California Genealogy and History Archives
Nevada County History
BEAN'S HISTORY & DIRECTORY OF NEVADA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. 1867. -
A Memorial and
Biographical History of Northern California
Chicago, Lewis Publ. Co., 1891
BOUNDARY, CLIMATE, ETC.
Commencing at the Yuba County line, Nevada is hemmed in between the Middle Yuba and Bear rivers until the sources of those streams are reached, when the boundary line runs directly east until it reaches the western line of the State of Nevada. It is bounded on the north by Yuba and Sierra counties, on the east by the State of Nevada and Placer County, on the south by Placer County and on the west by Yuba County. Nevada is abundantly supplied by streams of water, sufficient for all purposes, even for hydraulic mining in its day. Ever rolling and ever ascending in tiers one above another until they reach the summit. Nevada County is a vast succession of hills, the snowcapped summits seeming but just high enough to peep over the verdant-covered crests of their lower brothers; and hundreds of fertile valleys greet the eye on every side, few of them containing as many as a hundred acres.
The range of the thermometer is very great, the highest recorded being 142½° above zero in the sun at the office of the South Yuba Canal Company, and the lowest being 40° below zero on Prosser Creek in the Truckee basin. At the point where the highest mark was reached, the thermometer has never fallen below zero. These figures are seldom reached within 20°, except in unusual seasons.
The rainfall is also very heavy, and when it comes in the form of snow it often lies on the ground in places to a depth of twenty-five feet. These deep snows isolate the mining camps and other neighborhoods from each other, sometimes for many weeks, and the blinding storms often cause the traveler to lose his way or locks him up for a time; and many lose their lives, or are saved as by miracle. A little communication is maintained by means of snow-shoes. The amount of rainfall (including melted snow) on the mountain sides in this county is about three times that which occurs at Sacramento, or about fifty-five inches per annum, the variation being from 14 to 109 inches.
The first settlement in Nevada County was made by John Rose, whose name was given to the celebrated Rose Bar near Smartsville, Yuba County. Rose and Reynolds were engaged in trading with the miners and Indians, their store being at Rose Bar. They made a specialty of raising cattle and producing beef for the miners. Afterward Rose built a corral at Pleasant Valley and established a trading post there. Following him, a man named Findlay, from Oregon, opened a trading post on Bear River near the mouth of Greenhorn Creek. David Bowyer also opened a store at White-oak Springs, in Rough and Ready Township. The Rough and Ready company settled at the town of that name. All these and a few others were in 1849.
The winter of 1852–'53 being very severe, the miners in the mountain fastnesses of this county ran short of provisions and met in convention in order to devise what to do; and on account of their resolving "to go to San Francisco and obtain the necessary supplies, peaceably if we can, but forcibly if we must," a great deal of laughter was indulged in at their expense.
When the State was originally divided into twenty-seven counties in 1850, this region was unknown, except partially to a few prospectors. Soon real-estate owners in the valleys among the foothills laid out "cities," obtained the ear of legislators and had county seats established for counties which, on account of their great number, had to be narrow strips of territory running far up into the mountains. Besides, many "cities " did not get the county-seat, or even become towns. The career of these rival points reminds one of a striking feature of almost or quite every department of life, well illustrated by a patch of weeds as they spring up all evenly at the start, but soon a few, having at the early stage but a very slight advantage, generally invisible, get ahead of the rest, shade the ground, kill down their neighbors, absorb all the nutriment of the surrounding earth and easily thrive ever afterward.
In Yuba County there were seven of these "cities,"—Kearney on Bear River, Plumas City, El Dorado City, Eliza, Marysville and Featherton on Feather River, and Linda on the Yuba River. The one that blew the loudest blasts upon its horn, and really had the most to blow for, was Marysville; and this place, though at one extremity of the county and over a hundred miles distant from the other extreme, was made the county-seat. The county of Yuba was made to embrace all of Yuba, Sierra, Nevada and a portion of Placer counties, thus constituting a most unwieldy territory. The shifting of population in those days was as incessant and rapid as drifting clouds of the sky; and thus was it that a few months after the creation of Yuba County, this region, to which scarce a thought had been given, became the scene of life and activity. The disadvantages of belonging to Yuba County were early felt; Marysville was too distant, and a county government located at that place was to the citizens here almost as useless as one in Oregon.
