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From: Hannes Graf <>
Subject: [BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER] BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER BB News No 184 dtdFebruary 28, 2009
Date: Wed, 25 Feb 2009 23:01:37 +0100


THE BURGENLAND BUNCH NEWS - No. 184
DEDICATED TO AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN BURGENLAND FAMILY HISTORY
February 28, 2009
(c) 2009 - The Burgenland Bunch - all rights reserved

Our 13th Year, Editor: Johannes Graf and
Copy Editor Maureen Tighe-Brown

The Burgenland Bunch Newsletter, founded by Gerry Berghold, retired, is
issued monthly as email and is available online at
http://www.the-burgenland-bunch.org

Current Status Of The BB:
* Members: 1694 * Surname Entries: 5497 * Query Board Entries: 4034
* Newsletters Archived: 183 * Number of Staff Members: 14

EMAIL RECIPIENTS, PLEASE READ: You are receiving this email newsletter
because you are a BB member or have asked to be added to our distribution
list. To subscribe or unsubscribe, use the change form available from our
Home page at http://www.the-burgenland-bunch.org. You cannot send
email to this newsletter. If you have problems receiving the
newsletter as email,
it may be read, downloaded, printed or copied from the BB Home page.
There is also an archive of previous newsletters.


This first section of our 2-section newsletter concerns:

1. Pictures of Gerry and Molly Berghold
2. German Script Letters - a new tool
3. Passaic County, NJ Declarations/Naturalizations Now On-Line (by
Margaret Kaiser)
4. Canadian immigration (Mike Huber & Fritz Königshofer)
5. The Church of Szentimre/St. Emmerich in Rönök/Radling
6. Memories of St. Emmerich (by Bob Strauch)


1. Pictures of Gerry and Molly Berghold

BB-member Heinz Koller from Güssing have made an online picture page of photos
from Gerry and Molly Berghold's visit of 2001.

http://picasaweb.google.de/heineles.webalbum/Berghold?authkey=5_XzO0rMvBA&feat=directlink


2. German Script Letters - a new tool

BB member Marsha Jenakovich tells us of a problem she had, which
many people have had, of deciphering handwritten German script:

Hi Tom

I've been doing my own family research in the LDS records and have
gotten pretty good at reading the old script (well, post-1800 anyway).
Unfortunately, I have one family entry I just can't seem to decipher.
I'm hoping that another member of the BB could help me read the
information on the attached digital copies of a marriage record.
My relatives (the last entry in 1820) are Joan. Szalmer son of
Laurentius...(?) filius filius pastor and his wife is Susanna (?)
daughter of Joseph and Maria (?) pastoris filia. I can ALMOST read
Susanna's last name...okay, no, I can't read it at all. : )
Sometimes I wish these parish priests could take a handwriting class!
I appreciate any help anyone can provide!

Marsha Jenakovich

So some staff members helped her with this problem, and now we have
posted a page
of all known German old-style "Kurrent" letters for future handling.

http://www.the-burgenland-bunch.org/Help/BB-german-letters.htm


3. Passaic County, NJ Declarations/Naturalizations Now On-Line (by
Margaret Kaiser)

Many Burgenlanders immigrated to Passaic County, New Jersey to work in
the area's clothing mills and other factories, and in time, as a
result, the New Jersey Burgenlaender Society was established in
Passaic County. The BH&R (Burgenlaenders Honored and Remembered) web
site includes a formal photo taken in 1932 of this society's
membership. Many of the 115 photographed members have been identified
by name. (Refer to
http://www.the-burgenland-bunch.org/BH&R/familypage/nj_burgenlaender_society-1932.htm
to view these Burgenland-immigrants.)

Recently Passaic County naturalization and land property records were
made available online. This is more than an index since the actual
document images are viewable and printable. There is no cost to use
this site and there is no registration requirement. The web site is:
http://records.passaiccountynj.org Some of the naturalization
records include a photo of the applicant. Many of the naturalization
files specify the applicant's hometown. In some cases there are name
spelling variations, but if you enter the first few letters of a name,
you'll received all names beginning with those letters.

The BH&R is being updated to reflect now-known hometowns of the NJ
Honorees. If you have any Burgenland ancestors to add to the BH&R
Honoree List from NJ or elsewhere, please submit them to


Good luck finding your ancestors with this additional search tool.


