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Orange County History

An Illustrated History of Southern California
The Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago - 1890

 

GENERAL REMARKS.

 

        ORANGE County is the youngest county in California, and save San Diego County it is the most southerly. By act of Legislature, approved March 11, 1889, it was set apart from Los Angeles County on August 1, 1889. This county is about forty-four miles northwest and southeast, by some twenty-two miles wide, the greater extent having coastage throughout its entire length.

        The new county comprises an area of 861 square miles, or about 610,000 acres, of which 450,000 acres is excellent, indeed choice, agricultural land, of which some 250,000 acres are already under cultivation. The population of the county is about 16,000.

        In Orange County can be found soil of every class and kind found in California, and here may be cultivated every product to be grown in semi-tropical regions.

The following named are the old-time ranchos comprised within the limits of Orange County: Trabuco, Mision Vieja or La Paz, Niguel, San Joaquin, Las Bolsas, La Bolsa Chica, one-half each of Los Alamitos and Los Coyotes, San Juan Cajon de Santa Ana, Cajon de Santa Ana, a small portion of La Brea and of La Habra, Santiago de Santa Ana, Lomas de Santiago, Cañada de los Alisos, Boca de la Playa, and El Sobrante. In Anaheim Township are the ranchos: San Juan Cajon de Santa Ana, containing 31,501.99 acres, confirmed to Juan Pacifico Ontiveras; Rancho La Habra, of 6,698.57 acres, confirmed to Andres Pico, and a portion of Los Coyotes. Westminster Township is composed of the whole of Rancho Los Alamitos, containing 28,027.11 acres. Santa Ana Township contains the Rancho San Joaquin, 48,803.16 acres, confirmed to Jose Sepulveda; Santiago de Santa Ana, 62,516.57 acres, granted to Bernardo Yorba et al.; Lomas de Santiago, 47,226.61 acres, granted to Teodocia Yorba and Cañon de Santa Ana, of 13,328.53 acres, granted to Bernardo Yorba. San Juan Township contains the Trabuco, of 22,184.47 acres, the Potreros, three in number of San Juan Capistrano, aggregating 1,167.76 acres, and the Mision Vieja or La Paz, of 46.432.65 acres, all confirmed to Juan Forster; Cañada de los Aliso, 10,568.81 acres, granted to José Serrano; Niguel, 46,072 acres, M. de Jesus Garcia et al.; Boca de la Playa, 6,607 acres, granted to Emidio Vejar; Mission San Juan Capistrano, 44.56 acres, to the church; Santa Margarita, 3,616 acres (a part only), Juan Forster.

 

WATER.

        A vast quantity of water for irrigating purposes is furnished by the Santa Ana river, the Santiago creek and numerous mountain streams. What is not supplied to the tillable lands from these sources is had from artesian wells. The artesian belts cover a total area of about 50,000 acres, or about one-fifth of the land under cultivation in the county. Flowing wells are obtained at a depth of from thirty-five to fifty feet, at a cost of $100 to $1,000. There is in the county considerable moist land which does not require irrigation, which will yield, even in the dryest seasons, large crops of corn, potatoes, alfalfa, garden vegetables, feed for dairy stock, and superb pears and apples.

        The chief source of water for irrigating the Santa Ana valley is the Santa Ana river, the largest stream in Southern California. The water supply of this section is highly favored by the vast area and great elevation of the mountain ranges drained by this stream, and by the conformation of the surface with regard to the bed-rock, by which is raised and made available all the seepage and undercurrents of the great upland basins. Thus is secured to this valley an amount of water certain and sufficient for all its needs, a supply not to be affected by local drouths, nor by the diversion of settlements farther up the river.

        In 1877 was organized the Santa Ana Irrigation Company, whose completed works consist of more than seventy-five miles of ditches, pipes and tunnels. Their main canal is ten feet wide at the bottom, twenty-six feet at the top, and six feet deep, with a carrying capacity of 6,000 inches of water. This canal, about eight miles from its head, passes through a spur of hills in two tunnels, 900 feet long, ten feet wide, and seven feet high, and emerges at a point overlooking the whole valley. Here it divides into two branches, one of a capacity of 2,500 inches, keeping on a higher level, while the other, of 3,500 inches, plunges fifty-six feet downward to the level of the valley, to whose farthest limits it reaches. This stream of water, in reaching the lower grade, makes one of the finest water-powers in the State.

 

RAILROADS.

        The entire length of this county is traversed by the main line of the Santa Fé system, connecting Santa Ana with Los Angeles and San Diego, and another line of this system branches from Orange and follows the Santa Ana river, connecting at Riverside with the main line from San Diego to San Bernardino.

        The Southern Pacific has a branch line connecting Santa Ana with Los Angeles; also, another line which connects with the main system at Los Angeles, skirting the foothills from Tustin. It is fairly well assured that this company designs extending its line to San Diego.

        The Fairview Development Company has completed a narrow-gauge road connecting Fairview with Santa Ana, its objective point being an ocean outlet at or near McFadden's landing.

        A standard-gauge road is being built from McFadden's landing (Newport Pier) to the city. A considerable amount of the road-bed has been graded, and it is expected that the road will be completed within a few months.

 

RESOURCES.

        Good unimproved land can be had for $30 to $60 per acre, while improved land sells for from $100 to $200, according to its location and the improvements upon it.

