Search billions of records on




California Genealogy and History Archives


Pioneer Register of California
(From the History of California, Vol. II.-V.)
Pioneer Register and Index 1542—1848


A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  XYZ

Caama¤o (Jacinto), 1792, Span. com. of the Aranzazu, engaged in northern coast explor. i. 509-11; Hist. N. W.C., i. 267 et seq.; com. of the Princesa in 1797 and of the Concepcion 1798. i. 540, 543-4. Caatrell (John), 1846, doubtful name in a Los Ang. list. Caballer, see 'Cavaller.' 

Caballero (Andr‚s A.), 1781, lieut of the escort to Cal. and return to [p.79]Sonora. i. 342. C. (Felix), 1833, Dominican friar of L. Cal.; a famous missionary of the frontier, who crossed the line to Cal. '23, '29, '33, and doubtless on other occasions. ii. 486, 507; iii. 96, 557. C. (Francisco), Sta B. ranchero '45. C. (Marˇa Antonia), grantee of Sisquoc in '33. iii. 656. Cabello (Martin S.), 1834, Mex. revenue officer with the H. & P. colony; receptor in charge of S. Diego custom-house '34-8; prob. left Cal. about '38. iii. 267, 377, 499-501, 609, 613; iv. 98; Cabiner, 1846, mr of the Isaac Howland. 

Cabot (Juan), 1805, Span. friar who served for 30 years in Cal., chiefly at S. Miguel, retiring to his college in 1835. Biog. in iii. 683-4; ment. i. list auth.; ii. 123, 149, 159-60, 325, 327, 331, 375, 384-6, 393, 536, 620, 622, 655; iii. 92, 96, 169, 309. C. (Miguel), 1836, nephew of the two friars, who came to Cal. to receive the stipend due Fr. Pedro after his death. C. (Pedro), 1804, Span. friar, brother of Juan, who served 32 years in Cal., chiefly at S. Antonio, dying at S. Fernando '36. Biog. iii. 645-6; ment. ii. 152, 159-60, 385, 394, 621-3, 655; iii. 92, 96, 418, 686. Cabott (F.), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. Cabrera (Agapito), at Sta In‚s college '44. iv. 426. C. (Pedro), Peruvian, juez de policˇa at Los Ang. '47. v. 626. 

Cabrillo (Juan Rodriguez), 1542, Portuguese discoverer of Cal., who died at the Sta B. islands in Jan. 1543. See full account of the voy. of exploration. i. 69-81; also Hist. N. Mex. States, i. 133. 

Cace (Henry P.), 1845, nat. of R. I. at Mont; perhaps 'Case.' C(Francisco), Span. ex-sergt of dragoons, who was regidor at Mont. in '28-29. ii. 612; iii. 51, 53; and in '31 the only Span. in S. F. district. iii. 399, 699. He is named as a resid. and house-owner of S.F. from '38, being sˇndico in '39. iii. 705; v. 684. He died at Freestone in '48 at the age of 76. His wife was Anastasia Boronda who died in '49. The children were Antonia, Francisco, CGuadalupe Antonio, Julian, Rafaela, Ciro, Helena, and Teresa; all dead before '85 except Ciro and Francisco. The latter is named in a Sonoma list of '44 as 18 years old. The daughter Antonia married James Dawson '40, and Dr Fred. Blume in '49, dying in '80 without children. She was the grantee and claimant of Pogolomi rancho. iv. 672. Cacho (Rafael), grantee of S. Ger˘nimo rancho '44. iv. 673. 

Cade (Jonathan), 1846, of the Mormon col. with wife. v. 546; perhaps his name was Kincaid; sergt-at-arms in S. F. council '49; but died in Utah. Cadel-or Kadel-(Peter), 1846, said to have arrived in July; at N. Helv. from S. Rafael and Sonoma '47-8; lot-owner S.F. '47; died at Oakland '75, age 61. C. (Tobias), 1847, lot at S. F.; at N. Helv. '48. Cadena (Antonio), 1836, Mex. corporal in Hidalgo bat. at Mont. age 30; tried for murder. iii. 675. Cady (Chas L.), 1845 (?), said to have been in Lake Co. as a hunter, being also there in '75. Lakeport Bee; iv. 587; in '46-7 member of the 2d Donner relief. v. 539; estab. a mail service July '47 bet. S. F. and Sac. via Sauzalito and Sonoma. Californian, July 24th; kept a store at Coloma with Shannon '48-9. El Dorado Co. Hist., 177. Cahill (Martin), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Stockton '71-82. 

Calder (Lawson M.), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Caldwell (Arthur S. C.), 1846, overl. immig. in Young's party with family. v. 529; wife Margaret, son, and three daughters; in Cal. Bat., enlisting at Mont. Nov. (v. 358); bought a house at S. Jos‚ '48. Pico, Doc., i. 140; named as a wealthy citizen in '60. C. (Colohill), 1846, Cal. Bat., enlisting at S. Juan; Cal. claim of $6 (v. 462); prob. son of preceding, or possibly the same. C. (Matthew), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); Utah farmer '82. Calheart (Seth), 1827, mr of the Massachusetts. iii. 148. Calkin (Milo), 1846, house lately occupied by him rented to another Jan. '47. Calkins (Ed R.), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); re‚nl. at Los Ang. C. (Sylvanus), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. 

Call (Daniel), 1816, Amer. carpenter, age 17, who landed from the Atala at Sta B., where in '36 he had a wife and two children. ii. 248, 282, 393. Callaghan, 1846, three brothers in the Los Ang. region. iv. 495; their names as signed to a doc. of June '46 seem to be 'Ein,' 'Epli,' and 'Geral,' but it appears that 2 of them were Evan and Isaac. They served under Gillespie, and were among the chino prisoners. v. 314; in '47 one was in charge of S. Buen. [p.80]mission, being juez de paz in '48. v. 634; and another had some petty position at S. Pedro. Acc. to B.D. Wilson, Evan C. came to Cal. in '44. C. (James), 1847, drowned at S. F.'51; said to have been one of the N.Y. Vol., but not on the rolls. C. (John), 1847, lot-owner at S. F.; still there '50. Callahan (Carolus B.), 1846, Co. C, 1st U. S. dragoons (v. 336). C. (Thos W.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 460); re‚nl. at Los Ang. Callegan, 1769, com. of the S. Jos‚, lost on the voy. to Cal. i. 124. Callender (Mills L.), 1847, Co. K, N.Y. Vol.; lots at S. F. '47-8. v. 679; sec. of town council '48; still there '52-4; d. Brooklyn, N. Y., '71 (?). Callis (Eulalia), 1783, wife of Gov. Pedro Fages. i. 389-93, 487. 

Calvin (Vincent), 1844, overl. immig. of Stevens party. iv. 445; at N. Helv. and S. Jos‚ '45-8. Calzada (Jos‚ Ant.), 1787, Span. friar who served 27 years in Cal., being founder of Sta In‚s, where he died 1814. Biog. ii. 368; ment. i. 388, 459, 575, 577, 664-5; ii. 28-9, 123, 159, 394. Calzado (Dionisio), at Branciforte 1803. ii. 156. Calzado (Jos‚), 1798. i. 606. 

Cam (Isidro), 1830, New Yorker, age 26, whose only known exploit was to fight with Leandry about a dog, for which he served a month in the chaingang at Mont. Camacho, com. of transport vessel 1783-90. i. 444. C., killed at Jamul '37. iii. 614. C. (Anastasio), soldier at S. Diego 1775. i. 255. C. (TomM.), soldier killed on the Colorado by Ind. 1781. i. 363. Camareno (Nicolsettler at S. F. 1791-1800. i. 716. Camarrillo (Juan), 1834, Mex. who came prob. with the H. & P. col. (iii. 259); trader at Sta B., where he was sˇndico and juez at different times '40-6. iii. 655; iv. 490, 631, 642; moved to S. Buen. '59, where he became owner of the Calleguas rancho. He died '80, at the age of 68; his wife was Martina Hernandez, married in '40; and he left 7 children, one of his daughters being the wife of Jos‚ Arnaz. Portrait in Sta B. Co. Hist., 392. 

Cambon (Pedro Benito), 1779, Span. friar who served chiefly at S. F., but was founder of S. Gabriel and S. Buen., retiring to his college '91. Biog. i. 712; ment. i. 173, 176, 179-81, 187-9, 193-4, 285-6, 246, 255, 271, 287, 289-90. 292, 297, 329-30, 352, 373, 376, 378, 382, 388, 399, 469, 473, 575-6. Cambuston (Henri), 1841, Frenchman from Mex., who became a teacher at Mont. iv. 279; married Gabriela Soberanes; fined for smuggling '44. iv. 566; quarrel at Mont. with Prefect Castro '46. v. 34; at the military junta. v. 61; grantee of land in Butte Co. v. 675. A man of some ability, but often in trouble on acct of intemperate habits; witness in the Limantour case; sent to the Stockton insane asylum about '56, where he died 4 or 5 years later. Camero (Manuel), 1781, mulatto settler at Los Ang.; regidor in '89. i. 348-9, 461. Cameron, 1848, at Sutter's Fort. C. (James), 1845, doubtful record of an overl. immig. iv. 578. C. (John), 1847, Co. C, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). C. (John), real name of John 'Gilroy,' q.v. 

Camp, 1837, of the Willamette cattle comp. iv. 85. C. (J. G.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Campa y Cos (Miguel), 1775, Span friar of L. Cal. 1769-73, who was chaplain of Heceta's exped. at Mont. and on the north coast '75. i. 122-3, 194, 235, 240-2, 247. 

Campbell, 1806, otter-hunter. ii. 40-1. C. (Anthony), 1840, Engl. sailor disch. from the Fly at S. F., and killed by Ind. near Sta Clara on his way to Mont. April '41. iv. 120, 280, 684, 686. C. (Benj.), 1846, Kentuckian settler at Sta Clara, building a saw-mill on Campbell's Creek in '47-8; still living in '76. C. (Colin), 1840, Scotch sailor at Mont. iv. 120; presbyterian sawyer at Aptos '41-2. C. (James), 1846, sailor of the Congress in Stockton's bat., wounded at the Mesa Jan. '47. v. 395. C. (James T.), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. S. F. '53. C. (John G.), 1844, one of Fr‚mont's men; also in '45; Cal. Bat. Co. A. iv. 437, 583. C. (Jonathan), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). C. (Patrick), 1846, sailor on the Cyane, in Stockton's bat., wounded at S. Gabriel Jan. '47. v. 395. C. (Joseph T.), 1846, Co. C, 1st U. S. dragoons, killed at S. Pascual. v. 346. C. (Peter), 1847, Co. H, N.Y. Vol. C. (Richard), 1827, said to have come from N. Orleans to S. Diego. iii. 162. C. (Reuben P.), 1848, lieut of Graham's dragoons. v. 522. C. (Samuel), 1833 (?), accredited to this year by the newspapers, and said to have been a [p.81]rich merchant of S. F.; d. Red Bluff '70. iii. 409. C. (Samuel), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). C. (Thomas), 1846, Kentuckian overl. immig. from Mo. with his wife and her parents and brothers named West. v. 528. Known as Major C. on the trip; one of Burroughs' men at Natividad (v. 363); and went south with the Cal. Bat.; surveyor at S. Jos‚, and member of the council '47. v. 664; in the mines '48-9; later resid. of S. Jos‚ to '77 and later. C. (Wm), 1842, said to have been killed. iv. 686. C. (Wm), 1846, apparently overl. immig. and perhaps a brother of Thomas; came to S. Jos‚ with his family; surveyor '47. v. 664. In Tulare '83, age 90, veteran of 1812 and battle of N. Orleans; 2 sons. C. (Wm), 1847, Co. K, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); deserted, and was hanged in Dec. '48 at S. Jos‚ for robbery and attempted murder. v. 663-4. C. (Wm), 1848, overl. with Lawton and Johnson; editor of Sierra Democrat and clerk of legislature '56; county judge of Sierra to '63; district attorney at Virginia City, dying '76. Nevada Transcript, Jan. 28, '76. Campo, see 'Fernandez' del C. and 'Perez' del C. 

Can‚ (Vicente), 1825, Span. sailor landing from the Asia at Mont. iii. 51, 92-3; permitted to remain and marry in '28; grantee of S. Bernardo rancho '40; admin. and juez at S. Luis Ob. '40-1. v. 657, 683. Canedo (Dolores), at Los Ang. '46. C. (Ger˘nimo), settler at Los Ang. 1812. ii. 350. C. (Jos‚), soldier and corp. '23-4. ii. 555-6. C. (Jos‚), soldier at Sta B. '32, wife Luisa Valenzuela. C. (Jos‚), at S. Juan Cap., age 58, wife Marˇa, children Antonia b. '26, Felipe '28, Juliana '31, Juan '37, Leonardo '43. C. (Jos‚ Marˇa), at S. Juan Cap. '41-6. iv. 626; age 36, wife Feliciana. C. (Juan), at Los Ang. '46. C. (Juan N.), at S. Juan Cap. '41. iv. 626. C. (Manuel), soldier killed on the Colorado. i. 363. C. (Rafael), at Los Ang. '46. C. (Silvestre), ditto. Ca¤ete (Joaquin), sent to escort Gov. Fages' wife to Cal. 1783. i. 390. 

Canfield (Cyrus C.), 1847, lieut Co. D, Morm. Bat. v. 477; also lieut of the re‚nl. men. v. 495; collector of the port of S. D. '48. v. 619; acquitted on trial for passing counterfeit money. v. 610-11. C. (Geo. W.), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Phil. '82. C. (O. F.), 1847, in Sonoma Co. '50-77. Sonoma Co. Hist., 102. Canian (Wm), 1832, doubtful name of a mr of the California. Ca¤izares (Jos‚), 1769, pilotin who kept a diary of Rivera's exped. to Cal.; com. of S. Antonio '74, of S. C '76, being an explorer of S.F. bay and planner of the presidio; again at Mont. '84; com. of Aranzazu '89. i. 132, 136, 208, 225, 246, 287, 289, 329, 410-11, 438, 441, 444. Cann (Dan. M.), 1847, Co. F. 3d artill. (v. 518). Lancey, not on roll. Cannell (John), 1847, lot at S.F. Cannifax (Abstrum R.), 1847, contractor at mission S. Jos‚ to make shingles for Larkin. Cannon (Manena), 1846, one of the Mormons, who prob. did not come to Cal. v. 547. Cano (Gil.), com. de policˇa at Mont. '36. iii. 675; Mex., age 23, wife Josefa Soto, children Rafael, Marˇa, Luisa, Nicol 

Cantan (Gustavus A.), 1847, lot at S.F. Cantua (Dolores), soldier of S.F. comp. '19-27; ment. in '18. ii. 232. C. (Guadalupe), in '36 at the Guadalupe rancho, Mont. district, age 51, wife CCastro, children Josefa b. '18, Gracia '29, Ramon '31, Ramona '33; majordomo and juez de campo '35-6; in '41 grantee of S. Luisito near S. Luis Ob. iii. 674-7; iv. 656. C. (Ignacio), settler at S.F. 1791-1800. i. 716. C. (Juan Ign.), son of Vicente, wounded at the Natividad fight '46. v. 367. C. (Julian), at S. Isidro rancho '36, age 40, wife Isabel Ortega, child. Manuel b. '16, Manuela '20, Faustina '22. C. (Manuel), soldier of S.F. comp. '32-9; at Sonoma '44, age 25; in Sutter's service '45; militia alf‚rez killed at Olompali '46. v. 166. C. (Manuel), son of Julian, at S. Jos‚ '50. C. (Manuel), at Los Ang. '46; connected with the Flores revolt, a good judge of aguardiente, nicknamed 'governor' for a time. v. 308, 331. C. (Pablo), soldier of S.F. comp. at Sonoma '42. C. (Vicente), majordomo at Patrocinio (Alisal), '36, age 45, wife Juana Soto, child. Juan Ign. b. '28, Juan Marˇa '31, Marˇa Ant. '33, C'36; juez de campo and auxiliar '35, '39, '41. iii. 674-5; iv. 653; grantee of rancho nacional '39. iii. 677; admin. Soledad '39-40. iii. 691; Cal. claim (v. 462) of $3,661 in '46; still in Mont. dist. '50. Cantwell (Thos), 1847, in S. Diego district. Caples (James), 1847, roll of the Soc. Cal. Pion. 

Carabajal (Rafael), at Los Ang. '48. Carabanas (Nicolcorp. of the S. Juan Cap. escolta 1776. i. 303. Carabantes (Agustin), settler at Los Ang. 1807. ii. 350. C. (Salvador), at Sta B. 1797. Carbajal, surg. of the Princesa, 1786. i. 397. C. (Josefa), wife of Surgeon Dd. S.F. 1780. i. 468. Carbit (Thos), 1847, said to have come with the N.Y. Vol., but not on the roll; d. Oregon City, Cal. '61, age 35. S. F. Herald. 

Card (Geo. H.), 1840, nat. of R. I., mate of a trader-probably the Alert-on the coast '40-2; returned in '48; wrote newspaper articles on his Cal. experiences; d. at Stockton after '68, age 74. iv. 120, 136. C(Jos‚), 1825, officer of the Asia; mr of the Rover '26. iii. 25-6, 120. C. (Melchor), sirviente at S.F. 1777. i. 297. Cardwell (Henry), 1848, sheriff at Los Ang. v. 626; perhaps same as following. C. (Herman C.), 1844, nat. of Vt (or Va), who came to Cal. on a whaler, settling at Los Ang. perhaps in '46; in Cal. Bat. (v. 358), having a Cal. claim (v. 462) under name of H. H. C.; in the mines '48-9; memb. of 1st legisl. '49-50; seriously injured in '50 by a fall from his horse; d. at Los Ang. '59. I find little about him except in newspaper sketches. Cariaga (Saturnino), grantee of Real de las Águilas '44. iv. 655. Carl (John), 1847, at S. Buen. Carlon, soldier killed in 1790. i. 465. C. (Jos‚), invat Sta B. '32. C. (Seferino), soldier of Sta B. comp.; grantee of Arroyo Grande rancho '41. iv. 655; one of this family was the wife of F. Z. Branch. Cneophyte leader of rebels at S. Diego 1775-6. i. 253, 266. Carlton, 1848 (?), later a judge in Tuolumne Co.; d. '55. Carlton (W. H.), 1848, clerk for A. J. Grayson, S.F. C(Jos‚ del), Ind. chief killed '44. iv. 409. 

Carmichael (Lawrence), 1833, Scotch trapper from N. Mex., who went to Or. '34 with Young and Kelley. iii. 388, 409; returned to drive a band of cattle to the Willamette '37. iv. 85; and again came back on the Nereid via Honolulu '38. iv. 105; and settled at S. Jos‚. He was one of the exiles of '40, but returned in '41 with a pass and a claim for $7,000 damages for interrupted business. iv. 18, 32-3, 116. His name often appears in the records from '41; in '45 one of the party capturing Prefect Castro. iv. 487; in July '46 had trouble with Henry Naile about a house; in Aug. sec. of the juez at Sta Cruz. v. 641; and later in '46 shot by a party of Mex. for the alleged reason that he was bearer of despatches for the Amer., but very little is known of this affair, of which I find no contemporary record. 

Carnes (Henry S.), 1847, lieut Co. F, N.Y. Vol. v. 504; collector of the port of Sta B. '48. v. 575; later a member of the legisl., district judge, and postmaster at Sta B., where he lived in '79; at S. Buen. '82. C. (Thos), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); drowned at Stockton '51. Carnicer (Baltasar), 1797, Span, friar who served chiefly at S. Cand retired in 1808. Biog. ii. 147; ment. i. 500, 561, 577, 686; ii. 7, 149, 159-60. 

Carpenter (Benj.), 1845, Amer. immig. from Or. in the McMahon-Clyman party; prob. went back to Or. '46. iv. 572, 576. C. (Chas R.), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); died in Cuba '60. C. (Isaac), 1847, Co. C, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). C. (John), 1845, named as a captive exchanged for Manuel Castro. iv. 487, doubtful. C. (Lemuel or Samuel), 1832, Amer. from N. Mex. iii. 388, 408; accredited to '31 and '33 in two lists of '36; prob. came in winter of '32-3; 22 years old in '36, 28 in '40; had a soap-factory on the S. Gabriel River and a vineyard in co. with Chard; one of the vigilantes '36, and not arrested '40; served '45 against Micheltorena. iv. 495; in '48 had an orchard near S. Buen. Claimant for Sta Gertrudis '53. iii. 634; where on account of financial troubles he committed suicide in '59. C. (Roman), 1840, named on Larkin's books; perhaps the 'Roman carpenter' or 'Roman the carpenter.' C. (Wm), 1841, doubtful record at Los Ang. C. (Wm M.), 1848, physician at N. Helv., room-mate of P. H. Burnett. Carpentier, memb. of legisl. '55, accredited to '48 in the Chart. 

Carr (Overton), 1841, lieut U. S. ex. exped. iv. 241, 567. C. (Griffith), 1846, Co. F, Cal. Bat. (v. 358), enlisting at Sonoma. C. (Stephen), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. Stanislaus Co. '49. Carranza (Domingo), 1798, Span. friar, who served at Sta Cruz and S. Luis Rey, retiring in 1810. Biog. ii. 108; [p.83]ment. i. 498, 577; ii. 154-5, 159-60, 197. Carrasco (Jos‚ M.), Sonoran at Mont. '36, age 39, single; at Mont. and other places to '47. C. (Juan), 1791, com. schr Horcasitas. i. 493. C. (Juan), nat. of Buenos Aires, insane, found dead at Arroyo Mocho '38. iii. 732. Carreaga (Saturnino), 1845, juez at S. Juan B. iv. 662; see 'Cariaga,' prob. the same man. 

