland of Bukovina which today is divided between Ukraine and Romania. When you go to the web site posted by Hannes Graf at http://members.chello.at/lagraf1/Bukowina/ and download the map of Bukovina, you will find a place called Ballaczana to the west of the city of Suczawa in the southern part of the Crownland. Therefore, I would guess, this location must be in Romania today. You may want to contact Beth Long, a frequent helpful responder to questions on various boards, as she is familiar with the options to search records of former Bukovina. Beth's e-mail address is email@example.com . *Beth Long answers: Hi All, Evangelisch (Lutheran) Parish records of Balaczana (1867-1924) have been microfilmed by the LDS, and you can rent the films at your local LDS Family History Center. Familienbuch 1900-1929 (Illischestie) Familienbuch 1867-1924 (Balaczana) FHL INTL Film 1768077 Item 1 Possibly records previous to 1867 are to be found together with those of Illischestie, for which it was an affiliate parish. If your ancestors were Roman Catholics, let me know, and I will see if I can find the location of those records. Hi Again, In a book I have about Illischestie, I found the following (loosely translated from German); Emigrated (from Illischestie) to Balaceana (Balaczana): 1. Schweizer Jakob, son of Johann, born Nov. 23, 1844 2. Schweizer Catharina, daughter of Johann, b. Sept. 24, 1852 3. Schweizer Peter, born March 3, 1831, together with three family members. 2. XMAS GREETING FROM ORIGINAL BB MEMBER It seems so long ago (1996) that I heard from the first Austrian BB members. One was Eric Kumbusch, a resident of Vienna with origins in the Burgenland. We met Eric and his wife at the BG picnic in 2001 at Moschendorf. The Kumbusch family travel a lot and are ardent ski fans. Eric also raises bees for honey. He writes: We wish you and your wife a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year and of course health. I read a little in your great BB homepage and found very good house lists. But I missed the Klucsarits in Kroatisch Tschantschendorf !! My first Klucsarits in Kroatisch Tschantschendorf is Josef Klucsarits in house number 18 born 02-April 1834 . His father born 1813 in GroßMürbisch .(10 miles away). Josef's son was born in Kroatisch Tschantschendorf Nr. 20 and the whole line till 1994 was born or living in this house. After 1994 the house was unfortunately sold (before we did genealogy ! of course) moved, and is now in the museum of Gerersdorf. It was proven that it was built 1794 (sign inside at the main wooden rafter). Petra, Margit and Erich Kumbusch (ED. Note: I have known so many BB correspondents over the years. When first they join, I hear from them frequently, later as their questions get answered or they stop researching family history they fade away. I like to think they continue to visit our Homepage and read our newsletters. The above indicates they may be doing just that. Always nice to hear from an old member.) 3. BURGENLAND IMMIGRANT FROM URUGUAY-Albert Schuch I thought you might be interested in the following, which was published in the weekly BF (Burgenländische Freiheit) on 11 December 2002 (shortened translation). Visit To The Old Homeland Eva Vasen - who was born and grew up in Bad Tatzmannsdorf - came from Uruguay to see the old homeland once again after 64 years. Her father Fritz Vasen served as confidential clerk for the Kurbad AG between the two World Wars. As a co-founder of the local football team (1923) he organized shirts and shorts for the players from the Viennese team "Vienna". Their colours blue-yellow have been worn by the players of the FC Bad Tatzmannsdorf ever since. The untroubled childhood of Eva and her older sister ended with the takeover of the National Socialists. In June 1938 the Jewish family emigrated to Uruguay. They managed to make a living in Montevideo, where Eva Vasen still lives with her sons. Now the three of them visited mother's old home during a trip to Europe. Touring the spa Ms. Vasen was amazed by all the changes. From the days of her childhood only the "Big Castle" (Grosses Kastell) had survived. Her family had lived there in the first floor. 