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California Genealogy and History Archives


Pioneer Register of California
(From the History of California, Vol. II.-V.)
Pioneer Register and Index 1542—1848


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Saavedra (Ramon A.), 1790, Span. com. of transport and exploring vessels on the coast 1790-7. i. 506, 523-4, 542, 706, 728; ii. 184. See also Hist. N. W. Coast, through index. Sabici (Matias), 1834, Ital. sailor who came from Mex. with the H. & P. colony, and settled at Mont. after working for a while at the Palo Colorado as a sawyer. iii. 412. He is mentioned at Los Ang. in '47, and seems to have married a daughter of Wm Wolfskill. Sabas, (Jos‚), at Los Ang. '48. Saenz (Ignacio), Mex. convict of 1791. i. 606. S. (Juan), soldier of the S.F. comp. '19-30. S. (Luis), ditto '42. S. (Macario), of S.F. militia '37. S. (Manuel), soldier of S.F. comp. '32-3; militia '37; at Sonoma '44, age 30. S. (Pablo Pedro), of S.F. militia '37, exiled in '39. iii. 580; perhaps Pablo and Pedro. S., see also 'Sais,' 'Saez.' S. de Lucio, see 'Lucio.' Saez (Jos‚, Justo, and Miguel), settlers at S. Jos‚ 1797. i. 717. S. (Nasario), settler at S. Jos‚ 786. i. 477; wife Micaela Sotelo, child. in '93, Miguel, Juan, Benedicta, and Felipa. Sagarra (Eduardo), Peruvian shot for stealing at Mont. '31. iii. 191, 669, 673, 679. S. (Mateo), 1818, of Bouchard's insurgents, captured at Mont. ii. 232. Sahr (Albert), 1847, owner of S.F. lot. 

Sainsevain (Pierre), 1839, French carpenter, age 20, who arrived at Sta B. on the Ayacucho. iv. 117, 119. His passport was dated Bordeaux, Nov. '38. He was a nephew of Louis Vignes, whom he joined for a time in the manufacture of wine at Los Angeles. In '43 he was grantee of the Ca¤ada del Rincon rancho, iv. 655, and from '44 owned a saw-mill at Sta Cruz, being from '46 in partnership with Roussillon, building a schooner in '46, v. 641, and also from '46 having a flour-mill at S. Jos‚, which gave rise to some local troubles. iv. 685; v. 660. He went to the mines in '48, Sainsevain Bar being [p.317]named for him; and in '49 was a member of the constit. convention. In later years he became one of the most prominent vineyardists and wine-makers in the state. His wife, married in '45, was a daughter of Antonio Su¤ol. St Clair (Trouett), 1843 (?), trapper who prob. came from N. Mex. about this year. iv. 400; ment. by Schallenberger and in the N. Helv. Diary '44-5; still living in Sta Cruz Co. as late as '79. St Germain (Baptiste), 1831, Fr. from N. Mex.; prob. with Wolfskill. iii. 387. St John (Augustus A.), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). St J. (Henry), 1843 (?), Engl. sailor, and later sugarplanter in the Sandw. Isl., said to have come to Cal. this year. iv. 400. He was later a miner and cattle-dealer, who attempted suicide at S.F. '83. St J. (J.), 1848, passport from Hon. St J. (Stephen M.), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). St Quintin (Joseph), 1847, Co. C, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Sais (Domingo), soldier of the S.F. comp. '26-33; of S.F. militia '37; grantee of Canada de Herrera, Marin, '39. iii. 711. He had been elector and regidor of S.F. '37-9. iii. 705; and his age was '39 in '44. His name is written also 'Saenz' and 'Saez,' which are perhaps more correct forms; at least, it is impossible to distinguish between them in Cal. S. (Miguel), settled at Los Ang. 1806. ii. 350. Saizar de Vitoria, see 'Vitoria.' Sajat (Lewis T.), 1847, owner of S.F. lots. 

Sal (Hermenegildo), 1776, Span. soldier who came with Anza; guardaalmacen at S.F. '78-82; alf‚rez '82; lieut '95. He served at Mont. 1782-1800 (except '91-4 at S.F.); much of the time as habilitado and comandante. In 1800, being retired as capt., he died at Mont. Though a quick-tempered man, he was a faithful officer, strict disciplinarian, and excellent accountant. Biog. and fam. i. 678-80; ment. i. 297, 335, 396-7, 441, 463, 467-8, 490, 493-6, 501, 509-11, 514, 516-18, 526, 537, 547, 551-2, 569, 572-3, 588-94, 634, 680, 692-707, 718; ii. 143, 191; iii. 11. Salamanca (Secundino), 1791, Span. lieut in Malaspina's exped. i. 490. Salazar, 1796, com. of the Concepcion and Activo '96-7. i. 540, 544. S. (Alonso Isidro), 1791, Span. friar, who was a founder of Sta Cruz, where he served until his retirement in '95, writing in Mex. an important report on the Condicion actual de Cal. Biog. i. 497-9; ment. i. 494, 566, 576, 579-80, 603-4, 618, 626, 661. S. (Antonio), at Los Ang. '46; juez de campo '48. v. 626. S. (Canuto), fifer of the S.F. comp. '39-42; in '54-5 at S.F., age 28; witness in the Santillan case. S. (Dionisio), at Branciforte '45, age 28, wife Perfecta Castro, child. Encarnacion b. '40, and Juan '41. S. (Fulgencio), soldier of the S.F. comp. '38-42. S. (Ignacio and Jesus), at S. Bern. '46. S. (Isidro), teamster at Mont. '47. S. (Jorge), soldier at Mont. '36, age 25. S. (Jos‚), convict settler 1798. i. 606. S. (Jos‚), soldier of S.F. comp. '38-43. iv. 667; Cal. claim (v. 462). S. (Jos‚ Antonio), N. Mexican trader and settler from '39. iv. 81, 278, 387; in '46 supl. juez at S. Feliciano rancho. v. 625; in '47 alcalde at Los Ang. v. 626; still there in '48. S. (Jos‚ Marˇa), regidor at Branciforte '34. iii. 696, 588; in '45 on the padron as a nat. of Cal., age 60, wife Hermenegilda Rios, child. Isidro b. '15, Jorge '19, Juan '25, Marˇa Refugio '30, Refugio '33. S. (Juan), com. of the guard at S. Fern. '23. ii. 570; in '27-30 acting habilitado at Sta B. and S. Diego. ii. 543, 572; iii. 114. In '31-4 he was promoted from sergt to alf‚rez, and was once a prisoner during the sectional wars in '37. He was acting com. of S. Diego, and is ment. as late as '46. iii. 482, 503-4, 541, 608-10; iv. 617; v. 566. S. (Miguel), soldier at S. Jos‚ mission 1797. i. 556. S. (Ramon), at Los Ang. '46. 

Sales (Alex.), 1833, Amer. hunter from N. Mex., at Los Ang. '36, age 29. Prob. Cyrus 'Alexander,' q.v.; also ment. in the campaign of '45. iv. 495. S. (Francisco), grantee of land at S. Gabriel '45. iv. 637. Salgado (Augustin), at Los Ang. '46. S. (Francisco), ditto; in S. Luis Ob. 50-8. S. (Tomjuez aux. Mont. dist '44. iv. 653. Salines, 1842, Frenchman in Sutter's employ. iv. 341; prob. the Salinas named in N. Helv. Diary '45-8. Sallalla (Faustino), soldier at the Colorado Riv. pueblos 1780-1, killed by Ind. i. 359, 362. Salleman, 1847, doubtful name of a Frenchman at S. Jos‚. Sallee, 1846, of West's overl. party, killed on the Humboldt. v. 528. Salmon (Alejo), colegial at Sta In‚s '44. iv. 426. S. (James), 1846, Delaware Ind. [p.318]in the fight at Natividad. v. 367; at Sutter's fort '47. Salvador, Cal. Ind. sent by Sutter to relief of the Donner party '46. He refused to eat human flesh, but was himself shot and eaten. v. 531-2, 534, 537. Saly, 1845, at Sta B. Samlyn (Henry), 1847, Co. F. Cal. Bat. (v. 358). Samop (Jaime), Ind. alcalde at S. Diego 1799. i. 655. Sam Tetoy, Ind. chief, later called 'Solano,' q.v. ii. 329. Sampson (Z.), 1848, passp. from Hon. 

Sanchez (Antonio), soldier at Sta B. before '37. S. (Est‚van), soldier at Sta B. '32, wife Romana Lopez. S. (Francisco), son of Jos‚ Ant.; soldier of the S.F. comp. '24-5; in '27-8 elector and sec. at S.F. and S. Jos‚. ii. 592, 605; in '35 sec. iii. 704; in '37 sec., capt. of the militia, elector, and grantee of town lots. iii. 506, 511, 701, 705; v. 683; in '38-9 acting-com. at S.F. and grantee of S. Pedro rancho, S. Mateo co. iii. 563, 701, 713. He served as juez de paz in '43. iv. 665; in '42 is named on the padron as a nat. of S. Jos‚, age 35, wife Teodora Higuera, child. Luisa b. '34, Luis '36, Dolores '38, and Pedro; in '44 capt. of defensores. iv. 407, 468, 667; in '45 capt. of the post, and grantee of town lot. iv. 666, 669; v. 678. In '46 was acting com. at S.F., though absent at the capture by the U.S. v. 4, 17, 61, 239-41, 659; and in '46-7, provoked by the depredations of the Americans, he headed a kind of revolt, with a view to obtain guaranties, taking captive Alcalde Bartlett and his guard, who were making a plundering tour. v. 379-83. Don Francisco still lived at S.F. mission in '55. He is remembered as a hospitable man, though somewhat hostile to Amer., and always regarded by them with suspicion. 

Sanchez (Francisco de Jesus), 1842 (?), Mex. friar of the Zacatecanos, who was apparently left behind in L. Cal. when the others same in '33. iii. 319. He was minister at S. Buenaventura '42-3 and '52-3; at Sta In‚s '44-50, being vice-rector of the seminary. iv. 425-6, 644-5; v. 635. He is named occasionally at S. Gabriel and Sta B. to '58, but I have found no later record of him. S. (Francisco Miguol), 1774, Span. friar who served at S. Gabriel, and temporarily at other missions, till his death in 1803. Biog. ii. 113-14; ment. i. 299, 388, 451, 459, 495-6, 511, 576, 664, 719. S. (Gil), regidor at Mont. '36, tithe col. at Branciforte '39, grantee of Arroyo de la Laguna '40, killed Robles '42, agente de pol. '45. iii. 675, 676, 697; iv. 653, 663. S. (Hilario), grantee of Tamalpais '45. iv. 674. S. (Isidro), son of Jos‚ Ant., of S. F. militia '37, age 23 in '42, wife Teodora Alviso, child. Dolores b. '37, Isabel '40, and Narcisa '41; involved in the assault on Capt. Libby '45. S. (Jacobo), in revolt at Los Ang. '45. iv. 538-9. S. (Joaquin), sirviente at Sta Clara 1776. i. 306. S. (Joaquin), 1801, sergt sent from Mex. to superintend cultivation of hemp. i. 620-1; ii. 178, 181. S. (Joaquin), soldier of the S. F. comp. '23. S. (Jos‚), 1791, piloto in Malaspina's exped. i. 490. 

Sanchez (Jos‚ Antonio), nat. of Sinaloa, soldier of the S. F. comp. from 1791, corp. from 1805, sergt from 1806, brevet alf‚rez from '20, and alf‚rez from '27, or, as some records indicate, from '32. He was for some years corp. of the Sta Cruz escolta. i. 496, 526, 535; was later engaged in over 20 Ind. campaigns and exploring exped., especially in '17-26, being famous for his skill and courage as an Ind. fighter. ii. 91-2, 126, 232, 322, 329, 335, 339, 371, 445, 497-9, 538, 584; iii. 111-12, 123. In '27-35 he was the grantee of Buri-buri rancho, S.F. ii. 591-5, 664; iii. 711; in '29-33 com. at S.F., though involved in the revolt of '29. iii. 75, 96, 223-4, 333, 365, 701; but in '32-4 apparently attached nominally to the Mont. comp. iii. 671. In '36 he was retired from active service, living on his rancho or at the mission; is named on the padron of '42 as 67 years of age; and died in '43, being denied the comforts of religion on his death-bed, and for a time Christian burial, through some quarrel with the friars, to whom he was always hostile. iv. 373. He was a good man, of known honesty and valor, but very ignorant and unfit for promotion. His sons were Jos‚ de la Cruz, Francisco, Manuel, and Isidro. His daughters married Fran. de Haro, two Valencias, and John Read. S. (Jos‚ Ant.), settler at S. Jos‚ 1791-1800. i. 716. 

Sanchez (Jos‚ Bernardo), 1804, Span. friar who served chiefly at S. Diego and S. Gabriel till his death in '33. A very prominent missionary and president [p.319]of the Fernandinos in '27-30. Biog. iii. 641-2; ment. ii. 47, 99, 106-7, 110, 159, 344, 366, 394, 442, 487, 560, 564, 567, 569, 580, 655, 657; iii. 87, 91-2, 94, 96, 102, 108, 142-4, 155, 309-10, 315-16, 337-8, 347, 351. S. (Jos‚ de la Cruz), son of Jos‚ Ant., elector at S.F. '35, regidor '36-7. iii. 704-5; grantee of S. Mateo rancho '36-41, and admin. of S.F. mission '36-40. iii. 713, 715; named in the padron of '42 as 40 years old, wife Marˇa Josefa Merido (?), child. Soledad b. '23, Concepcion '30, Jos‚ Marˇa '34, Ricardo '37, and Francisco. He was supl. juez de paz '43, sergt of defensores '44, 2d alcalde '45, and 2d juez de paz in '46. iv. 665, 666-7; v. 648. He continued to live at the mission till his death in '78. S. (Jos‚ Joaquin), at Los Ang. '25. ii. 559. S. (Jos‚ Marˇa), 1824, Mex. who in '35 was grantee of Llano de Tequesquite rancho. iii. 677; age 30 in '36; juez at S. Juan B. '37. iii. 692; his rancho sacked by Ind. '38. iii. 693; iv. 75; Cal. claim '46-7 (v. 462); alcalde at S. Juan B. '47-8. v. 640. He was cl. for Las Ánimas, Sta Clara, '52 

Sanchez (Juan), sirviente at S.F. 1777. i. 297. S. (Juan), grantee of Sta Clara rancho, Sta B., '37. iii. 656; wife In‚s Guevara and 4 children before '37; still in Sta B. Co. '54. S. (Juana Marˇa L.), 2d baptism at S.F. 1776. i. 291. S. (Macario), at S. Jos‚ 1800. S. (Manuel), prob. son of Jos‚ Ant., elector at S.F. '35 and petitioner for Ca¤ada de Guadalupe rancho. iii. 704, 711; alf. of militia '37. iii. 701; in '42 age 30, wife Francisca Solis, child. Manuel b. '31, Rosario '37, Dolores '38, Juan Francisco '41. S. (Marˇa Josefa), Cal. claim for $9,030 (v. 462). S. (Miguel), 1829, Mex. convict liberated in '33. S. (Rafael), Ind. executed at Mont. '45. iv. 654. S. (Rafael), 1842, Mex. sub-lieut of the batallon fijo '42-5, acting also as Micheltorena's sec. He remained in Cal. as custom-house officer in '45; is mentioned in the annals of '46, serving on the 1st jury and getting a grant of S. Lorenzo rancho. iv. 289, 513, 557; v. 35, 41, 45, 61, 289, 637. S. (Ramon), 1826, Mex. sup. of the Sta Apolonia, and mr of the Magdalena, 27-8. iii. 147-8. S. (Ramona or Romana), grantee of Butano, Sta Cruz, '44. ii. 591. S. (Teodoro), juez de campo at Laguna Seca '35. iii. 674. 

Sanchez (Tomat Los Coyotes rancho, Los Ang., '39, age 37; collector of taxes at Los Ang. '43. iv. 633. After '49 he was somewhat prominent as sheriff; still living in '77. S. (Tomito), at S. Pascual '46. v. 352; perhaps same as TomS. (Urbano), owner of the Sta Apolonia '26. iii. 148, 682; prob. not in Cal. S. (Vicente), settler at Los Ang. '14-19. ii. 349, 354; arrested and sent to Sta B. in irons '22. ii. 559; elector and prob. alcalde '26-7. ii. 560; iii. 33; member of the dip. '28. iii. 41-2. In '29-32 he as diputado, alcalde, and citizen was involved in a complicated series of troubles, being deposed and imprisoned, and in turn imprisoning others. The details cannot be presented, even if anybody ever understood them. He was a vicious, gambling, quarrelsome fellow, though of some intelligence and wealth; and political quarrels between Echeandˇa and Victoria had something to do with his troubles, about which suits were pending as late as '44. ii. 561; iii. 187-8, 195-6, 200, 205, 212, 230, 630, 634. In '36-9 he had something to do with the vigilance com., and with the sectional quarrel on both sides. iii. 417, 432, 491, 504, 565, 636. In '42-4 his name appears, being the grantee of Ci‚nega or Paso de la Tijera, and also comis. de zanjas. iv. 295, 629, 633-4; and in '45 he was again alcalde, not free from popular complaints. iv. 497, 523, 633. I have no later record of him. Sancho (Juan Bautista), 1804, Span. friar who served at S. Antonio till his death in '30. Biog. ii. 621; ment. ii. 152, 385, 388, 655. 

Sandeau, 1846, a mountaineer with Kearny from N. Mex. Lancey. Sandels (G. M. W.), 1842, Swedish scientist who came from Mex. on the schr California, and went to Hon. on the Diamond in '43. He wrote an account of his observations under the name of 'King's Orphan.' iv. 345-6, 363, 565, 640, 650, 665. Sanders (Allen), 1845, Amer. blacksmith from Or. in the McMahon party, working for Sutter Jul.-Dec. In the spring of '46 he visited Napa and Sonoma, married Miss Bonney, and in March went with the Bonneys to Or., where he is said to have been living in '80. iv. 572; v. 526. S. (Horace), 1845, overl. immig. of the Grigsby-Ide party. iv. 579, 587. He was perhaps a [p.320]Bear Flag man. v. 110; and served as sergt Co. E, Cal. Bat. v. 361; having a Cal. claim of $20 (v. 462). Thos Knight states that in '70-1, S. was living near Carson, Nev. S. (Richard T.), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Sanderson (Geo. B.), 1847, asst surg. U.S.A., surg. of the Morm. Bat., and an object of the most intense dislike on the part of the Mormons. He went east with Gen. Kearny. v. 446, 452, 477, 480-2. Sandoval (Josefa), 1791, wife of Gov. Romeu. i. 488, 490. S. (Luciano), 1842, cornet of the batallon fijo '42-5. iv. 289. S. (P1828, Mex. convict liberated '34. 