Carrigan (Thos), 1847, Co. H, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Carriger (Daniel S.), 1846, Cal. Bat. (v. 358), enlisting at Sonoma. C. (Nicholas), 1846, Tennesseean immig. from Mo. with family. v. 528; his father died and a daughter was born on the journey. He served in the Sonoma garrison and as mail-carrier from Sonora to S. Rafael during the war; a miner in '48-9; farmer at Sonoma from '50, where he still lived in '80, aged 64, with 9 living children. I obtained from him a brief Autobiography; portrait in Sonoma Co. Hist., 312; a son, Dav. W., was born in '47. Carrillo, sirviente at Sta Cruz 1795. i. 496. 

Carrillo (Anastasio), son of Jos‚ Raim., b. at Sta B. 1788; sergt distinguido of the Sta B. comp., named in connection with many Ind. exped., etc. 1818-30. ii. 235, 334, 361, 528-9, 561, 572; iii. 78, 103; comisionado in charge of Los Ang '18-25. ii. 350, 559; member of the dip. '27-8; habilitado '27, '29-34. ii. 572; iii. 36-42, 63; '31-6 alf‚rez of the comp. iii. 650-1, 281; in '32 his family consisted of his wife Concepcion Garcˇa and child. Micaela, Manuela, Soledad, Francisco, and Luis; his other sons being Guillermo and Raimundo; commisionado to secularize Sta B. '34. iii. 346, 657; in '36 retired from the army on full pay; in '37 com. to treat with Alvarado, majordomo at S. Fernando, grantee of Pt Concepcion. iii. 519, 647, 655; '38 comisario sub. at Sta B. 549, 651; memb. of dip. '39-40. iii. 590; grantee of Cieneguita '45. iv. 642; sub-prefect '45-6. iv. 631, 641. Thus it will be seen that Don Anastasio was a prominent man of Sta B., where he still lived after '50. 

Carrillo (CAntonio de Jesus), son of Jos‚ Raimundo, b. at Sta B. 1783; soldier in the Mont. comp. from 1797, and soldado distinguido from '99; named as clerk in a murder trial 1806. ii. 191; sergt of the Sta B. comp. from '11 to about '25, taking an active part in defensive operations against Bouchard in '18 and the rebel Ind. in '24. ii. 236-7, 275-6, 361, 363, 492, 534, 537, 572. Quitting the military service, Don Cwas partido elector in '27, and memb. of the dip. '28. iii. 33, 41, 140, 572; being in '30 elected member of congress for '31-2, and working earnestly in Mex., if we may judge by his own corresp., for the interests of his country. iii. 50, 214, 232-5, 260, 311-13, 319, 398. He worked particularly in favor of the missions, drawing his inspiration from Capt. de la Guerra; and also in the interest of Californian as against Mex. officers. One of his speeches, the Exposicion sobre el Fondo Piadoso, was the first production of a native Californian printed in book form. Back in Cal., he was grantee of the Sespe rancho '33, was memb. of the dip. '34-5, and was made comisionado for the secularization of S. Buen. in '36. iii. 246, 249-50, 258, 342, 353, 421, 488, 549, 656, 660-1; iv. 46. He was a warm supporter of Alvarado's revolutionary govt in '36, and not as has been often said a leader of the southern opposition. iii. 490-2. In '37, however, his brother obtained for him in Mex. an appointment as gov.; and Don Cmaking Los Ang. his capital, strove ineffectually in '37-8 to assume the governorship, which Alvarado very properly refused to surrender. This interesting but somewhat ridiculous episode of Cal. history, with its attendant military campaigns, is fully recorded in iii. 534-81, 594, 612, 614, 631, 699; iv. 47, 81, 89. In '43-5 he was member of the junta, and in '45 grantee of Sta Rosa Island. iv. 157, 361, 495-6, 521, 547, 643; Cal. claim of $14,000 '46-7. v. 467; memb. of the Sta B. ayunt. '49. Carrillo died in '52 at the age of 69. In person Don CAntonio, like most of his brothers and cousins, was large and of magnificent presence; distinguished for his courteous and gentlemanly manners. In all Cal. there was no more kind-hearted, generous, popular, and inoffensive citizen than he. For public life he was much too timid and irresolute; as congressman he was but the mouth-piece of his brother-in-law Capt. de la Guerra; as politician and aspirant for the governorship he was the softest of wax in the hands of his astute brother Jos‚ Antonio; as military leader in the burlesque child's-play warfare of '38 he cut but a sorry figure; yet everybody [p.84]understood his character and he had no enemies. His wife was Josefa Castro, who died in '53; his sons Jos‚, Pedro C., and Jos‚ Jesus; his daughters Josefa wife of Wm G. Dana, Encarnacion wife of Thos Robbins, Francisca wife of A. B. Thompson, Manuela wife of John C. Jones, and Antonia wife of Lewis Burton. Carrillo (Dolores), at Sonoma, age 20, in '44. 

Carrillo (Domingo Antonio Ignacio), son of Jos‚ Raimundo, b. at S. Diego 1791; soldado distinguido in S. Diego comp. from 1807; cadet from 1809; prosecutor in a case of '11. ii. 341, 345. In '18 he had left the service, and Capt. de la Guerra wished to send him to Mex. for a few years; but failing in this had him restored as sold. disting. of the Sta B. comp., and in '21 he was trausf. as cadet to S. Diego. Ment. in '24-9 at S. D., sometimes as revenue col. and habilitado, promoted to alf‚rez in '27. ii. 536, 543, 547, 572; iii. 41, 134, 141. In '30 he was transf. to Sta B., where he was elector, acting com., and a supporter of Victoria. ii. 572; iii. 50, 99, 223; in '34 prom. to lieut, admin. of Purˇsima, and grantee of Las Vˇrgenes. iii. 346, 349, 634-5, 650-1, 665-6. In '36 com. at Sta B., and though having trouble with Gov. Chico, opposed Alvarado unlike other Barbare¤os, and was removed from the com.; but in '38 he opposed Carrillo. iii. 422, 436, 485, 503, 565. I find no record of Don Domingo after '37, and cannot give the date of his death. His wife, married in 1810, was Concepcion, sister of Pio Pico; his sons Joaquin, Jos‚ Antonio, Francisco, Alejandro, and Felipe; daughters Marˇa wife of Jos‚ M. Covarrubias, Angela wife of Ignacio del Valle, and Antonia. His widow in '78 gave me a small col. of Doc. Hist. Cal., remnant of the family archives, including no less a paper than the original treaty of Cahuenga. C. (Francisco), son of Anastasio, who died young. C. (Francisco), son of Domingo; married Dorotea Lugo. C. (Guillermo), 1769, corporal of the S. D. comp., and later sergt; died in 1782. i. 301-2, 314, 452. I do not know that he left any descendants. C. (Guillermo), son of Anastasio; married Manuela Ortega; still living in '79. 

Carrillo (Joaquin), nat. of Lower Cal., for 22 years a soldier, part of the time at S. Diego, where, having retired from the service, he lived with his family in '27. He was probably a cousin of Jos‚ Raimundo, but I find no information about his parentage. It is related that he played well on the violin, and was once put in the stocks by Com. Ruiz because he was too long tuning his instrument for a favorite air. The romantic marriage of his daughter to Capt. Fitch in '27 is recorded in iii. 140-4; marriage of another daughter to M. G. Vallejo '32. iii. 472. In '35 he tried to get a grant of the S. D. mission estate; and the same year his wife called upon the gov. to prevent his sale of the garden given to their children by Com. Ruiz, their godfather. iii. 617. I suppose he died before '40. His widow was Marˇa Ignacia Lopez, who in '41 was grantee of the Cabeza do Sta Rosa rancho in Sonoma Co. iii. 673; and for whom was built about this time the 1st house in the Sta Rosa region. Among the sons were Joaquin, Julio, and Jos‚ Ramon; daughters, Josefa wife of Hen. D. Fitch, Francisca Benicia wife of M. G. Vallejo, Marˇa de la Luz wife of Salvador Vallejo, Ramona wife of Romualdo Pacheco and later of John Wilson, Juana, and Felicidad who was claimant of part of the Sta Rosa estate and wife of Victor Castro. C. (Joaquin), son of Joaquin, at Sonoma '44, age 24; grantee of Llano de Sta Rosa the same year, for which he was later claimant. iv. 673; first settler in Analy township. In '46 2d alcalde of Sonoma, imprisoned by the Bears. v. 129, 157, 162. 

Carrillo (Joaquin), son of Domingo, who seems to have been a cadet in the Sta B. comp. '28. ii. 576; in '35 or a little later he married his cousin Manuela, daughter of Anastasio; maj. and later admin. of Purˇsima. iii. 353-4, 612, 666; grantee of Lompoc '37. iii. 655; juez at Sta B. '40-2, being proposed for sub-prefect. iii. 655; iv. 641-2; in '45 lessee of Sta In‚s, suplente in assembly, grantee of Mision Vieja de Purˇsima. and S. Cde Jonata. iv. 540, 553, 558, 643, 647; in '46 juez and assemblyman, and purchaser of Sta In‚s. v. 38, 321, 561, 635. He was appointed prefect in '49, was subsequently county judge, and was district judge for a dozen years from '52, being a man of broad views and good sense, and though not speaking English and knowing but little [p.85]of legal technicalities, he had good advisers and left a good reputation. He died in '68. C. (Jos‚), son of CAntonio, ment. in '29 as prospective mr of a Cal. schr. iii. 140; also ment. in '31. iii. 555; grantee of Las Pozas '34. iii. 655; took some part in the political troubles of '37-9. iii. 556, 580; capt. of auxiliary cavalry and acting com. at Sta B. '45-6. iv. 538-9, 641; v. 35. Still living in '50 and later. His wife was Catarina Ortega, by whom he had 4 children before '37; his 2d wife, and widow, was Dolores Dominguez, who in '78 gave me what were left of Don Jos‚'s Doc. Hist. Cal., including several valuable papers. 

Carrillo (Jos‚ Antonio Ezequiel), son of Jos‚ Raimundo, b. 1796 at S.F.; said to have been a teacher at S. Diego in 1813 and later. ii. 344; house-lot at Los Ang. '21. ii. 562; member of dip. '22-4; governor's sec. '26; alcalde of Los Ang. '27-8; elector in '29-30, but defeated for congress. ii. 462, 513, 536, 560-1, 563-4; iii. 7, 13, 50, 63, 95. In '31, having a quarrel with Alcalde Sanchez, and being arrested and exiled, he became a leading instigator of the movement against Gov. Victoria. iii. 196-7, 203-4, 206-8, 630, 652; in '32 favored Pico against Echeandˇa. iii. 218; in '33-4 suplente congressman, member of the dip., and alcalde of Los Ang. iii. 242, 246-50, 258, 275, 327, 342, 366, 373, 635, 637, 644. In 35-6 C. was in Mex. as member of congress; otherwise as 1st vocal of the dip. he would have been gov. ad. int. instead of Castro in '35; and might in '36-7 have given a more formidable aspect to the southern opposition to Alvarado. iii. 258, 291-2, 299. He came back at the end of '37, and from that time to the beginning of '39 engaged in fruitless efforts to rule Cal. by making his brother Don Cgov., being more than once a prisoner, and on one occasion spending some months in captivity at Sonoma, where by his diplomatic skill he wellnigh won over Gen. Vallejo to his cause. iii. 534-45, 547-9, 551, 555, 558-9, 564, 566, 570-1, 573, 578, 580; memb. of the dip., ministro of the tribunal superior, believed to be engaged in various plots '40-3. iii. 602, 604-7, 632; iv. 193, 282, 284, 296, 319; in '43-4, grantee with his brother of Sta Rosa Isl., capt. of Los Ang. defensores, and not very active openly in opposition to Micheltorena. iv. 351, 407, 462, 475, 643; but finally induced in '45 to join the revolutionists. iv. 491-3, 509, 522. Under the new administration in '45, after declining the appointment of 1st justice of the tribunal, C. become lieut-col of militia, comandante de escuadron, and com. principal of the southern line. In this capacity as representative of Gen. Castro in the south he became a northern partisan in the sectional quarrels, and was banished to the frontier by Gov. Pico. iv. 520, 523, 531-2, 538-41. Returning in '46 he joined Castro at Sta Clara, as mayor-gen. of the Cal. forces, and retreated to the south in July. v. 39, 41, 53, 105, 134-5. In Flores' revolt C. was 2d in com., defeating Mervine, and frightening Stockton away from S. Pedro; then engaging in a plot against Flores, but resuming his allegiance for the final struggle against the invaders, and finally signing the treaty of Cahuenga as Mex. commissioner in Jan. '47. v. 309, 318-20, 324, 331-3, 391, 404-5. In '49 he was a member of the constitutional convention, and this would seem to have been the end of his public life. He died at Sta B. in '62. His 1st wife was Estefana Pico, and his second Jacinto Pico, both sisters of Don Pio. A daughter married Lewis T. Burton, but I know nothing of any other children. Thus Don Jos‚ Antonio's name was constantly before the Cal. public for over 25 years. He was a man of remarkable natural abilities for the most part unimproved and wasted. Slight modifications in the conditions and his character might have made him the foremost of Californians-either the best or worst. None excelled him in intrigue, and he was never without a plot on hand. A gambler, of loose habits, and utterly careless in his associations, he yet never lost the privilege of associating with the best or the power of winning their friendship. There was nothing he would not do to oblige a friend or get the better of a foe; and there were few of any note who were not at one time or another both his foes and friends. No Californian could drink so much brandy as he with so little effect. A man of fine appearance and iron constitution; of generous impulses, without much principle; one of the few original and prominent characters in early Californian [p.86]annals. C. (Jos‚ Antonio), son of Domingo, at school in Lima '29; grantee of Lompoc '37 and Purˇsima-mision vieja-'45; also in charge of S. Miguel. iii. 655; iv. 643, 660; his wife was Felicidad Gutierrez. 

Carrillo (Jos‚ Raimundo), 1769, nat. of Loreto, who came as a soldier and rose to be capt., dying in 1809. He may be regarded as the founder of the Carrillo family, which must be considered in several respects the leading one in Cal., by reason of the number and prominence of its members and of their connection by marriage with so many of the best families, both native and pioneer. The captain's wife was Tomasa Ignacia Lugo; his sons and some of his grandsons are named in these pages; his only daughter, Marˇa Antonia, married Capt. Jos‚ de la Guerra y Noriega. See biog. ii. 99-101; ment. i. 463, 466, 551-2, 665, 679-82, 692-3, 701; ii. 28, 30, 116-19, 140, 143-4, 174. He signed his name Raymundo, dropping the Jos‚. C. (Jos‚ Ramon), son of Joaquin (of S. Diego), who in '44 was at Sonoma, age 21, having come north with his mother a few years before. In '46 he was an officer in Padilla's band of Californians who captured and killed Cowie and Fowler during the Bear revolt. v. 160-4. It was claimed by himself and friends, then and later, that the murder was committed against his protest or without his knowledge, and I have no reason to suppose that he was in any way responsible for that unfortunate occurrence. He joined Castro's force as lieut., and with him went south, taking part with his countrymen in the last campaigns of the war '46-7. v. 308, 312, 325, 329, 331, 351, 388, 617; and remained in the south. He was a rough and reckless fellow, often in bad company, but not regarded as a bad man by those who knew him best. He was tried by the courts and by the vigilantes for murder, and acquitted; but soon, in May '64, he was shot from behind the trees at Cucamonga. Whether this murder was committed by a vigilante not pleased with the verdict, by some avenger of the Sonoma victims, or by a private foe, was never known. C. (Jos‚ Ramon), at Sta B. '44; grantee of Matzultaquea rancho '45. iv. 496, 635. Perhaps same as preceding; if not, I have no idea who he was. C. (Juan), soldier of the S.F. comp. at Sonoma '41. 

Carrillo (Julio), son of Joaquin, brother of Ramon, who came north with his mother about '40, and in '44 is ment. in a Sonoma list as 19 years of age. In '46, going to visit his brother-in-law, Gen. Vallejo, a prisoner at Sutter's Fort, Don Julio was himself thrown into prison for several months. v. 124, 128, 298-9; had a Cal. claim of $17,500, most of which was disallowed. v. 467. From '49 he was a resident of Sta Rosa, where he was the owner of a large tract of his mother's rancho. iv. 673; but like most of his countrymen lost his land. Still living at Sta Rosa, '85, in poverty, but a man of good repute. C. (Luis), son of Anastasio; married Refugio Ortega; 2d alcalde of Sta B. '47. v. 631; died in early times. C. (Marˇa del Espˇritu Santo), grantee of Loma del Esp. Sto rancho, Mont. dist. '39. iii. 677. I am unable to say who she was. 

Carrillo (Mariano), 1769, brother of Guillermo, uncle of Jos‚ Raim., had a brother Raimundo who never came to Cal.; their parents were Juan Carrillo and Efigenia Millar. Came as a corp. and d. as alf‚rez in 1782; had no family. Biog. i. 385-6; ment. 252-3, 304, 315-16, 335-40, 426-7. C. (Pedro C.), son of CAntonio, educated at Honolulu and Boston; arrested at Sta B. by Castro '38. iii. 555, 569; grantee of Álamos y Agua Caliente, and Camulos '43, and S. Diego Isl. '46. iv. 634, 642; v. 619; elector at Los. Ang. '45. iv. 540; receptor at S.D. '46. v. 618-19. In the troubles of '46-7 Don Pedro favored the Americans from the first, and was made collector at S. Pedro, S. Diego, and finally at Sta B. v. 267, 287, 402, 446, 572, 626, 631; alcalde of Sta B. '48. v. 586-7, 631, 611. He was town surveyor of Sta B.; and later justice of the peace at Los. Ang., where he still resides in '85. In '77 he allowed me to copy his col. of Doc. Hist. Cal., including his father's original commission as gov. His wife was Josefa Bandini, and there are several sons and daughters. 

Carrillo (Raimundo), son of Anastasio; clerk at Sta B. mission '35, and admin. '36-8. iii. 657-8; sub-prefect '39-40. iii. 654-5; iv. 15, 641; secretary [p.87]of juez, '41. iv. 632, 641; in '41 grantee of S. Miguel rancho. iv. 643; in '43 juez at Sta B. and grantee of Nojoqui. iv. 642-3; capt. of defensores '49. iv. 407; suplente of sup. court, and elector of Sta B. '45. iv. 532, 540; in '46 com. at Sta B. v. 330, 400, 630. He was alcalde of Sta B. in '49, and still lived there in '50 and later. His wife was Dolores Ortega, and there were several children. Carrillo (Ramona), daughter of Joaquin; grantee of rancho at S. Luis Ob. '41. iv. 655; later Mrs Wilson; still living in '85. C. (TomM.), 1848, named by Brooks as a robber shot by Bradley. C. (Vicente), soldier of S.F. comp. at Sonoma '41-2. C. (W.), 1841, nat. of L. Cal.; in Sonoma Co. '51-77. Carrion (Manuel), 1837, Frenchman at Sta Cruz desiring to marry. iv. 118. C., several of the name at Los Ang. '46. 

Carson (Christopher), 1830 (?), Kentuckian trapper, guide, and Ind.-fighter, born in 1809, who claimed to have come to Cal. with Ewing Young, and very likely did so. iii. 175, 180. At any rate, he came in '44 as guide and hunter with Fr‚mont; and again with the same officer in '45. iv. 437, 583. His acts in '46, in connection with F.'s operations at Gavilan in the Sac. Valley, on the Or. frontier, in the S. Rafael campaign of the Bear revolt, are mentioned in v. 3, 6, 24-5, 94, 121, 127, 171-2, 175. Going south, he was sent east with despatches in Aug., but met Kearny in N. Mex. and returned with him, taking part in the S. Pascual fight, and subsequently serving in the Los Ang. campaign. v. 216, 236-7, 350, 417. In March '47 he was again sent to Washington with despatches, accompanying Lieut Beale. At Wash. he was appointed lieut-though the appointment was not confirmed-and sent back to Cal., arriving in Dec., returning in '48, and then settling in N. Mex. Again in '53 he came to Cal. with a flock of sheep. In N. Mex. he was farmer, hunter, and guide; an Ind. agent from '54; colonel and brevet brigadier-gen. of volunteers at the end of the war of '61-5. He died at Ft Lyon, Colorado, in '68, at the age of 59. His first wife was an Indian woman, by whom he had a daughter; the 2d wife was Josefa Jaramillo, who bore him 3 children. Peters' Life and Adven. of Kit Carson was published in '59; Abbott's Christopher Carson in '76. Kit Carson was a small, wiry man, of undoubted bravery and skill in all that pertained to his profession, comparatively quiet in manner, and somewhat less garrulous and boastful than many of the frontiersmen; yet the difference between him and others of his class in character and skill was by no means so marked as has been represented in eulogistic biog. sketches. No one, however, begrudges Kit the fame his biographers have given him. It is their custom, ignoring faults, to concentrate in one trapper all the virtues of his class for dramatic effect. Carson's statements on his Cal. experience were not noticeable for their accuracy; his connection with the Haro-Berreyesa murder-though he doubtless obeyed orders-is not creditable; and I suppose his influence to have had much to do with Fr‚mont's stupid folly of the Gavilan, and Kearny's disaster at S. Pascual. 