The first officers in 1850 were: Wm. R. Turner, District Judge, succeeded by Gordon N. Mott; Henry P. Haun, County Judge; S. B. Mulford, District Attorney, succeeded by H. P. Watkins and J. O. Goodwin; E. D. Wheeler, Clerk; Alfred Lawton, Recorder; R. B. Buchanan, Sheriff; L. W. Taylor, Treasurer; James B. Cushing, Surveyor; S. C. Tompkins, Assessor; and S. T. Brewster, Coroner. Very few changes have been made in the judiciary, and the usual number in the other offices.
By the time the next Legislature met, Nevada City had become a town of considerable importance, and both Grass Valley and Rough and Ready were coming into prominence; the latter was also an aspirant for the seat of government. A re-division of the State into counties was therefore made by a Legislative act April 25, 1851, by which, among others, the new county of Nevada was created. The county derived its name from Nevada City, at which point the seat of justice was located. The word "Nevada" is Spanish for snowy. At the first election, thereafter, in May, about 2,900 votes were cast, resulting in the choice of the following officers: Thomas H. Caswell, Judge; John R. McConnell, District Attorney; Theodore Miller, Clerk; John Gallagher, Sheriff; Charles Marsh, Surveyor; H. C. Dodge, Treasurer; and T. G. Williams, Assessor.
The boundaries given to the county by the above act were as follows: Beginning at a point in the Yuba River opposite the mouth of Deer Creek, and running thence up the middle of Yuba River to a point opposite the mouth of the middle branch of the Yuba; thence up the middle of said middle branch ten miles from its mouth; thence easterly in a straight line to the boundary of the State; thence south along the boundary line of the State to, the northeast. corner of. Placer County; thence westerly on the northerly line of Placer County to the source of Bear Creek; thence down Bear Creek to a point due south of the junction of Deer Creek and Yuba River; thence north to the place of beginning. But April 19, 1856, the line on the Sierra County side was changed thus: Commencing at a point in the Main Yuba opposite the mouth of Deer Creek, and running thence up Main Yuba to the mouth of Middle Yuba; thence up Middle Yuba to the south fork of the same; thence up said fork to its source; thence east to the State line; then south on the State line to the northeast corner of Placer County; thence west on the north line of Placer County to the source of Bear River; thence down Bear River to a point due south of the place of beginning; thence north to the place of beginning.
February 2, 1857, the boundary lines were again described by a detailed delineation of the respective townships.
By the burning of the court-house July 19, 1856, some of the county records were destroyed, thus cutting off some of the sources of early history.
THE INDIAN WAR
in the Washoe country in 1860 is of special interest to Nevada County on account of the prominent part taken in it by her citizens. On the evening of May 7, that year, intelligence of the massacre of seven white men by Indians was brought to Nevada City. Two companies, one commanded by Major Ormsby and the other by Captain McDonald, in all over 100 men, proceeded toward the scene of the massacre, below the great bend of the Truckee River. They followed the trail until on the 12th, near Pyramid Lake, when they were ambushed by a band of Piutes in a pass. The men fought desperately until their ammunition became exhausted and then sought to escape by flight. Many were killed in the action, while many more were shot in their attempt to escape. Henry Meredith, a gentleman well and favorably known in this vicinity and Sacramento, was killed while fighting after many had fled.
The news reached Nevada City on Sunday. The alarm bells were rung, and the people assembled in the theatre and made arrangements to send aid to the terrified settlers. All that night men were busy making cartridges and preparing ammunition. Early in the morning a volunteer company of thirty men, under Captain Van Hagan of the Nevada City Rifles, started for the scene of action, having, a great amount of ammunition and about sixty muskets. At Virginia City the company was increased to seventy-seven men and served through the campaign of six weeks, doing good service. On returning they brought back the body of Meredith.
A few days after the departure of the company for the seat of war, an effort was made to raise another. It is related that, at the meeting called for the purpose, an enthusiastic gentleman was moved by the scarcity of volunteers to say: "Let us make up a company consistent with the pride of the county and the danger to be encountered. Yes, gentlemen; let us raise enough to make a respectable corpse." The effect of this ghastly remark was the opposite of that intended, as many of the volunteers wilted on the spot.
in 1859 the Sacramento, Placer & Nevada Railroad was projected, and a survey was commenced from Folsom to Auburn, by Sherman Day. The intention was eventually to extend the line to Nevada City, and the merchants of this county subscribed a sum sufficient for a survey of a route from Auburn to Nevada City by the way of Grass Valley. A preliminary survey was made, and was embodied in Day's report, showing that a line could be constructed thirty-six miles in length and with a grade of eighty feet to the mile. From this time the railroad question was never entirely laid aside; every year it was brought out, rubbed over and polished, and laid carefully away within easy reach.