San Est‚van (Antonio), 1831, chief of a N. Mex. caravan. iii. 396. Sands (J. R.), 1847, mr of the Benj. Tucker. Sanford, 1843, at Sutter's fort '45, and perhaps an overl. immig. of the Chiles party. iv. 393, 578. S. (Sam.), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Sanger (John), 1844, mr of the Newton; d. at S. Diego. iv. 567; perhaps 'Sawyer.' Sangrador (Miguel), tanner-instructor 1792-5. i. 615, 725. 

Santa Ana, soldier at Sta B. '24. ii. 532. Santa Cruz (Jos‚ Antonio), com. de policˇa at Mont. '33, '36, juez de campo '35. iii. 673-5; age 43 in '36, nat. of Mex., wife Gertrudis Villavicencio, child Juan Jos‚. Santa Marˇa, 1815, teacher who came with Gov. Sola. ii. 426. Sta M., Ind. sirv. at S. Luis Ob., shot by Fr‚mont. v. 374. Sta M. (Jos‚ Marˇa), clerk of the court at Mont. '42; owner of S.F. lot '46. v. 684. Sta M. (Vicente), 1776, Span. friar who served chiefly at S. Buen., where he died in 1806. Biog. ii. 121-2; ment. i. 240-1, 246, 287, 300, 302, 376, 382, 385, 388, 399, 466, 522, 553, 576, 674; ii. 159-60, 490. Santiago (Juan Jos‚ Norberto), 1786, Span. friar, who served at S. Juan Cap. and retired in 1810. Biog. ii. 110; ment. i. 388, 423, 458-9, 474, 563, 576, 657; ii. 114, 159-60, 197. Santillan (Jos‚ Prudencio), 1841, Mex. novice of Ind. parentage who came with the bishop and soon became a priest. iv. 195. He was parish priest at S.F. mission in '46-50, though much of the time absent; and went to Mex. in '50. His chief and only fame rests on his claim of '50 to the misssion lands under a grant of Gov. Pico in '46, a grant which after a long and famous litigation, though approved by the land com. and district court, was finally declared invalid by the U.S. sup. court, being doubtless fraudulently antedated. v. 558, 659-60. Santillan became asst curate at Mazatlan before '56, and my last record of him is that in '59 he was arrested for refusal to celebrate the return of peace at the order of Gov. Pesqueira; yet in '78 the holders of the land claims professed to be able to produce him as a witness. Santos, sirv. at Soledad 1791-1800. i. 499. S., neoph. grantee of Rincon del Alisal, Sta Clara, '44. iv. 672. S. (Guadalupe), at Mont. '36, age 26. 

Sargent (Constantine), 1846, purser's clerk on the U.S. Congress, committed suicide at Mont. Dec. S. (Henry S.), 1848, nat. of Conn. recently from Or.; d. at S.F. Oct. S. (James K.), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Sarmiento (Jos‚ M.), 1842, Mex. lieut of the batallon fijo; died on the voy. to Cal. iv. 289. Sarrˇa (Vicente Francisco), 1809, Span. friar whose missionary service was at S. Cand Soledad until his death in '35. He was prefect in '13-19, '23-30, and president '23-5; one of the ablest, best, and most prominent of the Fernandinos. Biog. iii. 688-9; ment. i. list of auth.; ii. 88, 148, 159-60, 217-18, 240, 327-30, 364, 383, 386, 394, 396-409, 451-3, 461, 491, 501-5, 512-13, 517-18, 521, 525-6, 535, 622-3, 655, 657, 659, 662; iii. 7, 16-19, 87, 89-91, 128, 191, 336, 338, 350-1. Satte (Juan Jos‚), 1827, Moorish servant from S. Blas on an Engl. ship; at S. Jos‚ '29, age 42. 

Sauerweid (Alex. A.), 1848, Russian, in S. Joaq. Co. '78. Saunders (John), 1838, Amer. or Irish sailor at Mont. and Sta Cruz '38, '43; at S.F. '44, age 30. iv. 119. He went to sea again in '47-8, but returned in '52-3, soon shipping again. S. (Theodore R.), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); in N.Y. city '82. S. (Wm L.), 1833, trapper named in Mont. lists of '34. In '34 he writes Capt. Jos. Walker a severe letter denying any indebtedness and claiming to hold a receipt from Bonneville. He may therefore have come in '33 with Walker (iii. 389), or in '32 with Dye, who mentions a Saunders in his party. 

Savage (Chas), 1845, at Sutter's fort. iv. 578; went to Or. '46. v. 526; and [p.321]was at Jacksonville '81. S. (Eliza), 1846, of the Mormon colony. v. 546; in Utah '84. S. (James D.), 1846, overl. immig. who served in Co. F, Cal. Bat. v. 374 (358); named in the N. Helv. Diary, 47-8. He had been a trapper and mountaineer, having great influence among the Ind., by whose aid he is said to have acquired much wealth in the gold mines. In '48-9 he had trading posts on the Mariposa and Fresno; and in later times rendered great service to govt and to settlers as interpreter, commissioner, and major in com. of a volunteer battalion. He was probably the discoverer of the Yosemite Valley. In '52 he was killed at the Kings River reservation in a quarrel with Maj. Harvey, the county judge. An ignorant man of much natural shrewdness, he made many warm friends and bitter foes. It is related of him that he made it a point to marry a chief's daughter in every tribe; exchanged hardware and whiskey by weight, ounce for ounce, with the Ind., for gold-dust; and bet his weight in gold on the turn of a card in a S.F. gambling-house. S. (Levi), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); at Lorqueville, Utah, '82. 

Sawis (Nathaniel), 1816, doubtful name of a deserter from the Albatross. ii. 275. Sawyer (John), 1844, mr of the Newton; d. at S. Diego '45. iv. 453, 567. S. (Joseph), 1828, Scotchman at S. Diego '28-9. Saxton (Chas), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Schaffer (J. R.), 1848, nat. of Va; at Hon. from S.F. on the Tepic; dist attorney of S. Joaq. Co.; d. in '75, perhaps in Idaho. 

Schallenberger (Moses), 1844, nat. of Ohio, and overl. immig. as a boy in the Stevens party. His remarkable adventures at Donner Lake, where he was left by the party and passed the winter alone, are noted in iv. 445-7, 453-4, as related in his MS., Overland in '44. He appears in various records of '46-8 as clerk and trader at Sutter's fort, S. Jos‚, Mont., and Sta Cruz; but finally settled at S. Jos‚, where he acquired considerable property, and was still living in '85. I have been unable to obtain information about his career in late years or his family. His sister was the wife of Dr Townsend of the Stevens party, and his daughter Maggie in '84-5 was a teacher, who from her father's notes wrote the MS. narrative of the overland trip. Schenck (James F.), 1846, lieut on the U.S. Congress, serving in Stockton's Bat. '46-7; nat. of Ohio; rear-admiral '79. v. 268, 281. S. (Woodhull S.), 1845, lieut on the U.S. Portsmouth. Schiller (Ed.), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. Texas '81. Schimer (Earnest), 1847, Co. G, ditto. Schlottour (Karl), 1847, Co. F, ditto; baker at S.F. '48. v. 683; at Rough-and-Ready '82. 

Schmidt (Geo. W.), 1848, German who died at S. Diego '73; an early steamboat man. S. (Jacob), 1847, cooper at N. Helv. S. (Karl), 1821, Russian manager at Ross, succeeding Kuskof '21-6. ii. 464-5, 506-7, 642, 648. iii. 146. Schm˘lder (B.), 1846 (?), author of the Neuer Wegweiser, who styles himself in June '47 as Capt. 'from Cal.' He sought to organize a German colony. Schneider (Johann), 1846, Co. B, Cal. Bat. (v. 358). Schoa (Juan), at Los Ang. '46. Schoolcraft (Henry A.), 1847, sergt Co. H, N.Y. Vol. v. 504; Sutter's agent, recorder, and alcalde at Sac. '48-9. He went east, and while returning with an appointment as collector of Sac. died at sea near Acapulco '53. Schoonmaker (Jacob J.), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Vineland, N.J., '82. S. (Milton C.), 1847, ditto; d. at Stockton '50. Schreador (Geo.), 1847, Co. D, ditto; d. Napa Co. '82. Schreiber (Chas), 1846, Cal. Bat. v. 358; one of the Sta B. garrison. Schroeder (Martin), 1847, Engl. mr of a vessel, married at Mazatlan, who brought his family in '49 via Hon.; d. at S. Jos‚ '81, leaving 5 children. Schroth (Chas), 1848, on roll of the Soc. Cal. Pion.; living in S.F. '81. 

Schubart (Peter), 1842, Dane naturalized in Feb.; also called 'Serbia.' iv. 341. Schultz (Ernest), 1847, owner of S.F. lot. Schultze (Fred.), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Schulz, 1848, cooper at Sutter's fort. Schumacher (John), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Los Ang. '82. Schwartz (John L.), 1841, Dutch immig. of the Bartleson party. 270, 275, 279. In '44-5 he obtained a grant of Nueva Flandria on the Sac. Riv., iv. 672, where he established a fishing station and built a boat. He and his place are described by Bryant in '46 and Buffum in '48; also mentioned in N. Helv. Diary, '45-7. He died in '51 or '52, and his brother George was unsuccessful cl. for the rancho in '53. Schweitzer (Philip), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518). 

[p.322]Scollan (John), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Sta B. '82. Scott (Andrew), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (Antonio J.), 1846, grantee of S. Luis Rey and Pala. S. (Chas G.), 1847, sergt Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); treasurer of S. F.; d. in Nicaragua '56. S. (Felix), 1845, nat. of Va and prob. overl. immig. iv. 578-9. One of his daughters died at Sutter's fort Jan. '46. In March he went to Or., v. 526, where he became a prominent settler, visiting Cal. again about '51-3, and being killed by Ind. in '58. See Hist. Or., i. 750. S. (Gabriel), 1846, had a 'Cal. claim' (v. 462). S. (G. J.), 1848, had a cabin on the Capay rancho, Yolo Co. 

Scott (James), 1826, nat. of Scotland, who first visited Cal. as sup. of the Olive Branch and Waverly, being mr of the Huascar in '27-8. iii. 176, 154, 147. From '30 he seems to have considered Sta B. his home, though constantly on the move, as shown by his business corresp. in my collection. ii. 573; iii. 409; iv. 117; sup. and mr of various vessels; also otter-hunter. iv. 144, 209, 566; v. 578. From '39, or earlier, to '47 a partner of Capt. John Wilson; ment. in mission accounts '40. iii. 657, 660; in '45 purchaser of S. Luis Ob. and grantee of Canada de Chorro rancho. iv. 553, 558, 655, 658-9. Not friendly to Amer. in '46-7, but not much heard of in those years. He died at Sta B. in '51. S. (James), 1833, Engl. sailor on the Catalina. iii. 409; in Mont. dist. '34-5; in trouble on the schr California '39. S. (James), 1846, of the Mormon colony, excommunicated at S.F. v. 546; owner of S.F. lots '47. S. (James R.), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). 

Scott (John), 1831, sup. of the Ayacucho '31-5. iii. 381; perhaps James. S. (John), 1845, possibly of Fremont's party, but prob. the following. iv. 583, 587, 453. S. (John), 1845, overl. immig. of the Grigsby-Ide party. iv. 579, 587. Acc. to the Yolo Co. Hist. he lived as a hunter in Capay Val. to June '46; he was prob. one of the Bears. v. 110; and served as a lieut in the Cal. Bat. v. 435. Swan remembers a Jack Scott in the mines from Sta Cruz '48. S. (Leonard M.), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). S. (Sam.), 1847, nat. of Ky and overl. immig.; a trader at Sta Clara, successful miner who built the first house at Placerville, and finally a settler near Snelling, where he died in '81, leaving one son, Moses. S. (Wm), 1846, marine on the Portsmouth, wounded at the San Gabriel in '47. v. 395. S. (Wm), 1847, Co. C, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); owner of S.F. lot; county treasurer of S.F.; killed in Nicaragua. 

Scott (Wm W.), 1845, brother of John and overl. immig. of the Grigsby-Ide party. iv. 579, 587. He came from St Louis mainly for his health, and took part in the Bear revolt, being also, it is said, the man who in July '46 carried the U.S. flag from Sonoma to Sac. v. 110, 148, 244. In '46-8 he kept a store at Sonoma, being, I suppose, of the firm S. & Boggs often named, and sometimes visiting Sac. with goods for sale. In '47 he married Mary Ann Smith; in Jan. '48 he killed a man named McRice; and I have his autograph letter of Feb., in which he attributes his bad conduct to the use of liquor, and solemnly 'swears off' forever. Later in the year he appears as a carpenter in Sutter's employ, and is said to have been at the Coloma mill when gold was found. A man of the same name settled in Scott Valley, Lake Co., in '48, and was still living in '54. The preceding items may refer to more than one man. Scriver (Chas), see 'Schreiber.' v. 316. Scullen (John), 1847, Irishman of Sta B., said to have been killed by Ind. in Ariz. '66; prob. 'Scollan,' q.v. 

Seagrim (Thos), 1839, sailor on the schr California. Seaman (Stephen), 1846, acting sailmaker on the U.S. Dale. Searles (Geo.), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Searls (Susan A.), 1846, of the Mormon colony, prob. not coming to Cal. v. 547. Sears (Franklin), 1845, nat. of Mo. who crossed the plains to Or. in '44, and came to Cal. in the McMahon party, 572-4, 587, gaining an unenviable reputation as an Indian-killer. He is named in the N. Helv. Diary '45-6, and in March '46 was nearly killed by a fall from his horse at Sutter's fort. Recovering, he joined Fr‚mont and went south, serving at S. Pascual under Gillespie and in Stockton's campaign. An account of S. Pascual by Boggs in the Napa Registr, May 11, '72, seems to be founded on his statements. In '48-9 he took out large quantities of gold near Bidwell's Bar; and in '51 settled at Sonoma, where he was living in '80 at the age of 63. His [p.323]wife was Margaret Swift, and there were 2 children surviving in '80, one of them, Rachel, being the widow of J. R. Snyder. S. (John), 1845, brother of Franklin, and overl. immig. of the Grigsby-Ide party, iv. 579, 587, with his wife. He was a blacksmith and settled at Sonoma, where he was prob. a Bear Flag man-indeed, Mrs S. is credited with having furnished flannel for the famous flag. v. 110, 147-8. He was capt. of Co. D, Cal. Bat. v. 359, 361; had a Cal. claim (v. 462); and was in the Feather River mines '48. He seems either to have left Cal. or died soon after this date. 

Sebastian, Ind. who died at Nicasia '80, said to be about 100 years old. S., 1773, Ind. who was the 1st Christian to make the trip by land from Cal. to Sonora. i. 221. S. (Narcisco), 1844, Canadian at Sta Rosa, having left Ridley's service. Secondi, or Sagondyne (James), 1845, Delaware Ind. of Fr‚mont's party. iv. 583; still in F.'s employ '53. Seely, 1845, in N.Y. '84, claiming to have been one of Fr‚mont's party; also declared by a newspaper corresp. to be the original of Bret Harte's 'Yuba Bill.' Segundo (Angel), sirviente at S.F. 1777. i. 297. Segura (Jos‚ Marˇa), 1842, Mex. capt. of the batallon fijo, who remained in Cal. after Micheltorena's departure, acted as com. at Los Ang. for a time in '46, and seems to have departed with Flores in '47. iv. 289, 364, 492, 513; v. 408. Seibert, 1847, in Sutter's employ '47-8. Seider (Geo. F.), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 'Seis Cuartillas' (Theodore), 1834, French carpenter at Mont. Sel, see 'Sells.' Selden (Ed. A.), 1846, mid. on the U.S. Columbus, act. lieut in com. of the prize Julia '46-7. v. 358, 378. Selfridge (Thos O.), 1847, capt U.S.N., com. of the Columbus and later of the Dale. Sellers (Jackson), 1847, sergt Co. K, N.Y. Vol. v. 504. Sells (Joseph), 1846, at Sutter's fort '47-8; also called Selly and Sel; member of the Donner relief parties. v. 538, 541. 

Semple (Robert), 1845, nat. of Ky and overl. immig. of the Hastings party. iv. 586-7; a printer and dentist by trade. In '45-6 he was engaged in farming with Johnson and Keyser, first becoming prominent in the Bear revolt. v. 79, 106-7, 110, 114-19, 298, 644. Though a pronounced filibuster and conspirator, he doubtless exerted his influence with much success to restrain the lawless vagabonds of his party from the commission of outrages. In July he went to Mont., served for a time in Fauntleroy's dragoons (v. 232, 247), and then with Walter Colton published at Mont. the 1st Cal. newspaper, the Monterey Californian. v. 291-3, 658. Early in '47 the paper was transferred to S.F., and Semple, obtaining from Vallejo a large tract of land on Carquines Strait, devoted his energies, in company with Larkin, to the building of a great city at Benicia, as fully recorded in v. 670-4, at the same time taking an interest in various political matters, delivering a 4th of July oration at S.F., and owning a S.F. lot, which he patriotically gave away to show his faith in Benicia as the metropolis. v. 433, 455, 646, 676. His great speculation of city-building was not very successful, but he made a large amount of money in '48-50 by running a ferry-boat across the strait. In '49 he was a member and president of the constit. convention; but does not appear later in public life. He moved to Colusa Co., where he died in '54 at the age of 48, his death being the result of a fall from his horse. Dr S. was a good-natured, popular, and honorable man, of much intelligence and natural ingenuity, of some education, a good speaker-indeed, there were few things he could not do fairly well, though noted for obstinate faith in his way of doing things as always the best. His height was about 6 ft. 8 in., giving rise to no end of amusing stories, true and false, respecting such achievements as wading the strait of Carquines. In '47, being a widower, he married Frances, daughter of Stephen Cooper, by whom he had a daughter, Mary Benicia. His widow is living in '85 as Mrs Van Winkle. A son, John W., came to Cal. in '49, dying in '50; and also a brother, C. D., who was claimant for the Colus rancho. v. 671. Se¤an (Jos‚ Francisco de Paula), 1787, Span. friar who served at S. Cand S. Buenaventura until his death in 1823. A model missionary, who was president in 1812-15, and '20-3, being also prefect in '23. Biog. ii. 490-1; ment. i. 388, 469, 572, 576-7, 598, 604-5, 674, 685; ii. 121-2; 159, 209, 240, 258, 270, 317, 326-7, 333, 351, 394, 396, 398, 405, 410-11, 451-3, 479, 487, 493, 497, 499-502, 569, 571, [p.324]578, 580, 655, 657. Senar (Francisco), 1828, doubtfu 'name of an Irish sailor at Mont. '28-9. Septem (Henry), 1816, sailor of the Albatross. ii. 275. 