Carson (James H.), 1847, nat. of Va; sergt in Co. F, 3d artill. v. 519-20; in the mines '48; an active prospector, who gave his name to several 'diggings,' and whose little book-Early Recoll. of the Mines-was pub. at Stockton in '52. He died in '53, his wife and child arriving a little later, but returning to the east. C. (John), owner of S.F. lot '46; went to U.S. C. (Jose Manuel,) 1840, at S. Gabriel with a Sonora pass to visit Cal. C. (Lindsay), 1847, settler in Russ. Riv. Valley; still there after '56. Son. Co. Hist., 358. Carson (Moses), 1832, brother of Kit, from N. Mex. with Ewing Young. iii. 388, 408. He remained for some time in the Los Ang. region, and in '36 obtained a certif. of 10 years' resid. in Mex. Territory and 4 in Cal., being then 31 years old. In '45 he went north to take charge of Capt. Fitch's Russ. Riv. rancho; joined the Bears in '46, and was the messenger who announced the capture of Sonoma at N. Helv.; also in Cal. Bat. (v. 358), and had a Cal. claim of $653, not allowed (v. 462). After his discharge he returned to Healdsburg, but soon after '50 recrossed the continent and soon died. C. (Richard), 1847, sup. of the Confederacion. v. 577. Carstens (H.), 1848, German said to have come this year; in S. Mateo Co. '59-78. 

Carter, 1825, mr of the Jura. iii. 147. C., 1845, a physician at N. Helv. [p.88]'45-6. iv. 580; perhaps Geo. C., 1848, mr of the Kamehameha III.; of C. & Davis at S.F.; perhaps Joseph O. C. (David), 1848, at Mont. from Boston with letters from J. C. Jones. C. (Geo.), 1845, immig. apparently of the Grigsby-Ide party. iv. 578, 587; perhaps the G. S. Carter who served in the Cal. Bat. (v. 358). C. (Geo.), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). C. (Geo.), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). C. (Henry), 1831, mr of the Wm Little. iii. 384. C. (J. B.), 1846, lieut on the Savannah. C. (John), 1844, Amer. sailor from the Tasso; landed sick at S.D. iv. 453; sent to Mont. on the Admittance; aided by the consul, and shipped in '46. C. (John), 1847, Co. K, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). C. (Joseph O.), 1831, Amer. mr of the Volunteer and Harriet Blanchard '31-3, and of the Rasselas '36-8. iii. 382, 384, 405; iv. 105, 141. His wife and child often accomp. him on his voy. bet. Cal. and the islands. Went to Boston on the Alciope in '40. iv. 100; d. at Honolulu about '51. His son Henry A. Carter was Hawaiian min. at Wash. '84. Also called J. D. and John O.; possibly more than one man. C. (Philo J.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); re‚nl. at Los Ang. C. (R.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. C. (R.R.), 1846, mid. on the U.S. Savannah. 

Cartney (Barthol.), 1847, lot-owner at S.F. Cartwright, 1841, mr of the Sapphire. iv. 568. C. (H. B.), 1848, at Benicia. Yuba Co. Hist., 86. Carver (M.M.), 1848, Kentuckian from Or., and member of the const. convention '49. Cary (Lewis), 1848 (?), in Colusa '80; said to have come by the isthmus in '48. Col. Co. Hist., 81. Csee 'CCasarin, see 'Jimeno C.' 

Case (A. L.), 1841, lieut U.S. ex. exped. iv. 241. C. (B. A.), 1847, nat. of Conn.; settler at Sta Cruz; died in Mendocino '71. His wife, Mary Amney of Vt, taught at Sta Cruz '48, and still lived there in '80. Casement (Wm), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518). Casey (Michael), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). C. (Neil), Co. B, N.Y. Vol. Cash (A.), 1837, mr of the Harvest. iv. 104. C. (James H.), 1844, Amer. sailor from a whaler at Mont. iv. 453; enlisted Nov. '46 in Co. G, Cal. Bat., and was wounded at Natividad. v. 371; mentioned also in '48. C. (John C.), 1847, lieut of marines on the Columbus. Casper (Wm W.), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); Utah farmer and col of militia '81. Cassel (John), 1847, perhaps of N.Y. Vol., not on roll. Cassidy (Hugh), 1847, Co. F, 3d artill. (v. 518). Cassin (John W.), 1846, sergt Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336); went east '49, but returned from Washington Ter. '52, settling in Tuolumne; a farmer in Tehama '62-77, the time of his death. Casta¤ares (Gregorio), regidor at Mont. '44. iv. 653. C. (Jos‚), juez de campo at Mont. '35. iii. 674. 

Casta¤ares (Jos‚ Marˇa), 1833, Mex. from Puebla; clerk for the admin. of customs Rafael Gonzalez, whose daughter, Ana Marˇa, was his wife; 29 years old in '36, when his amours with Ildefonsa Herrera were the basis of a causa c‚lebre at Mont. iii. 436-9. He was a handsome fellow, but arrogant in manner. He went to Mex. a little later, but in '40 came back on the Catalina. iv. 31; in '42 fiscal and ministro suplente of the tribunal. iii. 605; iv. 299, 296; in '43 grantee of the Arroyo de los Calzoncillos rancho. iv. 671; in '44 lieut-col of the defensores and a supporter of Micheltorena. iv. 405, 407, 509, 654; in '45 sent to Mex. by Gen. Castro on a mission of which little is known, and never returned. iv. 530, 601; v. 32. In '47 he appears as a colonel in the Mex. army. C. (Manuel), 1840, brother of Jos‚ Marˇa, who came from Mex. to take charge of the Mont. custom-house, but became, instead, sec. of the prefecture '40-2. iii. 675; iv. 31, 626, 652; in '42 sent to Mex. by Alvarado as a commissioner, returning with appointment as admin. of customs; also fiscal of the tribunal. iv. 283-5, 296, 312, 339, 341, 352, 563; in '43 still admin. of customs, elector for Mont., grantee of Mariposas, and finally elected member of congress. iv. 355, 357, 361, 377, 386, 672. His labors in congress '44-5, as shown by his Coleccion de Documentos published in '45, are recorded in iv. 412-18, 431, 449-50, 457, 524-5; v. 32. He never returned to Cal., but in later years gave testimony in the Limantour case, which was pronounced false by Judge Hoffman. He was a man of some ability, and more popular than his brother. I think his family came and went with him. 

Casta¤eda (Juan), 1837, Mex. capt., nat. of Texas, and com. of the L. Cal. [p.89]frontier, who came to Cal. with Jos‚ Ant. Carrillo, and took a prominent part in the mil. operations to support CCarrillo in '38, until captured. iii. 546, 549-50, 553-5, 569, 661. In '39 he was made sec. of the com. gen., and sent on a mission to Mex. by Vallejo. iii. 599; iv. 285; returned in '42 with Micheltorena, or at least about the same time; in '43-6 not much is heard of him, but he was the grantee, as was claimed, of several pieces of land, having a lot at S.F. iv. 352, 669, 671; v. 41, 561, 665, 680. After '50 a witness in land cases. A man of good manners, fair education, and little force. 

Castillero (Andr‚s), 1836, Mex. capt. of the L. Cal. frontier comp., who came to Mont. apparently with Gov. Chico; at the downfall of Gutierrez he was not exiled, but chose to go away, perhaps to Mex. iii. 460-3; in '37 he came back as a comisionado of the Mex. govt and induced Alvarado to submit to centralism, being at once sent back to Mex. to work for Alvarado's interests. iii. 521, 526-31, 572, 624. Successful again, he returned to Cal. in '38. iii. 574-6; iv. 101; in '39 was grantee of Sta Cruz Isl., and went to Mex. as congressman and habilitado-gen. of the Cal. companies. iii. 582, 590, 656; iv. 66, 100, 102, 143. In '45 he came back once more as a comisionado of the govt to prepare for the reception of Mex. troops and defence against Amer. invaders. iv. 528, 535, 537, 602-3, 606, 614; v. 17. It was at this time that Castillero found and denounced the famous New Almaden quicksilver mine, for which he figured as claimant in the litigation of later years. v. 665. He was sent to Mex. again on govt business early in '46 and did not return till after the war. v. 32-3, 577. I have no record of him after the litigation of '49-61, during which he resided chiefly in Mex. 

Castillo (Ambrosio, Enrique, Gabriel, Jos‚ M., Loreto, and Manuel), at Los Ang. '46. C. (Felipe), Sonoran cigar-maker and trader, age 25, who took part in the Apalrevolt at Los Ang. '35. iii. 282-5; went to Son. but returned in '45. iv. 572; grantee of Valle de S. Felipe, and sent overland with despatches to Son. '46. v. 332, 619. C. (Jos‚), juez aux. Mont. '44. iv. 653. C. (Jos‚ Marˇa), soldier at S. Jos‚ mission 1797-1800. i. 556. C. (Jos‚ Marˇa), regidor at Mont. '31-2. iii. 672-3. C. (Francisco), sec. to sub-prefect at Sta B. and to prefect at Los Ang. '39-40. iii. 640, 654-5. C. (Pedro del), Mex. infantry sergt from S. Blas about '25; elector at S.F. '27. ii. 592; regidor Mont. '33. iii. 673; receptor of customs at S.F. '33-6; iii. 377, 700. C. (Nˇcanor de Jesus Garnica del), 1842, came from N. Mex. in a colony, and after a short stay at S. Luis Ob. came to Mont., living later at S. Jos‚, and finally near Salinas, where in '77 he gave me some Recuerdos of events in '44-6. 

Castillo Bueno (Juan), 1602, sergt in Vizcaino's exped. i. 98. Castillo Negrete (Francisco Javier), 1834, came from Mex. with the H. & P. col.; sˇndico and sec. of ayunt. at Mont. '35; sec. of Gov. Chico; grantee of Quien Sabe and Sta Ana ranchos '36; either exiled with Gutierrez or sent by Chico as an agent to Mex. a little earlier in '36. See in. 466; also 263, 426, 674, 678. C. N. (Luis), 1834, Span. lawyer, brother of Fran. J., who also came with the colony as district judge of Cal.; a bitter opponent of Alvarado's govt, who went away voluntarily with Gutierrez in '36; a poet as well as lawyer; later gov. of L. Cal.; died in '43. Biog. iii. 463-6; ment. iii. 263, 267, 277, 372, 415, 480, 484, 486-7, 534, 586. Castle (John), 1845, deserter from the Hopewell, at S. Diego. Casto (James), 1847, Co. D., Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Caston (Geo. R.), 1847, Co. D., N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 

Castro. Except in the case of a few of the most prominent of the name, no attempt is made here to follow the complicated connections of this family or group of families, doubtless the most numerous in Cal. Castro, in a S.F. padron '44, age 25. C. (Agustin), son of Mariano, at Las Ánimas '36, age 24. C. (Albino), son of Francisco M., age 16, in '41; d. without issue before '52. C. (Angel), sub-maj. of S. Juan B. '35. iii. 692; at S.F. del Rosario rancho '36. iii. 678; nat. of Cal., age 45, wife Isabel Butron, child. Ramon b. '16, Guadalupe '20, Jos‚ '23, Josefa '30, Concepcion '32, Juana M. '31, Jos‚ Joaq. '33, Josefa '34; ment. '40. iv. 6; in '42 grantee of Los Paicines, and com. of a militia comp. at S. Jos‚ and Brancif. iv. 655, 663, 686; juez at S. Juan B. '44, '46; family insulted by Fr‚mont's men. iv. 561; v. 9, 640; tax-payer in Mont. [p.90]Co. '50. C. (Antonio Marˇa), soldier of 1780, retired in 1809; grantee of Vega del Prancho '20. ii. 383, 664; iii. 679; suplente of dip. '22, and vocal '25. ii. 462; iii. 18. C. (Antonio), son of Francisco M. iv. 71, 544, 679. C. (Antonio), perhaps son of Ant. Marˇa, or in some items there may be confusion bet. him and his father and others; regidor of Mont. '30-1. ii. 612; iii. 212, 672; comis. of S. Antonio mis. '31. iii. 307, 687; alc. at P'35. iii. 674; supl. juez at S. Juan B. '39, '46. iii. 693; v. 640. C. (Antonio), possibly the same, or the son of Fran. M., at S. Jos‚ '41, age 41, wife BSoto, child. Francisca b. '24, Concepcion '28, Jos‚ de Jesus '29, Marˇa S. '30, Gabriela '12, Jos‚ '36, Jos‚ Ant. '39. C. (Antonio Marˇa), son of Joaquin, at S. Jos‚ '41, age 16. C. (Blas), son of Jos‚ Ant., at S. Antonio rancho '36, age 20. C. (Cwife of Jos‚ Bolcof. ii. 479; grantee in '39, with her sisters, of Refugio rancho. 

Castro (Cbro. of Francisco, Ignacio, and Mariano; maj. at Sta Cruz '12. ii. 388; supl. of the dip. '22-4. ii. 462, 543-4; sˇndico at S. Jos‚ '28, also supl. vocal '28-9. ii. 605; iii. 42-3; in '34 grantee of Las Llagas rancho, Sta Clara Co. iii. 674, 677, 712; where he lived in '36, age 60, nat. of Cal., wife Marˇa del Rosario Garcˇa; supl. vocal of junta '39. iii. 590. Don Cis described as an eccentric old fellow, who tempered his hospitality by an affectation of abusing his guests. By a padron of '41 he was a Sonoran, age '62, while his wife was a year younger than in '36! C. (Cment. at S. Luis Rey '39. iii. 625. C. ('Chanate'), see 'C. (Manuel).' C. (Crisanto), son of Mariano, at S. Jos‚ '41, age 11. C. (Cruz), at S. Bern. '46, age 28. C. (Evaristo), son of Jos‚, at Las Ánimas '38, age 22. C. (Felipe), prob. son of Mariano, soldier at Mont. '36, age 26. C. (Francisco), piloto and master of transport vessels 1776-8. i. 287, 266, 328. 

Castro (Francisco Marˇa), nat. of Sinaloa, b. 1775; prob. bro. of CIgn., and Mariano; for 13 years artill. soldier and corp.; settler at S.F. before 1800, in which year he was alcalde. i. 716, 718. In '22 elector, member of dip., alc. at S. Jos‚ (?). ii. 454, 462, 584, 604; in '23 explor. exped. north of bay, and grant of the S. Pablo rancho, renewed in '34, where Don Francisco spent the rest of his life. ii. 497-9, 594-5, 664; iii. 713; vocal and elector '25, '27. ii. 592; iii. 17-18. Duhant-Cilly, Viaggio ii. 88-9, says that Don Francisco was of French descent; I find no other evidence of this fact, or of any direct relationship to the other Castros. He died in '31, leaving a widow, Gabriela Berreyesa, who died in '51; 7 sous-Alvino, Antonio, Gabriel Vicente, Jesus Marˇa, Joaquin Isidro, Juan Jos‚, and Victor; 4 daughters-Marˇa de Jesus who d. before '52 without issue, Marˇa Gregoria who married Jos‚ Ramon Estrada and died without issue before '52, Francisca who married Joaq. Moraga and died before '52 leaving 5 children, and Martina the wife of Gov. Alvarado. iii. 593, 679. The San Pablo estate was left half to the widow and half to the 11 children, and by deaths and the mother's will Do¤a Martina C. de Alvarado became owner of 15-22. But the lawyers got in their work in the distribution, and the whole family has been kept in a state of landed poverty by litigation, which in '85 is not entirely at an end. C. (Francisco), son of Guillermo, at Mont., '36-41, age 4-7. C. (Fran.), son of Juan Jos‚, at S. Jos‚ '41, age 8. C. (Fran.), son of Rafael, at Brancif. '45, age 20. C. (Fran.), son of Simeon, at Mont. '36, age 4. C. (Fran.), Cal. claim of $3,045 in '46. 

Castro (Gabriel Vicente), son of Francisco M., resid. at S. Pablo; elector at S.F. '35. iii. 704; sergt in militia comp. '37; juez de campo '43. iv. 685; ment. in '44. iv. 463; lawsuit '47. v. 663. C. (Guadalupe), bro. of Rafael and Juan Jos‚ at Brancif. '45, age 30, single; juez de paz '43. iv. 663. C. (Guad.), son of Angel, age 16 in '36. C. (Guad.), son of Joaquin, at Brancif. '28; claimant of S. Andr‚s rancho '52. iii. 678. C. (Guad.), son of Juan Jos‚, at Brancif. '45, age 19. C. (Guillermo), prob. son of Cat Las Llagas '36. iii. 677; lieut of S. Jos‚ militia '37. iii. 732; grantee of S. Lorenzo rancho '38-41. iii. 711, 713; iv. 673; in '38 surveyor at S. Jos‚. iii. 730; in '41 at his rancho, age 31, wife Luisa Peralta, child. Juan b. '31, Francisco '34, Jos‚ Ramon Simon '34, Concepcion '35, Encarnacion '46, Loreto '37, Luisa '38; in '41-4 juez of the contra costa. iv. 684-5; in '45 suplente min. of the sup. tribunal. iv. 532. 

Castro (Ignacio), bro. of CFran., and Mariano; soldier of S.F. 1780; settler at S. Jos‚ 1786; alcalde 1799, 1804, '9, '10. i. 477-8, 716; ii. 134; perhaps the same man who was drowned near Mission S. Jos‚ in '17. ii. 382. C. (Ign.), son of Joaquin, at Brancif. '28. C. (Ign.), son of Mariano, at S. Jos‚ '41, age 20. C. (Isidoro), his daughter married Surg. Di. 469. C. (Jesus Marˇa), son of Francisco M.; resid. of S. Pablo; age 18 in '41; in S. F. militia '37. C. (Jesus M.), son of Juan Jos‚, at Brancif. '28, age 13. C. (Joaquin), soldier of S.F. comp. 1777; wife Martina Botiller; settler at S. Jos‚ 1790, etc. i. 478, 617; perhaps the same who owned the Buenavista rancho near Mont. '95, and obtained La Brea 1801-2. i. 683; ii. 171, 664. C. (Joaquin), invsoldier and settler at Brancif. from 1799. i. 571; married Marˇa Ant. Amador; maj. of Sta Cruz '18. ii. 244-5; fined '27. ii. 627; in '28 at Brancif., a widower, child. Guadalupe, Ignacio, Joaquin, Vicenta, Darˇa; Rafael, and Juan Jos‚ were apparently his sons; there had also been a daughter Plde Jesus, b. 1803; ment. in '30. ii. 627; alcalde '31. iii. 696-7; grantee of S. Andr‚s rancho '33. iii. 678. C. (Joaquin), son of preceding; at Brancif. '45, age 25, wife Eusebia Valencia, child. Jos‚ and Marcelina. C. (Joaquin), prob. son of Joaq. of '95; at La Brea '36, age 41; at S. Jos‚ '41, age 47; wife Marˇa In‚s SepŁlveda, child. Mariano b. '21, Antonio M. '23, Lugarda '28. C. (Joaquin Isidro), son of Francisco M.; regidor at S.F. '35. iii. 704; lieut of the civic comp. '37. iii. 701; grantee of El Sobrante '41. iv. 673-4; ment. '41-3. iv. 199, 684, 686; Cal. claim of $8,516 (v. 462) in '46; claimant for S. Pablo, and executor of his father's estate. iii. 713. 