A road to Lincoln was at one time under discussion.
As soon as it became evident that the great transcontinental road would be built, great efforts were made to have the Henness pass route adopted, but in vain. After several tedious efforts, work was commenced on the narrow-gauge road in February, 1875, and was completed from Colfax to Grass Valley in April, 1876, and regular trains began to run between those points. The total length of the road is twenty-two and a half miles.
As an exception in the field of journalism, Nevada County has not been the fatal ground of many newspaper enterprises, a majority of them having been paying investments for a number of years, and some for many years. The Nevada Journal first appeared in April, 1851, started by Warren B. Ewer. This was the second paper started in the mines of California. R. A. Davidge issued the first number of the Young America September 14, 1853. This was afterward changed to the Democrat, under Niles Searls, and died in 1863. The Nevada Daily Transcript first appeared September 6, 1860, under the management of N P. Brown & Co., with the name of Morning Transcript. The Grass Valley Telegraph was started in September; 1853, by Oliver & Moore. After several changes of proprietorship, it was changed in July, 1858, to the Grass Valley National. In 1872 the material of the paper was sold to the Nevada Gazette and taken to Nevada City.
In 1854–'56 the noted Lola Montez made Grass Valley her residence and the scene of many of her eccentricities. She attempted to cowhide Henry Shipley, editor of the Grass Valley Telegraph, but was disarmed after she struck one blow. Both Lola and Shipley published their versions of the affair, each severely reflecting upon the character of the other. The true, full name of this woman was Maria Dolores Porris Montez. She was born in Ireland, in 1824; was married early, and soon separated from her husband; appeared as a danseuse at Paris in 1840, and soon afterward at Munich, where she became mistress of King Louis and received the title of Countess of Landsfeld, in 1846; took an active part in politics, but was compelled to leave the country by the popular outbreaks of 1848; came to the United States in 1851; appeared for some years as an actress and lecturer, and published her autobiography, besides various other writings. She died at New York in 1861.
The handsome and substantial structure that now serves the double purpose of court-house and jail in Nevada City, is the third costly building that has been erected on the present site. Twice have the destroying fingers of flame seized upon the building and in a few moments demolished the work of months.
Court was first held in the "Red Store" on the corner of Main and Church streets, near the present location. The county soon purchased an old shake building on Broad street. This "shaky" old building, formerly a hotel, in time became dilapidated, and court was held in the Methodist and Congregational churches, Frisbie's theater and Abbott's hall. In 1855–'56 a new building was erected, at a cost of nearly $50,000. This fine structure was destroyed in the great fire of July 19, 1856, but a few weeks after the county offices had been moved into it.
A rare incident occurred in connection with this fire. The sheriff, W. W. Wright, when he saw that the court-house must burn, and the jail with it, and after he had exhausted all his strength in endeavoring to subdue the flames, opened the door of the jail to free the prisoners, falling at the same instant to the floor utterly exhausted. A prisoner named Lewis, indicted for murder, on emerging from the jail could easily enough have made his escape; but instead of doing so he lifted up Sheriff Wright, carried him down to Deer Creek, and bathed his temples and nursed him until he revived. He then asked him where he should go. Wright told him to go where he pleased, but to appear in court the following Monday morning. Lewis accordingly appeared, was admitted to bail in a nominal sum, with plenty of men to become his bondsmen, and on a short trial he was readily acquitted, the jury assuming "that he had fully compensated for the taking of a worthless life by preserving a worthy one."