Sepulveda (Diego), one of the grantees of S. Bernardino rancho '42; somewhat prominent in the Flores revolt at Los Ang. '46-7. v. 312, 320, 407-8. S. (Dolores), son of Juan Jos‚, b. S. Diego 1793, settler at Los Ang. 1812, still living there '46-8, having been accidentally wounded in '39. ii. 349, 565, 595. S. (Dolores), killed by Ind. at Purˇsima '24. ii. 529. S. (Dolores), soldier of the S.F. comp. '37. S. (Encarnacion), grantee of Ojo de Agua '40. iv. 633. S. (Enrique), prisoner at S. Buen. '38; grantee of S. Pascual '40. iii. 554-5, 634. S. (Fernando), son of Francisco, at Los Ang. '39-'46; ment. in '40-3. iii. 632-3, 639. S. (Francisco), settler at Los Ang. '15. ii. 349; in '25 regidor and acting alcalde ii. 559; iii. 11; in '31 in the operations against Victoria, by whom he was imprisoned. iii. 196, 208; in '36-7 comisionado of S. Juan Cap. iii. 626-7; 49 years old in '39, when he was grantee of S. Vicente and Sta M˘nica. iii. 634; ment. in '40-3; iii. 639; iv. 629. In '52 he was cl. for the rancho. S. (Ignacio), killed at the S. Gabriel '47. v. 396. 

Sepulveda (Ignacio), son of Jos‚, b. before '48, educated in the east as a lawyer. In later years he became a very prominent lawyer of Los Angeles, and one of the foremost of all the native Californians in respect of both ability and character. He was a member of the legislature in '64; served in Mex. under Maximilian; was county judge in '70-3, district judge from '74, and superior judge from '80, resigning his position in '83 to accept a responsible position as representative of Wells, Fargo, & Co. in Mex., where he has since resided to '85. His Historical Memoranda, i. 644, is a valuable contribution to my collection of original MS.; and he has otherwise aided me in my work. His wife, who died before '77, was an American, and there was a daughter. S. (Isabel), at S. Rafael '42. iv. 237. S. (Jos‚), regidor at Los Ang. '33-4. iii. 635; in '36-8, active among the vigilantes, alcalde, grantee of S. Joaquin rancho, and somewhat prominent on both sides in the sectional quarrels between north and south. iii. 432, 485, 495-9, 509-10, 518-19, 565, 633, 636. His age was 37 acc. to the padron of '39, when he was regidor and took part in a tumulto. iii. 589, 636; iv. 633; sub-prefect in '45. iv. 632-3. He was cl. for S. Joaquin in '52, and died in Sonora '75. His wife was a sister of Juan Ávila. S. (Jos‚), two of the name at Los Ang. '39, a shoemaker and farmer. S. (Jos‚), juez de campo at S. Jos‚ '43. iv. 685; still there in '55. S. (Jos‚ del Cat Los Ang. '46-8. S. (Jos‚ L.), juez de paz at Los Ang. '42. iv. 632; 2d alcalde '46, '48. v. 625-6; grantee of Palos Colorados '46. v. 627; nominated for prefect '45; memb. of the council '50. I am not sure that he was not the same man as Jos‚ above. S. (Jos‚ Manrico and Jos‚ Miguel), at Los Ang. '46. S. (Juan), soldier of the S.F. comp. '20-7; at S. Jos‚ '41, age 41, wife Francisca Pacheco, child. Demesio b. '29, Silveria '31, Lucˇa '33, Marˇa Ant. '35, Sebastian '38, Bartolom‚ '39. S. (Juan), juez de campo at Palos Verdes '40. iii. 637; 2d alcalde at Los Ang. '45, taking some part in politics. iv. 497, 539, 633; age 27 in '39; alcalde in '49; supervisor '54; county assessor '57-8. S. (Juan Marˇa), at Los Ang. '46; justice of the peace '56. S. (Manuel), at Los Ang. '46-8. S. (Patricio), soldier at Sta B. before '37. S. (Rafael), settler at Los Ang. 1789. i. 461. S. (Vicente), grantee of La Sierra, Los Ang., '46. v. 628. 

Serbia (Pedro), 1842, Danish resid. of S.F., age 26; same as 'Schubert,' q.v., and probably intended for 'Sherrebeck,' q.v. Serer (Domingo) corporal at Mont. '36, age 26. Serna (Manuel), reputed centenarian of S. Diego '79. S. (Patricio), Mex. soldier of the Hidalgo comp. at Mont. '36, age 33. Serra (Junˇpero), 1769, Span. friar, 1st president of the missionaries, and founder of many missions, who died at S. CAug. 28, 1784. Biog. i. 409-16; ment. i. 116-23, 129, 134-5, 137-8, 164-8, 170, 175-7, 181, 183-4, 187-94, 199-221, 224, 227, 229-31, 238-9, 244, 246, 248-9, 255, 257, 268, 270-1, 280, 287, 297-304, 309, 320-8, 330-1, 333, 351, 373, 376, 378, 382, 386, 388-400, 414-15, 422, 455, 457, 459, 469, 473-4, 476, 486, 671, 687. Serrano (Florencio), 1834, Mex. of the Hijar & Padr‚s colony. iii. 263, 268; who served in '35 as clerk of the admin. at S. Antonio, and as teacher. iii. 687; and from '36 as clerk of [p.325]different offices at Mont. taking part in the revolt against Alvarado in '37, and being sec. of the ayunt. in '38. iii. 524-5, 675. In '44 he was 2d alcalde. iv. 653, 656, 404, 411; and in '45-6 sˇndico and sec. of the prefecture, serving on the 1st jury in '46. iv. 652-3; v. 289, 636. In '48-9 he succeeded Colton as alcalde of Mont. v. 637-8; being before and later engaged in trade. His wife was Rita, sister of Joaquin de la Torre, and there were several sons who supported Don Florencio in his old age, poverty, and blindness. He died in '77 at the age of 63. He was of Span. parentage, of fair education and good repute. Shortly before his death he dictated for me his Apuntes, a full statement of his life and recollections of Cal. affairs, which throws light on many topics. S. (Francisco), alcalde at Los Ang. 1799. i. 661. S. (Ignacio), at Los Ang. '46. S. (Jos‚), juez de campo, Los Ang. '35. iii. 635; grantee of Ca¤ada de los Alisos '42-6, iv. 634, being also cl. in '52. S. (Jos‚ Antonio), son of Leandro, at S. Juan Cap. '41. iv. 626; grantee of Pauma '44. iv. 621; in the fight at S. Pascual '46. v. 352; still living at S. Diego '75, age 61. His wife was a daughter of Rosario Aguilar. S. (Jos‚ S.), at Los Ang. '46. S. (Leandro), son of a soldier of the 1st exped., b. at S. Diego; for many years majordomo of Pala for the mission S. Luis Reg.; in '28 maj. at S. Juan Cap., and grantee of Temescal, ii. 547, 663; iii. 612, where he spent the rest of his life, dying in '52. His wife was Presentacion Yorba and later Josefa Montalba. S. (Manuel), killed by Ind. at Pauma '46. v. 617. S. (Rafaela), at S. Diego '21, '41. ii. 546; iv. 619. S. (Tomjuez de campo at Los Ang. '48. v. 626. Servin (Ignacio), 1842, Mex. sub-lieut in the batallon fijo '42-5. iv. 289, 513; still in Cal. '46. v. 41. 

Sessions (Wm B.), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Sessor (Peter), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); in S.F. '82. Settle (Josiah), 1840 (?), nat. of Ohio said to have crossed the plains to Cal. this year; prob. an error, though he may have come from N. Mex. iv. 120. Went to Or. '52, to Wash. Ter. '60, and died at Seattle '76. Sevy (Thomas), see 'Levy.' Sexton (Daniel), 1841, nat. of La and overl. immig. of the Workman party. iv. 278-9. He worked as a carpenter in the Los Ang. region, and finally settled at S. Bern.; claims to have raised the U.S. flag at his camp '40. iv. 342; served in the campaign against Micheltorena '45. iv. 495; carried a message from Stockton to Fr‚mont '47. v. 402; married an Ind. woman; cl. for land in Los Ang. '52; still living in '84. S. (Geo. S.), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); Co. re‚nl. S. (Lorin), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Seyman (James), 1848, at Sutter's fort. Seymour (Chas H.), 1848, on roll of Soc. Cal. Pion.; d. S.F. after '81; an employ‚ in the mint. S. (Sir Geo. F.), 1846, admiral in com. of the British Pac. squadron at Mont. on the Collingwood, July. v. 199-214, 232, 577. 

Shadden (Thos J.), 1843, Amer. immig. of the Hastings party from Or. accomp. by his family. iv. 390, 400. In '44 he obtained a land grant in Yolo Co. iv. 674; is named in '45-6 as visiting Sutter's fort from S. Jos‚, Sta Cruz, and other points; and had a 'Cal. claim' of $837 (v. 462). A son is said to have been born in '47. Shadden settled on the Cosumnes, where he lived in a cabin of tules in '49, having been before that date a miner and trader in mules. He went to Or. about '51. Shaler (Wm), 1803, mr of the Lelia Byrd 1803-4, and author of a Journal pub. in 1808, which was prob. the 1st extended account of Cal. published in the U.S. ii. 10-14, 21-4, 102-3, 109, 119, 122, 143-4, 183. Shannon (John). v. 621; see 'Charbonneau.' S. (Wm E.), 1847, capt. Co. I, N.Y. Vol., in com. at S. Diego '47-8, being also collector. v. 504, 514, 617, 619. In '49 a trader, of firm S. & Cady, at Coloma, also alcalde, member of the constit. convention, and district judge. From Dec. '49 a lawyer at Sac., where he died in '50 of cholera. Sharkey (Frank L.), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Norwich, Conn., '82. Sharnon (John), 1847, alcalde at S. Diego; prob. 'Charbonneau,' q. v. Sharp (Matthew W. or A.), 1847, Co. I, ditto; at S. Diego '48; died near Coloma '50. Shattuck, 1842, lieut U.S.N. with Com. Jones at Mont. iv. 308. 

Shaw, 1846, overl. immig. who died on the Calaveras in '49. S. (Charles), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). S. (James), 1848, guide to returning [p.326]Mormons. S. (James B.), 1846, nat. of Australia; resid. of Sonoma Co. '51-77. Son. Co. Hist. S. (Thomas), 1824 (?), nat. of Mass. I have his autograph letter, apparently written at S. Pedro Oct. 28, 1824, but there may be an error. ii. 526. In '26-8 he was clerk and sup. on the Courier and Waverly. iii. 154; in 30-1 on the Pocahontas, making a contract to carry away Gov. Victoria. iii. 148, 210, 383; in '33-5 sup. and sometimes mr of the Volunteer, Harriet Blanchard, and Lagoda. iii. 382, 384, 410. He was in Boston '36, not expecting to revisit Cal.; but in '39-40 he came back as sup. of the Monsoon, his name often appearing in commercial corresp. and mission accounts. iii. iv. 105; iii. 623, 727. He is said to have died in Boston about '66. 

Shea (Wm), 1840, one of the exiled foreigners not known to have returned. iv. 18. Shearman, 1844, mr of the Menkar. iv. 567. Shehey, 1847, died at Sutter's fort Oct. Sheldon (Geo.), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (Henry B.), 1848, editor and part owner of the S.F. Californian. v. 658; sec. of the guards; owner of a lot at S. Jos‚. Went to the Sandw. Isl. about '65. S. (Jared), 1840, nat. of Vt, who came from N. Mex. or Sonora with a pass dated March 9, '40. iv. 117, 120. Possibly he had visited Cal. before, as his arrival is often credited to '34 or '32. He was naturalized in '43, then describing himself as a carpenter who had arrived in '40, being in '44 grantee of the Omochumne rancho on the Cosumnes. iv. 672; where he was a partner of Wm Daylor, and where he spent the rest of his life but for his service in the Micheltorena campaign, iv. 486, 501, and a brief experience in the mines. In '51 he was killed in a difficulty with miners about a dam. His wife, married in '47, was a daughter of Thomas Rhoads, and survived him with 3 children, Wm b. '48, Sarah '49, and Catherine '51 (drowned in '52). Shelikof (Paul), 1825, Russian manager of Ross '25-9, succeeding Schmidt. ii. 648, 650-1; iii. 213. Shelly (Pearson B.), 1847, mr of the Gen. Kearny. v. 518; and trader at S.F. '47-8, of firm S. & Norris. v. 680; also owner of S.F. lot. Shelton, 1842, at S.F.; prob. 'Sheldon,' q.v. S. (Sebert C.), 1847, Q.M. sergt Morm. Bat., but reduced to ranks Co. D. v. 477. Shepherd (Edmund), 1846, mid. U.S.N., acting lieut in Stockton's Bat. '46-7. v. 385. S. (Lafayette), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Sherman (Heran V. S.), 1847, Co. H, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. before '82. S. (J.), 1837, named in Larkin's accounts. 

Sherman (Richard M.), 1846, nat. of R.I., who passed his boyhood on a farm, and then went to sea for 5 or 6 years, coming to Cal. from Honolulu as clerk on the Euphemia, leaving the vessel at S.F., where he worked as bookkeeper for Paty & Davis, and in '47-8 made a trip to the Isl. as sup. of the Euphemia. He became the owner of a town lot, on which he built a store in which the firm of S. & Ruckel did business in '48-50. v. 681, 686. In '51 he went east, but returned on a business visit in '55-6. He resided in Mass. and at Providence, R.I., till '84, when he returned to S.F. to take charge of his real estate interests, including the 'Sherman building,' on the lot purchased by him in '47, in which he has an office in '85, at the age of 72. In an interview, and also in a letter from R.I., he gave me some information about early S.F. and his own life. His 1st wife, married in '54, was Sally S. Mauran, who died in '65; the 2d, of '69-70, was Emma F. Mitchell; and the 3d, '78-85, Kate Field. Five children survived in '85, Harry M., Elizabeth M., Adeline M., Ethel, and Richard M. Jr. 

Sherman (Wm Tecumseh), 1847, nat. of Ohio, graduate of West Point, who came to Cal. as lieut Co. F, 3d U.S. artill., and in '47-50 served most of the time as adj.-gen. under the military governors. v. 444, 450, 492, 518, 520, 609, 636, 646; also of the firm Warner, Sherman, & Bestor at Coloma '48-9. He went east with despatches in '50; but, having resigned his army commission, came back in '53 to conduct as partner the banking business of Lucas, Turner, & Co. until '57. His Californian experience of '47-57 is fully narrated in the early chapters of his Memoirs, a most interesting and accurate record, except in a few comparatively unimportant details. Sherman was later superintendent of a La military academy and president of a St Louis street railroad until in '61 he re‚ntered the military service as colonel. His subsequent career in the war of '61-5 and since is a prominent part of U.S. history, which I [p.327]make no attempt to summarize. He reached a higher position than any other pioneer named in this register; and in '85 is still living as retired general of the army. His wife, married in '50, is the daughter of Hon. Thomas Ewing. The general has often revisited Cal., taking a deep interest in pioneer matters. 

Sherreback (Peter), 1840, nat. of Denmark, who came by sea and settled at S.F. as a trader. iv. 117, 120. He was baptized and naturalized in '41-2; sˇndico '43. iv. 666; agente de policˇa '44. iv. 666; being married the same year or the next to Mary, sister of John Sullivan. In '45 he was owner of S.F. lands, and aided Sutter in support of Micheltorena. iv. 486, 669, 673; v. 681-2. He was collector in '46-7. v. 295, 648; and memb. of the council '47. v. 678. He still lived at S.F. in '55 and later, but I find no mention of his death. His widow was still living in '60. The original name was probably 'Scherrebach,' but it is written in a great variety of ways. Sherwood (Jeremiah), 1847, lieut Co. G, N.Y. Vol. v. 504, 517. In '48-9 clerk for Brannan & Co. at Sac.; later member of N.Y. legislature; d. N.Y. City '83. Scheuer (Pierre), 1834, Fr. mason at Mont., age 27, married to Marˇa J. Garcˇa. Perhaps same as 'Cheorette,' q.v. 

Shields (H.L.), 1847, lieut Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. on muster-roll; but did not come to Cal. (v. 518). S. (Sam.), 1831, Amer. from N. Mex. in the Wolfskill party. iii. 387, 405; d. at Los Ang. a few years later. S. (W.F.), 1847, capt. in com. of U.S. Preble. Shipley (Otto), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518). Shipp (Wm), 1847, ditto. Shirland (E.D.), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); nat. of N.Y. and settler in Placer Co. from '50; capt. in war of '61-5; county clerk and recorder of Sac.; at Auburn '82. Shirley (Paul), 1846, on the roll of the Soc. Cal. Pion.; d. in Ohio '76. Shislylind (Gustaff), 1847, musician Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 

Shockley, 1846, mr of the Roman. Shoemaker (Sam.), 1846, one of the Donner party from Ohio; died in the Sierra. v. 531, 533. Shoetzof, 1803, in charge of a party of Aleut. hunters. ii. 25, 63, perhaps Shvetzof. Shoive, 1847-8, mr of the Anita. v. 576. Shooks (Wm), 1841, doubtful name at S. Diego. Toomes. Shooter (Chas), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Short (J.O.B.), 1846, nat. of Ky, and overl. immig. with his mother-later Mrs Merriner-who settled at S. Rafael, where he still lived in '80 with wife, Mary Miller, and 5 children. S. (Jacob), 1846, brother of J.O.B., and his partner in '80. S. (Patrick), 1832, Irish priest who came in exile from Honolulu with P. Bachelot; in '34-6 an associate of Hartnell in his school near Mont.; left Cal. in '37, and went to Valparaˇso, where he still lived in '70. iii. 317-18, 364, 384, 408, 670, 677-8; iv. 102. Shotwell (Geo.), 1841, overl. immig. of the Bartleson party, accidentally killed on the journey. iv. 269. Shreve, 1848, mr of a vessel at S.F. Shrives, 1848, mr of the Anita. Shrives (Dan B.), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Shroter (Chas), 1847, Co. G, ditto; at S.F. '82. Shubrick (Wm Bransford), 1846, commodore U.S.N., in com. of Pacific squadron '46-7, on the Independence. v. 428-9, 437, 636. Shulters (John), 1847, Co. H, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Shultz (Ernst), 1847, owner of S.F. lot. Shumway (Aurora), 1847, Co. C, N. Y. Vol. (v. 469); re‚nl. Shurts (Watson), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 

Sibrian see 'Cibrian.' Sibs (Sam.), 1836, doubtful name of a witness at Sonoma. Sicard (Pierre Th‚odore), 1833, Fr. sailor and carpenter who on applying for naturalization in '40 claimed a resid. of 7 years. iii. 409. He was in the Mont. dist '34 and at the S. Pablo rancho '40. In '42-4 he worked for Sutter at Hock Farm; and in '44 got a grant of the Nemshas rancho on Bear River adjoining Johnson's, iv. 672, where he settled in '45. His visits from Bear River to Sutter's fort in '45-8 are often recorded in the N.Helv. Diary; in 48-9 a miner and trader on the Yuba, where a flat and bar took his name. Though deemed rich in those days, he became poor; was living with Claude Chana in '71, and died before '79. Sickels (J. F.), 1847, surgeon on the U.S. Independence. Siddons (Wm M.), 1848, on the roll of the Soc. Cal. Pion. Sierra (Benito de la), 1775, Span. friar who visited Cal. as chaplain on the Santiago and S. Antonio, and died at S. Blas '77. He had served in L. Cal. '69-73. i. 240-1, 287, 310. Sigler (Wm), 1845, at Sutter's fort Nov.; prob. [p.328]an overl. immig. In the spring of '46 he carried despatches up the valley to Fr‚mont. He was murdered at Moon's rancho Tehama Co. in '49 or '50. iv. 578, 583; v. 24. 