        In this section "boom times" affected the farming interest, although less, perhaps, than in many other districts; and there is now a strong reaction again in favor of husbandry, as against real-estate speculation. Small tracts are growing in favor with the farmers and fruit-growers, who are giving great attention to lots of five or ten acres, well cultivated for the products for which they are especially adapted.

        Walnut-growing is fast becoming one of the leading features of horticulture in Orange County. Walnuts have been planted over a a great portion of the vineyards devastated by the vine disease, and more of these trees than of any other were planted out during the past season. No less than 10,000 acres were planted to walnut trees during 1889, and it is estimated that 15,000 more acres will be planted in 1890. Orange County contains many thousands of acres particularly adapted for growing these nuts, and, as there is an unlimited demand for them at remunerative prices, it is safe to predict that this will soon become the banner walnut-producing county of the State. Not less than $50,000 worth of English walnuts from Orange County were put upon the market during the past season. Peanut-growing also is assuming important proportions, at least $16,000 worth of peanuts having been shipped hence this season.

        Probably no other county has made large shipments of oranges in proportion to her size, than Orange County. It is estimated that about 45,000 boxes was this section's yield for this season.

        The ravages of the vine pest has done almost incalculable damage to the grape industries for several years past; yet even under these circumstances the county has had a revenue of $100,000 from wine and brandy; and if, as it is expected, the methods already adopted prevent a recurrence of the blight, the shipments for next year from the Santa Ana valley will, probably, include 200,000 boxes of first-class raisins.

        While a great portion of the lands thus devastated have been set to orange and walnut trees, very many of the vineyards have been replanted to vines. On these diseased vineyard lands also were made extensive experiments with the sugar beet, which, save in the vicinity of Anaheim, showed most satisfactory proofs of sugar and polarization. It is believed that a refinery and crushing-house will soon be established hereabouts by one of the sugar-beet companies.

        A newborn industry here is the shipment of fresh vegetables to the markets of the Eastern States during the months when such staples are out of season there. The promoters of this enterprise, having secured favorable freights, purpose to establish a regular system of such shipments.

        But agricultural products are not the only natural resources and elements of wealth The section is rich in minerals. Silver ore assaying $16 per ton is found in the mountains. Good seams of coal exist; and a vast deposit of Portland cement has been discovered. To exploit this, there has been organized a company with a capital of $300,000, one-third of which sum is to be expended in a plant, where 1,000 hands will be given work. This branch of the county's riches includes a mineral-paint mine, whose product is deemed superior to the imported article; and a gypsum mine, with grades ranging from the purest alabaster to the ordinary element, which after calcining becomes the plaster of Paris of commerce. Natural gas also is found within the county, and several geologists assert that a large petroleum basin begins under the outskirts of the city of Santa Ana.

 

SCHOOLS.

        There are in Orange County thirty-four school districts. The apportionment for the last school year was $59,584.57 from the respective sources.

        There are in the county 4,095 school census children, for whose instruction are employed sixty-eight teachers. Most of the districts possess good buildings, with improved furniture and appliances.

        There are in Santa Ana three school buildings, accommodating about 720 pupils. The largest building cost $30,000, and the other two $9,000 and $6,000 respectively.

        Orange has two good school-houses, costing $8,500 and $7,800. There are here 392 school census children.

        Anaheim has two fine school buildings, costing $16,000 and $7,000. The number of census children here is 546.

        The Tustin school building cost about $12,000, and accommodates 267 pupils.

        Most of the schools run nine to ten months yearly.

 

WEALTH.

        At the close of 1889, the books of the county assessor showed the following figures for the new county:

Number of acres = 420,462

Value of real estate, other than city or town lots = $4,800,706

Value of improvements thereon = 680,625

Value of city and town lots = 1,827,169

Value of personal property, exclusive of money and solvent credits = 1,168,641

Total value after equalization by State Board = 8,646,024

Railway, Santa Fé = 385,951

Railway, Southern Pacific = 238,791

Total  =   $18,268,269

 

        Santa Ana is the county seat of Orange County, and the other important cities and towns are Anaheim, Orange, Tustin, and Westminster.

        The officials of Orange County are as follows: Superior Judge, James W. Towner; Supervisors, William H. Spurgeon, Jacob Ross, Sheldon Littlefield, S. Armor, A. Guy Smith; District Attorney, E. E. Edwards; Sheriff, R. T. Harris; County Clerk, R. L. Wickham; Recorder and Auditor, George E. Foster; Treasurer, Dr. W. B. Wall; School Superintendent, J. P. Greeley; Tax Collector, F. C. Smythe; Deputy Revenue Collector, Richard Melrose; Public Administrator and Coroner, I. D. Mills; Engineer,—Wood.

        The Orange County Medical Association was organized in the spring of 1889, shortly after the segregation of the county. It has fourteen members. The president is J. M. Lacy, M. D.; vice-president, J. R. Medlock, M. D.; secretary, J. P. Boyd, M. D., and treasurer, W. B. Wood, M. D.

 

SANTA ANA.

        The Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana was granted, under the old Spanish regime, in 1810, to one of the Yorbas, the grant comprehending about 62,000 acres. After the death of the original grantee, the land now occupied by the town site of Santa Ana fell to the share of Zenobia Yorba de Rowland, from whom it was bought by Mr. W. H. Spurgeon, who had the land surveyed and laid off in town lots in October, 1869. The growth of Santa Ana has been slow, but steady, the town being built up and supported by the resources of the surrounding country, and being the trade center of one of the finest agricultural and horticultural sections of Southern California.