4. Canadian immigration (Mike Huber & Fritz Königshofer)

Mike Huber wrote:

Dear Herr Königshofer:

Greetings from Pennsylvania. I have been a Burgenland Bunch member
for several years and I have been researching my Burgenland ancestors
since 1977. Recently, I discovered ship passenger lists with my
grandfather and his brothers, who traveled from Burgenland to
Bremerhaven and Hamburg, Germany, and then sailed to Canada. Landing
in Quebec in the 1920s, they would then travel to Winnipeg, Manitoba,
or even as far as British Columbia to work in the sawmills for a year
before gaining freedom and emigrating to the United States (sounds to
me like indentured servants). My grandfather was the 6th of his
brothers to travel from Austria to Canada.

I have been trying to research the sawmills and have discovered that
the housing boom in the western US required lumber, which was readily
available in Canada. Anyway, on the ship passenger listing for my
grandfather in 1929, his destination was the "L.I.B." in Winnipeg.
After an unsuccessful Google search, I wrote to the City Library in
Winnipeg with the L.I.B. information and address (439 Main Street) and
was told that L.I.B. stood for the Lutheran Immigration Board. I'm
trying to get some history on why the L.I.B. would be recruiting
Austrians to work in the sawmills.

Have you come across the L.I.B. in your Austro-Hungarian research? It
has occurred to me that perhaps the Viennese newspaper may have run
ads in the 1920s. Have you seen any of these? I will try to use my
library to get access to newspaper, but I wanted to try you first.
Any information you may have would be greatly appreciated. There were
several men on the 1929 manifest heading to L.I.B. in Winnipeg, so it
must have been a popular venture. In addition, I'm sure my
grandfather didn't have a lot of money, but he showed up in Quebec
City with $25.00 on his person. I'm guessing the L.I.B. also bought
him a train ticket to Manitoba.

Respectfully yours,

Mike Huber

PS If I've sent this request to you by mistake (meaning it should go
to another editor), I apologize and ask you for the correct address.
Hannes Graf ( a distant cousin of my father) is very busy doing a
great job with the nesletter, and I didn't want to add to his full
inbox.

Fritz Königshofer reply:

Dear Mike,

Thank you for your very interesting message. Unfortunately, I have to
admit that the matter you raise (LIB and its recruitment practices) is
completely new to me. I recommend that you contact Dr. Walter
Dujmovits, president of the Burgenländische Gemeinschaft, who is also
a member of the BB and has written a book and several articles on the
subject of emigration from Burgenland. It's possible that the LIB
directly canvassed the relatively few Lutheran parishes in the new
Austrian state of Burgenland and offered to pay the fare in exchange
for a lock at the emigrant's employment for one year.

If you have not yet done so, please put Lutheran Immigration Board
Winnipeg into a google search. The first-listed result I received is
a book that deals with immigration to Canada. You find this book at
http://books.google.com/books?id=awZGrPonfSMC&pg=PA196&lpg=PA196&dq=Lutheran+Immigration+Board+Winnipeg&source=bl&ots=ncIdGs8Hns&sig=TOe4nFB3_Iqk8fxJaez67vcyNRk&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result

Fritz Königshofer

Miker Huber reply:

Dear Fritz:

Thank you for the note. I had googled the LIB, and it returned the
book in your link. Unfortunately, LIB is only mentioned once and it
is vague. I ordered it through inter-library loan, anyway, just to
make sure.

I will sent a note to Dr. Dujmovits. Hopefully we can find some
evidence. I appreciate your quick reply. Best regards,