Sill (Daniel), 1832, nat. of Conn., trapper and carpenter who came from N. Mex. in the winter of '32-3, settling at Sta B., where he hunted otter under Capt. Dana's license, and was partner in a bakery in '34. iii. 388, 408. In '35 he came to Mont. and got a carta; and from '39 or earlier lived at S.F., building a mill for Spear in '39-40. v. 681; named by Farnham as one of the foreigners arrested in '40. iv. 17. From '44 he spent most of his time in the Sac. Valley, working as a blacksmith for Sutter part of the time. In '46 he bought a rancho of Lassen where he had a cabin. v. 301; and in '49 was joined by his son Daniel and daughter Harriet-later Mrs Mahew. He died in '62, at the age of 66. Sillen (D. S.), 1846, Cal. Bat. (v. 358). Siltzer (Henry), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Silva, family at S. Dieguito rancho '31. iii. 612. S. (Antonio), 1840 (?), Portuguese deserter from a whaler, employed for several years at Petaluma by Gen. Vallejo. iv. 120. S. (Mariano), 1840, Mex. capt. of artill. at Mont. '40-6; went to Mazatlan '47 or '48. iv. 31, 198, 293, 307-8, 311, 357, 652; v. 41, 230, 232-3. S. (Mariano), at Los Ang. '39; in '46 at S. Juan Cap., age 37, wife Francisca Perez. S. (Mariano), nat. of Chile, patron of the custom-house boat at Mont. '45. Silvas (Antonio M.), at Los Ang. '39, age 37. S. (Cowner of land at S. Juan Cap., 41. iv. 626. S. (Clara), at S. Juan Cap. '46, age 40, child. Ger˘nimo b. '29, Guadalupe '32, Lugarda '37, and Fernando '38. S. (Diego), at S. Bern. '46, age 24. S. (Jos‚), settler at Los Ang. 1789. i. 461. S. (Juan), at Mont. '36. iii. 617. S. (Mariano), at Los Ang. '46, age 35. S. (Ramon), owner of land at S. Juan Cap. '41. iv. 626. S. (Teodoro), at Los Ang. '10-16; ii. 110, 350. Silverio, neophyte who killed his wife at Mont. 1798. i. 691. 

Sime, 1848, in the legislature '55; John L. in S.F. guard '49. Simental (Jos‚ C.), 1800, sentenced to 6 years in Cal. as a settler. i. 606. Simeon, Ind., grantee of lot at S. Gabriel '46. v. 627. Simmonds (Stephen), 1835 (?), nat. of N.Y., landing at Sta B. from the whaler Liverpool Packet, and becoming an otter-hunter with Nidever for several years. Named in '39-40 at Sta B. and Mont. Making voyages in different vessels; he was in '44 sick in care of the consulate, and is said to have died at Branch's rancho about '45. iii. 413. Simmons, 1848, lieut on the U.S. Ohio. S. (Alex. R.), 1846, mid. on the U.S. Columbia. '46-7. S. (Bezer), 1843, nat of Vt, mr of the Magnolia '43-6. iv. 400, 567; v. 579. Later of the S.F. firm S., Hutchinson, & Co.; member of the council '49; d. in '50 at the age of 40. His assignees were cl. for the Novato rancho. iii. 712. His wife was a sister of Frederick Billings, and died in '49. S. (Charles), 1847 (?), miner and later trader at Reno, Nev., where he died '79; accredited by the newspapers to N.Y. Vol. Left a daughter at Livermore, Cal. S. (Wm), 1846, clerk in the navy, acting lieut in Stockton's Bat. '46-7. v. 386. S. (Wm A.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Simon (Lem.), 1828, Amer. sailor of the Gen. Lucre left at S. Diego drunk. S. (Luis), 1828, Engl. arrested for having no pass; prob. same as preceding. Simons (Maurice), 1846, passed mid. on the U.S. Congress. 

Simpson, 1827, mr of the Cadboro. iii. 146. S., 1845, doubtful name of an overl. immig. iv. 578. S., 1846, ditto; may have gone to Or. v. 529. S. (Geo.), 1841, at S.F. on the Cowlitz. S. (Sir Geo.) 1841, chief of the H. B. Co., visiting Cal. on his trip round the world, and author of a Narrative which contains much valuable information on the country. ii. 77-8; iv. 191, 209, 218-21, 235-6, 250-3, 259-61, 333, 343, 564, 639-40, 650-1, 665, 678. S. (Henry I.), 1848, author of Three Weeks in the Gold Mines, in the form of a letter written at Mont. in Sept. He claims to be of the N.Y. Vol., but perhaps writes under an assumed name; or still more likely the letter is a fraud concocted in N.Y. S. (Wm), 1844, Engl. who got a passport. S. (Wm), 1828, witness against Capt. Bradshaw. iii. 133. Sims (Jack), 1846, aided in building the Sta Cruz schr. S. J. Patriot. S. (Joseph), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); Engl. settler in Sac. Co. '79-80, with wife Mary L. Moor, and 3 children. 

Sinard ('Major'), 1847, visitor at Sutter's fort. Sinclair (Archibald), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (John), 1839, Scotchman for some years in employ of the H.B. Co. in Or., later editor of a paper at Honolulu, who in Dec. '39 was at Mont. asking for a carta, and in '40 at Sutter's fort. iv. 117, 119, 139. In '41 he was sent back to the Isl. by Sutter to make arrangement for consignments of goods, going on the Llama and returning on the Julia Ann. His negotiations for Sutter were not very successful, but he made a bargain with Grimes, by virtue of which on his return in Dec. '41 he obtained naturalization, and in '42 took possession of the El Paso rancho, north of N. Helv., as the representative of Grimes, to whom it was granted in '44. iv. 229, 237, 566. He was visited in '42-3 by Sandels and Yates, who describe him as a very intelligent man fond of grog; also by Fr‚mont in '44, iv. 438, when he was an officer in the N. Helv. militia. iv. 479, 680. He was Sutter's aide in the Micheltorena campaign. iv. 485-6; is often named from '45 in the N. Helv. Diary; and in '46-9 he was alcalde of the Sac. district, v. 675, having a Cal. claim of $450 (v. 462), taking part in relief measures for the Donner party, v. 538, 541, and finally dying in '49 on his passage by steamer to the States. S. (Wm), 1845, clerk for Rae at S.F. iv. 593. S. (Wm B.), 1828, Amer. carpenter, age 25, who left his vessel at Sta B., escaping with 3 others in a boat to Sta Catalina Isl. Singleton (A. W.), 1848, passp. from Hon. Sinova (Jos‚ F.), settler at Los Ang. 1785-6; 2d alcalde in '89. i. 346, 348, 461. Sinton (Rich. H.), 1848, a well-known citizen of S. F. down to '85, whose arrival is accredited, erroneously I suppose, in various publications to '47 or '48. 

Sipole (Wm), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518); d. before '64. Sipp, 1846, Amer. ship-carpenter from Or. in the McMahon party, who prob. went back to Or. in '46. iv. 572; v. 526. Siptler (J.), 1846, in Cal. Bat. (v. 358). Siralde (Mariano), at Sonoma '44, age 27; perhaps 'Lizalde.' Sirey (James), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); settled at Stockton '48; at S.F. '71-4; Stockton '75; d. before '82. Sirrine (Geo. W.), 1846, of the Mormon colony. v. 546; of Stout, S., & Meder, lumber dealers at Sta Cruz '47; memb. of the town council '48. v. 642. In Ariz., still in the faith, '85. S. (John J.), 1846, ditto, with wife and child. v. 546; in '47 candidate for the council and owner of a S. F. lot. v. 650, 680; an elder and school trustee '48. v. 656; presid. of the council '48; in Ariz. '85. Sisk (Thos J.), 1848 (?), survivor of the Texan-Mier massacre; died at Grass Valley '69. Sisson (Reuben), 1847, Co. K, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. S. Rafael '49. Sitjar (Antonio, or Buenaventura), 1771, Span. friar who served at S. Antonio-being also founder of S. Miguel-until his death in 1808. Biog. ii. 151-2; ment. i. 173, 176, 196, 298, 388, 411, 469, 498, 552, 560, 576, 587, 688-9; ii. 147, 159-60. Swarthout (Nathan), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. v. 469. 

Skeckett (Job), 1845, Delaware Ind. in Fr‚mont's party '45-7 (iv. 581). Skee (Alex.), 1827, mr of the Huascar '27-8. iii. 147. Skein (Joseph), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Skene (Wm), 1846, one of the chino prisoners, wounded. v. 313-14. Skillington (H.), 1848, at Hon. from Mont. Skinner (Eugene F.), 1845, overl. immig. from N.Y. in the Grigsby-Ide party, with a family. Working for Sutter and visiting S.F. and S. Jos‚, he went in '46 to Or., where he founded and named Eugene City, dying there in '64, and leaving a widow and 3 children. iv. 579-80; v. 526. S. (A. A.), 1848, Or. pioneer of '45, judge of the Or. sup. court, brother of Eugene, said to have made a trip to the gold mines; d. at Sta Cruz '77. S. (Horace A.), 1846, of Mormon colony, with wife and child. v. 546; in '47-8 he kept the City Hotel at S.F. v. 680; in Utah '84. S. (John), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at S. Jos‚ '50; at Campo Seco '71-4. 

Slocum (Wm A.), 1837, U.S. commissioner on the Loriot, and author of a Report. iv. 146-7, 165. Slade (Philip O.), 1832, nat. of N. H. who came by sea. iii. 408; in Mont. dist. '33-5; naturalized '39, being a sawyer at S. Rafael; last appears at S.F. '40. S. (Thompson), 1846, Co. F, Cal. Bat. (v. 358. S. (Wm D.), 1847, Co. H, N.Y. Vol. (v. 497). A printer who was city marshal at Yreka; d. before '82, prob. in '63. Slague (John), 1836. Fr. sailor [p.330]on the Ayacucho, age 19. Slater (Richard), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); mail-carrier for Brannan '48. Slausum, 1834, Eng. sailor, age 46, at Mont. Sleight (Peter), 1847, Co. K, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Slepe (Jerome), 1834, Eng. hatter in a Mont. list, age 27. Sloat (John D.), 1846, nat. of N.Y. in com. of the Pacific squadron, raising the U.S. flag in Cal. July. v. 37, 195-215, 224-54, 411-12, 580. Com. Sloat was a timid, irresolute man; but after he decided to take possession of the Cal. ports his policy was entirely praiseworthy as compared with that of Stockton, his successor. Biog. note v. 254. S. (Lewis W.), 1846, son of John D., and his sec. on the Savannah. v. 225. He came back to Cal. about '54 and was a notary public at S.F. for several years. Slobodchikof, 1806, chief hunter on the coast from Alaska. ii. 40; in '13-14 clerk of Kuskof at Ross, visiting S.F. ii. 204, 302, 304, 373. Slocum, 1844, mate of the Newton. Slover (Isaac), 1828, Kentuckian trapper of Pattie's party who went back to Sonora with a pass in Nov. iii. 163, 166-7, 178. He came back with a N. Mex. colony about '41-3, settling at S. Bernardino, where he was killed by a bear in '54, at the age of about 80. Slover Mt still bears his name. Slusser (Levi S. B.), 1847, nat. of Pa; in Sonoma Co. '48-77. Sly (James C.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); a miller in Sutter's employ, also in the mines '48, exploring a new route and Salt Lake Val. S. (John), 1846, Co. F, Cal. Bat. (v. 358). 

Smith, naturally many of the name cannot be identified. S., 1831, sailor drowned at Sta B. iii. 405. S., 1831, about to leave Hon. for Cal. S., 1844, officer on the Modeste. S., 1845, Engl. who got a pass for Sonora. S., 1846, from Hon. on the Euphemia. S., 1847, had a project of establishing a colony on the Moquelumne, transferring his claim to McKinstry in '48. S. Joaq. Co. Hist. S., 1847, mid. on the U.S. Independence. S., 1847, owner of a saw-mill near S.F. S., 1848, at Sutter's fort from Sta Clara; lately from Or. S., 1848, mr of the Haalilo. 

Smith (A. B.), 1837(?), committed suicide at S. Diego '67, said to have been a resid. for 30 (20?) years; ment. at S.D. '46. iv. 118; v. 329. S. (Albert), 1847, sergt Co. B, Morm. Bat. v. 477; also Q.M. sergt at Manti, Utah, '81. S. (Alex.), 1846, ment. by Michael White as in the Los Ang. region, known as 'Stuttering Alec.' S. (Andrew J.), 1847, capt. in the 1st U.S. dragoons, who came with the Morm. Bat., of which he was acting com. for a time in the east. v. 477, 479-83. He was the officer who mustered out the Morm. Bat. and part of the N.Y. Vol., subsequently taking com. of the dragoons. v. 490, 515, 631. He went east with Sherman in '50; and in the war of '61-5 became a general. S. (Azariah), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); author of a song for the bat.; at the Coloma mill '38 when gold was discovered. S. (Chas), 1824, named in an archive record as an otter-hunter. ii. 527; perhaps Karl 'Schmidt.' S. (Chas), 1828, Engl. deserter from a Fr. whaler at Todos Santos; at S. Diego '28-9. S. (Chas), 1846, powder-boy on the Dale. S. (Chas), 1846, Co. G, Cal. Bat. (v. 358). S. (Chas), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (Chas), 1847, with Brannan on trip to Salt Lake. v. 553; perhaps C.C. S. (Chas F.), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. before '82. S. (Chas R.), 1825 (?), said to have been at Sta B. in charge of Dana's store. S.Luis Ob. Co. Hist.; in '29 writes from Hon., and had visited Cal. before; in '31 came on the Louisa as sup.; in '32 joined the comp. extranjera. iii. 221; ment. in Larkin's accts '36. S. (C.C.), 1847, trader at Sutter's fort '47-8, a partner of Brannan; made a trip to Hon. on the Tepic '48. S. (C. S.), 1848, passp. from Hon. 

Smith (D.), 1847, Co. B, artill. Cal. Bat. (v. 358). S. (D.), 1848, at Hon. from Mont. S. (David), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); d. in April at S. Luis Rey. v. 481. S. (D. W.), 1846, Co. G, Cal. Bat. (v. 358). S. (Edward), 1848, overl. immig. from Mo., with wife, son, and 5 daughters; postmaster at S. Juan B.; died about '57. One of his daughters married John Breen in '52. S. (Elijah M.), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Aurora, Mono Co., '82 S. (Elisha), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). S. (Ezekiah), 1847, at Sutter's fort; prob. Azariah. S. (F.), 1846, Cal. Bat. (v. 358). S. (Frances R.), 1846, married to W. W. Scott at Sonoma, June. S. (Frazer), [p.331]1814, mr of the Isaac Todd. ii. 271-2. S. (Fred.), 1848, German farmer at S. Jos‚ '50-76. S. (Fred C.), 1845 (?), said by his son, Budd S.-U.S. consul at S. Blas-to have come as mr of the bark Helvetia, but I have no other record of such a vessel this year. iv. 587. 

Smith (G. M.), 1845, at Sutter's fort, apparently an overl. immig.; also the same or another at Sonoma '45-6; perhaps the father of Frances R. iv. 579-80, 526. S. (Geo.), 1825, mr of the Spy '25-7. iii. 149. S. (Geo.), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). S. (Geo.), 1846, Co. F, Cal. Bat. (v. 358); had a fight with Lieut Rock, and was sentenced by court-martial to 22 months of hard labor. v. 434. S. (Gerard D.), 1847, Co. C, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (H.), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (Henry), 1846, at Sutter's fort; interested at Benicia. '47-8. v. 672; perhaps Henry C. S. (Henry), 1846 (?), keeper of a sailor's boarding-house at S.F., owner of lot, constable, and jail-keeper '47. v. 648, 685; perhaps same as the following. S. (Henry), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); drowned in Feather River '49. S. (Henry C.), 1845, nat. of Ohio, and overl. immig. with the Hastings party. iv. 586-7. He served, perhaps, in the Cal. Bat. (v. 358); had a 'Cal. claim' for $25 (v. 462); was a memb. of the legislature from Sta Clara Co. '52; cl. for land. iv. 673; supervisor of Washington, Alameda Co., '55; in Nev. '61-4; in Alameda Co. from '65 to his death at Livermore in '75, at the age of 51. His wife was Mary van Gordon, married in '46, and his surviving children were Julia A. (Mrs Hargrave), Emma L., Franklin P., and Charles. S. (Henry J.), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (Hiram), 1846, Co. F, Cal. Bat. (v. 358). S. (I.), 1845, at Sutter's fort Apr. '46. S. (Isaac P.), 1846, Co. F, Cal. Bat. (v. 358); at Sutter's fort '47. S. (Israel), 1848, present at the discov. of gold acc. to the county histories. S. (I. T.), 1846 (?), nat. of Ia and overl. immig.; a settler in Sonoma Co. from '51 to his death in '79, leaving a wife and two children; called also I. P. 

Smith (J.), 1846, Cal. Bat., Co. B, artill. (v. 358). S. (J. J.), 1846, Co. F, Cal. Bat. (v. 358). S. (Jack), 1846, at Sutter's fort from up and down the valley '46-8. S. (Jacob), 1816, pilot of the Lydia. ii. 275. S. (James), 1827, capt. of a vessel at S.F. S. (James), 1841, nat. of Engl., naturalized in '44, when he had been 3 years in Cal., being then a farmer in the Sac. Val. iv. 279. Often named in the N. Helv. Diary from '45. In Jan. '46 he married the widow Marshall, and died in '48. Bidwell thinks the widow married Gregson, and was living in Sonoma Co. '64, having a son named Marshall; but there may be some confusion here; see 'Gregson.' S. (James), 1844, mr of the Hibernia '44-5, iv. 566, 587, who in later years established a line of packets between S.F. and Honolulu, being well known as Capt. 'Jim' Smith. He died at New London, Conn., in '68, at the age of '65, leaving no family, as I am informed by Capt. H. H. Watson. S. (James), 1846, of the Donner party from Ill., dying in the mountains. v. 530, 533. S. (James), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (James G.), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); drowned in Amer. Riv. '49. S. (James M.), 1847, Co. K, ditto. 