        Santa Ana was first incorporated June 1, 1886, as a city of the sixth class, and it was re­incorporated, August, 1888, as a city of the fifth class.

        This city is situated on branch lines of two great railways, the Santa Fé and the Southern Pacific. It is thirty-three miles distant from Los Angeles, forty from Riverside, forty-eight from Colton, and twenty-five from San Juan Capistrano; it is ninety miles from San Diego, eighteen from Laguna, eighteen from Long Beach, fourteen from Anaheim Landing, seven from Anaheim, seven from Westminster, four from Las Bolsas, nine from Newport Landing (which is its seaport), five from Garden Grove, three from Orange, and two miles due west from Tustin City.

        Thus, it will readily be perceived, Santa Ana has superior advantages, both for residence and business purposes, from its situation with regard to the foregoing cities and towns, and from its excellent railroad facilities.

        The climate of the valley is inviting. Lying about ten miles from the coast, it has a more equable temperature and a drier atmosphere than points immediately on the seaboard, while the breeze from the Pacific prevents sultriness. The mercury rarely reaches 90° in the shade during the heated season, and very rarely falls to within 10° of the freezing point.

        Santa Ana is now the county seat of Orange County, with a population of some 5,000. The assessed valuation of city property for 1889 was $2,561,275.     During the past year, there have been erected two business blocks costing $35,000 and $45,000, one $20,000 residence, over a dozen dwellings ranging from $2,500 to $5,000, and a great number costing from $500 to $1,000.

        The city is well lighted, having both gas and electricity systems.

        There is a street railway system of about six miles, and it also connects the city with Orange and Tustin. The Orange and Santa Ana line again connects with the Orange and El Modena system, thus giving Santa Ana a continuous line of about twelve miles of street railway.

        There is a local telephone exchange, besides communication with Los Angeles and other neighboring points.

        Almost every line of business is well represented at Santa Ana. The merchants carry good stocks, and sell at reasonable figures. The following is a list of the business houses operating in the city at the beginning of 1890: Six dry-goods shops, twelve grocery stores, two men's furnishing-goods houses, six hardware stores, five livery stables, four millinery stores: two feed and grain shops, one steam roller flouring-mill, three hotels, three restaurants, two confectioneries, five drug stores, one bazaar, eight saloons, five harness shops, two photograph galleries, two merchant tailor shops, four job printing houses, six newspapers (four weeklies and two dailies), four cigar stands, two news depots, one cigar factory, one hairdresser, two musical instrument depots, one paint and oil store, four bakeries, three shoe shops, nine real-estate offices, three dental parlors, two packing houses, four butcher shops, three clothing stores, two gun stores, two undertaking parlors, three banks, two abstract companies, three jewelry stores, one fruit and seed store, one hardware and grocery store, one general merchandise store, six blacksmith shops, one machine shop, six lodging houses, one tin store, one oil and gasoline store, two second-hand furniture stores, two sewing-machine offices, one marble works, one employment office, two lumber yards, one gas works, one Thompson & Houston electric light works, three carpenter shops, four carriage repositories, three furniture stores.

        The oldest bank in Santa Ana is the Commercial Bank, incorporated in April, 1882. Its capital is $100,000, and its surplus $35,000. D. Halladay is the president and Will K. James, cashier. This house transacts a general banking business with foreign and domestic exchange and collections.

        The First National Bank was organized in May, 1886; it has a paid-in capital of $150,000. Its president is William H. Spurgeon, and its cashier, M. M. Crookshank.

        The bank of the Orange County Savings, Loan and Trust Company, has a capital stock of $100,000. Its president is Carey R. Smith, and its cashier C. F. Mansur.

        Santa Ana Lodge, No. 124, F. & A. M., was organized October 1, 1875.

        Santa Ana Lodge, No. 236. I. O. O. F., was organized October 30, 1875.

        Santa Ana Lodge, 151, I. O. G. T., was organized January 19, 1878.

        Santa Ana Lodge, No. 82, A. O. U. W., was organized February 27, 1879.

        These were the pioneers of the fraternal organizations, which are now represented by: Santa Ana Lodge, No. 124, F. & A. M.; Santa Ana Lodge, No. 236, I. O. O. F.; Laurel Camp, No. 87, I. O. O. F.; Rebekah Degree, I. O. O. F.; Santa Ana Lodge, No. 82, A. O. U. W.; Santa Ana Lodge, No. 151, I. O G. T.; Women's Relief Corps, No. 17; Santa Ana Lodge, No. 149, Knights of Pythias; Order of Chosen Friends, Hesperian Council; Sons of Veterans, McDowell Camp No. 2.; Carpenters' Union, No. 282; Ladies' Benevolent Society of Santa Ana; Y. M. C. A.; W. C. T. U.; Y. W. C. T. U.; G. A. R., Sedgwick Post, No. 17.

        The Methodist Church South was organized at Santa Ana, at the residence of W. H. Tichenal, December, 1869. A church edifice was erected in 1876, and consecrated in October of that year. It cost $2,000.

        The Baptist Church was organized March, 1871. The church edifice costing $4,000, was dedicated September, 1878.

        The Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1874.

        The United Presbyterian Church was organized June 22, 1876. Its edifice was built August, 1877. It cost $2,800.

        Such were the pioneer churches. It may fairly be said that Santa Ana is now a city of schools and churches. Almost every religious denomination is represented, and most of them own their own edifices.