4. BURGENLAND IN FORMER DAYS (From: firstname.lastname@example.org -Part 5, Continued From Newsletter 111.) Father Leopold, Part V - Childhood: Großhöflein In August 1920 we left Petronell, moving to Großhöflein, my father's home. There I spent my childhood and my youth. Großhöflein, the home of my Prizelitz ancestors became my home too. Now a short explanation for the spelling of my name PRI-ZEL-ITZ. As I always say, for a German, I've got a Croatian name with Hungarian spelling. "PRISEL" in Croatian language means "the arrived, the abutting owner" (neighbor?). "-ITZ" means the "abutting owner's son". Linguisticly correct, the name had to be written as PRISELITZ. My parents and relatives spelled their names like that. I too used to write my name like that till I left school. Why the "Z" instead of the "S" in my name? That's the Hungarian spelling. The home of my ancestors belonged to Hungary until 1921. There the "soft" S between the vowels "I" and "E" is written as "Z". Therefore the name of my ancestors is spelled as "PRIZELITZ" in the Großhöflein baptismal-records. When I took my School Leaving Exams at the Viennese College of Education in 1933, I had to show a certificate of baptism. Father's name was shown there as PRIZELITZ and since then I spell my name like that, though my parents and relatives still use the spelling "PRISELITZ". This spelling also can be found on my parents' tombstone. In Großhöflein often "PLIZALITZ" can be also be found. At Großhöflein I started Elementary School with the 2nd grade. In our schoolbag we had a slate - therefore the children of the 1st and 2nd grade were called "Taferlklassler" ("Slate-graders" - is that a correct translation?) - with a sponge and a frazzle(?) and a stylus in the "Federbixel" (pencil case). What a difference from the heavy schoolbags of today's pupils. I remember how I wrote my name in "Deutsch-Kurrent" (German-current letters) "PRISALITZ". Our mistress for 1st and 2nd grade was called "Maltschi-Tante" (Aunt Maltschi), Josef Bruch was teacher for the 3rd and 4th grade, and "Oberlehrer" ("head-teacher") Weninger for the sixth form. Priest Julius Pollak taught religion. A few years later he became provost at Eisenstadt-Oberberg. He was a typical Hungarian, a little small and chubby but rather draconic. He was followed by Anton Lehner as priest and teacher for religion. We had our daily classes from 8 - 11 a.m. and from 1 - 3 p.m. There were no classes on Thursday. During vintage there were 14 days of Holidays for gathering the grapes. In 1920 my father became Großhöflein's "Konsum-market" manager. Close to the shop we had a little flat, consisting of kitchen and bed chamber. Our neighbor as a "Halbwirt" was the "Großbauer" (farmer) Josef Sailer. In Großhöflein (most farmhouses were built that way) two houses had a common yard, therefore the name "Halb(Half)wirt". In the middle of the yard was a small trench to run the waters off. As the yard between the houses often was rather narrow, there were often difficulties between the both "Halbwirten" in using the yard. (To be continued) Matthias Artner, part V - The 1st Austrian Repbulic Dr. Kurt Schuschnigg followed Dr. Dollfuß as Federal Chancellor. He continued his predecessor's ways. He too was not successful in solving the domestic problems. The National-Socialist continued their assaults, more then ever. When Hitler developed the plan to annex Austria, Schuschnigg tried to hold him off. He met Hitler on Feb. 12, 1938 for a personal parley. Hitler put the screws to him, demanded his resignation and wanted Seyß-Inquart to form a new administration. To avoid bloodshed, Schuschnigg gave up the administration to Seyß-Inquart on March, 11. A few elderly people in our village remember this well and how shocked they were when the lads marched through the village in their boots, bawling battle songs. They still remember the parades in our village and the great demonstration at Eisenstadt's Osterwiese, that torch-procession shouting "Heil-Hitler". The takeover by the National-Socialists' leader Dr. Portschy at Eisenstadt was celebrated in front of Eisenstadt's Landhaus (Government-building) in an imposing manner. On March 12, 1938 