Mike Huber


5. The Church of Szentimre/St. Emmerich in Rönök/Radling (translate by
Bob Strauch)

Village and Parish History

The western Hungarian village of Rönök (Radling) is located between
Szentgotthárd (St. Gotthard) and Szombathely (Steinamanger), east of
the neighboring municipality of Inzenhof , which is located across the
border in Austria. The settlement already appears in documents in the
14th Century. In 1318, a village magistrate referred to as “Paul, son
of Hermann von Rennek” is mentioned in connection with a sale. In 1333
there was a dispute over ownership of a property called “Ryunuk”
between a certain Petew, son of Duruzlaus, and his son Johannes and
Tatamerius, the royal vice chancellor and provost of Székesféhervár
(Stuhlweißenburg). A document drawn up between January 20, 1335 and
May 14, 1336 names Tatamerius and his brothers Stephen and Bako as
heirs of the property known as “Ryunuk. During the same time period,
King Charles I ordered the Capital of Vasvár (Eisenburg) to determine
the legal situation of the property. Later in 1336, the Capital
reported to the King, that as per his orders, the borders of the
property called “Ryunuk” were established in the presence of its
neighbors on May 14th of that year and would henceforth be known as
“Olsowryunuk” (Alsórönök/Unterradling) and would remain in the
possession of Tatamerius and his brothers. To its west lie the area
designated as “Feulseuryunuk” (Felsorönök/Oberradling), separated from
it by border markers. On November16, 1336 the property Alsórönök was
finally sanctioned by the king in view of the many services and
diplomatic and military tasks performed by the owners.
Originally, Felsorönök belonged to the parish of Güssing and it was
only at the beginning of the 17th Century that it became an
independent parish. Starting in 1618, Reformed and then Protestant
pastors became responsible for performing church services, a duty
which was given back to Catholic priests in 1652. A church inquiry in
1757 referred to the church dedicated to St. Emmerich in Felsorönök as
a branch of the nearby monastery in Heiligenkreuz. In 1789, the
creation of a new parish was reported. Formerly part of the diocese of
Györ (Raab), the parish was transferred at the end of the 18th Century
to the diocese of Szombathely, which had be founded by Empress Maria
Theresia and sanctioned by Pope Pius VI in 1777. In 1950, the villages
of Alsórönök and Felsorönök were united to form Rönök.

Architectural History of the Church

The Original Church

Only a few reports about the original church building are known. The
first mention of a sacred building in Felsorönök appeared in the 15th
Century when a priest named Kelemen was reported working there in
1452. In 1698 a historian named Kazo referred to the church as
spacious and having an arched chancel and a wooden choir. A church
inquiry from 1757 showed that the church, which stood some distance to
the west of the village (probably Alsórönök), had a tower covered with
wooden shingles as well as a vestry. The chancel was-arched (as
already described in 1698) and the nave had a ceiling made of wooden
boards. The facilities included three altars: the main altar of St.
Emmerich and two unconsecrated altars dedicated to the Virgin Mary. On
July 15, 1864, lightning struck the church tower. The repairs lasted
until 1866. In 1867, a new altar dedicated to St. Emmerich was
purchased and consecrated on the June 11th of that year. Three days
prior, on June 8th, a new pulpit commemorating the coronation of
Emperor Franz Joseph I as King of Hungary had been completed.

The Construction of the New Church

According to records of the time, demolishment of the church was begun
in 1893, presumably with the aim of building a larger one. The
specific designs for the new building were completed in August 1898
and attributed to the Leipzig-born and Vienna-based architect Ludwig
Schöne. His works include, among others, the Protestant church in
Körmend (1886), both the Catholic parish church (1892/93) and Savings
Bank (1880-90) in Köszeg (Güns), as well as the synagogue in
Szombathely (1878-1880). The laying of the cornerstone of the new
church, which was now served by parish priest Josef Bartl, took place
on November 2, 1902 and construction was overseen by Josef Lang from
Szentgotthárd. Funding was secured from the Royal Hungarian Church
Fund. On August 28, 1904, outside construction was completed and the
church was soon used for pastoral purposes. The project was not yet
quite finished at this point and donations for its completion were
solicited. On April 13, 1945, retreating German troops set the church
on fire. However, local residents acted quickly in putting out the
fire, thus limiting the amount of damage. In 1951, the last mass held
at St. Emmerich was read by parish priest János Komíves (1919-1999),
who had to leave the country under intense political pressure. Since
the church was now located in the so-called “No Man's Land”, an
uninhabited area on the border between Austria and Hungary, it was
left to decay and became a ruin.

The Reconstruction of the Church

Only after the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 could the
reconstruction of St. Emmerich commence. To this purpose the
association "Save St.Emmerich’s Church” was established and held its
inaugural meeting on November 23, 1989. The restoration project, which
was championed particularly by the association’s chairwoman, Elfriede
Jaindl from Inzenhof, began in autumn of 1990.Various companies and
organizations contributed to the success of the project, among them
the Vocational Schools in Vienna-Floridsdorf and Villach, who
completed the copper work on the tower in 1991 under the direction of
Guild Master Manfred Willitsch. On August 19, 1991, the tower cross
was blessed by Pope John Paul II in the presence of Bishops Stefan
László (diocese of Eisenstadt) and István Konkoly (diocese of
Szombathely). At that time, only the tower and the roof of the church
had been finished. The following year, the remaining church was
completed and consecrated on September 20, 1992.