A new court-house was completed January 26, 1857, at a cost of over $19,000, and on Sunday, November 8, 1863, this also was consumed by fire. The third and present court-house building was completed in March, 1865, at an expense of over $46,000. In this building, July 27, 1867, R. H. Farquhar, the county clerk, was killed by the explosion of coal gas which had leaked out into the room the previous night. The jet had been left burning in the vault, and when the oxygen had become exhausted the flame went out, and the gas continued to flow until the air was saturated. On lighting a match there in the morning the fatal explosion took place.
from this county have been: Win. R. Armstrong, 1859; John M. Avery, 1861–'62; S. Barker, 1871–'72; Robert Bell, 1871–'72; Vincent G. Bell, 1856; S. L. Blackwell, 1875-18; Thomas P. Blue, 1875–'76; S. W. Boring, 1856; John H. Bostwick, 1853–'54; H. M. C. Brown, 1855; E. F. Burton, 1854; C. W. Calahan, 1859; John Caldwell, 1858–'59; George Cassin, 1857; James Collins, 1862–'63; E. W. Councilman, 1861; J. T. Crenshaw, 1853; Samuel T. Curtis, 1860; E. M. Davidson, 1857; I. N. Dawley, 1854; J. M. Days, 1867–'68, 1871–'72; George D. Dornin, 1865–'68; Daniel Dustin, 1856; J. C. Eastman, 1861; E. E. W. Ellis, 1852; Henry Everett, 1871–'72; Michael Garver, 1877-78; E. H Gaylord, 1855; George W. Giffen, 1873-78; H. L. Hatch,1865–'66; F. Hawley, 1869-70; Henry Hayes, 1860; Wm. Hill, 1873–'74; W. A. King, 1869-70; Wm. J. Knox, 1855; Reuben Leach, 1862, 1865–'66; J. Levee, 1880; J. L. Lewison, 1883; Wm. H. Lindsey, 1854; W. D. Long, 1881; Win. H. Lyons, 1852; Seth Martin, 1863–'64; T. B. McFarland, 1856; Charles F. McGlashan, 1885; Thomas Mein, 1881; N. C. Miller, 1861; Philip Moore, 1853, 1857, 1859–'60; B. C. Northup, 1873-74; S. T. Oates, 1869-70; M. P. O'Conner, 1860; J. B. Patterson, 1881; John Pattison, 1865–'66; A. J. Phelan, 1873-74; J. Phelps, 1855; Parker H. Pierce, 1857; G. A. F. Reynolds, 1856; H. G. Rollins, 1867–'68; J. W. Rule, 1863–'64; Wm. H. Sears, 1862–'64; Josiah Sims, 1887; T. A. Slicer, 1869–'70; A. A. Smith, 1863–'64; C. F. Smith, 1860; James K. Smith, 1858; E. F. Spence, 1861; H. P. Sweetland, 1854; J. O. Sweetland, 1880, 1883; J. I. Sykes, 1887; J. N. Turner, 1852; E. G. Waite, 1855; A. M. Walker, 1863–'64, 1871'72; Austin Walrath, 1883–'85; J. B. Warfield, 1858; James D. White, 1867–'68; W. C. Wood, 1857; George A. Young, 1858–'59.
RESOURCES AND PRESENT CONDITION.
It has been the fashion these many years for the writer about Nevada County, newspaper or other kind, to proceed to what at first sight seem extravagant terms. Witness this, culled from the Recorder Union of Sacramento, on the occasion of a late State Fair. The article is headed " Grand Old Nevada."
"Nevada, the mother of the mineral counties, the foremost of all the gold sections of the world, the historic, inexhaustible Nevada, not making a great display of minerals as yet because she has done that before in a manner to defy rivalry, comes to the front this year with the largest fruit, grain, vine and vegetable exhibit in the pavilion, or that has been made by any county heretofore."
The peculiarity is, that the further one examines the better she seems entitled to all that can be said for her. Nevada is a mountain county, possessing, among others, the richest quartz mine in America, if not the world, the Idaho mine at Grass Valley, and until the stoppage of hydraulic mining by judicial edict, producing the greatest output of gold of all counties in California. That decision has had a very depressing effect upon the county, but yet only temporarily, for so large and varied are the natural resources of Nevada and so energetically are they being developed that no sign remains of the depression save the gigantic cuts or banks washed down by the "monitors" with their head of water. The Idaho mine has paid its owners $11,000,000 since it began operations. Other considerable mines are the North Star, the Omaha, Yuba, Washington and Diamond Creek. The last three are in the Washington mining district.