        At present there are in Santa Ana church edifices of ownership and valuation, so far as can be learned from the assessment lists, as follows: United Presbyterian, $3,000; Presbyterian, $5,000; Baptist, $5,000; Methodist Episcopal, $3;500; Methodist Episcopal South, $4,000; Adventist, $3,500; German Lutheran, $3,000; Episcopal, $6,000; Roman Catholic, $3,000; Christian, $6,000. The Congregationalists have no building.

    Santa Ana has five newspapers: the Blade, daily and weekly; the Free Press, daily and weekly; the Standard, weekly; the Herald, weekly, and the Pilot, a Prohibitionist organ, weekly.

 

GEORGE RIDGELEY BROADBERE, editor of the Santa Ana Free Press, was born in New York city and educated at Cambridge University, England. He began the newspaper business as war correspondent while serving in the naval brigade in the Zulu war in Africa, and while there he was severely wounded. In China he did war correspondence for the London Daily News. Returning to America, he was employed on the New Orleans Picayune as reporter and traveling correspondent in Louisiana and Texas; next he was a traveling agent and correspondent for the States of the great southwest for the St. Louis Globe-Democrat; then he was on the local force of the Kansas City Times, and then going to Lawrence, Kansas, he took charge of the local pages of the Kansas Daily Tribune. In 1881 he established the Mirror at Tongawoxie, Kansas, but losing his health he was compelled to seek the high altitudes of New Mexico, where he was for some time city editor of the Albuquerque Journal; thence he came to Los Angeles and worked on the Times and the Express. As soon as it was settled beyond dispute that Orange County was to be organized, he established the Free Press at Santa Ana, the county seat, with Lester Osborn as business manager. He recently bought out Mr. Osborn and organized a stock company under the name and title of the Free Press Publishing Company, with Dr. R. F. Burgess as treasurer. The paper, both daily and weekly, is published in the Opera House block, corner of Fourth and Bush streets. Having had an experience of sixteen years in journalism, Mr. Broadbere understands thoroughly what is necessary to conduct a newspaper successfully.

        He was married in Kansas, in 1880, to Miss Margaret J. Sappenfield, and their children are George Ridgley, Jr., Martin Ashley and Margaret Case.

        The Blade was originally started as the Pacific Weekly Blade, at Santa Ana, then a small town in Los Angeles County, in September, 1886, by A. J. Waterhouse and W. F. X. Parker, both of whom had migrated from Dakota. The paper was started as a Republican journal, and as Mr. Waterhouse proved to be a man of more than ordinary ability the Blade forged ahead rapidly, and soon became the leading paper of the southeastern portion of Los Angeles County. In a few months Mr. Parker retired from the firm, and Mr. Waterhouse continued as sole manager until January, 1888, when he failed. The coming of the "boom" had encouraged him to start a daily, called the Morning Blade, leading him into other extravagances because of the flattering patronage extended to the daily and the rapid growth of the country. A suspension of the weekly followed, but an association of printers, with Joseph E. Tillotson as manager, carried the daily on as an evening paper, and kept it alive till June, 1889, when the material was sold at auction by the assignee, and was purchased by Victor Montgomery, a leading lawyer of Santa Ana, then the county seat of Orange, a new county formed out of Los Angeles County, and he was assisted by other leading citizens in the purchase of other mortgages resting on the material. The paper was then changed from an evening to a morning paper, and shortly afterward the Weekly Blade was resurrected, the whole being under the immediate management of W. R. McIntosh. On March 6, 1890, the Blade Publishing Company was incorporated, with a capital stock of $25,000, and was organized with a board of directors composed of three Republicans and three Democrats, the policy of the paper to be independent in politics, and as purely local as it is possible to make it. John Beatty, Jr., a leading merchant of Santa Ana, is the president of the board, Judge C. W. Humphreys, treasurer, and H. A. Peabody, a practical newspaper man, the secretary and manager. The Morning Blade and the Weekly Blade are recognized as the leading papers of the county, and both have constantly increasing circulation and advertising patronage.

 

HENRY A. PEABODY, manager of the Santa Ana Blade, was born in Detroit, Michigan, &larch 19, 1837; in 1847 he was a newsboy in Cincinnati, Ohio; in March, 1857, as a journeyman printer. He started from Columbia, Missouri, for California, crossing the plains, and arriving at Colusa, California, September 1, 1857, barefooted and without a coat to his back. There he hired himself out to drive an ox team, three yoke, to Petaluma, California, earning his first money in the State. About September 20 he took work in the Democrat office at Santa Rosa, California, and from that time followed his trade at Santa Rosa and in San Francisco till June, 1859, when he returned East with the intention of completing his education and studying law. The war of 1861 broke into his preconceived plan, and he entered the Confederate service, filling the positions of private, ordnance sergeant, drill-master, sergeant major lieutenant and adjutant, and captain, passing through the war, receiving but two wounds in the four years. At the close of the war he returned to California penniless, and since then has steadily followed the business of printing, during that time being foreman of the Sonora Democrat, Vallejo Daily Independent, Tulare Times, and the State printing office, and associate proprietor of the Sonoma Democrat, proprietor of the Mendocino Democrat, and now, in 1890, he is a member of the Blade Publishing Company and manager of the Morning and Weekly Blade, published at Santa Ana, Orange County, California. He has a wife, two daughters and two sons, and hopes to live twenty or thirty years longer in the service of his country.

        There are in Santa Ana three fair hotels, one of which cost $65,000.

