James Goodson was probably born about 1740 . His wife Jane [-?-] was probably born about 1760 .
The 1790 Census of Cheraw District, Darlington County, South Carolina,
listed, adjacent to the households of Ursell, Arthur and Jonathan Goodson,
the household of James Goodson as follows:
James Goodson, p.47 1m>16, 3m <16, 6f
The 1800 census of Darlington District listed two James Goodson households:
- James Goodson, p. 120
- 2m<10,1m 10-16, 1m 16-26, 1m>45, 1f<10, 1f 10-16, 2f 16-26, 1f 26-45
- James Goodson, p. 123
- 1m<10, 1m 10-26, 1m 26-45, 4f<10, 1f 16-26 (1 slave)
The first of these households appears to be that of James and Jane Goodson. The other James Goodson was probably the man known as James Goodson Jr. in later censuses and Darlington deeds.
The 1810 census of Darlington District listed three James Goodson households, with James Goodson Sr. now distinguished from two other James Goodsons, neither of which were necessarily his sons:
- James Goodson Sr., p.663
- 1m<10, 3m 10-16, 1m>45, 2f 16-26, 1f>45
- James Goodson You., p.674
- 2m<10, 1m 26-45, 1f 10-16, 1f 16-26
- James Goodson Jr., p.671
- 1m<10, 1m 10-16, 1m 26-45, 5f<10, 2f 10-16, 1f 26-45, 7 slaves
The 1820 census of Darlington District listed two James Goodson households:
- James Goodson Sr.
- 1m 10-16, 2m 16-26, 1m>45, 1f>45
- James Goodson Jr.
- 1m 10-16, 1m>45, 2f<10, 2f 10-16, 1f>45 (12 slaves) -- next to Elijah Goodson and Henry and James Blackman
On 15 April 1823, James Goodson (of Darlington District) conveyed a gift deed of approximately 250 acres of land to his son Ezekiel Goodson. The land was located along Swift Creek in the fork of the Robinson branch. This deed, which was signed by James Goodson's mark, was witnessed by Joseph E. Rhodes and James Hoole. 
On 24 Oct 1825, James Goodson conveyed a gift deed of 435 acres another son, Zachariah Goodson. This was "all the residue and remainder of my lands in plat hereunto annexed except a part lying below Robinson Branch conveyed heretofore to Ezekial Goodson (lay in the fork of Robinsons branch.)" This deed was witnessed by Joseph E. Rhodes and James McLendon, and signed by mark by James Goodson. In the attached oath of James McLendon, James Goodson was referred to as James Goodson senior. 
The 1830 census of Darlington County listed:
- James Goodson, p.212
- James Goodson, sen. 2m 10-15, 1m 90-100, 1f 70-80
- James Goodson Jr., p.214
- James Goodson, Jr. 1m 60-70, 1f 50-60
James Goodson died about 1833.
Jane Goodson died about July of 1836; on 19 July 1836 letters of administration for her estate were granted to William Vann with William Vann, George W. Dargan and David Williams security for the administrators bond. 
James Dove, Simpson Mixon, Wiley Goodson and Joseph E. Rhodes were assigned to appraise Jane's estate. The estate was appraised on 3 August 1836 for $183.40 by James Dove, Joseph E. Rhodes and Simpson Mixon.  The estate sale on 20 August 1836 raised $133.93 1/2 from the following purchasers: William Vann, James Davis, William Wright, Perneice Goodson, Chloe Davis, Joshua Terril, Daniel Dampier, Calvin Rhodes, James Dority and Wesley Garner. Among the expenses the administrator paid out was Henry Blackman's  blacksmith bill, James Goodson's blacksmith bill for 1832 to Wiley Goodson, and an uncollected note owed by Mrs. Pernice Goodson.
Note: one family legend  states that Penelope Goodson had three sisters, one married to an Ellington, one to a Wright, and one to a Terrell .