German troops crossed the border and Austria and the First Republic ended as autonomous state. (Within only 25 years Burgenländers changed their citizenship three times). After the annexation of Austria, Hitler executed a "Plebiscite of Reunification of Austria to the German Reich. Their was only one vote against it in Großhöflein - because no one had enough courage to counter the propaganda drumfire of NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei - National Socialistic German Labor Party). The National Socialists broke up the RC Lads-Club and the Girls' Bund on March 16, 1938 and confiscated all their money. The church was closed and raided, priest and bishops were pressured, the schools were changed (at Großhöflein in Sept. 1938) and the priests were laid off from school-service. The ones, who preached against the party were arrested and jailed by the Gestapo. A complete control network was set up, house searches and detentions were the daily order, there were no independent courts and everything was administered by the Nazis. WWII and its end >From the beginning of WWII, economic life was reduced to supporting the war effort. Harvesting (potatoes, wheat etc) by the farmers was rigorously controlled; stockpiling and black-marketing incurred severe punishment. Pupils had to collect medicinal herbs, breed silkworms and help with the harvest. The harder the economic situation became, the more inhuman became the system. The women had to do hard work, make difficult decisions and cope with the war situation. At the end of the war, endless columns of famished refugees trekked through the villages followed by the beaten army. It was uncertain how long this would last. Wives had to decide whether to go along with the soldiers and leave house and yard, or stay at home and suffer war, possible destruction, persecution and death. Many stayed home! Valuables, food, clothing and valuables were hidden before the Russians came, many things were buried in the soil of cellars and barns, into straw piles; even manure piles served as hiding places. But people believed in survival. (To be continued) END OF NEWSLETTER BURGENLAND BUNCH STAFF (USA unless designated otherwise) Coordinator & Editor Newsletter: Gberghold@AOL.com (Gerald J. Berghold) Burgenland Editor: email@example.com (Albert Schuch; Austria) Home Page Editor: firstname.lastname@example.org (Hap Anderson) Internet/URL Editor: ARKRESH@AOL.com (Anna Tanczos Kresh) Contributing Editors: Austro/Hungarian Research: email@example.com (Fritz Königshofer) Burgenland Co-Editor & BG liaison: firstname.lastname@example.org (Klaus Gerger, Austria) Burgenland Lake Corner Research: email@example.com (Dale Knebel) Chicago Burgenland Enclave: firstname.lastname@example.org (Tom Glatz) Croatian Burgenland: , email@example.com (Frank Teklits) Home Page village lists, firstname.lastname@example.org, (Bill Rudy) Home Page surname lists: email@example.com (Tom Steichen) Home Page membership list: firstname.lastname@example.org, (Hannes Graf, Austria) Judaic Burgenland: email@example.com (Maureen Tighe-Brown) Lehigh Valley Burgenland Enclave: firstname.lastname@example.org (Robert Strauch) Western US BB Members-Research: email@example.com (Bob Unger) WorldGenWeb -Austria, RootsWeb Liason-Burgenland: firstname.lastname@example.org (Charles Wardell, Austria) BB ARCHIVES (can be reached via Home Page hyperlinks) or a simple search facility (enter date or number of newsletter desired) at: http://www.rootsweb.com/~autbur/bbnlarchx.htm BURGENLAND HOME PAGE (WEB SITE) http://www.spacestar.com/users/hapander/burgen.html http://go.to/burgenland-bunch (also provides access to Burgenländische Gemeinschaft web site.) WORLDGEN WEB BURGENLAND QUERY BOARD http://boards.ancestry.com/mbexec?htx=board&r=rw&p=localities.ceeurope.austria .Prov.burgenland The BB is in contact with the Burgenländische Gemeinschaft, Hauptplatz 7, A-7540 Güssing, Burgenland, Austria. Burgenl.email@example.com Burgenland Bunch Newsletter distributed courtesy of (c) 1999 RootsWeb.com, Inc. P.O. Box 6798, Frazier Park, CA 93222-6798 Newsletter and List Rights Reserved. Permission to Copy Granted; Provide Credit and Mention Source.