        The domestic water supply is, so far as regards the central-position of the city, derived from Spurgeon's artesian well, which supplies daily about 50,000 gallons, forced by a steam pump into tanks, whence it is piped to about 100 subscribers. The rest of the city is supplied from surface water, which is to be reached by wells ten to twenty feet deep, although they mostly penetrate to the second stratum, fifty to sixty feet deep.

        The city is expected to issue bonds for $50,000 for water-works at the next election.

        The irrigating supply comes front the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company.

        The municipal government of Santa Ana is in the hands of the following officials: Trustees. John Avas, President, J. R. Congdon, A. Goodwin, C. E. Gronard, M. D. Halladay; Z. B. West, City Attorney; E. Tedford, Clerk; Geo. T. Insley, City Marshal; Geo. E. Freeman, City Recorder; D. T. Brock, Assessor; Board of Education—Victor Montgomery, President; I. G. Marks, J. A. Buckingham, 1. Chandler, D. W. Swanner.

        The postoffice of Santa Ana is of the second-class, the postage receipts for 1889 being about $7,400. Eight mails are received here daily. The office employs three assistants and Walter B. Tedford, Postmaster.

 

        Following is a report of the freight shipped from Santa Ana during the first six months of 1887:

POUNDS. POUNDS.
Oranges            5,000,000 Cheese 3,300
Lemons 75,000 Peanuts            12,000
Limes 28,000 Apples 900
Poultry 45,000 Tallow 10,000
Raisins       475,000 Hides and Pelts            1,600
Wool                  475,000 Popcorn 1,100
Honey       105,000 Butter 1,700
Eggs     150,000 Walnuts 1,000
Nursery Stock 125,000 Lambs 52,000
Beans   3,000 Hogs                  320,000
Corn    476,000 Cattle   2,200,000
Potatoes            40,000 General merchandise
Oats     25,000 475,000
Apricots            3,000 Other shipments. 375,000
Grape Cuttings 3,200
Total    10,480,800

 

 

The following are the exports through the Southern Pacific warehouse at Santa Ana, for the first eleven months of 1889:

POUNDS. POUNDS.
Oranges            790,000 Grain    450,000
Lemons 63,000 Corn    321,000
Miscellaneous 695,000 Hides   47.5
General merchandise 1,939,220 Lumber            168,000
Walnuts                        3,820
Green fruit             211,000 Cabbages         279,000
Eggs     4,280 Live-stock        125,000
Honey  3,060 Potatoes           226,000
42,000 Peanuts            5,000
Total                                       5,373,080

 

 

The exports of the Santa Fé are not obtainable, but it is fair to estimate that they would equal those of the Southern Pacific.

        The exports via McFadden's Landing over the steamship company's line, as furnished by the Santa Ana office, sums up a total of 1,180,400 pounds, about all of which consisted of corn, barley, peanuts and wool.

        By Wells, Fargo & Co's. express were shipped from the Santa Ana office during the month of November, 1889, the following articles of produce: eggs, 3,470; live poultry, 9,762; fish, 8,580; game, 540, and butter, 1,400 pounds; a total of 23,752 pounds, not including miscellaneous shipments of merchandise.

 

ANAHEIM

ranks as the oldest colony in California. In the year 1857, several German residents of San Francisco discussed among themselves a project whose result was the purchase by fifty persons of a tract of 1,165 acres of land, lying some twenty-eight miles southeast of Los Angeles, for which they paid $2 per acre, including sufficient water privilege to insure ample irrigation. Mr. George Hansen, of Los Angeles, was the leader in this enterprise, he choosing and buying the land, and laying it oit. There were fifty farm lots, of twenty acres each, and fifty house-lots, with fourteen additional village lots, reserved for school-houses and other necessary public buildings. The members of the company remained in San Francisco, pursuing their respective avocations, while the manager improved the colony's land by means of hired labor. A main ditch was dug, about seven miles long, to convey over the whole area the irrigating water; and also there were 450 miles of minor ditches, and twenty-five miles of feeders. On each twenty-acre lot were planted to vines eight acres, 1,000 to the acre, and some fruit trees. Each lot was fenced with willows, making five and one-quarter miles of outside, and thirty-five miles of inside fencing.

        At the end of three years all the lots had been carefully cultivated, pruned and kept up; all the assessments were paid, each stockholder having expended $1,200. A division was now made of the lots, also of a cash balance on hand, sufficient to give over $100 to each shareholder. Each member of the company had now acquired at a cost of about $1,080, a farm lot of twenty acres, with some fruit trees, and 8,000 hearing vines, and also a town lot 200 x 150 feet. Now came down from San Francisco, most of the members of the Los Angeles Vineyard Society, to take possession of conveniences, secured by intelligent management and co-operation, for which, had they acted singly, they must have expended far greater sums and waited long, moreover. These men were mostly mechanics; there was not a farmer among them; yet, owing to the system and thoroughness of the arrangements, the following propositions in 1872, were truthfully made concerning them:

        " [11 There was a struggle for some years, but every one had abundance to eat, a good school for his children, music and pleasant social amusements, and each was his own master.

        "[2.] Only one of the original settlers has moved away, and the sheriff has never issued an execution in Anaheim.

        " [3.] The property, which cost $1,080, is now worth from $5,000 to $10,000.

        "[4.] There are no poor in Anaheim."

        In 1860 the Vineyard Society sold out to the Anaheim Water Company; the same shareholders formed the second company, and in effect only the name was changed.