Castro (Jos‚), son of Jos‚ Tiburcio, b. about 1810; at school in Mont. '15-20. ii. 429; his 1st public service seems to have been as sec. of the Mont. ayunt. in '28. ii. 612; though in these years it is difficult to distinguish in the records between him and his father, both called generally Jos‚. Arrested by the rebels of '29. iii. 69, 89; sec. in '30, also arrested again for expressing contempt for the Mex. iii. 49-50; ii. 612. Besides being engaged to some extent in otter-hunting '31-4, Castro was still sec. of the ayunt. '31, also named as comisionado to secularize S. Miguel, and a member of the dip. which Victoria refused to convene. iii. 186 et seq., 307, 374, 394, 684-5; 7th vocal of the dip. '33. iii. 246, 249-50, 291; 3d vocal in '35, but acting as 1st in the absence of the 1st and 2d, and thus acting gov. Sept. '35 to Jan. '36. iii. 298-300, 414-16, 426; also comisionado at S. Juan B. in '35. iii. 692. He took part in the troubles with Gov. Chico. iii. 424, 440; and in Oct.-Nov. '36 was Alvarado's chief supporter as mil. com. in the overthrow of Gutierrez. iii. 453-75. From Nov. 5th, the downfall of G., he was com. gen. of Cal. to Nov. 29th, and gov.-as presid. of the dip.-to Dec. 7th; then, as lieut-col of civic militia-under Vallejo, who remained at the north as com. gen.-he went south to take charge of Alvarado's cause in the complicated campaigns of '37-8. iii. 493, 501, 503, 505, 509-10, 520-1, 522-3, 526, 546, 551-6, 558-62, 577-8, 580, 582; claiming also a grant of Yerba Buena Isl. in '38. iii. 713. In '39 he was commissioned by the Mex. govt as capt. of the Mont. comp. iii. 584, 671; was vocal of the junta, one of the terna for gov., and grantee of S. Justo rancho; and prefect of the Mont. district '39-40. iii. 584-6, 588, 590, 603-4, 675, 678; iv. 75. In '40 Castro arrested the foreigners and went with them to S. Blas, being tried by court-martial and acquitted in Mex., and returning to Cal. in '41. iv. 6, 11-35, 37, 193, 202-4; mention in '41-3 as capt., promoted to lieut-col in '42, member of the junta, etc. iv. 282, 292, 295, 313, 339, 357, 360-2, 364, 652; in '44 lieut-col of the defensores, and sent to establish a frontier garrison in the S. Joaq. Val. iv. 407-9; a leader in the revolt against Micheltorena '44-5, and after M.'s overthrow became com. gen. of Cal. iv. 458, 460, 463, 483, 485, 488-510; his official acts in '45, controversy with Gov. Pico, precautions against foreign invasion, tour in the north, treatment of immigrants, etc. iv. 518-45, 556, 558-60, 589-90, 601, 603, 606-7, 652; continuation of the controversy in '46, troubles with Fr‚mont and the Bears, negotiations with Larkin, operations at Sta Clara, and retreat to the south in July. v. 5-53, 60-1, 72, 78-100, 105-9, 132-3, 185, 230-3, 245, 637, 661, 675; final operations in the south, negotiations with Stockton, and flight [p.92]to Mex. Aug. '46. v. 261-78, 407-9. Don Jos‚ came back to Cal. from Sinaloa in '48, v. 585-6, 640, 678, and lived as a private citizen at Mont. and S. Juan till '53, when he went again to Mex., being made sub-jefe polˇtico and mil. com. of the L. Cal. frontier from about '56. In '60, while holding this office, he was killed in a drunken brawl-or, as some say, assassinated-by one Manuel Marquez. His widow, Modesta Castro, was still living in Cal. as late as '77. Thus, Jos‚ Castro was the most prominent of his name as a public man. No Californian has been so thoroughly abused as he in what has passed for history. It should be stated at the outset that nine tenths of all that has been said against him by American writers has no foundation in truth. Of his conduct in the sectional quarrels of '45-6, there is not much to be said in his favor, except that it was somewhat less discreditable than that of his opponent, Pico; but with his acts in the contest with the settlers and the U.S. little fault can be justly found. He did not maltreat the exiles of '40, as charged by Farnham and others. He did not break his pledge to Fr‚mont in the spring of '46, nor did he do any of the absurd things attributed to him in connection with the Gavilan affair; but his conduct was far more honorable, dignified, and consistent than that of Fr‚mont. He did not threaten to drive the immigrants back into the snows of the Sierra, but treated them with uniform kindness; nor did he incite the Ind. to burn Sutter's grain-fields. In the southern negotiations of August he bore a much more honorable part than did Com. Stockton. He was not a very able man, but with ten times his ability and resources no resistance could have been offered to the U.S.; he was not a very brave man, but he showed no cowardice in the operations of '46. Indeed, his record as a public man in Upper Cal. was, on the whole, not a bad one. He had much energy, was popular with most classes, was true to his friends, and as a public officer fairly honest. About his private character there is great difference of opinion among competent witnesses, native and foreign, who knew him well. He must have had some good qualities, yet it is clear that he had some very bad ones. He was addicted to many vices, and when drunk, especially in the later years, was rough to the verge of brutality; yet a kind-hearted man when sober. Of commonplace abilities and education, in most respects inferior to such men as Vallejo, Bandini, Alvarado, and Carrillo, he was yet by no means the cowardly, incompetent braggart that he has been generally painted. Castro (Jos‚), sirviente at S.F. mis. 1777. i. 297. C. (Jos‚), soldier of S.F. comp. '19-22; in '36 at Las Ánimas, age 39, wife In‚s Robles, child. Evaristo b. '14, Juana '21, Estefana '23, Salvador '26; prob. a son of Mariano. C. (Jos‚ Antonio), nat. of Sinaloa; at S. Antonio rancho '36, age 50, wife Merced Ortega, child. Blas b. '16, Mariano '18, Rudesindo '20, Estefana '21, Bautista '23, Emiliana '24, Blanca '25, Manuel '28, Francisco '29, Perseverancia '30, Tom'31, Juan '32, Ventura '34. iii. 678: grantee of Lomas Muertas and Estanislao '42-3. iv. 655, 672; in S. Jos‚ dist. '50. C. (Jos‚ Ant.), son of Mariano, at S. Jos‚ '41, age 14. C. (Jos‚ Ant.), son of Rafael, at Brancif. '45, age 18. C. (Jos‚ Ant.), son of Simeon, at Mont. '36, age 6. C. (Jos‚ Ignacio), at Brancif. '45, age '28, wife Ricarda Rodriguez, child. Jos‚ Ramon b. '37, Jos‚ Simon '39, Marˇa '44. C. (Jos‚ J.), at S. Jos‚ '39. iii. 731. C. (Jos‚ Jesus), son of Antonio, at S. Jos‚ '41, age 12. C. (Jos‚ Joaquin), son of Angel, age 3, '36. C. (Jos‚ Manuel), son of Juan Jos‚, at Brancif. '45, age 21. C. (Jos‚ Marˇa), son of Rafael, at Brancif., age 22, in '45; witness in the Santillan case. C. (Jos‚ Ramon Simon), son of Guillermo, at S. Jos‚ '41, age 7. C. (Jos‚ Saturnino), soldier at S.F. '19-22. 

Castro (Jos‚ Tiburcio), son of Macario, nat. of Sinaloa, who came to Cal. prob. before 1800; perhaps the man ment. 1801, '16. ii, 152, 371. He was a soldier, and finally a corporal. In '19 alcalde of S. Jos‚, having a rancho in that vicinity. ii. 378; suplente or vocal of the dip. '22, '24, '27. ii. 462, 510-11, 612; iii. 36; alcalde of Mont. '27. ii. 612; in '28-9, memb. of dip. and partido elector. ii. 613; iii. '41-4; alc. '29. ii. 612; iii. 69, 73; vocal '31, taking part against Victoria. iii. 187, 189; comisionado for Soledad '31. iii. 307, 690; grantee of Sauzal rancho '34, '45. iii. 679; maj. and admin. at S. Juan B. '35-6. iii. 354, 692; memb. of the junta dip. '39. iii. 590; prefect of the [p.93]1st dist. in '40, succeeding his son. iii. 652, 656, 675-6. His wife seems to have been an Álvarez; but I have no record of any children except Jos‚ and the wife of Santiago Moreno, nor of the date of his death. Don Tiburcio was a man of little ability and still less education, but of excellent character. C. (Juan), had a son in the Mont. school '46. C. (Juan), son of Guillermo, S. Jos‚ dist. '41, age 10. C. (Juan Bautista), son of Jos‚ Ant., at S. Antonio rancho '36, age 13; perhaps the alf‚rez of aux. cavalry at Mont. '45-6 of same name. v. 41. C. (Juan B.), son of Simeon, b. '35; in later years a prosperous ranchero at Castroville, where he still resides in '85. C. (Juan Jos‚), son of Francisco M.; militiaman S.F. '37; grantee of Y. B. 1sl. '38; in '41 in S. Jos‚ dist (at S. Pablo), age 38, wife Petra Bernal, child. Maiseta (?) b. '28, Magin '30, Francisco '33, Jos‚ Marˇa and Narcisa '38; grantee of El Sobrante and other lands in the contra costa '41, '44. iv. 671; living in '52; d. before '82, the date of his widow's death. C. (Juan Jos‚), bro. of Rafael and Guadalupe, at Brancif. '28, wife Manuela Juarez, son Manuel; regidor '33. ii. 627, 696; in '45 at Brancif., age 38, wife (2d) Rita Josefa, child. Jos‚ Manuel b. '24, Guadalupe '26, Trinidad '28, Jesus Marˇa '32, Jos‚ Domingo '33, C'34, Amoina (?) '36, Angustias '42. C. (Juan Marˇa), at Mont. '36, age 14; Mrs M. Castro de Estrada was apparently his sister. C. (Leandro), son of Simeon, b. '34; in later years ranchero near Castroville; still living '85. C. (Luis), Span. soldier who left the Aquiles at Sta B. iii. 27, 51-2; at S. Gabriel '28-9, 60 years old, single, of good conduct. C. (Luis), at Los Ang. '46, possibly the preceding. 

Castro (Macario), native of Sinaloa, soldier from 1778, who came to Cal. in 1784; was corp. of the S. D. comp. at S. Juan Cap. '85-7; and at S. Jos‚ and Soledad '90-4, being comisionado of S. Jos‚ '92-4. i. 479, 499, 716; sergt from '94. i. 680; frequent mention '95-1800, in con. with Ind. affairs and explor. exped. i. 548-9, 552, 558-9, 683, list auth.; invand comisionado at S. Jos‚ 1788-1807, and a prominent citizen in many respects. ii. 16, 132, 134-5, 140-1. I find no record of him after 1807. His wife, who came with him to Cal., was Marˇa Potenciana Ramirez; their children were Jos‚ Tiburcio, Agapito, Simeon, Mariano, Marˇa de Jesus, Marˇa Dolores, and Call born before 1793. Don Macario, as the grandfather of Jos‚ and Manuel, may be regarded as the most prominent among the Castro founders. C. (Magin), son of Juan Jos‚, S. Jos‚ dist. '41, age 11. C. (Manuel de Jesus), son of Simeon, b. '21; sec. and collector at Mont. 39. iii. 675; sec. of the prefecture '42-3. iv. 652. He was prime mover in the revolt against Micheltorena, taking an active part throughout in '44-5, being once captured and exchanged, and finally comisionado to make a treaty. iv. 458-9, 462-8, 486-7, 500-509. Under the new admin. he was made prefect of the Monterey district in '45, being also made lieut of the Mont. comp., and taking a most prominent part in public affairs, as representative of the civil authority and supporter of Gov. Pico against Gen. Castro in the north. iv. 533, 536-7, 606, 652. In '46, besides being promoted to capt. of the Sta B. comp., getting a land grant, having a Cal. claim of $10,000, and continuing his services as prefect, v. 636-7, he took a prominent and honorable part in the troubles with Fr‚mont. v. 4, 12, 17; quarrel with Cambuston. v. 34; efforts for defence against the settlers and the U. S. v. 41, 45, 56, 131, 134-5; sent south in July as comisionado to effect a reconciliation bet. the general and gov. v. 136, 143-4, 261; left in com. at Los Ang. on Gen. C.'s departure in Aug., but there is doubt whether he was one of the officers captured and paroled by Stockton's men. v. 266, 282, 361. On the outbreak of Flores' revolt in Oct. Castro was put in com. of the northern division and commanded in the Natividad campaign. v, 321, 361-72, 639; flight to Mex. with Flores '47. v. 407-9. In Mex. Don Manuel continued his military services for several years, and in '49 was put in com. of the frontier comp. of L. Cal., in place of Andr‚s Castillero, taking charge of the military colony of Santo Tomtill '52, when he had to yield to Castillo Negrete. See Hist. North Mex. States, ii. Since '52 Castro has resided for the most part in S.F. down to '85, never becoming a citizen of the U. S., often interested in Mex. colonization. [p.94]schemes, and ranking as colonel in the Mex. army-perhaps brevet general in the last years. He was never married. Don Manuel was an abler man than his cousin, the general, and his public record in Cal. down to '47 was in most respects an excellent one. True to his country's cause, with no sympathy for foreign filibusters, he exerted himself, for the most part in vain, to heal foolish dissensions between Calif. chiefs and direct their force against the invaders. Of his later record not so much can be said in praise. Various 'ways that are dark' are popularly attributed to him, and, while charges are doubtless exaggerated, it is possible that he has yielded somewhat to temptations offered by land litigation, politics, dislike of the Yankees, and chronic impecuniosity. But at least he has contributed grandly to the store of material for Cal. history. The Castro, Doc. Hist. Cal., in 3 vols, is a most important collection of original papers presented by him in '75; and a few years later he contributed a still larger and richer col. of Doc. Hist. Cal., with important L. Cal. material-somewhat unwillingly, it is true, some of my assistants having to adopt the policy of 'fighting the devil with fire;' and finally I obtained his Relacion de Alta Cal., none the less valuable because after it had been written at my expense one of my wicked collaborators had to steal a copy for my use. C. (Manuel), brother of the preceding, b. in '24; nicknamed 'Chanate;' capturer of despatches in '46. v. 235; perhaps the same who married the widow of Wm R. Garner, and a tax-payer at Mont. '50. C. (Manuel R.), soldier of the Mont. comp. from '36, sergt from '38; alf‚rez from '46. iii. 671; v. 41; went to Mex. with Gen. Castro, continued in mil. service, and in '51 was at Sto Tomon the frontier. C. (Manuel), son of Juan Jos‚, at Brancif. '28; perhaps same as the preceding. C. (Manuel), son of Jos‚ Ant., at S. Antonio rancho '36, age 8. C. (M.), sentenced to presidio '45. iv. 654. C. (Marˇa Encarnacion), wife of Surg. D1782. i. 468. C. (Marˇa de Los Angeles), wife of J. L. Majors; grantee of Refugio '39. iii. 678. 

Castro (Mariano), apparently bro. of Cand Francisco M., and perhaps cousin of Macario; came to Cal. before 1800, in 1801 went to Mex. and obtained a grant of La Brea, or Las Ánimas, rancho in Sta Clara Co., about which he had considerable trouble later, though the grant was conf. in '35. ii. 7, 153, 163, 171, 594, 603, 673, 676, 711; alcalde at S. Jos‚ '27, '30. ii. 605-6. He died before '35. His wife was Josefa Romero, living at La Brea '36, age 55, with her sons Agustin b. '12 and Vicente '18. One of their daughters, Lugarda, married Thos Doak in '20. ii. 277. I think another daughter, Marˇa, was the wife of CAnt. Carrillo. There were 4 children in 1801. C. (Mariano), son of Macario; probably the same who in '41 lived at S. Jos‚, age 57, wife Trinidad Peralta, child. Mercedes b. '13, Angela '17, Ignacio '21, Jos‚ Ant. '27, Josefa '28, Crisanto '30, Susana '32; grantee of S. Ramon '33, and Solis '35, and of land in Mont. dist. '39 (Rufina C. being cl. of 2 of these ranchos and prob. his daughter). iii. 679, 713; juez de policˇa '42, '44. iii. 512; iv. 685. Perhaps the same man was one of the three of that name who voted at S. Jos‚ in '50, or the Mont. tax-payer of the same year, or the claimant for Refugio rancho in '52; or some of these items may apply to one of the following. C. (Mariano), soldier of S. F. comp. '19-22. C. (Mariano), son of Joaquin, at La Brea '36, age 15. C. (Mariano), son of Jos‚ Ant., at S. Antonio rancho '36, age 18. C. (Mariano I.), soldier of S.F. comp. '19-22. C. (Martina), grantee of Shoquel '33, and Palo de Yesca '34, and claimant '52. C. (Matias), settler at the Colorado pueblos 1780-1. i. 359. C. (Miguel), soldier '30, ii. 660. C. (Miguel), alf‚rez of aux. cavalry Mont. '45; Cal. claim $174 in '46. C. (Modesta), wife of Gen. C., grantee of Ca¤ada de los Osos, '44. iv. 655. C. (Pedro), son of Simeon, at Mont. '36, age 8. C. (Primo), at Las Ánimas '36, age 60. 

Castro (Rafael), son of Joaquin, juez de campo at Brancif. '32. iii. 696; grantee of Aptos '33. iii. 676; sˇndico '34. iii. 696; alcalde aux. and juez '36, '42-3. iii. 663, 697; in '45 officer of election. iv. 664, then living at Brancif., age 40, wife Soledad Cota, child, Jos‚ Marˇa b. '23, Francisco '25, Jos‚ Ant. '27, Vicente '35, Marˇa '31, Marˇa de los Angeles '33, Rafaela '35, Angustias [p.95]'44. He died at Aptos in '78. Newspaper notices of his death give his age as 78, state that he was formerly a soldier and capt. before '30-doubtless an error-and that he had 11 children, 8 of them living in '78. Don Rafael, like his brothers, was an industrious and prosperous ranchero of good repute, not meddling much in politics. C. (Ramon), son of Angel, age 20 in '36. C. (Rudesindo), son of Jos‚ Ant., at S. Ant. rancho '36, age 16. C. (Salvador), son of Jos‚, at Las Ánimas '36, age 10; '46 memb. of S. Jos‚ council. v. 664; claimant of S. Gregorio '52. C. (Ramon), at S. Bern. '46, age 24. 

Castro (Simeon), full name Jos‚ Simeon Juan Nepomuceno, son of Macario, b. in 1784 at Sta B.; soldier of the Mont. comp. 1809; grantee of Bolsa Nueva y Moro Cojo '25 and later. ii. 615, 664, 672, 677; regidor at Mont. '33-4, '37. iii. 673, 675; in '36 at Mont., age 52, wife Marˇa Antonio Pico, child. Juana b. '17, Manuel J. '22, Manuel '24, Marˇa Antonio '26, Pedro '28, Jos‚ Ant. '30, Francisco '32, Leandro '34, Juan B. '35. In '38-9 alcalde at Mont. iii. 577, 675; in '41 juez de paz, and grantee of Tucho. ii. 616; iv. 653, 656; in '42 grantee of A¤o Nuevo. iv. 655. He died about '42. His widow was the claimant for Bolsa Nueva and Corral de Padilla in '52. iii. 677; continued to live at Mont.; and died in '84. C. (Vicente), son of Mariano, at Las Ánimas '36, age 18. C. (Victor), son of Francisco M., ment. '36 in connection with Ind. affairs. iv. 71; militiaman '37; grantee of Mare Isl. '40-1. iii. 712; iv. 672; in '41 living at S. Pablo, age 24, wife Luisa Martinez (daughter of Don Ignacio), child Jos‚; juez de campo '43. iv. 685; ment. '44, '46. iv. 473; v. 105; Cal. claim (v. 462) of $12,912. Still a resid. of Contra Costa Co. '85. In early troubles with the Ind. as well as in later contests with the squatters, Don Victor has repeatedly shown himself to be a brave and determined man. His second wife was Felicidad Carrillo, and the third an American. Caswell (J. F.), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. 

Catal(Magin), 1794, Span. friar, who had previously been chaplain at Nootka, and who served at Sta Clara for 36 years, till his death in 1830. Certain miraculous powers were popularly attributed to Fray Magin, and on the strength of these, I suppose, the preliminary steps for his beatification were taken by the church in '84. Biog. in ii. 600-1; ment. in i. 523, 556-7, 576, 587, 638, 719-20, 723; ii. 137, 159, 394, 577, 655; iii. 96, 351. Catalan (Benito), 1796, Span. friar who served at S. Antonio till his retirement in 1800 on account of insanity. i. 577, 689. Catharte, (?) 1823, mr of the Massachusetts. ii. 492. Catlin (Geo. W.), 1847, Co. C. Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Catts (Samuel A.), 1847, Co. B. N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); nat. of Md; resid. of Stockton 74-84; Caulfield, (David), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. C. (Patrick), 1847, ditto. Cavaller (Jos‚), 1771, Span. friar, founder of S. Luis Ob., where he served till his death in 1789. Biog. i. 469; ment. i. 173, 176, 188, 196, 299, 388. Cavell (J.), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. Cavenecia (Jos‚), 1814; master of the Lima ship Tagle; of the S. Antonio in '17. ii. 222, 271, 282-3, 271. Cayuelas, 1790-1820, several of the name prob., soldier, corp., settler at S.F. and S. Jos‚, and invat Mont., in trade and known as 'Tio.' Francisco C. was in '28 a Span. invage 80. i. 478, 610, 690, 716; ii. 383, 420; iii. 51. 

Ceballos (Ignacio), alcalde at S. Jos‚ '32. Cebet (Pierre Jean), 1831, Frenchman who got a carta in Oct. prob. 'Chevrette,' q. v. Cecil (B.), 1847, advertises for a lost pocket-book bet. S.F. and S.J. C. (T. M.), 1846, carpenter of the Savannah, who built Fort Stockton at Mont.; prob. same as preceding. C‚lis (Eulogio), 1836, Span. supercargo in Virmond's employ, who was on the Leonor in '36, and perhaps on the Catalina earlier, as he certainly was in '41-2; often named in various records '36-42 and later. iii. 146, 381, 428-9; iv. 198, 237, 564. C‚lis made Los Ang. his home; was one of the grantees of the S. Fernando estate in '46; had a famous claim for cattle furnished to Fr‚mont; and to '48 and later was a wealthy man of business well known in all parts of Cal. v. 365, 396, 435, 448, 561, 580, 627, 630. He went to Spain in '53 and died in '68. His wife was Josefa, daughter of Luis Ant. Arg ello, who came back to Cal. after her husband's death. Three sons, the eldest Eulogio, still live at Los Ang., I think, in '85; two sons and two daughters remained in Spain. Cerme¤on (Sebastian Rodriguez), 1595, Span. [p.96]voyager at Pt Reyes, who prob. gave the name S. Francisco-later transferred to another bay-to his anchorage. i. 89, 96-7. Cervantes (Andr‚s), Mex. artill. sergt at Mont. '29-36. iii. 69, 74, 671; age 48 in '36, wife Encarnacion Alcivar, of Tepic. C. (Cruz), Mex. majordomo at Tucho rancho '36, age 40, wife Filomena Arroyo, child. Ancleta b. '31, Celedonia '33, Teodosio '35; grantee of S. Joaquin or Rosa Morada '36, for which he was claimant in later years. iii. 678-9. C. (Pablo V.), soldier killed by Ind. on the Colorado 1781. i. 363. Cesena (Ramon S.), 1846, resid. of Sta Clara Co. '81; a Mexican. 