Nevada is one of the imperial mining counties of California, contesting with Amador the honor of being the largest bullion producing county in the State. The annual output of gold, amounting now to nearly $3,000,000 for each county, would have been much larger but for the suppression of hydraulic mining. The bullion product of Nevada has suffered the largest curtailment from this cause. Every form of gold mining elsewhere pursued is represented in this county, gravel washing by the hydraulic process alone excepted; this, after reaching here its greatest expansion, having been prohibited by the courts. In Nevada County, California, gold quartz mining had its origin; the business having begun at Grass Valley as early as 1850, in which year the first quartz mill in the State was erected. In Nevada, also, auriferous gravel washing by the hydraulic method was invented and first practiced, the process having afterward in this county seen its most extensive application. Here are found the longest and most extensive water ditches and the most capacious reservoirs, constructed in this or, perhaps, in any other country. The record made by some of the quartz mines of this county is remarkable, both as regards large, long continued and steady production. The ores here are for the most part of good grade and free milling, carrying usually not over two per cent of sulphurets. The concentrates yield on an average about $100 per ton. The ore is chiefly gold-bearing quartz, while the veins are not apt to be large, ranging generally from two to three feet in thickness.
The surface of this county is uneven throughout, the great snowy range covering its eastern, and the foothills its western part. With the exception of the Truckee River which flows across its southeastern corner, and the South Fork of the Yuba, flowing centrally through it, there are no large streams wholly in Nevada, the Middle Yuba separating this from Sierra County on the north, and Bear River separating it from Placer County on the south. There are several small lakes in the upper part of the county. Of these, Donner, some two miles long, and situated east of the main summit of the Sierra, is the principal. Except a narrow strip along its western border, the county is well timbered.
Nevada County is known almost the world over for the excellency of her Bartlett pears. The vicinity of Grass Valley, Nevada City, and Rough and Ready, once the most typical of mining camps, seems the natural home of that fruit. Every year a large quantity of the fresh fruit is shipped from the two first named places, the shipping points of the western end of the county, say a million pounds from Grass Valley, and half that quantity from its neighbor. Every year is seeing the increase in the number of trees, while the planting of other fruits, grapes, and garden stuff is also going forward rapidly. "Chicago Park" is a Bartlett pear colony from Chicago, a strong and prosperous company who publish semi-monthly the Chicago Park Horticulturist, having their office temporarily in the Chicago Opera House building, with C. H. Briot as editor. Their colony or park is of course in the midst of the pear belt.
Until the completion of the Nevada County Narrow-gauge Road, May 20, 1876, the county had practically no outside market, the haul by wagon or stage being too rough and far for the favorable handling of fruit. The completion of that road, however, from Colfax, on the line of the Central Pacific to Nevada City, a distance of twenty-two miles, has developed the agricultural and horticultural interests of the county, and has opened to tourists a series of views of magnificence and grandeur. Invalids visit the county, also, in great numbers, seeking relief from the malarial or pulmonary troubles of other parts. John F. Kidder, of Grass Valley, president of the road, was prime mover in its building.
is the county-seat, and one of the handsomest cities in the State. Its buildings are scattered about in a most picturesque way upon a number of adjoining hills, while in the city and its outskirts are about twenty quartz mines and mills. It is a place of great trade, being the supply point for much of the mining country above. Stages leave for all the adjacent camps, there being no less than five lines centering in the city. It is a thriving and wide-awake place, possessing a large number of active business houses, two foundries, excellent hotels, a fine theater, an efficient fire department, and is lighted by gas and electricity.
The surrounding country is a strange mingling of quartz mines, abandoned gravel mines, beautiful gardens and orchards, vineyards and grain farms, the support of the city being drawn from all these sources. It is said that one of the best quartz mines in the county was discovered by a man named Schmidt, who had purchased a piece of land to start a vineyard. He bought the land for $300, and while digging a post hole struck a rich quartz vein, which he immediately sold for $15,000. The court-house is a handsome building occupying a splendid site. The county hospital, a little way from town, is a commodious and well managed institution. The town has a fine school system and five churches.