See also http://www.the-burgenland-bunch.org/Imp/Emmerich/Emmerichchurch.htm


6. MEMORIES OF ST. EMMERICH (RÖNÖK, HUNGARY) (by Bob Strauch)

(Ed: from NL-133C published 10.31.2004)

On the occasion of the 100th Anniversary of St. Emmerich's Church in
Oberradling/Felsörönök:

Recollections of Margareta Schanta of Whitehall/PA, native of Raabfidisch, as
told to daughter Gretl.

"Each village in the parish had its special place to stand around the church
before mass began. Also, men/boys and women/girls stood in their separate
groups. For example, the girls from Fidischer Bergen stood on the
southwest side
near the right side of the church entrance. This is where they chatted and
decided where they would go to dance that afternoon. The folks from
Hausergraben (just below the church) were always the last ones to show
up, often waiting
until the final bells."

"Quite often when Mass began, some of the boys were "missing". They were over
in the stables hanging out with "Gfoarri-Ferdl" (the parish priest's brother,
Ferdinand, who wasn't a priest, of course). As was the custom,
"Bartl-Gfoarri" (Father Bartl) would walk back through the church
blessing everyone with
holy water at the beginning of the mass, but he'd just keep walking
out the door
- a few minutes later, the boys would come running in from the stables."

"Holy days were always celebrated with the Schröttner Orchestra from
Raabfidisch playing in church - sometimes on brass instruments,
sometimes on strings.
Once or twice at Christmas, the brass players would go up in the church tower
and play several Christmas hymns ("Turmblasen"), which could be heard
throughout the surrounding hills and valleys. They didn't do this too
often because
the stairs were steep and narrow - difficult to navigate with instruments.
Music was an important part of life at St. Emmerich's. "Bartl-Gfoarri" himself
played the bass violin."

"At Easter Vigil, there was always a big procession with the brass band,
flags, singers, firemen and boy scouts ("Levente") in their uniforms.
They would
shoot off a little cannon (this was Gfoarri-Ferdl's job and he selected a few
of the older boys to help - a big honor) during certain times of the
procession. Since gunpowder couldn't be bought in Hungary, this was
always "smuggled"
over from Austria. When everyone walked home after the vigil around twilight,
the "Osterfeuer" were burning - everyone tried to put these bonfires on a
high point and include a stump so it would keep burning for a long time".

Newsletter continues as number 184A.





From: Hannes Graf <>
Subject: [BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER] BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER BB News No 184A dtdFebruary 28, 2009
Date: Wed, 25 Feb 2009 23:01:10 +0100


THE BURGENLAND BUNCH NEWS - No. 184A
DEDICATED TO AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN BURGENLAND FAMILY HISTORY
February 28, 2009
(c) 2009 - The Burgenland Bunch - all rights reserved

The second section of this 2-section newsletter includes:

1. FELSÖ-RÖNÖK, HUNGARY and CHURCH OF ST. EMMERICH
2. LAND HOLDING TERMINOLOGY (Schuch, Königshofer, Schatz)
3. Ethnic Events March 2009 (courtesy of Bob Strauch)
4. BURGENLAND EMIGRANT OBITUARIES (courtesy of Bob Strauch)


HISTORICAL BB NEWSLETTER ARTICLES

Editor: This is part of our monthly series designed to recycle
interesting articles from the BB Newsletters of 10 years ago. Our
current newsletter features the Church of St. Emmerich (St. Imre);
thus we recycle some of its history, as recorded in the Jan 1999
Newsletter. In addition, A February, 1999 article speaks to the
multi-lingual nomenclature used to identify the land-holding status of
our Burgenland ancestors.