Smith (Jedediah), 1826, Amer. trapper chief who came from Salt Lake via Colorado Riv. and Mojave to S. Gabriel. In '27 he went to Salt Lake from the S. Joaquin Val. and returned, being the 1st to cross the Sierra. From Cal. he went to Or., and in '31 was killed by the Ind. in N. Mex. See record of his visit. iii. 152-60; ment. ii. 551, 569, 600; iv. 263. S. (John), 1834, Engl. carpenter, age 28, in Spear's service at Mont. iii. 412; also a 'tailor' Smith the same year. Named in Larkin's accounts '36-40; arrested in '40 but escaped exile. iv. 17. There may be some confusion between this man and the following. S. (John), 1837, nat. of Nova Scotia, who came by sea; asked for naturalization in '42, being a carpenter in the Sac. Val. and 5 years a resident. iv. 118. Sutter says S. obtained land from him near Marysville; naturalized in '44, and got a grant of land in Yolo Co. iv. 674; living on his rancho '45-8, ment. in the N. Helv. Diary, a partner and neighbor of Michael Nye. S. (John), 1845, Amer. sailor on the Morea in trouble at S.F. S. (John), 1846, Fauntleroy's dragoons (v. 232, 247). S. (John), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336); sentenced by court-martial to imprisonment at [p.332]Los Ang. '47. S. (John), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); in Utah '82. S. (John), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518); living '64. S. (John), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (John F.), 1833, Fr. carpenter from the Sandw. Isl. at Sta B. iii. 409; where he built the 1st wooden house, and died in '66. Huse. S. (John G.), 1847, perhaps of N.Y. Vol. (v. 499), under another name. S. (John H.), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (John M.), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (Joseph), 1845, doubtful name of an overl. immig. iv. 578. 

Smith (L. H.), 1846, mr of the Benj. Rush. v. 576. S. (Lewis), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (Lot), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); reenl.; in Ariz. '82. S. (Napoleon B.), 1845, nat. of Ohio, and overl. immig. in the Hastings party with his brother Henry C. iv. 586-7. He worked a while for Sutter, and then became a lumberman in the S. Antonio redwoods, but perhaps took some part in the revolt and war of '46-7. In '48-9 he went to the mines, and kept a store at Mission S. Jos‚, beingsub-prefect for a time in '49. Later he became a trader at Martinez, being county assessor, and memb. of the legislature in '52. In '57-85 he lived on a rancho in Contra Costa Co. His wife was Margelina, daughter of Elam Brown, and he has 8 children: Frank (b. Jan. '48, the 1st in Contra Costa), Lawrence M., Sarah C., Louis N., Ellen J., Elam, Timothy S., and Warren C. I have a full Biog. Sketch of 'Bony' Smith written in '75. S. (Oliver), 1848, doubtful name at Benicia. S. (Orrin), 1846, of the Mormon colony, with wife and 6 children, excommunicated on the voy., and perhaps left for a time at Hon. His daughter Amelia was in Utah '84. v. 546, 549. S. (O. K.), 1848, nat. of N.Y., and overl. immig.; memb. of the legisl. '61, being a farmer at Visalia, age '39. S. (Persifer F.), 1848. Gov. Smith did not arrive till '49, nevertheless by a slip of his pen he writes at S.F. in March '48, inquiring for Benicia lots. v. 673. 

Smith (R.), 1833, mr of the Fakeja. iii. 382. S. (Robert), 1846, of the Mormon colony, with wife and 2 children; teacher of tactics on the Brooklyn; owner of S.F. lot '47; died in the faith about '49. v. 546, 550, 679. S. (Robert), 1847, at Sonoma and N. Helv.; known as 'Growling' Smith, and arrested for outrages on Ind. v. 569, 610. He may have been the 'Badger' Smith of the Bears in '46. v. 167. S. (Sam.) 1837, named in Larkin's accounts. S. (Sam.), 1845 (?), at Sonoma and N. Helv. '45-8; iv. 587; seems to have had a rancho in the Sac. Val. '47, also working for Larkin. Sam. S. of Baltimore is named in the El Dorado Co. Hist. as having come in '43 and kept the 1st store at Kelsey. At S.F. as a witness '47 and owner of a town lot. Acc. to the Marin Co. Hist., a Sam. S. lived in the Pt Reyes region in '46. S. (Simeon P.), 1847, in S.F. letter-list. 

Smith (Stephen), 1841, nat. of Md., who had spent some time in Peru, and who visited Cal., prob. on the Corsair, in '41. iv. 279. I have his letter of July written at Callao after his return from Cal. On this 1st visit he made arrangements with Gov. Alvarado to introduce a steam-mill; and in '43 he came back from Baltimore with the engine-the 1st in Cal.-and mill machinery on the George Henry. iv. 395-6, 565-6. As soon as he could be naturalized he got a grant in '44 of Bodega, where he had set up his mill, and where he lived for the most part from that time. iv. 186, 392, 670, 679. In '45, visiting S. Blas, Smith was arrested on a charge of being engaged in filibustering schemes for the U.S., but soon released, as there was no proof. iv. 601. As he later told Lieut Sherman that he came to Cal. on the assurance of Webster that the U.S. would surely have the country, it is possible that in the earlier years he talked indiscreetly. In '45-6 he owned lots in S.F., and built a house at the cor. of Dupont and Washington streets. iv. 669, 673; v. 682. In '46 he raised the U.S. flag at Bodega, and in '46-8 served as civil magistrate. v. 242, 670. In the flush times his mill was a very valuable property, and he was cl. for not only Bodega, but the Blucher rancho. iv. 670. He died at S.F. in '55 at the age of 69. His wife was a Peruvian, a sister of Manuel Torres; who married Tyler Curtis in '56; and he left three children, Manuela, Stephen, and James B., all of whom seem to have been living in '75. The daughter, born at Bodega '46, married John M. English, and lived in Oakland '81. 

Smith (Theodore), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (Thomas), 1841, at S. Jos‚. iv. 279; naturalized '44, when he claimed to have been a resid. since '42; owner of S.F. lot 45, where he kept a saloon '46-50, a stout and stuttering Englishman. iv. 669; v. 682, 685. S. (Thomas), 1845, overl. immig. of the Swasey-Todd, or possibly the McMahon, party. iv. 576-7, 573; apparently at Sutter's fort '46-7. S. (Thos), 1846, sailor in Stockton's Bat., fatally wounded at the S. Gabriel, Jan. '47. v. 395. S. (Thos), on the roll of the Society of California Pioneers as having arr. in Sept. S. (Thos J.), 1845, ditto, arrived S.F. Dec. iv. 587; perhaps the cl. of S.F. Mission lots in '52; at Gold Hill, Nev., '81. S. (Thos L.), 1829 (?), Kentuckian trapper and mountaineer, known as 'Peg-leg' Smith from his wooden leg. The chronology of his wild career is confusing; but he may have stolen horses in Cal. in '29 and several times later, as he was fond of boasting in late years. iii. 172, 179. In '41 'El Cojo Smit' was reported to be in com. of a party of vagabonds from N. Mex. iv. 208, 278, 342. After '49 he lived in Cal., and died at S.F. in '66. 

Smith (W.), 1846, Cal. Bat., Co. B, artill. (v. 358), enlisting at Mont. Oct. S. (Willard), 1847, musician Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); in '82 at Littleton, Utah, stake president and probate judge. Smith (Wm), 1800, mate of the Hazard, perhaps visiting the coast several times before 1808. ii. 17, 24-5, 95-6. In 1810-11, as mate of the Albatross, he was engaged in furhunting on the coast, especially in taking seals at the Farallones. ii. 93. In '16 he came back from China in com. of the Albatross, and was arrested for smuggling at Sta B., though his vessel escaped capture. ii. 275-7, 362, 248, 633. He was a nat. of Va, whose voyages and adventures in all parts of the world would fill a volume. In '36 or earlier he found his way to Cal. again. iv. 103, 141; and now, too old to command, he still made his home on board Boston vessels on the coast or at the Islands, being transferred from one to another according to his whims, and occasionally spending a few months on shore. He died at Sonoma on May 5, '46, at the age of 78. S. (Wm), 1824, mr of the Young Tartar. ii. 519. S. (Wm), 1827, Amer. carpenter in the Mont. dist. '29, age 22. iii. 176. Ment. as a sawyer working for Cooper in '31; 'Bill the Sawyer' at S. Jos‚ '33, married to a Sais; in Mont. lists of '34; also near Pt Reyes; at Sonoma and S.F. '37-9; one of the arrested foreigners '40. iv. 17; Engl. carpenter, age 42, at S. Jos‚ '41; wife Marˇa Josefa Sais, child. Daniel b. '33, Jos‚ '36, Patricio '37, Jos‚ S. '39, Marˇa '38; one of Sutter's men in the Micheltorena campaign '45. iv. 495; at S. Jos‚, S.F., and in the Sac. Val. '46; owner of a lot at S.F. and settler at Benicia '47-all these may be one or half a dozen Bill Smiths for all that I know. 

Smith (Wm H.), 1847, lieut Co. I, N.Y. Vol. v. 504; owner of S.F. lot. Still at S.F. '52; in Tuolumne Co. '74. S. (Wm M.), 1845, nat. of Ga, who came with Capt. Paty from S. Blas. iv. 587. A droll fellow, who had been a circus-rider, known as 'Jim Crow' Smith; in '46-8 member of the S.F. firm of Ward & S., owning lots and building a house, besides serving as capt. of volunteers in Marston's Sta Clara campaign. v. 381, 539, 679, 681, 684. In '48 he married the widow of Capt. Hinckley, and in '49 moved to Martinez. After a while he went to the bad altogether, being a violent and dangerous man when intoxicated, and about '54 he killed himself. S. (Wm Taylor), 1846, lieut on the U.S. Dale. Smyth (Wm), 1826, mate of the Blossom. iii. 121; artist from whose drawings Forbes' California was illustrated. iv. 151. 

Snitter (Lewis), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Snook (Joseph Francisco), 1830, Engl. mr of the Ayacucho, who had been on the Mex. coast in Virmond's employ since '24. iii. 146, 180. He was naturalized in '33, and in '33-9 mr of the Catalina. iii. 381; iv. 102, 117. In '38 he purchased of Berry a rancho at Pt Reyes or Tomales, confirmed next year by the diputacion. Before this time he had married Marˇa Antonia, daughter of J.B.Alvarado of S. Diego, and he talked of quitting the sea and forming a partnership with Fitch; but in '40-2 he commanded the J˘ven Guipuzcoana. iv. 12, 104, 305, 566; and the Juanita in '46. In '42 he was grantee of the S. Bernardo rancho, [p.334]S. Diego, iv. 621, where he lived with his family, dying suddenly in April '47 or '48. His widow married Henry Clayton. Snow (A.), 1847, at Benicia. B. Tribune. S. (B. F.), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (R. D.), 1848, ditto. S. (Ze'nora S.), 1846, of the Mormon colony. v. 546; in Utah '84. 

Snyder (Elijah), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Trenton, N.J., '75. S. (Jacob R.), 1845, nat. of Pa, and overl. immig. of the Swasey-Todd party. iv. 576, 587. Mentioned at Sta Cruz and various other points in '45-6, employed as a surveyor. v. 654, 641. He served as quartermaster in Fauntleroy's dragoons. v. 293-4; and later in the Cal. Bat., ranking as major. v. 360. In '47 he was appointed surveyor for the middle department of Cal., and also commissioned to investigate charges against Alcalde Nash of Sonoma. v. 610, 465. In '48-9 with Reading and Hensley he had a trading post at Sacramento, and was a member of the constit. convention; from '50 memb. of a S.F. firm; in '52-3 state senator; in '53-60 treasurer of the U.S. mint at S.F. About '62 he retired for the most part from public life to a rancho at Sonoma, where he died in '78 at the age of 65. He was a man of fine personal appearance, of good abilities, of excellent character, and of well-deserved popularity. Portrait in Colton's Three Years; Sonoma Co. Hist. His 1st wife, of '50, was Susan H. Brayton; the 2d, of '74, was Rachel J. Sears; and he had no children. S. (John), 1846, of the Donner party from Ill., killed by Reed on the Humboldt before reaching Cal. v. 530, 532. S. (John), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). 

Soberanes, occupant of Sauzal rancho '23. ii. 616, 664. S. (Agustin), sirviente at Sta Clara 1776. i. 306; still at S. Jos‚ 1794. S. (Ezequiel), son of Mariano, volunteer officer under Castro at the taking of Los Ang. '45. iv. 492. S. (Feliciano), at Mont. '26, and regidor '29-30. ii. 612; grantee of Alisal '34. iii. 676; named in the padron of '36 as a nat. of Cal., age 47, wife Marˇa Ant. Rodriguez, child. Josefa b. '13, P'15, Gabriela '18, Francisco '19, Jos‚ Ant. '21, Jos‚ Marˇa '23, C'25, Mariano '28, Feliciano '29, Jos‚ Andr‚s '31, Francisca '32, and Jos‚ Mateo '33. Alcalde in '38-9. iii. 675, 697; grantee of S. Lorenzo in '41. iv. 655; and in '41-5 the admin. of Soledad mission, of which estate he became the owner. iv. 194, 559, 660-1; v. 558, 637, 641; being in '45 juez 2° at Mont., iv. 653, 656, where he still lived in '51. S. (Francisco), grantee of Sanjon de Sta Rita, Merced, '41. iv. 673. S. (Guadalupe), alf‚rez of auxiliary cavalry '45-6. v. 41; in Mont. Co. '50. S. (Jos‚ Ant.), mentioned at Sutter's fort '47. S. (Jos‚ Marˇa), a soldier of the 1st exped. of 1769-74; at Soledad 1791 et seq.; in 1795 an invin possession of the Buenavista rancho, Mont. i. 683, 441, 499. Prob. ancestor of most of the Soberanes here registered. S. (Jos‚ M.), son of Feliciano, ment. in '46. v. 41. S. (Josefa), daughter of Feliciano, grantee of Los Coches '41. iv. 655. S. (Juan), sub-lieut of militia '46. v. '41; went with Flores to Mex. '47. v. 407. S. (Mariano), soldier of the S.F. comp. '19-21; in '23 alcalde of Mont., sˇndico '27, alcalde '29-30. ii. 611-12; iii. 49, 76, 82, 194; in '35 admin. of S. Antonio. iii. 354, 687-8; in '36 living at Alisal, age 40, a widower-his wife had been a daughter of Ignacio Vallejo-7 child. Mariano b. '19, Juan '21, Ezequiel '23, Tom'25, Guadalupe '28, Victor '29, Ignacio '31. In '42 he was grantee of Los Ojitos rancho. iv. 655; in '45 juez at S. Miguel. iv. 660. In '46 he was arrested with his sons, and his property at Los Ojitos destroyed by Fr‚mont, v. 374, 464, for which Don Mariano had a Cal. claim of $19,930, of which $423 was paid (v. 462). He was cl. for Los Ojitos in '52, and the rancho is still owned by his sons in '85. S. (Mariano), son of the preceding; grantee of S. Bernardo rancho '41-though this may have been the father. iv. 655. He was somewhat active in the final campaign of Natividad against the Amer. v. 290, 367; and was still in Mont. Co. '78. His son, Clodomiro, was for a short time employed in my Library, and a small collection of Doc. Hist. Cal. bears his name. S. (Pson of Feliciano, juez de paz at Mont. '43; custom-house guard at Mont. and S.F. '44-5. iv. 557, 653, 656. S. (Tomclerk in the Mont. custom-house '44. iv. 431; went to Mex. with Flores '47. v. 407. Sobradelas (Pablo), 1825, Span. marine from the Aquiles; ordered to depart in '28-30. iii. 51-2. Sohns (John), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 

Sola (Faustino), 1786, Span. friar who served for brief terms at S. Luis Ob. and S.F., retiring in 1790, and dying at the college of S. Fernando in Mex. 1820. He was a brother of Gov. Sola. i. 388, 423, 469-70, 474; ii. 471. S. (Pablo Vicente), Span. lieut-col, who ruled Cal. as gov. from Aug. 15, '15, to Nov. 22, '22, being promoted to colonel in '19, and leaving Cal. as dip. to the Mex. congress in '22. Except that he was a member of the junta de Cal. in Mex. in '25, iii. 3-5, nothing is definitely known of his later life. For his life and character, see ii. 470-3; on his rule in Cal. ii. 208-470, passim; miscel. mention. i. 662; ii. 78, 188, 479, 485, 514, 562, 565-6, 569, 571, 580, 587, 604, 607, 616, 642, 674, 676; iii. 3, 5, 11, 33, 109. Solano (Francisco), Ind. chief of the Suisunes, who from '35 was an ally of Vallejo at Sonoma, doing more than any other to keep the Ind. of the northern frontier in order. iii. 295, 360, 598; 71-3, 444, 674. He was the grantee of Suisun rancho in '42. His original name was Numa or Tetoy, and the name Solano, given him at baptism from that of the mission, passed from him to the county. I have no record showing the date of his death. His widow, Isidora, was still living at Sonoma in '74, at an advanced age, and furnished a Relacion that is not without interest. Solar (Jos‚ Marˇa), at Branciforte '30. ii. 627. Solares (Pedro), soldier at the Colorado Riv. pueblos 1780-1. i. 359. Solas (Matias), sirviente at Soledad 1791-1800. i. 499. 

Soler (Juan), 1774, guarda-almacen at Mont. i. 224. There was some complaint of his unfitness for the place in '78-9; and he died at Mont. in '81. S. (Nicol1781, Span. capt. who held the position of ayudante-inspector of the Cal. troops in '81-8; a prominent officer and inveterate fault-finder, generally in trouble because things were going to the dogs. He became comandante at Tucson, and died in '90. Biog. i. 397-8; ment. i. 334, 370, 383, 385, 392-6, 411, 443, 451, 462-3, 467, 471-2, 479, 484, 676; ii. 571. S. (Pablo), 1792, surgeon of the Cal. troops at Mont. to 1800. i. 439, 501, 679-80. Soleto (Juan), doubtful, '46. v. 162. Solis (Joaquin), 1825, Mex. convict who in '29 headed a revolt of Californian soldiers, and in '30 was sent as a prisoner to Mex. For full account of the revolt, see iii. 68-85; mention of Solis. ii. 576, 591, 604, 615, 664; iii. 16, 149. Sol˘rzano (Francisco), settler at Los Ang. '16. ii. 350. S. (Jos‚ Antonio), sergt of the Mont. comp. '32-3. iii. 671, 673. S. (Ramon), soldier of the S.F. comp. '39-42; at Sonoma '44, age 19. 

Somera (Jos‚ Antonio Fernandez, or Angel), 1771, Span. friar at S. Gabriel, forced by illness to retire in '72. i. 137, 176, 187-9, 192-3. Somers (Fred.), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Somoza (Antonio Marˇa), 1842, Mex. lieut in the batallon fijo '42-5, adjutant, instructor, and com. at Los Ang. '44-5; still in Cal. '46. iv. 289, 354, 407, 538; v. 41. Soncho (Francisco), juez de paz at S.F. '42. iv. 665, 667. Soret (Angelina), 1847, owner of a S.F. lot. Soria (Francisco), alcalde of Mont. (?), '29. ii. 612; in '28 resid. of Branciforte, wife Rita Pinto, child. Jos‚, Cecilia, Cand Gregorio; juez de paz at B. '32, regidor '38, juez de campo '43, 2d alcalde '45. iii. 588, 696-7; iv. 663-4; in '45 at B., age '50, wife Guadalupe Juarez, child. Jos‚ Ant. b. '27, Miguel '33, Cineda (?) '36, Jos‚ '44, Cecilia '28, Benita '35, Prudencia '37. S. (Jos‚), at Branciforte '45, wife Marˇa de Jesus Robles, child. Refugio '43, Teresa '44. S. (Juan Jos‚), alcalde of Mont. '28. ii. 612; and prob. '29. Sosa (Mariano), visiting Dominican friar at S. Gabriel '31-2. iii. 641. 