        Anaheim was incorporated as a city and duly chartered February 10, 1870, but this charter was revoked March 7, 1872, owing to a misunderstanding among the officials

        An act of the Legislature, approved March 18, 1878, granted a town organization and again incorporated Anaheim.

        For many years the chief industry of Anaheim was wine-growing. Some idea of the extent of this manufacture may be had from the statement that one winery turned out in one year 187,000 gallons of wine, and 15,000 gallons of brandy, while there were some twenty or thirty other vineyards producing many thousands of gallons each, yearly. Within the last few years this industry has been almost paralyzed by the vine disease, which has almost destroyed the vineyards. The railways report that forty or fifty car-loads of wine are still sent out annually; but this is old wine, that is to say, wine stored from former harvests. It is considered, however, that the vine disease has spent its force, and a portion of the vineyards are being replanted, while others are being set to oranges and walnuts. It is estimated that some 4,000 acres will be planted to trees of these two sorts in 1890.

        The orange crop here is already considerable. The output in 1888–'89 having been some 100 car-loads, and the export for 1889–'90 is expected to reach 150 car-loads, from which the growers will realize $75,000 to $100,000.

        Other products of this section are hay, grain, all kinds of deciduous fruits, potatoes, petroleum, brea (crude asphaltum), honey, wool, walnuts, corn, dried fruit, fresh and cured meats, poultry, butter and eggs, nursery stock, cattle and hogs, cooperage, pampas plumes, and ostrich feathers. These swell the freight tonnage of produce and merchandise to about 2,000,000 pounds monthly, and bring money into the town and the district. The wool export goes out mostly from Fullerton, the winter clip amounting to about twenty car-loads. A new industry has been growing of late, in the shipment of sheep on the hoof to Kansas City and Chicago markets. Up to the close of May, 1890, thirty-two car-loads of live sheep had gone East, and enough orders were in hand to complete 100 car-loads.

        The ostrich farm was established in what is known as Centralia district, six miles west of Anaheim, the farm being stocked with twenty-two ostriches imported direct from South Africa. The youth of the birds militated against the success of the enterprise at first, but that fault became corrected with the lapse of time, and when the eggs proved fertile the success of the undertaking became assured. The constant demand for ostrich feathers exceeding the supply and the high grade of the yield insured here by the unfailing supply of appropriate food, and by the suitable surroundings, bid fair to render this a most important and profitable industry.

        The present population of Anaheim is about 1,300. Notwithstanding the year just passed has been the dullest known in Southern California for many years in business and real-estate transactions, Anaheim has shown more marked progress than during any other one year of her history. There has been built: A two-story brick export brewery, cost, $12,000; a three-story brick academy, cost, 20,000; two two-story brick blocks, costing $8,000 and $7,000 respectively; a one-story brick block, cost $4,000; the Methodist Church, cost $4,000; the West Anaheim school-house, cost $7,000; a packing-house, cost $1,200; nine frame business houses, aggregate cost $6,000; and twenty-two residents of various cost, aggregating $30,000.

        Anaheim has a popular and progressive set of officials. The town has a good system of sidewalks, and extensive water-works; it has lately organized Wright irrigating district with bonds of $50,000; it has a good opera house that cost $16,000; a Roman Catholic Sisters' College—St. Catherine's, costing $20,000; one public school building that cost $12,000, and another, $7,000, the two accommodating 400 pupils and occupying ten teachers; also a bank with over $100,000 regular deposits. There are in the city some eighty business houses, representing almost every branch of trade, and all doing a good business. There is a commodious new postoffice, also telegraph, telephone, and express offices, one weekly and one semi­weekly newspaper, a large brewery, a candy factory, a brick and lumber yard, a pork-packing house, a sausage factory, two planing and turning mills, two grist-mills and two bakeries, besides the usual complement of grocery and dry-goods shops, shoe and general merchandise stores and mechanics' shops.

        The Anaheim Gazette is, except the San Diego Union, the oldest newspaper in Southern California.

        Northern, on the Santa Fé line, near Anaheim, is the station for the Buena Park Milk Condensing Company, whose works have capacity sufficient to use daily the milk from 3,000 cows. The supply comes from over a large district, the radius reaching as far as Artesia. The product of this manufactory finds sale locally and in the neighboring mining districts. It is expected that there will be large foreign demand for this staple in the near future. At the same factory is prepared canned coffee, to be reduced for table use by the addition of water.

        On this tract, too, is being promoted the development of an industry new to Southern California—the manufacture of molasses from sorghum cane. Last year trial work was done in this direction, with so much success that eighty acres have been planted this year to the cane. This promises to be an important industry, as the climate here develops a much better quality of cane than that grown east of the Rocky mountains, and the samples of molasses produced last year were greatly superior to the imported grades now in our local markets.

 

ORANGE.

        In 1870 Messrs. A. B. Chapman and Andrew Glassell purchased from the Yorba family several thousand acres of land, which they divided into small parcels and sold to actual settlers the following year. Eight ten-acre blocks were divided into town lots of 50x 150 feet each, and outside of this nucleus were laid off ten-acre farm lots, in their turn surrounded by lots of forty acres each. At intervals of one-half mile, throughout the whole tract, running from north to south and from east to west, were surveyed roads sixty feet wide.

        The town, as a town, dates from about 1874. The oldest orange trees were planted in 1871, and bore in 1879 from the seed.