Chabolla, juez of S. Juan B. '46. v. 359, 640. C. (Anastacio), soldier of S. F. comp. '23-31; nat. of Cal.; in '41 at S. Jos‚, age 31, wife Josefa Higuera, child. Jos‚ Ant. b. '35, Fernando '37, Jos‚ J. '39, Angel Marˇa '40; in '44 grantee of Sanjon de Moquelumnes. iv. 673; d. before '53. Maria C., prob. his daughter, was claimant for this land, and also his son Angel. C. (Antonio), grantee of Yerba Buena, Sta Clara Co. '33. iii. 713, 729-30; in '41 at S. Jos‚, age 37, wife Juliana Butron, child. Marta b. '31, Juan 36, Estefana '35, Antonia '38, Auisez (?) '39; juez de policˇa '43. iv. 685; claimant for Y. B. '53. C. (Gervasio), at S. Jos‚ '41, age '37, wife Miguela Linares, child. Juan b. '33, Francisco '38, Marcos '39. C. (Jos‚ de la Cruz), son of Marcos, b. 1796 at S.F.; at S. Jos‚ '41, wife MVasquez, child. Jos‚ de la Cruz b. '24, Tomasa '30, Soledad '35, Juana '37, Nemesio '41. C. (Luis), son of Marcos; sˇndico of S. Jos‚ '31, '35, '43. iii. 729-30; iv. 685; in '41, age 48, wife Guadalupe Romero. C. (Marcos), Span. soldier, corp., and settler at S.F. before 1800; alcalde 1796-7. i. 716, 719; his wife was Teresa Bernal; child. in '93, Pedro, Salvador, and Luis. C. (Pedro Regalado), son of Marcos, b. S.F. 1789; soldier of S.F. comp. '19-22; in '30 sindico of S. Jos‚. ii. 606; in '34 alcalde. iii. 329-30; in trouble '37-8. iii. 525, 573; juez de campo. '41, '44. iv. 684-5; age 47 acc. to padron of '41, wife Gertrudis Ortega, child. Jos‚ Miguel and Josefa b. '30, Jos‚ de Jesus '35, Alejandro '36, Salvador '37, Marˇa '38, Teresa '39; alcalde in '46. v. 662. Still a resid. of S. Jos‚ in '60. 

Chace (Henry P.), 1843, nat. of R. I., at Mont. and Los Ang. '45-6, bound to Sonora; on Pion. Soc. roll as having arr. in Oct. '43. iv. 400. Chaden (Charles), 1845, Amer. at Brancif., age 36, wife Mary, also Amer., child. S. Dionisio b. '31, Matilde '34, Josefa '36, Tom'38, Marˇa '40, Elisa '42. I don't think this was the man's real name, but cannotidentify him. Chadwick (W.), 1822-5, mr of the Plowboy. ii. 479; iii. 148. Chaffield, 1848, mr of the Sabine. v. 580. Chaland (Fred.), 1847, lieut on the Independence. 

Chamberlain (John), 1839, Irish blacksmith who came on the California from Acapulco, having deserted from a whaler on the Mex. coast, iv. 119; worked at his trade at Mont., was arrested in '40, and though not exiled was obliged to make shackles for the other prisoners. iv. 9, 17, 23, 28; on Larkin's books to '41; a little later went to the Sac.; naturalized in '44 and got a grant of Socayac. iv. 674; enlisted in Gantt's com. for Sutter's campaign of '45, but on account of illness did not go south. iv. 486; married in Jan. '46 to Nancy Hess-only one of some 19 similar contracts on his part as popular tradition has it-and soon went to Or. v. 526. But he returned after 18 or 20 years, and in '77 was working at his trade at Mont., where he dictated his Memoirs for my use, and where I think he still lives in '85. C. (John), 1846, Co. C, 1st U. S. dragoons (v. 336). C. (Levi), 1840, on the Don Quixote at Mont. iv. 103. C. (Ventura), 1841, on the J˘ven Carolina. Chamisso (Adelbert von), 1816, naturalist of Kotzebue's exped., and author of Reise and Remarks with inform. on Cal. ii. 279-81, 309-11, 372-3, 420. Champion, 1848, came on a vessel from Honolulu acc. to his later testimony. Champlain (Wm M.), 1844, from N. Y.; doubtful newspaper record. 

Chana (Claude), 1846, French cooper, who came to N. Orleans in '39, to Mo. '41, and overland to Cal. in '46. He worked for Sutter; was one of the earliest gold-miners in '48; became owner of the Nemshas rancho on Bear River. iv. 672; long a resident of Wheatland, where he died in '82 at the age of 71. I suppose the original name was 'Chanon,' as indeed it is written [p.97]in the N. Helv. Diary. Chance (Dr), 1846, overl. immig. who lived at Mont. and Stockton till '50 or later, then went to Texas, but returned, and was in southern Cal. '69; S. F. Examiner. Chancey (Alex.), 1847, Co. F, 3d U. S. artillery (v. 518). Chandler (David W.), 1841, overl. immig. of the Bartleson party. iv. 267, 270, 275, 279; interested at Benicia '47. v. 672; went to Honolulu, but came back in '48. I have no later record than his letter at S.F. Nov. '48, but he is said to have died in Cal. C. (John A.), 1847, Co. D, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Boston '82. C. (Ralph), 1847, mid. on the U.S. Independence. C. (Wm), 1848, lot-owner at S.F. 

Chapel (Geo.), 1840, one of the exiles to San Blas who came back in '41 and settled in the Sta Cruz redwoods. iv. 18, 33, 37, 120; in '45 on the Brancif. padron as English, age 27, wife Josefa Soto, child. Manuel b. '40, Jos‚ C. '44; at Mont. '47. Chapin (Geo.), 1847, of Morm. Bat. (v. 469); wounded by Ind.; perhaps same as following. C. (Samuel), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. C. (Sam. M.), 1847, blacksmith at Mont. '47-8. Chapman (Charles), 1847, worked for Leidesdorff; witness in the Limantour case '54, residing at S.F., age 30. C. (Geo. W.), 1847, lieut of the U.S. Independence and Columbus. 

Chapman (Joseph), 1818, Amer. carpenter and blacksmith, one of Bouchard's insurgentes-impressed into that service at the Sandwich Isl., as he claimed-taken prisoner at Mont., and soon finding a home in the south. ii. 229, 248, 292, 393. Foster, First American in Los Angeles, tells a most interesting but inaccurate story of his capture at Sta B. by Lugo. In '20 Joseph was employed at Sta In‚s, where in '21 he built a grist-mill, and obtained from Gov. Sola the king's amnesty to Anglo-Amer. prisoners. ii. 444; then he went to S. Gabriel to build another mill. ii. 568; and was baptized at S. Buen. in '22 as Jos‚ Juan, being married the same year at Sta In‚s to Guadalupe Ortega, by whom he had five children. ii. 479. In '24-6 he bought a house at Los Ang. and got a piece of land, where he planted a vineyard of 4,000 vines. ii. 526; but still continued to do odd jobs at the missions, being a jack-of-all-trades, who apparently could make or repair anything that was needed. He was a great favorite of the friars, especially P. Sanchez, who declared it a marvel that one so long in the darkness of baptist faith could give such example of true catholic piety to older christians. In '29, armed with certificates from leading men of all classes, and defying the world to find any fault with his record, he asked for naturalization, which he got in '31, having meanwhile built a schooner and served on occasion as surgeon. ii. 558; iii. 140, 209, 363, 382. His age in '29 is variously given as 33 to 48; he himself seems to say he was 33 or 34 in '22, but is now 48. He soon moved to Sta B., where in '36, age 52, he lived with wife and 5 children; in '38 grantee of S. Pedro rancho. iii. 656; is ment. in '45, and by Bryant in '47 as living near S. Buen.; but seems to have died in '48 or '49. Huse and Foster. His widow was claimant for the rancho '52; and I think some of his descendants still live, '85, in Ventura Co. Among all the earliest pioneers of Cal. there was no more attractive character, no more popular and useful man, than Joseph Chapman the Yankee. C. (Juan), at Los Ang. '45; perhaps a son of Joseph. C. (Manuel), 1844, one of Fr‚mont's men. iv. 437. C. (Thos), 1833, mr of the Charles Eyes. iii. 381. Chaquette (Heman), 1847, Co. G, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499). Charbonneau (Jean B.), 1847, guide to the Morm. Bat. v. 483; in '48 alcalde at S. Luis Rey. v. 621, 623. 

Chard (Wm Geo.), 1832, New Yorker from N. Mex. with Alexander, Carpenter, etc. iii. 388, 408; at Los Ang., where he had a vineyard, till '36, appearing in several records and being one of the vigilantes (iii. 430); in '37 naturalized, being then at Sta B., protestant, age 27, a trader on the coast. The same year went north to the Sta Cruz region, apparently with Graham's comp., and his name often appears on Larkin's books from '37. In '40, living at Brancif., he was exiled to S. Blas, but returned in '41, and next to Graham was loudest in his demands for justice and damages, until the courts spoiled his little game by showing his Mex. citizenship. iv. 17-18, 24, 31, 33, 39-40, 116. In '43-5 C. had a store and sailor boarding-house at Mont. in partnership with Josiah Belden; in '44 he got a grant of Las Flores, Tehama Co., on which he put his cattle in '45. iv. 671; earlier in '45 he signed the call to foreigners at [p.98]S. Jos‚. iv. 599; in '45-7 he was employed by Andr‚s Castillero to work the New Almaden mine; but before the end of '47 he settled, apparently, on his Tehama rancho, where he still lived in '58, and where he died, I think, about '80. His wife was a Californian of the Robles family, who died in '72. The family seems to have resided at Sta Clara for some years after Chard went to Tehama. Stephen Chard, a son of Wm G. was still in '80 and later, a prosperous farmer of Tehama. 

Charlefoux, 1837, Canadian from N. Mex. in com. of a party of 'Chaguanosos,' or Shawnees, who were trappers, soldiers, traders, or horse-thieves-whichever profession might be most profitable at the time-in '37-40. He aided Bandini and the sure¤os against Alvarado in '37. iii. 495, 518, 520; iv. 118. Charles, 1846, in Sutter's employ, and guard over the Sonoma prisoners '46-7. v. 125. Charley, 1845, Delaware Ind. of Fr‚mont's party. '45-7. Charles (Michael), 1826, Irish blacksmith who landed sick from a whaler; at Mont. '40, age 57. iii. 176. Charles (Joseph), 1844, sailor on the California, witness at Mont. Charquin, rebel neoph. of S.F. 1793. i. 709. 

Chase (Charles), 1846, on the 1st jury at Mont. v. 289. C. (C.), 1846, fleet surgeon on the Savannah; perhaps same as preceding. C. (Hiram), 1847, Co. J, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. before '82. C. (Hiram B.), 1847, Co. A, Morm Bat. (v. 469); in Utah '81. C. (Sam.), 1844, Engl. with a pass. for a year at Mont. C. (Sam.), 1847, at Sutter's July; at Mont. Dec.; in '48 in charge of Larkin's rancho on the Sac., but soon quit farming for the mines. C. (S. M.), 1846, doubtful record of a Bear Flag man, at Sonoma in '62. C. (S.U.), 1845, New Yorker of quaker parentage, who came west in '38, crossed the plains to Or. '43, and came to Cal. '45 in the McMahon-Clyman party. iv. 572, 577, 587. After visiting Sta Cruz and Mont. he ret. to the Sac., and went to Or. in '46; came back to the mines '48-9; later a farmer in Solano and Napa; about '66 settled in Yolo, where he still lived in Capay Val. '79. Never married. Portrait in Yolo Co. Hist., 26. Chaseagre? (J.), 1833-5, mr of the Mariquita. iii. 383. Chatard (Fred.), 1847, lient on the U.S. Independence. Chatfield, 1848, mr of the Sabine. Chatozo (Pedro), named by Lancey as builder of a mill at N. Almaden '24. Chaudi‚re (H.), 1835, mr of the Grange. iii. 382. Chauncey (Alex.), 1847, Co. F. 3d U. S. artill. (v. 518), acc. to Lancey, but not on the roll; at Livermore '48. 

Chavarria (Nicol1818, S. Amer. of Bouchard's insurgents, captured at Mont., and remained in Cal. ii. 227, 230-2, 241; soldier of S.F. comp. '28-31. Chavez (Jos‚ Ant.), 1833, Mex. brought to Cal. by Gov. Figueroa, whose natural son be is supposed by many to have been; tax collector at Mont. '43. iv. 653; one of the prime movers in the movement against Micheltorena '44, also sec. of ayunt. iv. 588-9, 653; grantee of Ci‚nega del Gavilan '43, and Plcito '45. iv. 655; celador at Mont. '46. v. 570. He took part in various military operations of '46 as lieut, being sent by Castro to Fr‚mont's camp at Gavilan. v. 11; and later the captor of Larkin and 2d in com. at Natividad, where he was wounded, escaping capture a few days later by being hidden in bed between two well-known ladies of Mont. v. 362, 364, 366-72. Leaving Cal. in '48, v. 585-6, he went to S. Blas, and was later prominent with Manuel Castro on the L. Cal. frontier. Chavez, 1818, painter at S. Juan B. ii. 386. C. (Jos‚), 1798, i. 606. C. (Julian), supl. alcalde Los Ang. '38. iii. 636; regidor '46-7, and grantee of Las Ánimas '46. v. 625-7. C. (Mariano), at Los Ang. '46. Chavira (Jos‚), 1798, i. 606. Chavira y Lerma (Josefa), wife of Pedro y Gil, 1781. i. 451. Chavon, 1847, mr of the Adelaide. 

Check, 1816, on the Lydia, arrested at Sta B. ii. 275. Cheney (Zacheus), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Chever (Henry), 1846, nat. of Mass., who had lived long in Valparaiso and Manila; acc. to his brother's statement was mr of the Hannah. v. 578; but he seems to have come to S.F. from Honolulu on the Elizabeth; had a lot at S. F. '46; member of the firm J.B. McClurg & Co. at Los Ang., dissolved Feb. '48; also connected with Ward & Smith '47; and later with Hastings & Co. at Coloma. He was one of the founders of Yuba City; at S.F. '51-3 in poor health; died in Napa Val. '54, leaving no family. His brother Edward E. was in Cal. '49-54, and again '83-5. Chevrette [p.99](Pierre J.), 1832, signed roll of the comp. extranjera. iii. 221. Chichester (Chas), 1848, overl. immig. with Allsopp; went to the mines. C. (Henry T.), 1847, Co. E, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); deserter. Chico, Ind. chief killed 1781. i. 466. 

Chico (Mariano), 1836, Mex. col and memb. of congress from Guanajuato, appointed gov. of Cal. Dec. '35, arriving in April '36 on the Leonor, and assuming his office May 2d. He encountered a bitter prejudice against Mex. rulers, and his position was made so uncomfortable by an unmanageable diputacion and other soi-disant opponents of centralism that he was virtually forced to depart in Aug., his rule ending July 31st. He was a man of fair abilities and good education; by no means the villain, fool, or madman that the Californians generally represent him; but he was fussy, conceited, and gifted with no tact for making friends or overcoming obstacles. He also scandalized Mont. society by bringing a mistress, Do¤a Cruz, whom he introduced as his niece. On his rule, see iii. 420-44, also ment. iii. 300, 399, 652-3, 670; iv. 44-7, 72, 82-3, 102, 104-5, 112. In '43-4 Don Mariano was gov. of Aguascalientes, where he is said to have written many verses, making himself somewhat popular socially, though less so than his wife, Do¤a Ignacia Alegre. Gonzalez, Hist. Aguas. 128-30. In '46 he was com. gen. of Guanajuato. Chienes (Alex.), 1842, mr of the Primavera. iv. 568. Childers (Morris R.), 1845, Amer. carpenter from Or. in the McMahon-Clyman party. iv. 572; prob. went back in '46. iv. 526; but visited S.F. in '47 on the Henry from Astoria. C. (Moses), 1843, said to have crossed the plains and to have been in Amador Co. '48. Amador Co. Hist., 182; perhaps a vague ref. to the preceding. Childs (Mark D.), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons; wounded at the Mesa Jan. '47. v. 395; name also given Mark A. Child. 

Chiles (Joseph B.), 1841, Kentuckian b. 1810; in Mo. from '30; took part in the Florida war '38; and in '41 came overl. to Cal. with the Bartleson party. iv. 267, 270, 275, 279. After visiting Monterey, Sonoma, and other parts of the country, and obtaining from Vallejo the promise of a mill site, he returned east in '42 for the mill. iv. 276, 342. In '43 he came back with the party that bears his name, one portion of the party under Walker taking a southern route and being obliged to leave Chiles' mill on the way. iv. 392-5, 679. In '44 he was grantee of Catacula rancho in Napa Val. iv. 671; ment. also iv. 448, 453; in '45 signs bonds for some of the new immigrants. iv. 581. I do not find any definite record that he joined either the Bears or the Cal. Bat. in '46, though he may have done so, and certainly aided Fr‚mont with supplies and information. v. 297-8. He went east in '47, prob. as guide and hunter in Stockton's party. v. 454; was at Washington to testify at the Fr‚mont court-martial; and in '48 made his 3d overl. trip to Cal. at the head of a party, v. 557, which included his own family of a son and 3 daughters, his wife having died in '37. The son was, I suppose, the Kit Chiles named in Yolo Co. Ilist., 74, as having settled at Washington in '48; the daughters were Fanny wife of Jerome Davis, Elizabeth wife of Daniel Brown, and Mary, Mrs Tully. Colonel Joe Chiles, as he is familiarly known, married M. G. Garnett in '53; and has resided in Napa and Lake counties down to '85, I think, a famous hunter notwithstanding his years, and a good citizen. A brief narrative of his Visit to Cal. in '41 was furnished by him in '78. Chinook (Wm), 1845, Ind. of Fr‚mont's party, one of the Sta B. garrison. iv. 583. Chipman (Walter), 1847, sergt Co. A, N.Y. Vol., at Cedar Springs, Mich., '83. Chiron, 1837, in Petit-Thouar's exped., surveying S.F. Bay. iv. 149. 

Choquet (Diego), 1776, mr of the S. Antonio. i. 287, 301. Choris (Louis), 1816, artist with Kotzebue; author of the Voyage Pittorresque. ii. 281, 372. Christian (Chas), 1847, perhaps of N.Y. Vol. (v. 499), under another name. C. (Chas W. H.), 1848, in charge of S.F. school Dec. Californian. C. (John), 1838, one of the exiles to S. Blas, not known to have returned. iv. 18. C. (Kail), 1840, mr of the Catalina. iv. 31. C. (W. A.), 1848, purser U.S.N., at S.F. on the Lady Adoms. C. (Wm. H.), 1847, Co. K, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); brig.-gen. in war of '61-5; at Los Ang. '71; at Utica, N.Y., '74-82; perhaps the Chas and Chas W. H. ment. above. A man of the same name was at S. [p.100]Jos‚ in '50. Christiancy (James), 1846, Fauntleroy's dragoons (v. 232-47). Christie (H.), 1848, left Honolulu for S. F. C. (John G.), 1847, at S.F. on the Currency Lass from Hon.; at Mont. '48. Chulte, in Sutter's employ '47; perhaps an Ind. Chumazero (Ignacio), at Sta Cruz 1794. i. 496. Church (Haden W.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). C. (Wm S.), 1843, Amer. carpenter from Sandwich Isl., who died at the house of Temple at Los Ang. '43, his effects being sold Jan. '44. iv. 400. C. (Wm S.), 1841, mate of the Maryland, who took com. on the return from Mazatlan to Hon. '42. Capt. Peirce says he saw him at S.F. in '49; else he would appear same as preceding. Churchman (T.), 1848, worked for Sutter on his mill from May. Chute, 1847, convicted of manslaughter at S. Jos‚. v. 663. 

Cibrian (Blas), soldier of S.F. comp. '27-33; his wife was Paula Mesa, living at Mont. '36, age 28, child. Francisco b. '23, Marˇa de la Cruz '27, Jos‚ Prudencio '30, Jos‚ Blas '32, Refugio '34, Jos‚ Estanislao '36. C. (Cwife of Cornelio Bernal, resid. at S.F. mission from '38 and earlier to '67 and later. C. (Eusebio), at S. Jos‚ '41, age 41; at S.F. mission '46; witness in Santillan case. C. (Francisco), soldier of S.F. comp. '39-43. iv. 667; at S. Jos‚ '50. C. (Gabriel), at S.F. '55, age 36. C. (Leocadio), soldier and settler of 1791-1800. i. 499, 416. C. (Marˇa Rosa Pacheco de), widow, at S. Jos‚ '41, age '44, child. Isidro b. '22, Ignacio '24, Eusebia '27, Florencio '30, Jos‚ Manuel '32, C'33, Encarnacion '40. C. (Pablo), settler at S. F. 1791-1800. i. 716. Ciel, 1838, doubtful name at Sta. B. Cimental, (Cris.), reg. at Mont. 1805. ii. 156. Cins, see 'Zinns.' Cipr‚s (Marcelino), 1795, Span. friar who served at S. Antonio and S. Luis Ob. till his death in 1810. Biog. ii. 148; ment. i. 576, 689; ii. 23, 28, 50, 147, 151-2, 159-60, 191. Cipriano, Ind. associate of Estanislao '29. iii. 110; perhaps the same who died in '78 in the region of N. Almaden at the age of 100 or more. 