THE BURGENLAND BUNCH NEWS No.51B JANUARY 31, 1999

1. FELSÖ-RÖNÖK, HUNGARY and CHURCH OF ST. EMMERICH

Ed.(Gerry) - Felsö Rönök or 'Ober Radling' is the third village after
crossing the Hungarian border at Heiligenkreuz on 'Rt. 8' in southern
Burgenland. The border, as drawn in 1921, swept sharply west here so
as to keep Szentgotthárd in Hungary. Szentgotthárd was then the Bezirk
municipality for most of today's villages below Bezirk Güssing. It was
replaced by Bezirk Jennersdorf. Many families with Hungarian ties were
split as a result. A number of BB members have ancestors from this
area and the Felsö Rönök LDS records date from 1789, Nos. 0601492-494.
In 1873, there were 1400 RC's attending church there (included Alsö
Rönök) and 120 Lutherans, who used the Martin Luther Kirche in
Eltendorf (Körtvélyes). There were 16 Jews (Kormend synagogue?).

I've been following a Felsö Rönök correspondence between Margaret
Kaiser, Bernadette Sulzer and others. Margaret, who has conducted much
research in this area, is planning an article on the history of the
church. She recently asked some questions, which Fritz Königshofer
answered in addition to translating Felsö Rönök material appearing at
the turn of the century in the "Volksfreund". Margaret's questions and
Fritz's answers follow:

Margaret writes:
"do you think pre-1789 records exist somewhere in a Diocese or were
destroyed along the way? If so, how/where does one go about seeking
them? Would the archive be Austrian or Hungarian? What is the reformed
church? Is that like the Dutch Reformed? Or is it another form of
Lutheran (in this country we would say another Synod)? From letters
from my distant relative, who is acquainted with the current Priest,
the earlier parish records on hand on site begin in 1860. The LDS
films begin around 1789. The parish records are on site from 1860 to
present."

Fritz replies:
"Margaret, In the Hungarian context, the "Reformed Church" invariably
means the Calvinist form of Protestantism. In Austria, we call it the
"Helvetian (Swiss) Confession" as compared to the Augsburgian
(Lutheran) one.

The parish priest of Felsö Rönök would likely be the best person to
know since when matrikels were recorded in the parish, and what
happened to the earliest ones; or in which parish earlier recordings
were made for inhabitants of the village. Since you have expanded on
the story of the Szent Imre church, let me enumerate the articles I
copied on the subject from Der Volksfreund:

Jan 24, 1891, p6. About the derelict state of the existing church
which apparently was a stone construction. The parish priest Nikolaus
Herczeg is said to try very hard to urge the church and civil
authorities to do something, but to no avail.

Feb 7, 1891, p5. Parish priest Herczeg responds to the above article
by stating that the authorities have already acted, and that the
measures toward planning and building a new church are under way. He
expects a quick start and completion of the new church within 15
months.

Feb 21, 1891, p6-7. Rudolf Ruisz reacts to the statement of the parish
priest. He declares that it was he who had written the article of Jan.
24, and that the priest's rebuttal had not been able to explain away
the fact that the existing church presented an imminent danger to
priest and congregation when holding services or ringing the church
bells.

Apr 3, 1897, p6-7. Letter to the editor from a visitor to the cemetery
of Oberradling (the visitor wanted to visit the graves of his or her
children). The letter deplores the state of wilderness and lack of
care in the whole graveyard, as well as the derelict schoolhouse next
to it.

Feb 25, 1899, p7. Reports on concerns that the old little church might
crash down any moment; that recently, during a service held while a
storm was going on outside, the church had started to shake in its
fundaments so that the congregation had to flee outside at once. The
authorities have now closed the church and approved funding for
building a new church. Plans for it are already available for view.
Two builders have been found so far who would be willing to erect the
new church, namely Josef Lang of Szent Gotthárd, and Roman Tropper of
Graz.

Sep 7, 1901, p3. Recalls that the old church had been closed by the
authorities two years ago, and that one year ago the builder Lang of
Szent Gotthárd had been selected to erect the new church. Nobody seems
to know why so far not even the fundaments have been laid for the new
church. Mass was being held at the schoolhouse for the last 1 1/2
years, creating an impossible situation for the new teacher R. Linger
and his family. The article then reports that a village delegation led
by the teacher went to Rátót to complain at the "Ministerpräsident"
[perhaps meaning the district's governor?] and was promised effective
help to get the work underway.

All articles are in German. Further, I noted that Der Volksfreund of
June 17, 1905, p3, reported about the consecration of the new Szent
Imre church that would serve Alsö and Felsö Rönök and Räba Szent
Mihäly. The ceremony took place under the most terrible weather
conditions. The church is stated to be a masterpiece of modern
architecture, having the best organ near and far. "Thus the wish of
parish priest J. Bartl has found its fulfillment." [Bartl had
succeeded Herczeg.]