        In the spring of 1873 many new settlers arrived at Orange, planting numerous orchards and vineyards, building a school-house, and securing the establishment of a postoffice, then named, with the town, Orange. In 1874 also came many new people, who engaged largely in the planting of citrus fruits. During this year was built a Methodist church, costing about $3,500, also a hotel, three stores, and a saloon, the last soon being starved out.

        During 1875, 1876 and 1877 were made some improvements, but there was no immigration. In 1878 the existing water supply proving inadequate, a new ditch company was formed, the control remaining in the hands of those most interested, and in 1878–'79 was completed a new ditch, costing $60,000, of sufficient capacity to supply the stockholders with abundant water. Early in 1879 there were, by actual count, 80,000 orange trees and 16,000 lemon trees in this settlement. In 1880 these figures had increased to 100,000 and 20,000 respectively. The present acreage of oranges can not be stated closely, as it is impossible to obtain the figures; but it is necessarily large, since this is one of the finest points in the orange belt.

        Orange is about three miles northeast of Santa Ana, at the junction of a branch of the Santa Fé with the main line, and also on the line of the Southern Pacific. The town is incorporated as in the sixth class; it is well laid out, having a plaza, with neat walks, lined with flowers, and a central fountain. An ordinance prohibits saloons inside the corporate limits. The population is 1,500 to 2,000. There are fine church buildings, the religious denominations being represented by Methodists, Presbyterians, Christians, Baptists, and German Lutherans. There is a postoffice with several mails daily, and telegraph, telephone, and express offices, two weekly newspapers, two job offices; also a public library well supplied with periodicals and newspapers, and 1,000 volumes. There is here a bank doing a prosperous business, one dry-goods shop, two general merchandise stores, three drug stores, one confectionery, one bakery, two hotels, two real-estate offices, two fruit-packing establishments, one furniture store, one bookstore, two livery stables, one hardware store, one tinshop, one shoe shop, three blacksmith shops and two barber shops.

        The water supply comes from the Santa Ana river, through the canals of the Santa Ana Valley Irrigation Company, which has about seventy-five miles of distributing zanjas, with some fifty miles of private lateral ditches. This company's capital stock is $20,000, each share costing $5. One share of water-right goes with each acre, so that the enterprise purposes to cover 20,000 acres, of which some 14,000 acres are already water stocked. This company has been operating since October, 1877.

        The domestic water supply is from a company having a private franchise from the corporation.

        Anaheim Landing is situated in Westminster township, about four and a half miles due west from Westminster.  This is a coast landing for shipping purposes, with a good wharf and warehouse on the inlet. The Anaheim Lighter Company was organized as an incorporation in 1864, to ship the produce and import the necessary supplies of this section, and all needful privileges were granted by the Legislature. Since the railway reached Anaheim, the business of that town with the Landing greatly diminished and the through line of the Santa Fé yet further affected the traffic by way of this port, yet a considerable business is done there. The population at this point is about 200.

        McFadden's Landing is about twelve miles south of Santa Ana, and about a mile from the old wharf at Newport Bay. Here is constructed an "outside" wharf, 1,200 feet long, with twenty-two feet of water at extreme low tide, this being sufficient to accommodate all coast vessels. This is the most substantial wharf on the southern coast. Grading is vigorously in progress for a railway very soon to be laid between the wharf and Santa Ana. The wharf (known as Newport Pier) and the line are owned by the Newport Wharf and Lumber Company, which does thereby a large lumber business. Much of the traffic between Santa Ana valley and San Francisco goes over this road. Newport Beach, near this wharf, is a popular bathing resort, 500 to 1,000 persons camping there during the summer.

        Fairview is a town located on the high mesa lands between Santa Ana and Newport Landing. This town was laid out about the time the " boom " subsided, and it has been advancing, notwithstanding the general business depression. The Fairview Development Company's narrow-gauge railway between this point and Santa Ana is designed to extend some four miles farther to Newport bay.

        The water supply, both for irrigation and domestic purposes, is supplied from artesian wells, which flow a large volume of water. The flow from some of these wells is very warm, having a temperature of 90°, and it is highly impregnated with mineral substances, considered to possess valuable medicinal qualities. One or two of these wells emit a combustible gas, which has been utilized to a limited extent as fuel.

        Fairview has a $12,000 hotel, a number of line store buildings, and numerous cottages and residences ranging from $1,000 to $15,000 each. Very few inferior buildings are in this town.

 

TUSTIN.

        From the heirs of the Yorba estate, Messrs. Bacon and Johnson bought a tract of land which they sold in 1857, to Columbus Tustin and N. O. Stafford, who, dividing the tract in 1868, had each, 1,359 acres.

        On his portion of the land, Mr. Tustin, in 1869, established the settlement of Tustin City, having surveyed a town site of about 100 acres, in blocks 300 feet square, divided into lots 150 x 50 feet.

        Settlers soon began to congregate here, purchasing mostly small tracts of five to twenty acres, and their improvements were so effectual and valuable that Tustin to-day is one of the richest and most beautiful spots in Orange County. The homes are handsome and substantial, and the products numerous and remunerative. Indeed, Tustin may justly be called one of the garden spots of the county. This is the terminus of the foothill line of the Southern Pacific Railway. The Tustin & Santa Ana street-car line connects this town with the county seat. The population is about 1,100; voters, 202.