Clamp (Richard), 1847, Co. A, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Chinese Camp, Cal. '71-82. Clap (Curtis), 1840, mr. of the Alciope; sup. of the California '42-3; a Boston and Sandw. Isl. trader. iv. 100, 564. Clapin (Joseph), 1846, corp. Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). Clapp (Chas D.), 1847, Co. D, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); died in Australia after '50. Clar (Juan), 1836, Span. of Minorca; translator and keeper of the archives, well known in S.F. '49-84; said to have visited Cal. as early as '36 as prof. of mathematics on a man-of-war, and again with Com. Jones in '42. He died at S.F. '84. Clare (Wm), 1847, Co. F, 3d U. S. artill. (v. 518); an Engl. who joined the comp. at Valparaiso; served as clerk in Col Mason's office, but like most of his comrades deserted for the mines in '48. Said to have inherited a fortune later and to have settled down at Liverpool. 

Clark, 1836, mr of Ionic. iv. 104. C., 1845, in Sutter's army. iv. 486. C., 1847, mr of the Vesper. v. 580. C., 1847, 'Father Clark,' said to have celebrated his 49th birthday at S. Diego, in '72, 25 years and 6 mo. after his arrival. S. D. World. C., 1847, left Hon. for S.F. on the Eveline. C. (Albert), 1847; Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). C. (Daniel), 1848, Irish immig. to Or. of earlier years, who came to the Cal. mines '48-50, going back to Or., where he has been a well-known citizen. Hist. Or., i. 468. C. (Daniel P.), 1847, Co. B, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); owner of S.F. lot. v. 680; at S. Diego from '71, where he died '79. C. (E. St Clair), 1847, sec. U. S. Columbus. C. (Francis), 1843, doubtful immig. of the Hastings party. iv. 390. C. (Francis C.), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); shot on Merced Riv. '53. 

Clark (Francis D.), 1847, Co. D, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); nat. of N. Y.; a miner in '48-9; in '49-55 trader, ferryman, and justice of the peace in S. Joaquin; N.Y. city trader '55-60; major and mil. sec. in the war of '61-5; and later a business man of N. Y. city. Clark has been sec. and one of the most active members of the N.Y. society of Cal. Pioneers; and has particularly interested himself in keeping awake memories of pioneer times by the publication of rolls of surviving comrades of '47 in '71 and '74; and finally by The First Regiment of N. Y. Volunteers, bringing the record down to '83. See v. 503, et seq. That work also contains the author's portrait. His Pioneer of '47 is a somewhat minute narrative of his experience in '47-55. I have [p.101]followed his record of the N. Y. Vol. with a few corrections and additions. C. (Geo.), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). C. (Geo. S.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). C. (H.), 1847. sup. of the Eveline. C. (John), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); an Irishman, drowned at S.F. '54. C. (John Case), 1843, said to have visited the coast on a man-of-war. iv. 400; miner from '49; at Red Bluff a few years from '57; at S. Diego from '69 to his death in '73. C. (John N.), 1847, Co. I, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); bro. of Francis C.; miner and painter, at Stockton '71-4; died in Fresno Co. '79. C. (Joseph), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). C. (Lorenzo), 1847, lieut Co. A, Morm. Bat. v. 477; tanner in Utah '81. C. (M.), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. C. (Nicholas), 1846, at Sutter's Fort; one of the 2d Donner relief. v. 540; portrait in Mc-Glashan, 184; living in '79. C. (Obed), 1822-3, mr of the Gideon. ii. 474, 492. C. (Ransom), 1844, perhaps of Fr‚mont's party. iv. 437; at S. Jos‚ '50. C. (Riley P.), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 409); re‚nl. at Los Ang. C. (Smith Douglas), 1845, Engl. with a passp. for Sonora. C. (Sophia P.), 1846, one of the Mormon col. v. 576; prob. Mrs King at Ogden '84. C. (Terence), 1848? an early settler at Sonora. C. (Wm), 1823-6, mr of the Thos Nowlan. ii. 492, 519; iii. 149. 

Clark (Wm Squire), 1846, nat. of Md, b. in 1807, grandson of Abraham C. signer of the declaration of independence; educated in Ohio; a business man in the south and west; and an overland immig. of '46 (v. 526). He came directly to S.F., and served apparently under Marston in the Sta Clara campaign. Obtaining a lot at what was named for him Clark's Point-which lot is still owned by him 40 years later-he built a warehouse and a wharf, driving the first piles in the bay. In '47-8 he was not only one of the most prominent business men in town, becoming the owner of dozens of city lots, but he was a member of the council, president of public meetings, and otherwise active in public affairs. v. 648, 650, 652-4, 656, 678, 680, 685. I know of no foundation for Gen. Sherman's statement that Clark was a Mormon. v. 547. In '48 he was a successful miner, but soon returned to S.F., where his land investments made him eventually a millionnaire. He married Alice A. Duncan in '68, and in '70 went to live at S. Jos‚, where he still is in '85, with a son, Wm S., Jr, and 4 daughters. He wrote his Recollections for my use in '85, and in an interview gave me many details of old San Francisco. C. (W. W.), 1847, mr of a whaler. 

Classen (John C.), 1848, Pion. Soc. roll. Claudio, 1837, leader of hostile Ind. S. Diego. iii. 614. Clausen (Wm), 1847, musician Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Clavell, 1844, officer on H.B.M.S. Modeste. Clawson (John R.), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); re‚nl. at Los. Ang. Claviter (Edward), 1848, passp. from Honolulu; resid. of Mt Eden, Alameda Co. '49-78; at Alameda from '78 to his death in '84. 

Clayton (Charles), 1848, nat. of Engl., who came to the U.S. in '42 and crossed the plains to Or. in '47, coming to Cal. in April '48 on the Henry. After a year in the mines he opened a store at Sta Clara, where he also held local offices. From '53 he become a prominent commission merchant in S.F., filling also with credit the offices of supervisor, member of the legislature, surveyor of the port, and member of congress. He married Hannah Morgan in '54; and still resides in S.F. in '85, age 60. Clements, 1845, at S. F., N. Helv., and again at S.F. with a family; seems to have gone east with Clyman in '46. iv. 526, 578. Name also written Clemence, Clement, and Clemons. Wm Clemons is named in one list as a member of the Stevens party of '44, and was perhaps the same, though he may have gone first to Or. Clements (Lambeth B.), 1847, of N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); comp. not known; lot at S.F. '47; at S.F. '54; at Soquel '74. Cleveland (Richard J.), 1803, owner and 1st officer of the Lelia Byrd; involved in smuggling exploits; author of a Narrative. ii. 10-14, 21, 102-3. Clifford (Cornelius), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. at S. Juan B. after 1850. C. (J.), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. C. (O. G.), 1848, ditto. Clift (James), 1847, Co. C, Morm. Bat. (v. 469): re‚nl. at Los Ang. C. (Robert), 1847, lieut Co. C, Morm. Bat. v. 477; lieut of the re‚nl. comp. v. 495; alcalde of S. Diego '47-8. v. 491, 618-19. Clipper, doubtful name-of a corporal killed at S. Pascual. Cloud (J. H.), 1847, major [p.102]and paymaster U.S.A., who came with the Morm. Bat. v. 483, 440; killed at Sutter's Fort Aug. 3d by a fall from his horse. Clough (Wm), 1837, named in Larkin's accounts. 

Clyman (James), 1845, Virginian who, after an adventurous career as surveyor and trapper in the great west, came overland to Or. in '44, and to Cal. the next year as a leader in the McMahon-Clyman party. v. 572-4, 587. He travelled over the country as far as Monterey; spent the winter hunting in the Napa and other valleys. v. 17; and in the spring of '46-after a union with Fr‚mont's comp. had been declined. v. 23-returned to the states overland, meeting the Donner and other parties on the way. v. 526. He came back to Cal. in later years, and lived at Napa till his death in '81, at the age of 84. Colonel Clyman's Note-book, a MS. diary of his wanderings of '44-6, is one of the most complete and important records of its class in my library. Clyman's Diary is an abridgment of the same, with a few documentary additions. Clymer, 1842, with Com. Jones at Los Ang. iv. 321. 

Coates (Geo.), 1846, served in the Cal. Bat. (v. 358), enlisting at S. Juan Oct.; prob. same as the following. C. (James), 1843, Amer. shoemaker, farmer, tanner, and overl. imming. from Or. in the Hastings party. iv. 390. Naturalized '44, then living at Mont.; in '45 a lieut in Sutter's force, at one time a prisoner. iv. 486, 500; in '46 perhaps in the Cal. Bat. as above; in '47 lot-owner at S.F., tanner at N. Helv., and finally moving to a house on Amer. River. I have no later record than March '48, when Coates was seriously injured by a fall from his horse, being also robbed of $300. Cobb, 1840, on the Don Quixote from Hon. iv. 103. C. (Chas), 1848, owner of S.F. lots; same name in S.F. directory of '52. 

Cochran (Thos), 1845, nat. of N.C., who crossed the plains to Or. '43, and came to Cal. in the McMahon-Clyman party. iv. 572, 574, 587. Named at N. Helv. several times in '45-8; in '49 built a hotel, the 1st building at Cacheville; an eccentric man, who in '51 suddenly departed for Australia. Cocket (C.), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. Cocks (Henry), 1846, English marine on the U.S. Dale, who after his disch. in '48 lived at Mont. and married a daughter of Francisco Garcˇa, moving in '53 to the S. Bernab‚ rancho, or Cock's station, of which he was the claimant. iv. 655, 679. In '66 he went with the telegraph exped. to Alaska and Siberia; had an appointment on the Tule River Ind. reservation; accomp. Wheeler's explor. exped. on the Colorado; and in '75 was living near his old place in Mont. Co., where he still is, I think, in '85. Coe (John J.), 1847, Co. F, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499). Coeur (François), 1846, with Kearny's force. v. 337. 

Coffelt (Geo.), 1846, teamster Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). Coffemeyer (Edward), 1846, sailor at N. Helv. '47-8; member of 1st and 4th Donner relief. v. 538, 541. Coffin (Ephraim), 1841, of U.S. ex. exped.; died in Cal. iv. 279. C. (Henry), 1844, Amer. sailor of the Monmouth, aided by the consul. C. (Ivory), 1846, seaman or marine on the Savannah; wounded at the S. Gabriel Jan. 9, '47. v. 395. C. (James), 1835, mr of the Peor es Nada. C. (J. W.), 1847, on a whaler; came back in '50; of S. F. firm C. & Hendry; d. before '85, leaving a son and daughter. C. (L.), 1848, at S.F. on the Lady Adams from Callao. C. (Wm), 1826, mr of the Franklin. iii. 147. C. (Wm), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). C., 1847, mr of the Charles Drew. Coghlan (James), 1848, sailor on the Elizabeth. Cogswell, 1845, at N. Helv. Dec. Cohn (Moritz), 1847, musician N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). C. (Philip), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. 

Colbath (Lemuel), 1846, mate of the Euphemia '46-8; a New Englander. Colbert (John), 1834, Engl. shipwright, age 26; naturalized '39; still at S. F. '40. iii. 412. Cole (James B.), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat.; at Springville, Utah, '82. C. (John), 1826, sailor on the Rover. C. (Thomas), 1833, Engl. sailor whose name often appears in Larkin's accounts of '33-49. iii. 409. Acc. to John Price, in S. Luis Ob. Co. Hist., 63, he deserted from the Kent, but I have no record of that vessel before '36. Cole was one of Graham's riflemen of '36-8. (iii. 457); arrested but not exiled '40. iv. 17; grantee of lands in Salinas Val. '42-4. iv. 656; in '44 flogged by the Calif. for revealing to Micheltorena [p.103]the place where certain powder and lead had been buried, so says Swan; in '45-6 often employed to carry despatches, v. 29, 235, also signing the call to foreigners at S. Jos‚, iv. 599, and accomp. Lieut Revere on a hunting trip. Mentioned by Revere, Sherman, and Colton, the latter naming him as a man who stole a horse. His name appears on the assessment rolls of '50; and acc. to Taylor's List, he died at Mont. in '58. Coleman (Geo.), 1827, at Sta B. and S. Buen. '27-8. ii. 580; iii. 94, 176. C. (Michael), 1845, overl. immig. of Grigsby-Ide party; bonds given by Wm Benitz Nov. 21st; prob. went to Or. in '46. iv. 526, 578. C. (Thos), 1847, carpenter on the U. S. Preble. Colespedriguez (Bruno), 1829, mr of the Rosalˇa. iii. 148. 

Colgan (James A.), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Colima (TomSanchez), at Los Ang. '43; juez de campo '44. iv. 633; cl. for Sta Gertrudis '53. iv. 629, 635. . Collie (Alex.), 1826-7, surg. of H.B.M.S. Blossom; made a trip from S.F. to Mont. and back by land. iii. 121. Colligan, 1847, attempts murder at Sta Cruz. S. F. Star, Nov. 20th; perhaps 'Callaghan.' C. (Wm), 1846, sailor of the navy; at Mont. in July; went south with the Cal. Bat.; in '75 and later a broker and politician of N.Y. City. Collins (John), 1847, boatswain of the Cyane. C. (Napoleon), 1847, lot-owner at S.F.; perhaps the C. who was wrecked in the bay and rescued by the Tasso's boat. Alta, Feb. 17, '67. C. (Peter), 1842, in the Sta Cruz redwoods. iv. 341; in '43 kept a bar at Mont.; killed at Pacheco Pass about '54. C. (Robert H.), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); in '82 at Huntingdon, Utah. Colombet (Clement), 1844, Frenchman who kept a hotel at S. Jos‚ '49. iv. 453; made a fortune in the mines, lost later and regained; married a daughter of Thos Kell; in '60 at Warm Springs, Alameda Co., age 43; living at S. Jos‚ '81. Colton (Chas E.), 1847, servant to an officer in Morm. Bat. (v. 469). C. (Patrick), 1847, Co. F; 3d U. S. artill. (v. 518). C. (Philander), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat.; a mason who made bricks and worked on 1st brick house at S. Diego. 

Colton (Walter), 1846, chaplain U.S.N., who came on the Congress, and was alcalde at Mont. in '46-8; also judge of the admiralty; an earnest, kindhearted, and sensible man, whose official and private record in Cal. was a most excellent one. In partnership with Robert Semple, he edited and published the Californian, the 1st Cal. newspaper, in '46-7, making a visit to the mines in the autumn of '48, and causing the erection of a school-house at Mont., named for him Colton Hall. His Deck and Port, and Three Years in Cal., published in '50, are journals of his experience and observations, full of interest, and justly regarded as standard works on the annals of '46-8. He went east early in '49, but I have no record of his later career. v. 254, 288-93, 433, 608, 637-8, 658. Columbo (A.), 1847, Amer. farmer at S. Buen. Colwell (J.), 1845, doubtful name of an immig. iv. 578. 

Combs (Abram), 1847, one of the Mormon col. with wife and 3 child. v. 546; in Utah '84, his wife being dead. Comelero (Pedro), 1836, Italian cook from Lima at Los Ang. Comfort (Geo. F.), 1838, mr of the Ayacucho. iv. 101. Comstock (Cortey), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 

Conanse (Jos‚), 1791-1800, visiting friar at S. Diego. i. 655. Concha (Juan), 1791, lieut in Malaspina's exped. i. 490. Conde (Pedro), 1818, lieut, com. of one of Bouchard's vessels. ii. 226-7. Condels, 1845, doubtful name of an Amer. at Brancif., age 24. Condit (Jeptha), 1847, Co. C, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); re‚nl. at Los Ang. Conduian (Alex.), 1845, doubtful name of a Frenchman at Brancif., age 25. Conejo (Casimiro), 1798, i. 606. Conley (James H.), 1847, carpenter on the Dale. Conley (Marston F.), 1847, perhaps of N.Y. Vol. under another name. Conn (John), 1843, doubtful member of the Chiles-Walker party. iv. 393; in '52 claimant of a Napa Co. rancho. Connell (John), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); died at sea bet. Or. and Cal. '82. Connell (John), 1847, sergt Co. G, N.Y. Vol. v. 504; lot-owner S. F. v. 685. Connelly (Michael), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); resid. of Stockton from '49 to his death in '57. C. (Wm), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. Conners (John), 1844, said to have arrived in Sta Clara Co. iv. 453; called Conness by Hall. Conner (W.E.), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. Connolly (James H.), 1846, carpenter on the U.S. Dale. Connor (James), 1845, Delaware Ind. of [p.104]Fr‚mont's comp. '45-7; wounded in the service. iv. 583. Conover (Francis S.), 1847, mid. on the U.S. Independence. Conrad (Henry), 1847, Co. C, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at N. Helv.; later mayor (?) at Sonoma. Clark. C. (Edward), 1844, on the roll of the Pion. Soc.; at Riverside '81. C. (John P.) 1847, Co. C, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at S.F. '74; d. before '82. C. (Wm), 1848, keeper of the Colonnade House S.F. v. 683. 

Coock (John), 1847, Co. F, 3d artill. (v. 518). Cook (Chas), 1845, N. Yorker who died suddenly at Mont. iv. 587. C. (Geo.), 1844, Amer. naturalized this year. iv. 453; ment. by Bryant as owner of a rancho at S. Jos‚, '46. C. (Goodwin), 1848, in Sutter's employ. C. (Grove C.), 1841, Kentuckian hunter, and overl. immig. in Bartleson party. iv. 270, 275, 279; wandering about for a few years; often named in Larkin's accounts from '43; naturalized in '44; at Sutter's fort '45 working on a distillery. His shooting of a Walla Walla chief in July caused much excitement. iv. 544-5; v. 300-1; and in Dec. he was married by Sutter to Rebecca Kelsey, who presently had some reason to regret it. In '46 Cook went to Yerba Buena, and settled more or less at S. Jos‚, where he took some slight part in the mil. campaign, was member of the council and junta, v. 664, and in '49 was a man of wealth, subsequently lost. He died at Sta Cruz in '52. He is described as a man whose wit and generosity went far to counterbalance some less desirable qualities. C. (Jackson), 1847, at N. Helv.; apparently Grove Cook, q.v. C. (James), 1830, at work on Cooper's rancho. iii. 180; joined the comp. extranjera at Mont. '32. iii. 221. C. (Jonas), 1846, doubtful name of the Mormon col. v. 547. C. (Manuel), 1830, Amer. who got a carta in Oct. C. (Sam.), 1830, mr of the Danube. iii. 146. C. (Wm), 1843, disabled seaman of the John Jay; aided by consul, and worked on ranchos, but shipped late in '44. 

Cooke (Henry D.), 1847, sup. and part owner of the Lamb from Valparaiso; also of the Com. Shubrick; lot-owner at S.F.; of firm Ruckle & Co.; a prominent business man of S.F. '49-54; figuring later at Washington in the cr‚dit mobilier and other financial operations; a relation of Jay Cooke. C. (Philip St George), 1847, capt 1st U.S. dragoons, who came to Cal. as lieutcol, commanding the Mormon Bat. v. 428, 477, 483-6. He was for a time commandant of the southern district, taking some part in the quarrel with Fr‚mont. v. 437, 440, 445-6; resigned his com. and went east with Gen. Kearny, being a witness at the Fr‚mont court-martial. v. 450, 452, 456, 489. His Journal of the march of the Bat. was published by the govt. v. 483; and was republished with additions by the author-then brevet major-general U. S.A.-in '78 as the Conquest of Cal. and N. Mex., a good narrative of Cooke's experiences and those of his men, but of no value whatever in its assumed character as a complete record of the conquest. He also wrote Scenes and Adventures in the Army. It is noticeable that a part of his journal was lost in Cal., and in Jan. '48 was purchased by Sutter from an Ind. N. Helv. Diary, MS., 164. Coombs (Chas), 1824, cook on the Rover. C. (Catherine), 1847, married at S.F. to C.P.A.Briggs. Star. 

Coombs (Nathan), 1843, native of Mass. who came to Or, overland in '42, and to Cal. in the Hastings' party at the age of about 18. v. 390, 400. After working a while for Stephen Smith, iv. 396, he went to Gordon's place on Cache Creek, where he won the heart of Uncle Billy's daughter Isabel, and was nearly killed by a grizzly bear, also asking for naturalization in '44. In '45 he seems to have served in Sutter's force. iv. 486, 501; then married and settled on a Napa Valley rancho purchased of Salv. Vallejo; took no active part in the troubles of '46; and in '48 laid out the town of Napa on his rancho. v. 670. He became wealthy, was active in local politics, served in the legislature of '55, was capt. of militia '63, but was best known as a patron of the turf and the owner of blood-stock. Portrait in Napa Co. Hist., 42. He died at his Napa home in '77, leaving a widow, 4 sons- Wm, Nathan, Frank, and Levi-and a daughter, Eva, wife of John M. Coghlan. Coon (Wm), 1846, member of the 1st Donner relief. v. 539. C. (Wm), 1847, sergt Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). 