In Sep 1909, the newspaper reported about the completion of a brand
new school house in Felsö Rönök. The teacher at the time was Rudolf
Steiger. The issue of July 23, 1910 reports that the 18-year old son
of the "much-liked teacher of Oberradling Rudolf Steiner" [sic; his
name was either Steiger or Steiner] had drowned when swimming in
Güssing; the son had been a hairdresser there. This completes the
copies and notes I have about events in Felsö Rönök.


THE BURGENLAND BUNCH NEWS No.52B FEBRUARY 28, 1999

2. LAND HOLDING TERMINOLOGY (Schuch, Königshofer, Schatz)

(Ed. (Gerry) -
In previous newsletters we've discussed the varying "status"
terminologies that we find in old documents mentioning our Burgenland
ancestors. A definition of these terms is necesary for us to
understand the position our ancestors held in their villages as well
as an appreciation of living conditions. The following interchange
adds to previous articles. Being discussed is the amount of land
"sessio" (Latin) required to have the status of full-farmer:
"landwirt" (German), "agricola" (Latin), "paraszt" (Hungarian), or a
non-farmer: "söllner" (German), "colonus" (Latin), "napszamosno"
(Hungarian-day laborer) - although the latter could own a house and
some land, but not enough land to be considered a landwirt, etc.

Fritz Königshofer to Albert Schuch:
On this useful find (article concernig definition of "sessio"), I have
only one question. Should it mean that a farmer had to have at least
one eigths of a sessio, rather than 8 eights as in your message?
Otherwise, the definition leaves open the status and term for owners
of between one eigths and 8 eights. My other question is whether one
eights was enough to make you a full farmer, or whether you had to
have more than one eights. From the article you cited, it appears that
one eighth or more made you a farmer, and the other categories applied
to people with less than one eighth. I am raising this question as we
had the Latin term octavalista which we translated into "Söllner"... I
wonder whether there is a possibility that it rather was a synonym for
a full farmer [owning one eighth or more].

Bob Schatz to all:
Thank you for this interesting exchange. I would only like to add that
my own research seems to indicate that these terms were used not so
much to designate a rank, but simply the amount of land farmed. My
research is limited to Urbersdorf and a few other villages near
Güssing, and so I can only speak of them. Here in the early 19th
century (before 1848 and then the Kommassierung - land distribution -
of the 1860s) the amount of land a family farmed was dependant on two
factors: the entire amount of land belonging to the village as a
commune (its Hattar-Hotter), and the number of households in the
commune. In an urbarium (tax record) which I uncovered for Urbersdorf
from 1840, the Hattar is equally divided among all the farming
households, which left every household farming a 5/8 sessio. I have
always interpreted this to mean that this society was much more
communal in nature than our own, and that it would have been unusual
(and anti-social?) for a farmer to acquire another 1/8 or so on his
own.

I guess I mention this so that we avoid applying twentieth century
interpretations to the fact that some farmers were "full" and others
were not. My reading of the data I have at hand is that most farmers
had little private control over how much land they farmed - this was
entirely dependant on the size of the village lands relative to the
number of its farming households. This communal approach to farming
seems to be rooted in the values and practices of the Middle Ages and
was quite different from our own capitalist concepts of private
enterprise. Does this interpretation fit with everyone else's
research?

Forgive me if I am belaboring this. I've checked the works of Kiralyi
and Jaszi regarding full and partial sessios. According to the
urbarial regulations enacted under Maria Teresa, circa 1764, one
sessio was the maximum amount of acreage a household could farm. A
farmer working one full sessio would have been referred to as a "full"
farmer because he farmed the maximum amount of land possible for a
manorial tenant. At the time that the Empress Queen's regulations were
promulgated, one eighth of a sessio was deemed adequate to support an
extended family and allow it to fulfill its fee/tithe/tax obligations
to landlord, church and royal and local governments.

Because this society practiced open-field agriculture, a family's
sessio would actually have been distributed as several strips of land
scattered throughout the village Hotter/Hatar (my relatives in Strem
once explained that this was partly to insure that no one family would
farm all the best soil). A sessio also varied in size depending on the
fertility of the soil. A sessio in the District of Güssing was
actually 5 to 10 Joch smaller than a sessio in the northern Districts
because the land was somewhat more fertile in the south.