Sotelo (Francisco), settler at Los Ang. 1803. ii. 350. S. (Gabriel), ditto '15. ii. 350. S. (Gabriel), S.F. militiaman '37. S. (Jos‚), at S. Bernardino '46, age 45. S. (Jos‚ Marˇa), at Branciforte '45, age 50, wife Encarnacion. S. (Juan), soldier in S.F. comp. '42, militia S.F. '37. S. (Mariano), soldier of S.F. comp. '34-9. S. (Pedro D.), at Los Ang. '46. S. (Ramon), settler at Los Ang. 1805; killed at Purˇsima '24. ii. 350, 412, 529, 566. In '17 P. Payeras writes of him as 'el famoso criminal de California.' Miguel Sotelo, perhaps his descendant, was a famous outlaw killed by the sheriff at Los Ang. in '78. S. (Venancio), at Los Ang. '48. S. (Vicente), at S. Bern. '46, age 22. 

Soto, sailor sirviente at Sta Cruz. i. 496. S. (Andr‚s), at Mont. '38; supl. juez of ranchos '46. v. 637. S. (Antonio), settler at S. Jos‚ before 1800, [p.336]regidor 1809-10, alcalde '18, dying suddenly in that year. i. 716; ii. 134, 378. S. (Antonio), soldier of S.F. comp. '19-29; in '41 at S. Jos‚, age 42, wife Marˇa G. Briones, child. Ramon b. '22, Raimunda '27, Angel '28, Nieves '30, Concepcion '32, Francisco '39, Felipa '40. S. (Antonio 2d), soldier of the S.F. comp. '19-27. S. (Bernardino), had a Cal. claim '46-7 of $873 (v. 462). S. (Casilda), grantee of La Merced, Los Ang., '44. iv. 635. S. (Casimiro), at Mont. '36, age 28, wife Eleuteria Castro, child Marˇa Trinidad b. '34. S. (Domingo), at S. Jos‚ '41, age 22; and living with him Jesus, age 18, Fernando 12, and Jos‚ Ant. 14. S. (Eufemio), juez de campo Mont. '37. iii. 675. S. (Eugenio), body found hanging at Sta Cruz '38. iii. 697. S. (Eugenio), at Branciforte '45, age 40, wife --, child. Ramona b. '35, Juana '37, Rosalˇa '40, and Josefa '44. S. (Eusebio), militiaman at S.F. '37; owner of a town lot '45. iv. 669; v. 685. S. (Felipe), at S.F. '37-44. S. (Fernando), owner of a Russian River rancho '46. Raven. S. (Flores), at Los Ang. '46. 

Soto (Francisco), 1st child b. at S.F. 1776, son of Ignacio. He became a soldier in the S.F. comp., was a corp. in 1810, and was promoted to sergt for bravery in an Ind. campaign of that year; also made an exped. in '13, and another in '20. ii. 91, 204, 324, 339. He was possibly the Fran. S. at S. Matˇas rancho, Mont., '36, age 57, child Lorenzo b. '21. S. (Francisco), corp. in S.F. comp. '19; sergt '20-9; ment. in '27-8. ii. 584, 592; iii. 66-7, 111, 156. I am unable to distinguish the different men bearing this name. S. (Francisco), grantee of Bolsa Nueva rancho '29. ii. 615, 664. S. (Francisco), corp. died of wounds received in an Ind. exped. '29. iii. 111-13. S. (Francisco), at Mont. '36, age 28, wife Marˇa de Los Angeles, child. Ascension b. '32, Trinidad '34, Gertrudis '36. S. (Francisco), at S. Jos‚ '41, age 34, wife BCastro, child. Ana Marˇa b. '34, Francisco '36, Vicente '38, Encarnacion '39; in '42-4 grantee of S. Lorenzo, Alameda Co., for which his widow was cl. in '52. iv. 673. S. (Francisco), at S. Jos‚ '41, age 24. S. (Francisco), grantee of S. Vicente, Mont., '35-42. iii. 678. S. (Francisco), prob. some one of the preceding; sergt of the Mont. comp. '35-6. iii. 671; a supporter of Alvarado and comisario de policˇa. iii. 461, 675; ment. as lieut in '39. iii. 588; admin. of Sta Cruz '39-40. iii. 695; went to Mex. with Covarrubias in '40. iv. 13, 15, 24; but is ment. again in '42. iv. 308. 

Soto (Gervasio), soldier of the S.F. comp. '19-31; resid. of Branciforte '36. iii. 697; at S.F. age 54 in '44; at S. Jos‚ '45. iv. 686. S. (Guillermo), soldier of the S. Buen. escolta 1786, when his wife, Nicolasa Ramirez, died; settled at Los Ang. 1789. ii. 349; alcalde in '98 and 1809. i. 661; ii. 110. S. (Ignacio), soldier of S.F. comp. from 1776; in 1793 at S. Jos‚, wife BEspinosa, child. Antonio b. '76, Francisco Marˇa '77, D'78, Isidoro '80, Josefa (who married Jos‚ Sanchez) '83, Joaquin '84, Jos‚ Francisco, Rafaela, Bernarda, TomJuan, Rafael, and Dolores. i. 291, 477. S. (Ignacio), soldier of the S.F. comp. '24-30. S. (Ignacio), corp. at Mont. '36, age 22. S. (Ignacio), soldier at Mont. '36, age 26. S. (Ignacio), at S. Jos‚ '41, age 33, wife Teresa Martinez. S. (Isidoro), soldier retired with rank of lieut '44. iv. 408; in '36 at Mont., age '55, wife Marcela Linares; married sons Land Joaquin. 

Soto (Jesus), sergt who went to Mex. with Castro '40; aux. de policˇa '46 at Mont. iv. 13, 30; v. 637. S. (Joaquin), son of Isidoro, at Mont. '36, age 33, wife Dolores Cantua, child. Joaquin b. '24, Luisa '26, B'27, Josefa '32, Laran (?) '34; possibly the grantee of Piojo in '42. iv. 655; juez de paz at S. Juan B. '46. v. 640; and still in Mont. Co. '51. S. (Joaquin), son of Ignacio; married at S. Jos‚ 1803 to Marˇa de la Luz Berreyesa. ii. 138. S. (Joaquin), resid. of Branciforte '30. ii. 627. S. (Joaquin), juez de campo at Los Carneros, Mont., '35, iii. 674. S. (Joaquin), at S. Matˇas rancho '36, age 51, wife Juana Butron, child. Bb. '24, Antonia '25, Deogracias '28, Marˇa '30, Adelaida '31, Marˇa '33, Salvador '34. iii. 678. S. (Joaquin), at S. Bernardino '46, age 35. S. (Joaquin), grantee of Ca¤ada de la Carpinterˇa '45. iv. 655. 

Soto (Jos‚) soldier of the S.F. comp. '21-9. S. (Jos‚ Marˇa), settler at Los Ang. '15. ii. 349. S. (Josefa), grantee of Capay rancho '35-44. iii. 711; [p.337]iv. 671. S. (Juan) soldier of the S.F. comp. '19-24; in '41 at S. Jos‚, age 55, wife Petra Pacheco, child. Jos‚ b. '19, Francisco '25, Jos‚ Ignacio '30, Guadalupe '33, Silverio '34, and Juana '35. S. (Lson of Isidro, at Mont. '36, age 34, wife Solecita Cantera, child. Isidro b. '28, General (?) '31, Ramon '34, and Joaquin '35; grantee of Ca¤ada de la Segunda '39. iii. 677; at Mont. '46. S. (Lorenzo), at the Natividad fight '46. v. 368; in the south '47. v. 389-90; cl. for Los Vallecitos '52. iii. 612. S. (Luis), at S.F. '42, age 23. S. (Manuel), soldier of the S.F. comp. '23-31. S. (Manuel), at Branciforte '28. S. (Marˇa Ant. Mesa de), widow at S. Jos‚ '41, age 39, child. Juan Cap. b. '23, Jesus '25, Dolores '27, Juan Cris. '29, Francisco '31, Jos‚ Ignacio '33, Patricio '35, Jos‚ Cruz '37, and Celia '39. S. (Meliton), in the Solis revolt of '29, sent to Mex. iii. 73, 77-8, 82-5. S. (Milano), Mex. soldier at Mont. '36, age 33. S. (Pedro), soldier at S.F. '42. S. (Rejis), settler at Los Ang. 1789. i. 461. S. (Raimundo), worked for Larkin '48 on his rancho. S. (Ramon), at S.F. '44, age 20. S. (Teodora), grantee of Ca¤ada del Hambre and Las Boleus, Contra Costa, in '42. iv. 671. S. (Tiburcio), at Mont. '36, age 30, wife Concepcion Zu¤iga, child. Jos‚ de Jesus b. '29, Raimundo '30, Vicenta '33, Juliana '34, and Miguel '35. Sonervoit (Alex.), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Los Ang. '77. Sout (W.), 1846, Cal. Bat., Co. B, artill. (v. 358). Southward (Chas C.), 1847, clerk for Parker at S.F.; owner of town lots; in '48 trader at Napa in partnership with Swasey. v. 670; at Vallejo after '50; Trinidad '54; Vallejo '77. Southwick (John), 1846, carpenter on the U.S. Congress; capt. and chief engineer in Stockton's Bat. '46-7. v. 385. Southworth (Eli), 1838, nat. of Mass., visited Cal. from Hon. on the D. Quixote, and possibly earlier, '33-5, on the Loriot. iv. 103, 119, 141. In '43-5 he lived at S.F. as a partner in Paty's business, being named in the padron of '44 as 25 years old. After '48 he engaged in the lumber business; and from '53 he lived with William H. Davis at S. Leandro until his death in '57. Souza (Wm), 1847, Portuguese fruit-dealer at Sta Clara '63-76. 

Spalding (Josiah), 1840, mr of the Lausanne, in trouble with the authorities. iv. 104, 121, 171-4. A Mass. man who died about '70; his daughter at Mont. in '84. S. (J. C.), 1848, passp. from Hon. Sparks (Isaac J.), 1832, nat. of Me, and long a resid. of St Louis, Mo., who came from N. Mex. with Young's party of trappers. iii. 388, 408. He engaged in otter-hunting on the coast, and in '34 seems to have made a trip to N. Mex., or at least got a pass. iii. 395; in '35 aiding in the removal of Ind. from S. Nicolisl. iii. 361, 652. From '35 he lived at Sta B., keeping a store from '36 in a house bought of Foxen, but devoting himself mainly to otter-hunting, for which he received several licenses. iv. 81, 117; asked for naturalization in '37, estimating his property at $2,000; grantee of a rancho in '39, he having become a catholic before '36. He was not arrested in '40. iv. 24; but in '41 was in some trouble because of a young woman who bore him two children, iv. 280, being threatened with a fine of $19 (!) if he did not put an end to the scandal, and the woman being finally exiled to Los Ang. In '43 he was grantee of Huasna rancho, S. Luis Ob., for which he was later cl. as also for Pismo. iv. 655; iii. 678. He served rather unwillingly under Fr‚mont for a time in '46-7, had a Cal. claim of some $900 (v. 462), and in '47 was sent to Gov. Mason to explain the state of affairs at Sta B. v. 584. He gave up hunting, except as a pastime, after '48; made an unsuccessful trip to the mines; and later led the life of a prosperous ranchero in S. Luis Ob. Co. till his death in '67 at the age of 63. He was regarded as an honest and active man. His portrait was published in the Hesperian of '59, with a sketch of his early life. A family is mentioned in the later years, but I find no record to show whom he married. S. (Mary), 1846, of the Mormon colony with children. v. 546; daughter of Mrs Hamilton; not named in the Honolulu list; and possibly wife of Q. S. S. (Quartus S.), 1846, of the Mormon colony, with wife and child. v. 546. Called also Q. L. and Q. C.; nat. of Conn., teacher and preacher, who seems to have left the church; said to have been a lawyer at S.F. in later years, but not in the directories. S. (Stephen), 1846, sailor on the Dale. Sparrowhawk, 1846 (?), mr of the J˘ven Guipuzcoana, who settled at Stockton, and died '61 acc. to newspapers. Spatz (Conrad), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); killed in L. Cal, '47. 

Spear (Nathan), 1823, nat. of Boston, druggist's clerk with his brother Paul in B., who made a trip to the Sandw. Isl. in '19, and another on the Rover in '23, touching at Mont. In '29 he came again to the Islands, in '30 married Jane Holmes, and in '32 came to Cal. in time to join the comp. extranjera at Mont., iii. 221, 408, where he opened a store, obtaining a carta, and owning a schooner, the Nicolos, which ran to Sta Cruz. iv. 83, 141. His name occurs often in commercial records of each year, and I have many of his letters. In '36 he formed a partnership with Leese and Hinckley to open a store at S.F., whither he moved in '38, leaving his Mont. store in charge of Wm Warren. At this time the partnership was broken up by a quarrel over $13,000 of profits, but Spear continued the business in the store at the cor. of Montgomery and Clay streets; transferred the Nicol to S.F. bay for the collection of produce, adding the Isabel to the fleet-Wm H. Davis, his nephew and clerk, being generally in com. of one of the schooners; and built a mule-power grist-mill; being arrested as a matter of form in '40. iii. 705, 709; iv. 17, 82, 116, 130, 245, 250, 668; v. 681. In '45 he was injured by Californians in an assault on Capt. Libby. iv. 569, 665-6; and is named as a witness at the Rae inquest. iv. 593. In '46-7 he is named as owner of lots, candidate for alcalde, and taking some slight part in politics. v. 295, 455, 680-1; but on account of ill-health moved to Napa Val. with his family in '46, denouncing a quicksilver mine on the Bale rancho. He returned to S.F. at the end of '48, and died there Oct. '49 at the age of 47. He was an enterprising man of business, honorable in his dealings, gentlemanly in his manners, and scholarly in his tastes though of limited education. He never became a Mex. citizen, and therefore obtained no land grant. His wife, a half-breed Hawaiian, died in Napa '48; and there was one son, William N., b. at Napa '46, who in '78 gave me a valuable collection of his father's Papers. He died before '84. Spect (Jonas), 1848, nat. of Pa, who came overland to Or. in '47, and to S.F. on the Henry, possibly at the end of '47. In '48 he was a very successful miner, being the discoverer of gold on the Yuba. He kept a store at Sacramento; was elected to the 1st state senate; was a founder of Fr‚mont, where he lived till '56; a resid. of Vernon till about '68, when he moved to Colusa, dying there in '83 at the age of 66. Portrait in Colusa Co. Hist., 42; Yolo Co. Hist., 26; see also Hist. Or., this series, p. 629. Spedding (Matthew), 1848, Engl. farmer in Sta Clara '76. Speiden (Wm), 1846, purser on the U.S. Congress; commissary in Stockton's Bat.; witness at the Fr‚mont court-martial. v. 385, 420. 

Spence (David), 1824, nat. of Scotland, who had lived a few years at Lima, and came to Cal. on the Pizarro to superintend the meat-packing establishment of Begg & Co. at Mont. ii. 519, 526. In '27 he started in business for himself, iii. 128, and was prosperous from the beginning, being cautious, close, and energetic. His name often appears in the records of each year, and I have many of his business letters. In '28 he was baptized at Sta Cruz as David Est‚van; in '29 married Adelaida, daughter of Mariano Estrada, taking an active part in the protection of Mont. during the Solis revolt. iii. 71, 74, 82, 49; ii. 609; and was naturalized in '30. In '34-9 he was grantee of Encinal y Buena Esperanza rancho, of which he was cl. and permanent owner. iii. 677; in '35 alcalde. iii. 673. In '36 he was a member of the diputacion, and in this and the following years was secretly a supporter of Alvarado's govt, choosing not to act openly as a member of the 'congress,' yet exerting quietly much influence in municipal and legislative matters. iii. 426, 454-5, 460, 469, 501, 524; iv. 86, 116, 148. He was elector and juez de paz in '39-40, furnishing information to Laplace, giving Sutter a letter of introduction, and doubtless favoring the exile of Graham and his vagabonds. iii. 675-6; iv. 8-9, 128, 136, 154-5; ment. '41-2. iv. 212, 309-10; in '43-5 member of the junta departamental. iv. 361, 411, 425, 521, 540; in '45 in com. of the foreign guard to protect Mont. during the Micheltorena troubles, being also appointed prefect by Gov. Pico, but apparently deolining the office. iv. 515, 522, 653. In '46, though popularly believed to have intrigued for an English protectorate, he was regarded by Larkin as friendly to the U.S., was member of the council after the [p.339]change of flag, and of the legislative eouncil in '47. v. 28, 61, 68, 234, 289, 433, 637. He subsequently served as prefect in '49-50, and as county supervisor in '58-60. About '48 he gave up his mercantile enterprises, and devoted himself chiefly to the care of his estate and the raising of live-stock. In '73 he furnished me some brief Historical Notes, and died in '75 at the age of 77. Don David had an excellent reputation among the pioneers of Cal., few exerting so wide and good an influence. While not exactly popular by reason of his conservatism and closeness in money matters, obstinate as any of his race, and making enemies as well as friends, he yet merited and received the respect of all classes. His wife survived him but a month, and his only son David, born in '30 and educated at Honolulu, iv. 103, died in '68, leaving 3 sons and a daughter, who inherited their grandfather's large estate. 

Spence (Geo.), 1846, Co. E, Cal. Bat., enlisting at Sonoma in Oct. (v. 358). S. (Robert), 1846, ditto; in the mines '48. Spencer, 1839 (?), on board the Boston trader Sophia, acc. to the S. Diego World of Feb. 15, '73, when S. revisited S.D. S., 1809-10 (?), hunter reported to have been in Cal. ii. 89, S. (Oscar H.), 1846, Irishman on roll of Soc. Cal. Pion.; d. at Vallejo '76, age 52. S. (Wm W.), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Spidle (John), 1847, Co. S, ditto; badly hurt at Los Angeles. Spiel (Henry), 1845, overl. immig. of the Swasey-Todd party. iv. 576, 587 (though John H. Brown says that he went to Or. and came to Cal. in '46). He served in Co. B, artill. of the Cal. Bat. (v. 358), and settled at Sta Cruz, where, acc. to Brown, he was accidentally killed about '53. Spitler (John), 1846, Co. E, Cal. Bat., enlisting at Sonoma in Oct. (v. 358). Spitten (John D.), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). Spitzer (August), 1846, German immig. of the Donner party, who died in the mts. v. 531, 534. Spooner, 1848, from Hon. on the Sagudahoc; perhaps Sam. B. at S. Jos‚ '50. 