Cooper, 1831, said to have come from N. Mex. in the Wolfskill party, and [p.105]to have died at Sta B. iii. 387, 405. C. (Charles H.), 1840, Amer. exile to S. Blas, who returned before '42 to urge his claim for damages. iv. 18, 33, 120. C. (Daniel, or David), 1834, Amer. sailor with but one arm, possibly a relation of Capt. J.B.R. Cooper. I have the original Boston passport to Daniel and the Hawaiian passp. to Dav. of '34. He came on the Ayacucho. iv. 412; his name appears often in corresp.; mate of the California in '40; died at S. F. May '41 of apoplexy-which a large quantity of aguardiente had not cured. C. (Fernando M.), 1835, named in Larkin's accounts '36-8. iv. 118; in '38 at Los Ang. signs a certif. as a physician. Prob. the same who in '35 embalmed the body of Gov. Figueroa. iii. 296. C. (Henry), 1836, named in Larkin's accounts '36-43. iv. 118; arrested in '40. iv. 17; called by Morris an Ind. at Sta Cruz; apparently in Sutter's employ '47. C. (J.W.), 1846, Cal. Bat. (v. 358); enlisting at S. Juan in Nov.; perhaps same as following. C. (James), 1846, kept a hotel at Sonoma '48; ment. by Hittell as a rich man near Benicia in '60. C. (James F.), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). C. (John Burwood), 1830, known as 'sailor Jack,' said by some authorities to have come to S.F. as early as '24-5, or by others on a whaler in '33, or in '36. iii. 409; iv. 118. Juan Coopet, prob. the same, was an artilleryman at S.F. in '30-1; named as English at Mont. in '34; a N. York sailor and calker, age 43, at Mont. in '36 in the artill. barracks; built houses at S.F. '40, '44. v. 683-4; Engl. retired artill., age 56, in S.F. padron of '44; at S.F. also '45-6, receiving some votes for collector. v. 295. Thus there may have been two John Coopers at least. John B. settled cn a S. Matco rancho, married a native, and died in '62, leaving a family. His monument at the S.F. mission cemetery is inscribed John Baptist Burwood Cooper, nat. of Engl., age 68; his wife was Marˇa Cecilia --, d, '53, age 27; children Marˇa Jesus b. '41, Agapito, Juan B. Aniceto, Narciso Nieves, Marˇa Julia Dolores, and Juan Lorenzo d. '61, age 10. 

Cooper (John Bautista Roger), 1823, nat. of the Alderney Isl., who came to Mass. as a boy with his mother, who by a 2d marriage became the mother of Thos O. Larkin. I have his 'protection paper' of 1816, certifying his U. S. citizenship, and describing him as 24 years old, 5 ft 5 in. in height, with light complex., sandy hair, and blue eyes, with a sear on the left arm and nerves of the left hand contracted. From this deformity he was known in Cal. as Don Juan el Manco. He came as master of the Rover from Boston, selling the vessel to Gov. Arg ello, and continuing to command her on voyages to China till '26. ii. 492-3, 495, 519-20, 614; iii. 24, 119, 148. From '26 he became a resident of Mont., and there is not a year from '26 to '48 in which his name does not occur in many original records. In '27 he was baptized, his original name of John Roger being transformed into Juan Bautista Roger, married Encarnacion Vallejo, became a rival of Hartnell & Co. in trade, and signed bonds for Jed. Smith. ii. 616; iii. 128, 158-60. In '28 began his legal quarrels with Luis Arg ello. ii. 583; iii. 12; in '29 he bought for $2,000 from Joaq. de la Torre the rancho of Bolsa del Potrero y Moro Cojo, or Sagrada Familia. ii. 615; and in '30 was naturalized, being ment. besides in connection with the Solis revolt and the Fitch romance, as well as in commercial records. ii. 609; iii. 71, 83, 142, 145. His business corresp. shows not only that he was always complaining of some injustice, but that he often gave cause of complaint to those who traded with him. In '32 on the roll of the comp. extranjera. iii. 221; in '33 licensed to hunt otter, and granted the Molino rancho, Sonoma. iii. 394, 712; regidor at Mont. '34-5. iii. 673; in '36 living with wife, 2 children, mother-in-law, and her 3 daughters at Mont., having also cattle and a mill on the Sonoma rancho confirmed to him this year. iii. 429; iv. 116; his mill visited by Edwards '37. iv. 86. In '39 Capt. C. resumed his seafaring life as master of the govt schooner California, making many trips in the next 5 years to the Mex. coast and to the islands, of which I have his original Log of the California. iv. 102, 282, 289, 346, 361, 563-4; in '40 obtained land at S.F. and the Punta de Quintin rancho, iii. 706, 712, v. 683, but was in trouble about $5,250 which the govt had owed him since '26; perhaps the Juan Cooper to whom the Nicasio rancho was granted '44. iv. 672; sick at Acapulco at end of '44; but was back again in '45, only to depart for Peru. where, in '46, he [p.106]was matriculated as 2d piloto. He visited Cal. in '47, and in '48 seems to have been in com. of the Elizabeth, wrecked at Sta B. In '49 he commanded the Ereline on a voy. to China; but soon quit the sea; was harbor-master at Mont. in '51; and was claimant for the Bolsas, Molino, and El Sur ranchos. iii. 679. He continued to live at Mont., much of the time on his rancho, till after 1860; and died at S.F. in '72, in his 80th year. There were few of the old Cal. pioneers more widely known or better liked than Capt. Cooper, though as a trader he had some peculiarities that, in the earlier years particularly, kept him in hot water with other traders much of the time. Besides hundreds of his letters scattered in dif. archives, his family papers fill several volumes of the Vallejo, Doc. Hist. Cal., which should properly bear his name. In addition to his Log of '39-44, I have also a book of Accounts of '27. His widow still lives, '85, in S.F. His children were Ana Marˇa Guadalupe b. '29 wife of Herman Wohler, Juan Baut. Guillermo b. '31, Henry B., Francisco G., Amelia (Mrs Molera), George Howard, and Wm Roger who died in '73. 

Cooper (J. M.), 1846, gunner on the U.S. Savannah. C. (Luther), 1834, named often in Larkin's accounts '34-7. iii. 412. C. (Martin), 1835, Amer. at S. Luis Ob.; also on Larkin's books '35-7. iii. 413. C. (Samuel E.), 1846, teamster of Co. C, 1st U. S. dragoons (v. 336). C. (Sarchel), 1846, son of Stephen, miner at Park's Bar '48; d. at Colusa '74. C. (Sidney), 1831, doubtful record of a trapper of Young's party. iii. 388. 

Cooper (Stephen), 1846, Kentuckian b. 1797, moved to Mo. 1817, guide and scout in the Sta F‚ trade and various Ind. wars, Ind. agent and member of the legislature, who came overl. to Cal. as capt. of a small party, v. 528, with his wife Melinda and 6 children. From Yount's, in Napa Val., he went to S.F., where in Feb. '47 he presided over a public meeting of citizens dissatisfied with the composition of the proposed governor's council. Star; v. 433; in the autumn settled at Benicia. v. 672-3; alcalde in '48. v. 673; judge of 1st instance of the Sonoma district from Aug. '49, having also mined at Park's Bar for a short time. In '54 went to Colusa, where he was justice of the peace for 12 years, and where he still lived in '80; went later to Modoc Co., and in '85 lives at Winters, Yolo Co. Portrait in Yolo Co. Hist., 26; biog. sketch from Cooper's own statement by 'F. S.' in Colusa Sun June 17, '71. Mrs. C. died in '72 at the age of 71. Of the two sons, Sarchel died about '74, and Thos B. lives in Modoc Co. '85; the daughters were Francis wife of Robert Semple and later of I. N. Van Winkle, living in Oakland '85, Susan wife of John Wolfskill, Elizabeth wife of Waller Calmes, and Martha wife of Amos Roberts. In '71 Maj. Cooper had 6 children and 16 grandchildren living. C. (Wm C.), 1845, overl. immig. of the Grigsby-Ide party; prob. went to Or. in '46. iv. 526, 578. 

Cope (Wm), 1846, seaman of the Savannah, wounded at the S. Gabriel, Jan. '47. v. 395; perhaps 'Coxe.' Copeland (Alex.), 1843, Amer. immig. from Or. in the Hastings party; got a carta in Nov., calling himself a clerk, and was employed by Stephen Smith at Bodega. iv. 390, 396; early in '46 at Sutter's Fort; prob. identical with the following. C. (Andrew), 1846, lieut Co. B, Cal. Bat. v. 361; Cal. claim of $82 (v. 462); A. M. Copeland voted at S. Jos‚ '50. Copenger (Chas), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Copey (John), 1832, doubtful ment. at S.F. 

Coppinger (John), 1835, prob. deserter from a British vessel at S.F. iii. 413; said to have been a lieut in the British army or navy; generally called Engl., but Amer. acc. to his naturalization papers, while Quigley makes him a nat. of Cork and near relative of a Bishop Coppinger, and in a S.F. padron he appears as a Dublin sawyer. On Larkin's books from '36; in '36—8 lient of Graham's foreign comp. in Alvarado's service. iii. 458-9, 491; naturalized '39 and juez at Corte Madera. iii. 705; arrested but not exiled in '40, being also the grantee of Ca¤ada de Raimundo in S. Mateo. iii. 711; iv. 17. From '41 he seems to have lived on the rancho, being included in S.F. padrones, one of the defensores of the patria, 30 years old in '42 and 35 in '44; aided Micheltorena in '45. iv. 487; seems to have taken no part in the troubles of '46 except that Weber accused him of giving inform. that led to his, W.'s, arrest. I [p.107]find no record of him later except an unintelligible one in S. Mateo Co. Hist., 4, that during the war he was carried as a prisoner to Mex. where he died. His widow was Marˇa Luisa Soto, who before '52 married a man named Greer, and was a claimant of the rancho, living at Mayfield in late years. 

Coray (Wm), 1847, sergt Co. B, Morm. Bat. v. 477, 496. Corcoran, or Corgan (Geo. A.), Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Chicago '82. C. (Martin), 1844, nat. of Nova Scotia, who came from Honolulu as seaman on the U.S. Levant. iv. 453. In '46 he came back, on the Savannah probably, and was one of Bartlett's party captured by Sanchez (v. 379), prob. the only survivor of that party; disch. from the navy in N.Y.; ret. to Cal. '49 and went to the mines. From '51 he was engaged in many kinds of business, chiefly that of hotel-keeper, at S. F., Alviso, S. Jos‚, and Sta Clara, being R.R. agent, tax collector, and county treasurer. In '85, at the age of 61, wharfinger at S.F. 

Cordero, killed at S. Buen. '38. iii. 554. C., a leader in disturbance at Los Ang. '45. iv. 523. C. (Ambrosio), soldier of S.F. comp. at Sonoma '41-2. C. (Clemente), Sta B. soldier before '37. C. (Fermin), settler at Brancif. 1797; regidor 1802. i. 569, 639; ii. 156. C. (Francisco), at Sta B. '37, wife Petra Pico, 1 child. C. (Jos‚), soldier of S.F. comp. '34-42. C. (Juan), at Sta B. '37, wife Antonia Valenzuela and 7 child. C. (Mariano), 1st marriage S.F., to Juana Pinto 1776. i. 296. C. (Miguel), at Sta B. before '37, wife Antonia Jimeno and 5 children; maj. at Sta In‚s '40-3. iii. 646-8, 663-4; at Sta B. '50. C. (Pedro), at Sta B. '37, wife Dolores Quijada and 4 child.; juez de paz '39-40. iii. 654-5; grantee of Ca¤ada de Salsipuedes '44. iv. 642. 

C˘rdoba (Alberto de), 1796, Span. lieut of engineers sent to Cal. to inspect coast defences, and superintend the founding of Branciforte, 1796-8; author of an Informe. i. 497, 541-2, 545, 565-70, 652, 682, 700, 719. I have other engineering reports by him before his visit to Cal. 

Cordua (Theodore), 1842, German trader and farmer from Honolulu on the California, after corresp. with Sutter, whom he had known before. iv. 229, 341. In '43 settled on Feather River near the site of the later Marysville, where Dr Sandels found him a fat, jolly, whist-loving man, popular with everybody. He had a straw hut at first, soon replaced by an adobe structure, the place being named New Mecklenburg, but better known as Cordua's rancho. In '44 he was naturalized and got the Honcut rancho. iv. 671; had a lighter, the Yuba, running on the river, often visiting the settlements, and his name often appeared in various commercial and other records of the time. Larkin described him in '45 as a man of 52 years, with property, respectability, and local influence; enlisted in Sutter's force, but wisely left it on the march south; often named in the N. Helv. Diary '45-8; took no part in the conflict of '46-7. In '48-9 sold his land and cattle for $30,000 and opened a store in the mines, where he is said to have lost his wealth; still in the Sac. Val. '54; but broken in health as well as property, he is said by Gilbert to have returned to the Sand. Isl., where he died. 

Corey, 1846, mr of the Isaac Howland. v. 578. C. (P.), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. Corne (L. P.), 1840, sailor on the California. Cornelio (D.), 1828, mr of the Minerva. iii. 148. Corning (Otto), 1847, Co. G, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499). Cornwall (Pierre B.), 1848, nat. of N.Y. who came overland and made a large fortune in trade at Sacramento '48-9 as member of the firm Priest, Lee, & Co.; from '59 a resident and prominent business man of S.F., being at one time president of the Soc. of Cal. Pioneers. Still living in S.F., I think, in '85. Cornwell (Geo. N.), Co. H, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); nat. of N.Y., who on his discharge, after a brief experience in the mines, settled at Napa, where as trader, farmer, owner in quicksilver mines, postmaster, member of the legislature, supervisor, deputy sheriff, and politician, he has always been a prominent man. He married Anna J. West of N.H. in '54, and in '72, when he furnished me a MS. Sketch of My Life, they had 3 children, Fannie L., Clara, and Norris, 3 having died. Claimant of rancho. iv. 674. Still living at Napa in '82, and I think in '85. Corona (Jos‚), com. de policˇa S. Diego '36 iii. 616. C. (Jos‚ M.), at Los Ang. '46. C (Juan B.), com. policˇa (?) at S. Diego '36. iii. 613. 

Coronel (Antonio Francisco), 1834, son of Ignacio, with whom he came to Cal. at the age of 17. His 1st public service seems to have been as sergt of artill. in support of CCarrillo in '38; in '41 applicant for a lot at S. Juan Cap. iv. 626; in '43 juez de paz at Los Ang., and interventor at the transfer of S. Fernando. iv. 633, 639; in '45 comisionado of the junta to treat with Micheltorena, and elector of Los Ang., declining the sub-prefecture. iv. 497, 540, 633; grantee of Sierra de los Verdugos '46. v. 628; also taking part as capt. in all the southern military operations against the U.S. in '46-7, starting at one time for Mex. with a flag taken from Mervine at S. Pedro, and narrowly escaping capture by Kearny's men on the way. v. 331-2. In '48 he was a successful miner; and in later years held many local positions, though giving chief attention to his vineyard and to agricultural interests; county assessor '50 et seq.; mayor in '53; member of the council '54-67; state treasurer '67-71. A man of wealth and influence, still residing at his Los Ang. vineyard and orange orchard in '85. In '77 he dictated for my use his Cosas de California, or recollections of early events, a MS. of 265 pp., and one of the best narratives of its class in my collection. He also gave me a valuable col. of Doc. Hist. Cal. from his family archives. C. (Guillermo), 1842-5, sub-lieut in the batallon fijo. iv. 289. C. (Ignacio), 1834, Mex. teacher who with his family came in the H. & P. colony. iii. 263. In Mex. Don Ignacio had been a soldier from 1810 in the Span. army, being made corporal of cavalry in '14, a sergt of the Cholula realistas urbanas in '18, and prob. in '22 was retired with the rank of alf‚rez; at least, he got all the necessary certificates, including one that he had served the cause of independence and had ceded all his back pay to the national treasury. Coronel. Doc., MS. The failure of the colony was a bitter disappointment, as his appointment of teacher at Solano at $1,000 per year brought in no funds, and he was even ordered to be sent to Mex. for complicity in the supposed revolt of '35, but did not go. iii. 287, 291. In '36 he was living at Corralitos rancho, Mont. dist., age 41, wife Francisca Romero, child. Josefa b. '16, Antonio '18, Micaela '21, Soledad '26, and Manuel '32. iii. 677. The same year he was named as comisionado to secularize S. Miguel. iii. 685; iv. 46; and in '37 he went to Los Ang., taking com. at S. Gabriel, and aiding Carrillo in the campaign of Las Flores. iii. 520, 522, 558. In '38-9 he taught a school at Los Ang., having also a little store, and serving as sec. of the ayunt. iii. 631, 635-6; also sec. in '44-7. iv. 633-4; v. 625-6; grantee of La Ca¤ada '43 and of Cajon de los Negros '46. iv. 635; v. 627, ministro suplente of the tribunal sup. '45. iv. 532; receptor at S. Pedro '46. v. 264, 625. He died at Los Ang. in '62. C. (Juan Ant.), 1769, arriero in the 1st exped. i. 135. 

Correa (Jos‚ M.), 1842, sub-lieut of the batallon fijo '42-5. iv. 289, 407. Cort‚s (Anastasio), com. de policˇa at S. Jos‚; killed by Jos‚ J. Castro '39; but named as sub-lieut of artill. at Mont. '45. iv. 731, 652. C. (Felipe), in vat Sta B. '32, wife Marˇa de Jesus Lara. C. (Fernando), Mex. convict of '25. iii. 16. C. (Juan Lope), 1796, Span. friar who served at S. Gabriel and Sta B., retiring in 1805. Biog. ii. 120-1; ment. i. 577, 588-90, 594, 664, 672; ii. 159-60. Cortis (Henry), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. 

Corville, 1847, at Sutter's Fort and New Mecklenburg. Corvan (Toribio Gomez de), 1602, com. of one of Vizcaino's vessels. i. 98, 102. Corwin (Mrs Fanny M.), 1846, of the Mormon colony. v. 546; remained in Cal.; prob. at S.F. '85. Cory (Benj.), 1847, nat of Ohio, b. in '22, a physician who went to Or. '47 and came to Cal. on the Henry in Nov.; settled at S. Jos‚, but went to the mines in '48. A rumor that he had found new placers on the Moquelumne induced 500 men to quit the old diggings and follow his trail, so wrote Schallenberger in Aug. Member of 1st legislature '49-50; memb. of S. Jos‚ council '50-4; married Sarah Ann Braly '53; trustee of normal school from '72; county physician '81. Still living at S. Jos‚ in '82 with 8 children. 

Cosˇo (Blas), 1820, mr of the S. F. de Paula. ii. 293. C. (Jos‚ Marˇa), sec. of the gov. '34; ayud. de plaza at Mont. and fiscal '36. iii. 672, 687. Costa (Bernabal), 1836, Ital. sailor at Los Ang. from Lima, age 36. Costan, 1774, surg. on the Santiago. i. 228. Costans˘ (Miguel), 1769, Span. alf‚rez [p.109]and engineer who accomp. the 1st exped. to Cal. as cosmographer, and whose Diario Hist˘rico was pub. in Mex. 1776. He was later very prominent in his profession, and I have some of his original reports relating to proposed defences in Cal. 1794-5, as well as to the fortifications of V. Cruz and drainage of Mex.; still living in 1811, being then a mariscal de campo. i. 128, 131, 136, 140-1, 147-51, 154-5, 168, 171-2, 534-5, 602, 615, 624, and list of auth.; Hist. Mex. iv. 134. Coster (Antonio), at Sonoma '44, age 16. 

Cot (Antonio Jos‚), 1820, Span. trader from Lima, partner of Juan Ign. Mancisidor, visiting the coast apparently in '20; in '22 brought his family from Lima; named in various commercial records from '23. ii. 493. In '28 he was required to quit Cal. as a Span. supposed to be unfriendly to Mex., and after some delays to arrange his business affairs-perhaps departing and returning meanwhile-he sailed with wife and 3 child. in '30. iii. 51, 99. He came back, however, in '35-6; is ment. in mission accounts of '40. iii. 620, 637; and became a permanent resident at Los Ang., prominent in commercial affairs in '46-7, being the purchaser of S. Luis Rey, and having a claim for supplies furnished the U.S. v. 435, 464, 467, 561, 620-1. He died at Sta B. about '60. His wife was Mariana Estevanez of Lima. C. (Daniel), at Sta B. before '37, wife Bruna Garcˇa, 2 child. 