What amazes me is that the Bünker article which Albert found was
written in 1894, almost fifty years after the manorial system had been
abolished in Hungary. The fact that farmers still used the concept of
the sessio and the eighth would seem to imply that ancient traditions
and usage did not change all that drastically after the Kommassierung,
even though farmers had the outright ownership of their land by that
time. What also interests me (from a psychological and idiomatic point
of view) is why farming units (the sessio) were reckoned from the top
down, so to speak. Why call the maximum amount of land a "sessio" and
smaller amounts an 8th, 3/8th, etc.? Why not start from the bottom up,
especially since it was rare for any farmer to hold one full sessio?

Ed. Summary:
>From what has been covered in this and previous newsletters, I believe
we can view Burgenland "farming" in the following way. Prior to
1848-1860's when land distribution went into effect, the land
surrounding any particular village was owned by the aristocracy
(Herrschaft). It was divided into portions which would provide
subsistence for an average family and allow them to meet rent and tax
obligations. As colonists joined the village they were assigned a
portion as well as a village lot and or a house and rights to certain
communal land like wood lots and pasture (commons). The rights to
"rent" such portions could be inherited. As years went by,
intermarriage and other changes resulted in some villagers acquiring
more or less of a portion. With the redistribution of land (cost born
by aristocracy, government and peasant), further changes took place
resulting in a considerable change to previous arrangements. It was
after this period that the ownership of land achieved a "status"
value. Thus certain terms like "landwirt" came into being after the
1860's. I'd like general consensus to the following "status" terms:

Period before 1848 (Kommassierung)
Tenant farmer: "agricola" (Latin), "paraszt", (Hungarian)
Non-farmer: "söllner" (German), "colonus" (Latin) "napszamosno"
(Hungarian-day laborer)
Others?

Period after 1848
Farmer: "landwirt" (German)
Non-farmer: "söllner" (German), "colonus" (Latin) "napszamosno"
(Hungarian-day laborer)
Others?


3. Ethnic Events March 2009 (courtesy of Bob Strauch)

Saturday, March 14 - St. Patrick's Day Dance @ Coplay Sängerbund in
Coplay. Music by the Josef Kroboth Orchestra.


4. BURGENLAND EMIGRANT OBITUARIES (courtesy of Bob Strauch)

Mary H. Groller

Mary H. Groller, 92, of Allentown, died on January 28, 2009 surrounded
by her loving family in the home of her daughter, Joanne Conelias.

She was the wife of the late Joseph J. Groller, who died in 1998.

Mary was born in Northampton on August 14, 1916 (and raised in
Szentpéterfa/Prostrum), daughter of the late John and Mary (Mikisits)
Gerencser.

She was a devout member of Immaculate Conception Catholic Church, Allentown.

Mary was an avid bowler for more than 72 years.

She loved playing bingo, going to Atlantic City, playing cards with
her friends and family and listening to Hungarian and polka music.

Mary made the best kiffles in the Lehigh Valley.

Mary will be lovingly remembered by her family and friends as someone
who always had a smile on her face and enjoyed life.

She especially enjoyed the company of her grandchildren and
great-grandchildren and attended as many of their activities as
possible.

Survivors: Son, Joseph M. Groller and his wife, Kris, of Bethlehem;
daughters, Joanne, wife of Trent P. Conelias, of Bethlehem and Bonnie
and her late husband, Ernie Affa, of Fort Collins, Colorado; sister,
Catherine "Kitty" Rank of Northampton; six grandchildren, Trent, Dean,
Michael, Coriann, Samantha and Alexandra; six great-grandchildren,
Madison and Abigail Affa, Connor and Cade Conelias and Kiefer and
Brody Batz; nieces, nephews.


Herman Drauch

Herman Drauch, 85, of Allentown, passed away on Thursday, February 19,
2009 in Cedarbrook, South Whitehall Township.

He was the husband of the late Helena Drauch.

Born in Poppendorf, Burgenland, Austria, Herman was a son of the late
John and Cecelia (Baumann) Drauch.

He was a member of Our Lady Help of Christians Catholic Church, Allentown.

Herman was self employed and had a rug cleaning service in Allentown.

He served with the Army during World War II.

Survivor: Surviving is a brother, John G. of Allentown.


END OF NEWSLETTER

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