        Corn, barley, all kinds of vegetables and many fruits, including bananas, flourish here. Tobacco is raised in small quantities, for home consumption. Alfalfa and peanuts are staple productions. The orange crop for 1889 from Tustin, is estimated at 150 car-loads.

        Tustin has a $12,000 school building, a Presbyterian and an Episcopalian church, and the following fraternal societies: Tustin Lodge No. 331, I. O. O. F., and Tustin Lodge I. O. G. T.

 

WESTMINSTER.

        The original township of Westminster was composed of the whole of Rancho Los Alamitos, containing 28,027.11 acres owned by the heirs of Michael Reese, who bought under the foreclosure of mortgage made by Abel Stearns, the original grantee from the Mexican government.

        This land is fiat in the north and west, with rolling and mesa land in the south and southwest.

        Westminster was started as a colony enterprise, in the autumn of 1871, by Rev. L. P. Webber, who selected a tract of level land, comprising about 8,000 acres, afterwards enlarged to 10,000 acres, between Anaheim and the ocean, where he endeavored to assemble settlers who would co-operate in church, school and social matters. The original tract was soon sold, mostly in farms of forty acres each. There are four school districts: Westminster, Las Bolsas, Garden Grove and Alamitos.

        The water supply is the distinctive feature of Westminster, which probably has more flowing wells than any other section of the United States, of equal area. Every property-holder owns and controls his own water supply. There are in this district about 250 artesian wells, which afford an abundance of cool, pure water, sufficient for all purposes, including irrigation. Water in quantities sufficient for irrigation can be had at a depth of fifty to 200 feet. Moreover, the soil here is so damp that a large portion of the land will grow tine crops without irrigation.

        The productive qualities of this land are almost marvelous; corn reaches a yield of 125 bushels to the acre, and other products are in proportion. The chief staples of produce are corn, beets, potatoes, pumpkins; sorghum, alfalfa, vegetables, and deciduous fruits; on the higher lands of the colony are grown some fine oranges. Dairying and stock-raising are profitable enterprises, and not a few Westminster people follow these avocations

        In the southern portion of this colony are the celebrated peat lands.

        This section is thickly populated, the land being owned mainly in small holdings. The colony has a population of some 900; the central settlement, about 450. The business houses comprise two stores of groceries and general merchandise, two blacksmith and wagon-makers' shops, one hotel, one drug-store, one feed-yard, and one saloon. There are three churches, and a good school building, with two departments. The town has a lodge of I. O. O. F., and a branch of the W. C. T. U.

        The stern Presbyterian stock that first settled Westminster pledged themselves to grow no grapes, that no inducement might exist to wine-making amongst them; but outside influence has so far modified matters that grapes are now grown freely, and even a saloon is established here.

 

GARDEN GROVE.

        The town site of Garden Grove was selected and laid out in 1877 by A. G. Cook and Converse Howe. It is now a town of 350 to 400 population lying about four miles west of Santa Ana; it is the trade center of a fine agricultural district. The country around Garden Grove has made greater advancement in the way of increase in residence buildings during the past year than any other settlement in the county, and also there has been more land brought under cultivation than in any corresponding section. The chief products are corn, barley, fruits, citrus and deciduous, vegetables, grapes, and walnuts. Dairying, stock-raising, and the poultry business are also carried on with profit. Garden Grove has a postoffice with two daily mails, a good church, a good school-house, one hotel, one dry-goods and general merchandise store, one grocery store, one shoe shop, and one blacksmith shop.

        Gospel Swamp is a tract of about 4,000 acres of damp land lying in the southerly portion of the Rancho Santa Ana. A portion of the eastern end of this tract is full of alkali; hence unfit for cultivation, but about four-fifths of the tract is of marvelous fertility. Some of the farms here have produced the enormous amount of 118 bushels of shelled corn to the acre. The Mormon Church here was organized in 1875.

        San Juan Township comprises ten ranchos of old Spanish granting, constituting one of the most fertile valleys on this coast. Some of the finest walnut orchards of the State are in this section, which is especially adapted to the growth of this nut, as well as oranges and lemons. The scale bug, which so devastated many of the citrus groves of Southern California, never infested the orange trees of this valley. Here are produced abundant crops of deciduous and citrus fruits, olives, potatoes, corn, and garden vegetables. In the neighboring cañons are numerous bee ranches, whence the apiarists ship yearly a large amount of white-sage honey, the best in the market. Besides the agricultural and horticultural interests of this valley, the surrounding foothills and mountains possess considerable merit as a stock country, supporting large herds of sheep, horses, and cattle, that bring extensive revenues to their owners. Some idea of the products and possibilities of this section may be formed from the following partial statement of the shipments from Capistrano station during the past season: Beef cattle, 1,500 head; mutton sheep, 1,000 head; wool, 185,000 pounds; English walnuts, 176,250 pounds; honey, 46,000 pounds; miscellaneous, 100,000 pounds.

        The town or village of San Juan Capistrano lies on the main line of the Santa Fe, some twenty-seven miles south of Santa Ana, and two miles from the Pacific ocean. This is the trade center of a large scope of country. The Mexican inhabitants, of which the population here was mostly composed until very lately, is now rapidly being replaced by Americans. This is one of the oldest settlements on the Coast, the mission here having been established in 1776. The old Mission church and buildings at present are, virtually, but a pile of ruins, having fallen into decay since the partial destruction of the edifice by earthquake, December 8, 1812. Religious services are still held here, however, and this venerable site is celebrated in song and story.

 

Transcribed by Kathy Sedler