Sprague (Richard D.), 1847, Co. C, Morm. Bat., musician (v. 469); re‚nl.; at Brigham City, Utah, '82. S. (Thomas), 1848, doubtful date in a newspaper sketch. Spriggs (Thos), 1847, died in Sonoma Co.'51. Spring, 1848, mr of the Huntress. v. 578. Springer (James Peter), 1841, nat. of Ky, and overl. immig. of the Bartleson party. iv. 270, 255, 279. He returned east in '42. iv. 342; is said to have made the overl. trip several times, being engaged in promoting immigration; and finally came to Cal. with his family in '52, settling at Saratoga, Santa Clara Co., and being a member of the legislature of '59. He died in '61, leaving a widow and daughter. An account of the trip of '41, by him, is given in Taylor's Discov. and Founders. S. (Lewis), 1847, painter at Mont. '47-50. Sproston, 1847, mid. on the U.S. Independence. Squires, 1848, saddler at Sutter's fort. 

Stack (Garrett), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Stadmuller (Joseph), 1847, Co. F, 1st U.S. artill. (v. 518). Stagg (Wm), 1816, sailor on the Albatross. ii. 275. Stall (Alfred B.), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. before '82. Standage (Henry), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); in Ariz. '82. Stanley, 1845, in Sutter's employ '45-6. iv. 578. S. (Fabius), 1846, lieut on the U.S. Dale; nat. of N.C.; later rear-admiral; at Washington, D.C., '79. S. (John M.), 1846, nat. of N.Y. and artist with Kearny from N. Mex. v. 337; owner of S.F. lot '47. v. 676; went by sea to Or. and thence to the islands; in '51-2 connected with the survey of the Northern Pac. R. R.; d. at Detroit '72. S. (J. R.), 1846, at Sta Cruz '81. S. J. Pion. An R. Stanley of '44 is also mentioned in '78. Id. S. (Joseph), 1842, sailor on the United States; at Reno, Nev., '83. S. (Simeon), 1846, of the Mormon colony; did not come to Cal. v. 547. Stanly, 1846, overl. immig. v. 528, who joined the Cal. Bat. (v. 358), and died on the march south in Dec. Stanton (Chas Tyler), 1846, nat. of N.Y. and overl. immig. of the Donner party from Chicago. He crossed the Sierra to Sutter's fort and went back to aid the party, though he had no relatives among the number. Again he volunteered to cross the mts for succor, but died in the attempt. v. 531-2, 534, 537. Portrait in McGlashan's Hist. I have a long letter from his brother, Philip V. N. Stanton, to Geo. McKinstry in '48, containing much information about the young man's life, character, and family. 

Stargenigge (John), 1847, shingle-maker at Mission S. Jos‚. Stark (Benj. F.), 1847, from Hon. on the Currency Lass, returning on the Toulon. S. (Daniel), 1846, of the Mormon colony, with wife and two children. v. 547; owner of a S. F. lot '47. v. 682; builder of a school-house. v. 656; commissioner to settle the affairs of Brannan & Co.; member of the S. F. council in '49; living in Utah '84. S. (Henry), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (John S.), 1846, nat. of Ky and overl. immig. with M. D. Ritchie, whose daughter, Mary J., was his wife. v. 529. He took part in measures for the relief of the Donner party. v. 540-1; scttled in Knights Valley; county judge of Napa '50-1; memb. of the legislature '51, '55-6; lived near Calistoga '51-68; in Lake Co. from '68 to his death at Guenoc in '74, leaving a widow and 8 children. Starke (Fred.), 1845, German sailor who deserted from a whaler at Sauzalito. iv. 587; a ranchero in different parts of Sonoma Co.; miner in '48-9; in '80 on a farm near Petaluma with his wife Mina Hastler. Starkey, 1848, Engl. merchant of the S.F. firm of S., Janion, & Co. v. 678, 680; d. at S.F. about '50. Stayton (James), 1847, Co. B, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499), d. on the Calaveras '52. 

Stearns (Abel), 1829, nat. of Mass. who had lived 3 years in Mex., where he was naturalized in '28, and arrived at Monterey in July '29. iii. 179. He came with the intention of obtaining a large tract of land, to be selected in the Sac. or S. Joaq. valleys, which, apparently in payment of some claim, the Mex. govt. had offered him. His associate in this scheme was Geo. W. Ayres, q.v. Being mean while for a year or two in the employ of Capt. Cooper, Stearns seems to have selected his land, or at least to have reached a point where the action of the diputacion was required, and in urging a meeting of that body he excited the enmity of Gov. Victoria, by whom he was banished to the frontier to return as one of the leading inciters of the revolution of '31. iii. 49, 179, 193-4, 200-2, 630. Nothing more is heard of the land project; and in '33 S. settled at Los Ang. as a trader. I have much of his business correspondence from year to year. In '34 he obtained a town lot, and also a building at S. Pedro, which he enlarged and used as a warehouse. His dealings were chiefly in hides and liquors; and from '35 he was often in trouble by reason of smuggling operations; and also in '35 severely wounded in a quarrel about a barrel of wine sold to Wm Day. iii. 375, 417, 631-2, 641; iv. 95, 116, 208. Don Abel was, perhaps, not more addicted to contraband trade than Larkin, Fitch, Spence, and others, but he was less cautious and less fortunate in keeping on the right side of the authorities. In '36 he was sˇndico. iii. 636; and for some reason that is not very clear, but perhaps for his agency in the matter of the vigilantes, was ordered to leave Cal. by Gov. Chico, becoming in this and the next few years a strong supporter, in a quiet way, of Alvarado, even as against CCarrillo. iii. 197, 424, 428-9, 501, 565. In '39 his name is mentioned in connection with the flag tumult. iii. 589; in '42 entertained Com. Jones. iv. 321; sent gold from the S. Francisquito placers to the Philadelphia mint. iv. 297; and purchased the Alamitos rancho and its live-stock for $6,000 as a foundation for his future landed wealth. He was somewhat active in the movement against Gov. Micheltorena in '45, being also a suplente of the assembly. iv. 495, 497, 508, 540. In '46 he was subprefect and also worked earnestly-both as a foe of Mex. and friend of the U.S.-to further the plans of Larkin, by whom he was formally appointed a sub-confidential agent of the U.S. His efforts and those of his chief were defeated at the last by Stockton's perversity, if, indeed, there was any remaining hope of success after the rascally acts of Fr‚mont and his associates. v. 50, 63, 66, 71, 231, 264, 271-2, 625. In the warlike events of '46-7 he remained neutral as a Mex. official, though he had some small Cal. claims (v. 402), and is mentioned in the annals of '47-8, being sˇndico in the latter year. v. 329, 435. 448, 610, 626. In '49 he was a member of the constit. convention, and later served as assemblyman, supervisor, justice of the peace, and member of town council. He was cl. for the Laguna and Alamitos ranchos. iii. 633; iv. 621; and the owner of many more, becoming the largest owner of land and cattle in southern Cal. His wealth was somewhat affected by the [p.341]drought of '63-4 and by other reverses, yet he left an immense estate at his death, which occurred at S.F. in '71, when he was 72 years of age. Don Abel was a shrewd man of business; somewhat tricky in the petty transactions of early years, but apparently honorable in the larger operations of later times; a man of quick temper and strong prejudices, but hospitable, not penurious, a good friend, and kind husband. He hated Mexico and the Mexicans, but liked the Californians to such a degree as to cause at times some hostility on the part of Americans. In person he was very ugly, being known sometimes as Cara de Caballo, and having an impediment in speech from the cut inflicted by Day in '35. His wife was Arcadia, daughter of Juan Bandini, as beautiful as her husband was ugly, raising the personal appearance of the family to a high average, who survived him without children, inherited the bulk of his estate, married Robt S. Baker, and still lives in southern Cal. in '85. S. (Fred.), 1847, killed at the S. Gabriel. v. 395; perhaps 'Strauss.' 

Stebbins (Ira), 1845, overl. immig. of the Hastings party. iv. 586-7; working for Sutter in '45-6, later at Sonoma, and prob. one of the Bears, since he is recorded as having arrived at N. Helv. from Sonoma on June 17th. v. 110, 128; owner of S.F. lot '47. v. 685; said to have been killed in the south by Murieta's men. His name is written Ira H. and Isaac T.; possibly two men. Steel (Austin), 1845, mr of the Dromio (?). S. (James), 1841, an employ‚ of the H. B. Co. S. (Joseph), 1826, Boston trader, and mr of the Harbinger '26-8, of the Planet '29-30, Chalcedony in '32-3, Sarah and Caroline and Kent '36-8, and Roger Williams in '40. His name constantly appears in commercial records of all these years, and he was evidently a humorous and popular trader. iii. 93, 146-8, 176, 381, 384, 461, 563; iv. 104-6, 117. Steele (Geo. E.), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); re‚nl. S. (H. A.), 1841, lieut on the St Louis. S. (Isaiah C.), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); re‚nl. S. (Seymour G.), 1847, capt. Co. A, N.Y. Vol. v. 503-4; in Humboldt Co. '74; at S. Diego '82. Steers (Andrew J.), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); re‚nl. 

Steingraudt (Louis), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336). Stenner (Wm), 1831, nat. of Mass. and mate of the Ayacucho. iii. 405; for 2 years in charge of the hide-houses at S. Diego; in '33 obtained a passport; perhaps the same who was mr of the Primavera in '47, v. 580, having a Cal. claim of $450 (v. 462). Stenson (J. Fenwick), 1846, passed mid. U.S.N., and acting capt. in Stockton's Bat. '46-7. v. 385. Stephens, 1848, miner at Coloma. S. (Alex.), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); in Sutter's employ '47-8, and at the Coloma mill when gold was found. S. (Alfred), 1837, on Larkin's books. S. (Charles), 1848, at Sutter's fort. S. (John), 1798, Boston sailor at S. Diego. i. 545, 654. S. (Peter), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. at S.F. '49. S. (Thos H.), 1848, owner of S.F. lots. S. (Wm), 1836, Engl., age 35, in a Los Ang. list. Stepp, 1845, one of Fr‚mont's men, separated for a while from the party, but accompanied Gillespie up the valley to rejoin it. His full name was prob. 'Steppenfeldt,' or possibly there may have been another of that name. iv. 583; v. 24, 453. 

Sterling, 1840 (?), at Sta Rosa in '77, known as 'Major' S., said to have visited S.F. in very early times on a coasting vessel. iv. 120. S. (Chas B.), 1847, nat. of La, clerk for naval agent Larkin at Mont. '47-8, and later employed by him in the Sac. Val., where he wrote long letters on his adventures in the mines. He prob. came as purser on a man-of-war; was the 3d settler in Colusa Co.; married Lucinda Stewart '49 in Yolo Co.; and died after '50 at a date not recorded. Sterrett (Isaac), 1842, lieut in com. of the U.S. Relief. iv. 314, 568. Stetson (Ed. L.), 1841, clerk on the Don Quixote '41-2, named in Larkin's accounts and by Davis. iv. 341; mr of the Warren at Honolulu and Mazatlan '45-6; in '47-8 clerk for Larkin at Mont. and Benicia, and later for Brannan at Sac.; at S.F. '51. Stetyel (Geo.), 1848, in S.F. letter-list. 

Stevens, 1840, mr of the Leonidas. iv. 104. S., 1845, mr of the Wm C. Nye. iv. 570. S., 1846, mr of the United States. v. 580. S., 1847, mid. on the U.S. Independence. S. (Mrs), 1845, at Mont., went east on the Admittance. S. (Alex.), 1847, Mormon at the Coloma mill when gold was found. S. (Asa), 1847, owner of S.F. lot. v. 679. S. (Charles), 1847 (?), at S.F. '54. [p.342]Annals. S. (Elisha), 1844, nat. of Ga and capt. of the overl. immig. party to which I have given his name. iv. 445-8, 453, 679. I find no record of him in the following years; but in '72-83 he was living on Kern River, with an excellent memory of early times as he wrote, which however he proposed to utilize one of these days to make a book which should bring him money and fame. Alleged portrait and biog. in S. F. Post, Dec. 26, '83. I have in '85 received neither a copy of his book nor news of his death. S. (Geo.), 1847, at Benicia. v. 673. S. (Geo. A.), 1847, mid. on the U.S. Dale. S. (Isaac), 1842, at Sta Cruz '42-3. S. (James), 1840, mr of the Roger Williams and Cervantes. iv. 12, 104; also on the coast in '45 and perhaps in '48. S. (James), 1845, doubtful name of an overl. immig. iv. 578; also Richard. S. (John), 1837, at Mont. S. (John), 1840, on the Lausanne acc. to a letter pub. in the county histories. iv. 121; yet not named as a passenger at Hon. and not known to have remained in Cal., unless he may be the following. S. (John), 1846, Co. A, Cal. Bat. (v. 358), one of the Sta B. garrison. v. 316. S. (John H.), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Stockton '71-4. S. (Joshua T.), 1845, mr of the United States. S. (Lyman), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); in '81 at Orderville, Utah. S. (Thos H.), 1848, owner of S.F. lots. S. (Wm), 1846, sailor on the U.S. Dale. S. (Wm), 1847, at Sutter's fort. Stevenson, (B. W.), 1847, mid. on the Independence. 

Stevenson (Jonathan D.), 1847, nat. of N.Y., democratic politician, and militia officer, who came to Cal. as colonel in com. of the regiment of N. Y. volunteers. For a record of the regimental history, see v. 499-518; and for additional mention of Col Stevenson's career in '47-8, v. 415, 439, 449-50, 489-90, 497, 565, 584, 588-9, 625, 631-2. From May '47 to the end of the war and mustering-out of the volunteers in '48 he was military commandant of the southern district, with headquarters at Los Ang. The colonel never had an opportunity of showing his prowess as a warrior, but he was a man of much energy, of strong will, and good executive ability, a strict disciplinarian, who performed the duties of his position in a very creditable manner. After '48 he settled at S.F. as a real estate agent, and was particularly interested for some years in developing the latent greatness of New York of the Pacific, being the claimant for the rancho of Los M‚danos, Contra Costa. iii. 712. From '72 he held the position of U.S. shipping commissioner at S.F., where he still lives in '85 at the venerable age of 85 years. Portrait in Annals of S.F., and Clarke's Hist. The public has often been led to expect the publication of his recollections of a long and active life, a work that could not fail to be of deep interest. In '47 Col S. was a widower, having 3 daughters in N.Y.; in '51 he married again and has several daughters born in Cal. S. (Matthew R.), 1847, son of the colonel and capt. of Co. G, N.Y. Vol. v. 504; died at Sackett Harbor, N.Y., '63. S. (Wm), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518); supposed to be living in '64. 

Steward (James), 1826, on the Rover. S. (S.), 1848, at Mont. Stewart (Alfred V.), 1846, at S.F. '46-7. S. (Chas), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (Frank S.), 1847 (?), at a reunion of surviving N.Y. Vol. '84. S. (J. B.), 1847; mid. on the U.S. Columbus. S. (James), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). S. (John C.), 1835, sailor on the Pilgrim who settled at S. Diego in '38; married Rosa Machado, and still lived at S. D. in '77. S. (Robert B.), 1847, Co. D, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). S. (Thomas), 1824, Scotch carpenter on the Royal George, arrested at Sta B.; at Mont '29; at S. D. '36. ii. 526. S. (Thos K.), 1848, on Amer. River; at Sac. '61. S. (Wm M.), 1848, sec. of Com. Jones, making a trip with Colton to the mines; owner of S.F. lots, memb. of the council, justice of the peace, and candidate for gov. in '49; still at S.F. '54. 

Stickney (John), 1836, mr of the Keat and perhaps of the Sarah and Caroline '36-7. iv. 104, 106. Stiggere (Ignacio), doubtful name of a Californian at Sonoma. v. 162. Still (Geo.), 1846, of the Morm. colony, with wife and 3 children. v. 547. Sarah Still, who in '48 was married to J. D. Marston, may have been his daughter. He did not go to Utah. Stillman (Dexter), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Stillwell (Joseph), 1846, overl. immig., [p.343]who served in Co. E, Cal. Bat., enlisting at S. Jos‚ in Nov. v. 528 (358); he was a son-in-law of S. C. Young, still at S. Jose in '50. Stilts (Jesse), 1846, arrived. Hittell. S. (John), 1846, prob. overl. immig., enlisting at Sonoma in Oct. in Co. E. Cal. Bat. (v. 358); settler in Solano Co. '48, and still there in '78. S. (Marion), 1846, prob. son of John; nat. of Mo.; in Solano Co. '78. Stirling, see 'Sterling.' Stivers (Simeon), 1846, nat. of N.J. and memb. of the Mormon colony. v. 547. He was a carpenter at S.F., moving in '48 to Mission S. Jos‚, where he still lived in '82 with wife, Anna M. Jones, and child. Letitia M. b. '59, Simeon E. '61, Charlotte J. '64, Sam. '66, Champion D. '69, Anna M. '72, Mark '74, and Edward '78. Stock, 1841, mr of the Leonidas. iv. 566. 

Stockton (Robert Field), 1846, nat. of N.J. of an old and prominent family, who left Princeton college in 1811 to become a midshipman in the U.S.N.; served with credit in the war of 1812 and later; and in '46 as captain came to Cal. on the Congress, succeeding Com. Sloat in command of the Pacific squadron, and holding the position of military gov. of Cal. till Jan. '47. He returned east overland in '47, resigned his commission in '49, was U.S. senator from N.J. in '51-2, was mentioned as a democratic candidate for the presidency several times, and notably in '56, and died '66 at the age of about 70 years. His career in connection with Cal. affairs is fully recorded in v. 232, 251-87, 289-90, 295-6, 302-29, 356, 385-435, 449, 453, 456, 460, 463, 539, 549, 577, 644; iv. 673. It is too complicated and too much the history of the country in '46-7 to be presented en r‚sum‚ here. Com. Stockton was brave, resolute, energetic, and in many respects an agreeable gentleman, but an insatiable thirst for popularity and fame was his most marked characteristic, and may be supposed to have determined his policy in Cal.-a policy which, however we may admire some of his acts and qualities, merits nothing but condemnation. His adoption, in opposition to the views of Sloat and Larkin, of the filibustero plans of Fr‚mont and his associates may charitably be regarded as a mere error of judgment; yet it is hard to resist the conviction that the true state of affairs was known to him, and that his warlike proclamation to a peaceful people, his blustering tirade against imaginary evils, his willingness to identify a criminal revolt of vagabond settlers with the legitimate military occupation, his practical refusal to accept the voluntary submission of the Cal. authorities, his whole policy of conquest which was to produce such unhappy results-that all this was chiefly due to his personal vanity and ambition rather than to his honest opinion respecting the interests of his nation. To the same motive may be ascribed his later policy-not without plausibility and dignity in certain aspects-in the controversies with Gen. Kearny. Stockton was beyond comparison an abler and more honorable man than Fr‚mont, yet his reputation as 'conqueror' of Cal.-notwithstanding his energetic and praiseworthy surmounting of obstacles that but for his folly would not have existed-is as unmerited, though not so fraudulent, as that of the 'pathfinder.' S. (Wm B.), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. before '82. Stoddard (Rufus), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469); worked as a brick-maker and builder at S. Diego. Stokely (John), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336); killed by the explosion at Los Ang. Dec. '47. v. 625. 