Cota, see list, in vol. i. p. 735, of those of this name before 1800; information about this family is very fragmentary. C., corporal at Sta In‚s '24. ii. 528. C. (Antonia María), cl. of Tepusquet, widow of TomOlivera. iii. 656. C. (Benito), at Los Ang. '46. C. (Francisco), soldier at Sta B. before '37; com. and admin. at Sta In‚s '37-41. iii. 663-4; grantee of Sta Rosa rancho '39. iii. 656; juez at Sta In‚s '41, '48. iv. 646-8; v. 635; still at Sta B. '50. His widow and cl. for the rancho '52 was Marˇa Jesus Olivera. C. (Francisco Atanasio), elector at Sta B. '28. ii. 572; iii. 44. C. (Guillermo), corp. of the escolta at S. Fern. 1806-10. ii. 92, 115, 192; comisionado of Los Ang. '10-17. ii. 110, 208, 349-50; sergt of Sta B. comp. from '11. ii. 361, 572; at S. Fern. '32. ii. 570; comis. at Los Ang. '23-5. ii. 559-61; alcalde '27-9. ii. 560-1; age 70 in '39, still at Los Ang. C. (Joaquin), engaged in revolt at Sta B. '29. iii. 78; wife Ventura Ortega. C. (Jos‚ Manuel), settler at Los Ang. '15; regidor '32. ii. 349, 635; iii. 638; at La Ballona '39, age 37. C. (Jos‚ Marˇa), at Sta B. '32, wife Antonia Dominguez, 2 child. C. (Josefa), widow of A. M. Nieto, grantee of Sta Gertrudis rancho '34; at Los Ang. '48. C. (Juan), at Los Ang. '46. C. (Leonardo), alf‚rez of defensores '45. iv. 539; regidor of Los Ang. '45-6. iv. 633; v. 625; grantee of Rio de las Ánimas '46. v. 627; and operating against the U. S. in S. Diego region as capt. v. 325, 342, 351-2. C. (Manuel), soldier of Sta B. comp. before 1800, and corp. of the Sta In‚s escolta '28. ii. 459, 582; in '32 at Sta B., wife Marˇa Ant. Valenzuela, 4 child.; admin. Sta B. mission '38-9. iii. 656-8. In '39 a lieut. iii. 583; ment. in '47. v. 617; father and son of the same name; see also Jos‚ Manuel. C. (Marcos), at Los Ang. '46. C. (Marˇa Isabel), wife of Dolores Pico; d. '69. C. (Mariano), soldier of Sta B. comp. before 1799; inval. 1819, when he was killed by Ind. at S. Buen. ii. 333. C. (Martin), named in '36. iii. 491. C. (Miguel), at Sta B. before '37, wife Manucla Ortega, 2 children; arrested in '41. iv. 642. C. (Pablo Antonio), soldier of 1769-74; corp. at S. Antonio '78-9; sergt in com. at S. Buen. '82-7; alf‚rez from '88; died at Sta B. 1800, age 56. Biog. i. 665; ment. i. 425, 463, 466, 477, 553, 639, list auth.; ii. 28. His wife was Rosa Marˇa Lugo; a son Manuel Ant. was b. 1779; a daughter Marˇa de los Angeles was the wife of Joaq. de la Torre. C. (Paeífěco), son of Valentin, at Sta B. '48 in con. with the 'ca¤on perdido.' v. 588. C. (Raimundo and Ramon), at Los Ang. '46. C. (Roque), soldier before 1780; settler at Los Ang. 1790. i. 347, 461. C. (Simon), see. of alcalde at Soledad '26. ii. 623. C. (Valentin), son of Manuel, juez aux. Sta B. '33. iii. 654; capt. of militia and later of Sta B. comp. '36-9, supporting Alvarado. iii. 474, 553, 583, 651; grantee of Rio Sta Clara rancho '37. iii. 655; in charge of Sta In‚s '42. iv. 646; in '46 resigns mil. rank; sub-prefect of Sta B. iv. 538; v. 35, 49. His wife was Luz Gonzalez. 

Coulter (John), 1834, visitor, perhaps; at any rate, author of a trashy book. [p.110]of Adventures describing a visit. iii. 411. C. (Thomas), 1831, Engl. visitor and scientist, who joined the comp. extranjera in '32, and published valuable Notes on Upper Cal. I have his letter of '33 from Guanajuato; also a note due him sent for collection in '38. iii. 221, 406-8. Coupe (Geo.), 1848, passp. from Honolulu. Courteau (Philibert), 1844, perhaps with Fr‚mont in 1st and 2d exped. '44, '45-7; at N. Helv. '48. iv. 437, 583. Named as ' Philibert' in Cal. Bat. '46-7. (v. 358). Coustner (And. J.), 1846, Co. C, 1st dragoons (v. 336). Coutan (Gustavus J.), 1847, Co. H, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 

Coutts (Cave Johnson), 1848, nat. of Tenn. and graduate of West Point in '43. After serving in the Mex. war he came to Cal. from Coahuila with Graham's battalion as lieut of the 1st U.S. dragoons. v. 522. He subsequently went with his comp. to the frontier on boundary-survey service; but in '51 resigned his commission, married Isidora Bandini, and settled at S. Diego, where he served as county judge. In '54 he moved to the Guajome rancho, a wedding gift of Abel Stearns to Do¤a Isidora; and there he spent the rest of his life, becoming rich in lands and live-stock, always popular and respected, though as bitter in his enmities as warm in his friendships, making Guajome a centre of the famed hospitality of southern Cal. Claimant also for Soledad rancho. iii. 612. He gave me in '74 a copy of his Diary of the overland march and early experience in Cal., besides rendering other valuable aid. Col Coutts died in '74 or '75, when he was 54 years of age. His widow still lived on the rancho in '82, having 8 surviving children. Perhaps the name should be written 'Couts.' A good biog. sketch in S. Bern. Co. Hist., 196-7. Couzens (John H.), 1847, had a lot and slaughter-house at S.F.; kept sheep on Yerba Buena Isl.; owned a lot at Benicia. v. 672, 685; he went to Honolulu and returned in '48. 

Covarrubias (Jos‚ Marˇa), 1834, nat. of France, naturalized citizen of Mex., who came in the H. & P. col., intending to be a teacher. iii. 263, 412. In '36-7 com. for secularization of Sta In‚s. iii. 663-4; sec. of the dip. '37 and in '39; a partizan of Carrillo in the contest of '38. iii. 549, 556, 569, 580; in '39 partido elector at Sta B., and sec. of the prefecture at Mont. iii. 590, 675; took part in arrest of foreigners '40, and accomp. the exiles to S. Blas, going to Mex., where he rec'd a cross of honor for services in that city during the disturbances of July; returned in '40. iv. 11, 13, 15, 23, 30, 102. He was grantee of Castac rancho in '43. iv. 634; in '44 sec. of the assembly and alcalde of Sta B. iv. 410, 642; in '45 succeeded Bandini as sec. of Gov. Pico, and was lessee of Sta In‚s. iv. 490, 519, 523, 531, 553, 558, 647; sent as comisionado to Mex. in '46, also grantee of Sta In‚s. v. 32, 210, 561, 632; at Sta In‚s '48. v. 589, 635; being a justice of the sup. court. In '49 he was a member of the constit. convention, and of the 1st legislature, being 4 times re‚lected, and county judge of Sta B. in '61. Covarrubias died in '70 at the age of 69, leaving a family. His wife was Marˇa, daughter of Domingo Carrillo; his eldest son, Nicolwas for a long time sheriff of Sta B. County. 

Covell (Hiram), 1834, mr of the By Chance. iii. 381. Covil (John Q. A.), 1847, Co. C, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); re‚nl. at Los Ang. Covillaud (Charles), 1846, nat. of France, who had lived in La and Mo. for some years; overl. immig. to Cal. (v. 526). He is named in the N. Helv. Diary, '47-8, being an overseer at Cordua's rancho, and later prospector on the Yuba; had a tradingpost at Cordua's '48-9 in partnership with his brothers-in-law, and in '49-57 the post was at Sacramento. Meanwhile, in '48, C., with others, had bought Cordua's rancho at New Mecklenburg, and here in '50 they laid out a new town, named Marysville in honor of C.'s wife, Mary Murphy, a survivor of the Donner party. Judge Stephen J. Field, the 1st alcalde of Marysville, gives an interesting account of the founding. Remin., 20 et seq. Here C. spent the rest of his life, gaining an enviable reputation for his open-handed liberality, and filling some local offices. He died in '67 at the age of 51; his widow died later in the same year. 

Cowie (Thomas), 1843, Amer. immig. of the Chiles-Walker party. From Feb. '44, when Walker applied for a pass in his behalf, nothing appears about him till June '46, when he joined the Bears and was killed by the Californians [p.111]near Sta Rosa. iv. 392-3; v. 110, 148, 160-4. C. (R.), 1837, came from Honolulu. iv. 104. Cox (Alex. J.), 1847, Co. C, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); a newspaper man, founder of the Sonoma Bulletin and Napa Reporter; at Napa '71-80; in Mendocino Co. '82. C. (Amos), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); in lowa '82. C. (Henderson), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat.; at N. Helv. '47-8 in Sutter's employ; killed by Ind. on the return to Salt Lake '48. v. 496; prob. the man called Henry W. by Bigler. C. (Henry), 1846, mariner on the U.S. Dale; one of Marston's men (v. 379); disch. in Cal.; at Colton, S. Bern. Co., '85. C. (John), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); in Sutter's employ '47-8. C. (John), 1846. sergt Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons; killed at S. Pascual. v. 346. C. (Patrick), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518). Coxe (Wm), 1847, wounded at the S. Gabriel. v. 395; perhaps 'Cope.' Coyan (Fred.), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518); a laborer at Mont. '48. C. (Fred.), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Vallejo '41-4; prob. some error. 

Crabb (H. G. and H. N.), 1848, at Honolulu from Mont. Crabb (Jeremiah), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). Crafts (Albert B.), 1847, Co. H, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. S.F. '49. Crafton (T.), 1845, boy in the Grigsby-Ide immig. party. iv. 578-9, 587. Craig (James), 1832, said by Dye to have crossed the mts with him and to be in S.F. '69; doubtful. iii. 388, 408. C. (John), 1846, leader of an immig. party, who in Apr.-May '47 was at N. Helv. preparing to return east with a party. v. 528. Star. C. (Otto), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. v. 518. Crain (Walter C.), 1846, mid. on the U. S. Warren. Crane, or Ne-ta-me-commin, 1845, Del. Ind. in Fr‚mont's party; killed on the Or. frontier '46. iv. 583; v. 25. C., 1847, had a restaurant at Mont. C. (Geo. W.), 1846, Virginian said to have arr. in May; served in the Cal. Bat. (v. 358); miner in '48; became a lawyer; memb. of legisl. from Yolo '50. and from Mont. '57; d. at S. Juan B. '68, age 41, leaving a widow and several children. All this comes from his obituary as memb. of Soc. Cal. Pion. C. (J. C.), 1848, on the Charles at Honolulu from Mont.; in Cal. '55. C. (W. O.), 1846, mid. on the U.S. Warren. Craven (James A. M.), 1846, lieut on the U.S. Dale; nat. of N. H., and brother of Rear-adm. C.; killed at Mobile '64 in com. of the monitor Tecumsch. Lancey. Crawford (Geo.), 1846, boatswain's mate on the U.S. Cyane; wounded at the Mesa Jan. '47. v. 395. Crawley (Philip), 1843, worked for Steph. Smith at Bodega acc. to the county histories. iv. 396. 

Crebbe, 1847, doubtful name, in Sutter's employ '47-8. Creen (Hugh W.), 1847, purser on the U.S. Independence. Creighton (James), 1848, at Benicia, prospective partner of Pfister; vice-pres. of S.F. guards '48-9; elected to legisl. from S. F. '49. C. (Johnston Blakely), 1846, passed mid. on the Dale and Lexington '47; in '77-8 com. of Norfolk navy-yard. Cr‚lis (Michel), 1844, perhaps one of Fr‚mont's men. iv. 437. 

Crespˇ (Juan), 1769, Span. friar who came with the 1st exped. by land to Cal. after 17 years of missionary service in New Spain; wrote a diary of the 1st Viaje by land from S. Diego to Mont., and several other important diaries of early years. i. list of auth., also i. 141, 151, 224, 284, 386; and served 13 years in Cal., chiefly at S. Ctill his death in 1782. Biog. i. 386; ment. i. 121-2, 132-6, 140-4, 148-52, 158, 165, 167-9, 171, 175-6, 183-9, 196, 227, 231, 284-5, 351, 388, 410, 473-6; ii. 44. Crespo (Manuel), Mex. phlebotomist and teacher at Mont. from '29 or earlier. ii. 613; comisionado of S. C'31. iii. 307, 679; vocal of the dip. '33. iii. 246; in '35 comisionado to secularize S. Antonio. iii. 354, 687-8. In '36 C. was living at Mont., age 28, wife Nicolasa Velarde, child. Tomasa A. b. '19 at Tepic, Adelaida '32, Manuel '33, Carolina '36; also vocal of the dip., taking part in a small way in the stirring political events. iii. 426, 454-5, 460, 463, 469. I have no record of him after his arrest in '37 for plotting against Alvarado. iii. 525. Cretaine (Julio), 1846, at Los Ang.; had a claim for supplies of stationery and clothing (v. 462). Creutzfeldt (F.), 1845, probably one of Fr‚mont's men '45-7, as he was in '48. iv. 583; v. 453. Cristan (Joseph), 1840, permitted to settle at S. Juan Cap. iv. 626. Cristen (C.), 1830, mr of the Catalina; doubtful. iii. 146. Cristöbal, neoph. grantee of Ulistac '45. C. (Juan), or 'Bob,' 1816, negro settler. ii. 393. 

Crocker (David), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518). Crockett, 1848, at S.F. from Hon. on the Sagadahoc. Cromwell, 1848(?), Winters & C., hotel at Coloma. Cronstead (Philip), 1845, deserter from the Hopewell at S. Diego; prob. 'Crossthwaite,' q.v. Crooks (Stephen), 1847, apparently an overl. immig.; in Sutter's employ '48. Crosby, 1847, mr of the Toulon. v. 580. C. (A. H.), 1845, Amer. carpenter and overl. immig. of the Hastings-Semple party; employed by Sutter; prob. went back in '46. iv. 586; v. 526. C. (Edmund P.), 1847, sergt Co. C, N.Y. Vol. v. 504. C. (Thos), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). Cross (Alex.), 1848, S.F. merchant, of C., Hobson, & Co. v. 681. C. (Geo.), 1846, overl. immig. who served in the Cal. Bat. (v. 358), enlisting at S. Juan in Oct.; in Sta Clara Co. '76. C. (John), 1846, prob. a brother of Geo.; in Cal. Bat.; on 1st jury at S. Jos‚ '48. C. (John), 1838, named in Larkin's accounts. Crossman (Gideon), 1847, Amer. at N. Helv. Crossthwaite (Philip), 1845, landed from a vessel at S. Diego. iv. 587; ment. in '46. v. 352; 2d juez at S. D. '47. v. 618; married Josefa Lopez '48, also lessee of S. Diego mission. v. 620; went to the mines; memb. of ayunt. '49-50; county clerk '52; later deputy sheriff; still at S. D. '72. 

Crouch (Henry), 1847, builder of a house at Benicia. v. 672; a Baltimore carpenter who went to the mines in '48. W. A. Crouch is also named as having settled at Benicia '47, perhaps another man. C. (Henry J.), 1841, mr of the Rosalind '41-2. iv. 196, 568. Crowell (Joseph), 1836, Engl. sailor from a whaler at Sta B. C. (Wm H.), 1835(?), nat. of Conn., somewhat prominent from '49 as trader and local official in Sac., S.F., Sonoma, and Mendocino; said as a ship's boy to have touched at S.F. and other points as early as '35; died at Ukiah '69. Mendoc. Dem., Aug. 6, '69; iii. 413. Crowley, 1846, overl. immig. with Boggs. v. 528. C. (Michael), 1847, Co. K, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499). C. (Philip), 1846, Cal. claim $50. (v. 462); perhaps 'Crawley,' q.v. Crowninshields (Jacob), 1848, lot-owner at S.F. Cruceno (Antonio), at Sta B. '32, wife Teresa Verdugo, 5 child. Cruell (Robert), 1846, doubtful name in Sta B. region. v. 330. Cruz (Faustino Jos‚), settler at Los Ang. 1790. i. 461. C. (Jos‚), killed by Ind. at Pauma '46. v. 617. C. (Jos‚ M.), grantee of Ca¤ada de Pinacates in '35. iii. 633. C. (Santiago), at Los Ang. '46. C. (Tomsirv. at S.F. 1777. i. 297. C. (Trinidad), convict from Mex. '29-33. Cruzado (Antonio), 1771, Span. friar who served at S. Gabriel for 33 years and died in 1804. Biog. ii. 113; ment. i. 173, 176, 181, 196, 223, 299, 388, 459, 575, 664; ii. 159-60. 

Cuani (Keaniu), 1847, lot-owner at S. F. v. 679. Cucar (Thos), 1819, Engl. ii. 293. Cuculla (Fran.), Dom. friar of L. Cal., at S. Gabriel '31-2. iii. 311, 641. Cue (James), 1828, Engl. sailor, age 26, at Mont. '28-9. Cuesta, additional mention omitted by error on p. 704 for 'Arroyo de la Cuesta,' q.v. ii. 166, 386, 398, 496, 623; iii. 92, 96, 664, 681, 683, 691. Cueva (Pedro), 1804, Span. friar who served at S. Jos‚ mission two years, being wounded by the Ind. in 1805, and retiring 1806. Biog. ii 137-8; ment. ii. 34, 107, 109-10, 159-60. Cuevas, 1834, mate of the Natalia. iii. 268. Culebras (Miguel), 1828, Span. trader, who had been a lieut in the war of Indep., apparently not allowed to remain after '30. iii. 51-2. Cullingham (James), 1847, locksmith at Mont.; name variously written. Culverwell (Stephen S.), 1842, boy on the United States in Jones' fleet at the taking of Mont.; living in S.F. '85. iv. 304, 341. 

Cummings (James), 1847, Co. G, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499). C. (Joseph W.), 1847, Co. F, 3d U. S. artill. v. 518. Cummins (Thos), 1842, Amer. trader who came from Hon. on the Fama for his health, age 38. iv. 141, 341; again at S. F. '48. Cumuchi, chief of horse-thieves shot at Sonoma. iv. 73. Cunningham (Alex. S.), Co. B, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); in Fresno Co. '82. C. (Stephen), 1847, perhaps of N. Y. Vol. under another name. C. (Wm H.), 1826, Mass. man, mr of the Courier '26-8, spending much of his time on shore, befriending Jed. Smith and Pattie, taking an active part in trade at all the ports, and vainly attempting to establish himself on Sta Catalina Isl. iii. 128, 146, 154, 165, 176. In '31 at Boston, but thinking of another trip to Cal.; said by Peirce to have been still living in Mass. after '80. Cupper (Geo.), 1847, at Hon. from Mont. on the Xylon. 

Curiel (Bernardo), Mex. soldier at Mont. '36, age 32, single. C. (Fernando), arrested '29. iii. 69. Curier (Anastase), 1830, French trapper of Young's party. iii. 174. Curl (James D.), 1846, Co. F, Cal. Bat. (v. 358); lot at S.F. '47; at S. Jos‚ '50, as was Robert C. Curman (Lewis), 1847, sergt Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. v. 519. Curphey, 1847, mr of the Maria Helena. v. 579. Curran (Edward), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). C. (Michael), 1846, ditto. Curren (Edward), 1847, Co. A, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); died in Cal. '60. 

Curtis (Dabney), 1846, asst draughtsman with Kearny. Lancey. C. (Dorr P.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). C. (Foster), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. C. (Josiah), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. C. (Jotham), 1846, overl. immig. with his wife; connected with the 1st Donner relief, and roundly abused-with how much of reason I know not-by McCutchen and Thornton; owner of a lot at S.F. '47. v. 538-9, 678. C. (Wm), 1846, Kentuckian in Cal. Bat. (v. 358). Curus, 1847, mr of the Europa. v. 578. 

Cushing, 1843, sup. of the Admittance, who had much trouble with the capt. and consignee, and was sent home. Thomes. Cushing (Bela), 1847, Co. C, N. Y. Vol. (v. 499); a printer of Boston; d. Sonoma '48. Cushman (Benj.), 1845, mr of the Morea. iv. 567. C. (James and Stephen), 1837, named in Larkin's accounts. Custer (John), 1846, Fauntleroy's dragoons (v. 232); Co. G, Cal. Bat. (v. 358); settled near Napa '48. Custot (Octave), 1837, Frenchman who signed a contract to take charge of Rafael Gomez' rancho in May. iv. 118; at S. Pablo '38 trying to make beet sugar; later induced Vallejo to employ him to superintend this industry at Petaluma on a larger scale, but failed to produce any sugar except some cakes of an imported article remelted to keep the general in good courage. In '39 he joined Sutter, and for several years was a kind of superintendent at N. Helv. iv. 219. He seems to have disappeared before '45, as his name does not occur in the N. Helv. Diary. 

Cutler (John), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). Cutrell (Wm E.), 1847, lieut Co. E, N.Y. Vol. v. 504; went to Sandw. Isl., where he married and had several children; returned to S. F., where he died '68. Cutting, 1848, doubtful record of a man who came overl. to Or. from Ind. in '47, and ret. from Cal. in '48 with large quantities of gold-dust. Solano Co. Hist., 380. Cuvellier (Emil), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 

Cyrus (Enoch), 1846, overl. immig. with wife and 3 sons, who settled in Napa Valley. v. 529. C. and two of the sons died of small-pox in '53, and the widow, Rebecca Cook, died in '73, age 77, at the farm near Calistoga, where the family had lived since '50. C. (John), 1846, son of Enoch, b. in Ill. '31; married Lovina Graves of the Donner party in '50; still living with 5 children near Calistoga in '81.