Three miles or less from Nevada City is the city of
the twin towns being connected by two lines of busses, in addition to the railroad. This beautiful mining city, for a long time the second but now the first in size and importance in Nevada County, lies in a lovely little valley, surrounded by gracefully sloping hills whose sides are dotted with the hundreds of quartz mines that have made the city so famous and prosperous. The first visitors here were David Stump, Mr. Berry and another man, from the Willamette Valley in Oregon, during the fall of 1848. Starting northward on a prospecting tour from Placerville, they discovered on Bear River evidences of crevicing, and continued their journey still further north in search of a country entirely new. They found a stream running through a fertile valley whose luxuriant growth of grass and wild pea-vines refreshed their weary eyes. Here they stopped three weeks and creviced for gold near where the Eureka and Idaho mines have wrested millions from the stubborn rock. They found gold in large quantities and heavy pieces; but when the first indications of approaching winter crossed the sky they departed for the valley, fearing to spend the winter season in the mountains. Except these gentlemen, no one is known to have visited this valley until 1849, when immigrants came here in search of cattle strayed from their camps on Bear River or Greenhorn Creek. Here the cattle were found contentedly feeding and fattening upon the tall and juicy grass that billowed before the breeze and waved in the noonday sun.
The earliest actual settlers within the limits of the city appear to have been a party of five immigrants who crossed the plains in 1849 and built a cabin on Badger Hill, near the east line of the corporation, some time in the month of August. The party consisted of Benjamin Taylor, Dr. Saunders, Captain Broughton and his two sons, Greenbury and Alexander. Zenas R. Denman arrived August 12, and remained nearly twenty years. John Little, John Barry and the Fowler brothers also built a cabin in the same vicinity. The "Rhode Island Company" built the Providence store on the summit of Main street. Boston Ravine, the point that early became of importance and was the chief settlement in this vicinity for two years, was settled by a Boston company September 23, 1849. Rev. H. Cummings was the president of the company.
At the present day the place is a town of substantial, steady-growing advance. Its future is bright, the quartz ledges, horticultural and agricultural resources giving assurance of permanent prosperity. The town is situated in and on the hills bounding what in early days was a small grass-covered valley, whence was derived the name. On the uncultivated hills about is a thick growth of fine trees, chiefly pine, giving a peculiar and pleasing aspect to the vicinity. Orchards, vineyards and gardens abound, and the place is the market town of a large and thickly-settled region. At Grass Valley are the shops of the railroad. The town has gas works, electric lights and a most excellent water system. There are seven churches, the Roman Catholic having formerly been a cathedral, Grass Valley being the see of the bishop, now removed to Sacramento. The school system is perfect, and in addition there is a Roman Catholic convent. Here are situated some of the largest and richest mines in the country, the celebrated Idaho mine being the most noteworthy. The business center is well built up and presents a scene of activity.
ROUGH AND READY
is a mining camp in the lower part of the county, once famous, now devoted largely to agriculture as well as mining.
The name Truckee was given to the home of the leaping trout, the beautiful river that receives its waters from Lake Tahoe and carries them swiftly through this enchanting valley, by an immigrant party who slaked their thirst in the cool stream and replenished their nearly exhausted larder from the abundance of its fish. That party passed up the river in the fall of 1844, guided by an Indian named Truckee. In 1863, when the Dutch Flat and Donner Lake wagon road was being constructed across the mountains, Joseph Gray moved here with his family and built a log house. The next year J. McConnell settled on the site now occupied by the Truckee Lumber Company's store, the ground being soon after claimed by a man named Owens. The dispute between the two men resulted in the shooting of McConnell by Owens. The wounded man recovered, and Owens was sentenced to two years in the penitentiary.
The town rapidly improved and was made the end of divisions on the railroad. Thus it became the principal point between Sacramento and Ogden. During the year 1871 three destructive conflagrations visited Truckee, the last of which resulted in nearly a total destruction of the place. Serious fires also occurred in 1873 and 1875.
The business of Truckee has been confined to three articles,—lumber, wood and ice. The town is the third of the large towns of Nevada County, is located east of the Sierra Nevadas, on the line of the Central Pacific. In the vicinity are six saw-mills, manufacturing about 24,000,000 feet of lumber annually, mostly yellow pine. Truckee is a favorite stopping place for tourists, being in the "heart of the Sierras" and connected by stage with all the more interesting points, such as lakes Tahoe, Webber and Donner.
The Transcript, daily and weekly, established in 1860, and the Herald, a daily, founded in 1868, are the newspapers of Nevada City. At Grass Valley there are three papers, the Tidings, the Union and the Evening Telegraph, all dailies with weekly editions. They were founded respectively in 1877, 1880 and 1889. The Truckee Republican is published semiweekly, the first issue being in 1871. The press of this county is live, earnest and energetic, truly representative of their great section.
Transcribed by Kathy Sedler.