Stokes (Edward), 1840, Engl. sailor who came from Hon. on the Fly, having possibly visited Cal. before. iv. 104, 120. He married Refugio, daughter of Jos‚ Joaquin Ortega, and in '43-4 was grantee of the Pamo and Sta Isabel ranchos. iv. 621. In '46 he rendered aid to Kearny by carrying despatches to Stockton at S. Diego. v. 339. The date of his death after '50 does not appear, but his widow married Agustin Olvera, and was still living in '70. S. (James), 1834 (?), Engl. sailor who in Cal. became a doctor; first appearing on the records of '35, when he served as consulting physician in the case of Gov. Figueroa, but prob. left some vessel a year or two earlier. iii. 412, 296. He is occasionally named as doctor, druggist, and trader at Mont. in '35-43. iv. 117, 342; married Marˇa Josefa Soto in '44; appears at Mont., S.F., N. Helv., and S. Jos‚ in records of '45, being in com. of a detachment of the [p.344]Mont. guard, iv. 515, but appears to have considered S. Jos‚ his home from this year. In '46 Dr S. is vaguely accredited in tradition with having intrigued for an Engl. protectorate, but was the 1st to raise the U.S. flag at S. Jos‚, where by Sloat's appointment he served for a time as alcalde after the change of flag, owning also a lot in S.F., and having a Cal. claim. v. 34, 68, 245-6, 294, 662. He became the owner of the Verjeles and Natividad ranchos, Mont. Co., for which he was later claimant. iii. 679; iv. 656; and in '48 made a trading tour to the mines. I find no record of him or his family after '52. Stolze (Adolphus), 1847, Co. F, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 

Stone, 1833, at Mont. acc. to Larkin's accounts. S., 1847, settler in Lake Co. with the Kelseys, killed by the Ind. in '49. Nothing more seems to be known about the man. Possibly he was the following. S. (Chas), 1847, of the 2d Donner relief party. v. 539-40. S. (Elisha), 1841, of the original Bartleson party; did not come to Cal. iv. 269. S. (Heber), 1847, Co. B. N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (Henry), 1847, owner of S.F. lot. S. (Joseph M.), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (Mahlon), 1846, at Los Ang. S. (Wm W.), 1808 (?), a resid. of Cal. from '48, and at Angels from '57 to his death in '62; said to have visited the coast in 1808 (prob. an error) and at other dates before '48. Stoneman (Geo.), 1847, nat. of N.Y., graduate of West Point, and lieut of Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons, coming to Cal with the Mormon Bat. as quartermaster, but soon rejoining the dragoons. v. 477, 483, 485, 489, 521, 617. Down to '55 or a little later he was engaged in garrison, exploring, or Ind. service on this coast. At the beginning of the war of '61-5 he was a major in the regular army, reaching the rank of brevet major-general of volunteers, and gaining an enviable reputation as a cavalry officer. After the war he returned to Cal. and settled near Los Angeles, holding later the position of railroad commissioner, and being as I write in '85 governor of California. In these official capacities he will require some notice in a later volume; and in the case of so prominent a pioneer, it is to me a matter of regret that I have no data for a more complete sketch of his earlier Cal. experience. Stope (Gerard), 1836, Engl. at Mont. Stoppard (Moses), 1847, Co. K, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Storer (Geo.), 1847, nat. of N.Y., from Hon. on the Francesca; settled in Sonoma; in Mendocino township '77; there is perhaps confusion between this man and Geo. 'Story.' 

Storm (Peter), 1833 (?), Norwegian sailor, whose coming is credited in current sketches to this date with doubtful accuracy. iii. 409. Farnham names him as one of the foreigners arrested in '40. iv. 17. The 1st definite record is that he lived at S.F. in '44, age 40. He settled in Napa Co. in '44-5, and probably took part in the Bear revolt of '46. v. 110, 147-9. He spent the rest of his life mainly in Napa, and died at Calistoga in '77. Story (Edward), 1848, Amer. lawyer with Brooks in the mines; said to have been alcalde at Mont. earlier (?). S. (Geo.), 1847, Co. C, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); near Healdsburg in '80. Stothers (John E.), 1847, Co. F, ditto; d. at Oakland after '70. Stout, 1848, mr of the Bristol. S. (Wm), 1846, of the Mormon colony, with wife and child. v. 547. He was one of the founders of New Hope in the San Joaquin Val. v. 550; but left the Mormons, and in '47 was in the lumber business with Sirrine and Meder at Sta Cruz. In '48 had a store at the mines, perhaps of the firm of Brannan & Co. S. (Wm C.), 1836 (?), agent of P. M. S. S. Co. from '48; died in N.Y. '70 at the age of 69; said to have visited Mont. in '36. iv. 118. Stow (Aaron), 1847, Co. K, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); at Davenport, Ia, '82. 

Stradspeth, 1845, one of Fr‚mont's men. iv. 583. Kern. Strange (John), 1847, Co. C, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Strauss (Fred.), 1846, sailor on the Portsmouth, killed at the S. Gabriel Jan. '47. v. 395; perhaps 'Stearns.' Streeter (David), 1846, Co. C, 1st U.S. dragoons (v. 336); severely wounded at S. Pascual. v. 346, 355; later a barber at Sta B., where he died in '63. S. (Wm A.), 1843, nat. of N.Y. and cousin of David; dentist and mechanic, who came from Peru with Stephen Smith as engineer to superintend the construction and running of the Bodega mill. iv. 396, 400. He soon left Smith and went south as dentist or physician till '48. iv. 651, 501. Went to the mines, was in [p.345]partnership with Weber at Stockton, and leased the S. Buen. mission. Lived at S. Luis Ob. '51-5, and after '55 at Sta B., holding some local offices in both counties. In '78 he gave me his Recollections of Early Events. Prob. still living in '85 at the age of '74. Stribling (C. K.), 1836, com. of the U.S. Cyane '42 -3, and '45, and of the Peacock in '36. iv. 105, 308, 311, 321, 564-5. Stringfellow (Jesse A), 1846, nat. of Pa and memb. of the Mormon colony. v. 547. He worked as a carpenter at S.F. (where he owned a lot), Napa, and S. Jos‚, going to the mines in '48-9. Later a farmer at S. Jos‚, where he died in '78, leaving a widow and 3 grown children. Stroms (John A.), 1846, Co. C, 1st U. S. dragoons (v. 336). Strong (Demas), 1848, Amer. trader at Big Bar and Sutter's mill; alderman and mayor of Sac.; returned to N.Y. '50; in N.Y. senate '64. S. (James H.), 1847, lieut on the U.S. Columbus. S. (John M.), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518). S. (Wm), 1847, Co. E, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). 

Stuart (Chauncey), 1848, in S.F. letter-list. S. (Marˇa Ant.) 1813, mistress of Capt. Ayers. ii. 269. S. (W. K.), 1848, nat. of Md and overl. immig.; in Nevada co. '51 to his death in '73; widow living in '82. Study (David), 1847, Co. B, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Stump (David), 1848, miner from Or. at Grass Valley and Placerville '48-9. Stupplebeen (Jacob), 1848, passp. from Hon. Sturgis (Thos), 1831, mr of the Crusader '31-2. iii. 382. Sturt (F.), 1848, passp. from Hon. Stuurtzenegger (John), 1846, Co. G, Cal. Bat. (v. 358); owner of S.F. lots '47-8; d. at Oakland about '60-5. 

Suarez (Simon), 1797, sub-lieut of the compa¤ˇa franca at Mont. i. 540-1, 544. S. (Vicente), juez de campo at S. Jos‚ '44. iv. 685. Sublette (Wm), 1845, came overland with a party of 15 men whose names are not known; at S.F. Jan. '46; went east with Clyman and Hastings. iv. 577-8; v. 526. Succara, chief of the Sotoyomes '37. iv. 72. Suckert (Leon), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. S. F. '71. Sugert, Ind. chief at Sta Cruz 1791. i. 494. Suhr (Albert), 1847, owner of S.F. lot. 

Sullivan (Cornelius), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); locksmith at Mont. '47-8; Sta Clara '71-4; at Lompoc '82. S. (C. G.), 1839, doubtful date in a newspaper sketch. iv. 119; d. in '64, at or near Gold Hill. S. (James), see 'O'Sullivan.' S. (John), 1844, nat. of Ireland, and overl. immig. of the Stevens party with his sister Mary and two brothers. iv. 446, 453. He had come to Canada at the age of 6, and had worked as a stevedore there and as a logger in Me, going to Mo. in '42. After serving under Sutter in the Micheltorena campaign (iv. 476), he settled at S.F., v. 682, where he was teamster, trader, lot-owner, and later capitalist, being founder and president of the Hibernia Bank. He had also kept a store in '48 on Sullivan Cr., Tuolumne. He was a man of upright character, charitable, and well known for his gifts to the church. He died in '82 at the age of 58. His 1st wife was Catherine Farrely in '50, who died in '54; and the 2d was Ada E. Kenna of '60, by whom he had 10 children. There were 2 sons by the 1st marriage, one of whom, Robert, died in '82. The other, Frank J., b. in '52, was educated at St Ignatius College of S.F., in England, and at Columbia law school, N.Y. In '78-85 he practised law at S.F., having been State senator in '82 and a candidate for congress in '84. His wife is Alice, daughter of James Phelan. He has furnished for my use a narrative of his father's life. John Sullivan's sister Married Peter Sherreback. S. (John), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. S. Luis Rey '48. S. (Michael), 1844, brother of John, and immig. of the Stevens party. iv. 446, 453; owner of S. F. lot '47. S. (Richard), 1847, owner of S.F. lot. S. (Robert), 1844, brother of John, who came as a boy in the Stevens party. iv. 446, 453. 

Sumedor (Wm), 1840, permitted to remain in Cal. Summers (W. F.), 1848, at S. Diego. Sumner (N.), 1847, Amer. at N. Helv. S. (Owen), 1845, immig. from Or. in the McM.-Clyman party with his family, including Mrs Payne. He went east with Clyman in '46. iv. 572-3; v. 526. S. (Owen Jr), 1843, son of Owen, who came from Or. with the Hastings party, perhaps with a family. His sister Lizzie married Geo. Davis at Sutter's fort. He prob. went east in '46 with his father. iv. 390-2, 400. S. (Wm), 1826, mr of the [p.346]Zamora, and in '32 of the Waxerly. iii. 149,317, 364, 384, 652. Su¤er (Francisco), 1808, Span. friar who served at 5 different missions, and died at S. Buenaventura in '31. Biog. iii. 658-9; ment. ii. 90, 110, 147, 159-60, 265, 346, 348, 364, 394, 490, 576, 578, 655; iii. 96, 310, 351. 

Sunol (Antonio Marˇa), 1817, nat. of Spain, who had been a sailor in the French naval service, coming to Cal. on the Bordelais, and deserting on her return from the north in '18. ii. 289. He settled at S. Jos‚, where he apparently kept a shop and sold liquor in '23. ii. 605; married about '24-5; was postmaster '26, '29. ii. 605; and in '28-30 was the object of some investigation on account of his Span. birth, but was not sent away. iii. 51-2. From about '39 he was owner of the rancho of S. Jos‚ del Valle, and from about '37 of Los Coches, Alameda Co., selling live-stock to Sutter on credit and having no little trouble to collect the debt. iv. 134, 237; being sˇndico in '39-40, iii. 731, and sub-prefect '41-4. iv. 274, 684-6. He is mentioned by Mofras in '41 as 'very devoted' to France, and blunderingly by Wilkes; and in the padron of '41 is named as a Span. trader, age 41, wife Marˇa Dolores Bernal, child. Jos‚ b. '26, Paula (later Mrs Sainsevain) '28, Narciso '36 ('35?), and Francisca '38. In '43 he was suplente of the junta. iv. 361; is ment. in the annals of '45-6. iv. 485-6; v. 4, 45; being the purchaser of S. Rafael mission, and a memb. of the S. Jos‚ council. v. 561, 664, 670. He engaged in mining in '48; was the claimant for his two ranchos in '52. iv. 671, 713; and died in '65, leaving an excellent reputation. His son, Jos‚, was probably the man killed in '55 by a squatter on his rancho. He had been juez de policˇa in '49. Another son, Narciso, was educated in France, and still lives in Su¤ol Valley, '85, with wife, Rosario Palomares, and 6 child., Margarita, Virginia, Francesca, Eulalia, Josephine, and Juanita. Portrait in Alam. Co. Hist., 176. Other children of Don Antonio Marˇa surviving in '83 were Encarnacion (Mrs Etchebarne), Antoneta (Mrs Murphy), and Jos‚ Dolores. Suria (Tom1791, artist in Malaspina's exped. i. 490. Suriano (Juan Fran.), 1602, alf‚rez in Vizcaino's exped. i. 98. Surok (Francisco), 1845, doubtful name of an applicant for land. Sutphen (Wm), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 

Sutter (John Augustus), 1839, German-Swiss trader impelled by bankruptcy in '34 to become an adventurer in America, where, after an unsuccessful career in N. Mex. '35-7, he came to Cal. by way of Or., the Sandwich Isl., and Alaska, and established a trading and trapping post at New Helvetia, obtaining a land grant of 11 leagues, and in '41 the Russian improvements at Ross. Biog. matter relating to Sutter is given elsewhere in these volumes so fully and compactly as to require only reference here. For his early life and arrival in Cal. '39-40, see iv. 122-39, with ment. in iii. 670, 700; iv. 74, 93, 102, 117, 119. Progress of his estab. '41-2. iv. 226-40; also 211, 213, 219-20, 275, 283, 672-3, 679-80. Purchase of the Russian property in '41, with the Muldrow swindle, and efforts of the Russians '42-50 to collect the debt. iv. 177-89. Mention in '43 iv. 356, 366, 387-9, 396. Career in '44. iv. 439, 448-9, 453. Sutter's famous campaign of '44-5 undertaken against the Californians purely as a land speculation. iv. 407, 472, 474, 477-517. Affairs of '45, particularly his efforts to sell his estab. to the Mex. govt. iv. 607-16. Policy and acts of '46 in connection with the Bear revolt, etc. v. 3, 22, 29, 65, 80, 102, 104, 122-5, 359, 538. Mention in '47, when S. had a 'Cal. claim,' served as sub-Ind. agent, and owned a S.F. lot. v. 452, 467, 568, 610, 678. For his experience of '48 and the following years, especially in connection with the gold discovery, see vol. vi. of this series. In '48-9 Sutter was regarded as being very rich, having at least what in the hands of an abler man would have been the basis of an immense fortune; but his wealth, won by good luck without business capacity, could not thus be kept under the new conditions of the flush times, and soon he was reduced to comparative poverty, the successive steps of his downfall being too complicated for presentment here. Doubtless in some instances he was the victim of rascality on the part of sharper adventurers than himself. His original land grant of '41 was confirmed after it had passed for the most part out of his possession; but the Micheltorena grant of '45 was very justly rejected by the supreme court. The end of his public career, in a [p.347]sense, was in '49, when he was a member of the constitutional convention, and received some 2,000 votes for governor. From '50, being joined by his family from Switzerland, he lived at Hock Farm. From '64, by act of the Cal. legislature, he received a pension of $250 per month till '78, when the bill was defeated. Meanwhile, about '65, he went east, and lived from '71 at Litiz, Pa, making constant but vain efforts to obtain from congress compensation for alleged wrongs of the past; though it does not appear that in his old age and infirmity he ever suffered actual privations. In '76, at his home, he dictated to me his Personal Recollections, identical in outline with the story so often told by him, but fuller in most phases than any that has been printed, and most interesting. He died at Washington, D.C., in '80 at the age of 77, leaving a widow who still lives, I think, in '85, two sons, and a daughter. The family seem to have come to Cal. from '44-50 at different dates, though I find but slight information on the subject. Of the sons, Alphonse died some years before '80. One of them seems to have come as early as '44, when the capt. writes to complain of his not being regarded as a naturalized citizen. John A. Jr, to whom his father turned over all his property temporarily in '49, and who was a partner of Hensley, Reading, & Co., was for some years before and prob. after '80 U.S. consul at Acapulco. Emil Victor, identical, I suppose, with E. J., who was Kern's lieut at the fort in '46, v. 298, was for many years to '80 a well-known notary at S.F., and committed suicide in Belgium in '83. The daughter, Anna Eliza, was married in '52 to Geo. Engler, and in '80, as Mrs Dr Link, was living at Acapulco. The biog. matter referred to above contains much of comment on Sutter's character. None of the pioneers named in this register has received so much praise from so many sources; few have deserved so little. Yet it has been by no means a pleasing task, in view of the famous captain's kindly nature and his misfortunes of later years-especially for one who, like myself, has heard from his own lips the story of his wrongs-to reveal the man's true character, as I have deemed it a duty to do. He was but an adventurer from the first, entitled to no admiration or sympathy. His career in N. Mex. was, at the best, discreditable. He came to Cal. in the false character of an ex-capt. of the French army. He was great only in his wonderful personal magnetism and power of making friends for a time of all who could be useful to him; good only in the possession of kindly impulses. His energy was a phase of his visionary and reckless enthusiasm; his executive ability did not extend beyond the skilful control of Indians and the management of an isolated trading post. Of principle, of honor, of respect for the rights of others, we find but slight trace in him. There was no side of any controversy that he would not readily adopt at the call of interest; nationality, religion, friendship, obligation, consistency, counted for little or nothing. There were no classes of his associates, hardly an individual, with whom he did not quarrel, or whom in his anger he did not roundly abuse. For all the favors received at the hands of Californians, he did not hesitate to turn against them, or even to arm foreigners and Indians against them, when a personal advantage seemed within his reach. That his frequent plots and threats of vengeance and revolution and French intervention were for the most more amusing than dangerous does not much increase our respect for the angry plotter. His only capital was money borrowed on the way to Cal., or property obtained on credit from Californians and Russians after his arrival, all on pretences more or less false. He never hesitated to assume any obligation for the future without regard to his ability to meet it; he rarely if ever paid a debt when due; and a general, vague, and kindly purpose to fulfil all his promises in the brilliant future but imperfectly excuses his short-comings. His apparent success in '39-45 was in a sense wonderful, but it rested almost entirely on a fortunate combination of circumstances, and notably on Gov. Alvarado's unwise act-partly inspired by the idea of introducing in the north an element of opposition to Vallejo, with whom he had a temporary quarrel-in permitting a foreigner to found an isolated rendezvous for hostile and uncontrollable elements of a vagabond population in the far interior. Though Sutter's establishment did something to promote the influx of Amer. settlers, it was in no sense beneficial to the interests [p.348]of the U.S., merely fomenting filibusterism with all its unhappy results. The discovery of gold, often mentioned in this connection, was purely accidental; but I cannot see that its postponement for a time would have done any harm; and I can imagine that its earlier occurrence-likely enough to result from Sutter's settlement-might have been decidedly detrimental to the U.S. in some respects. That the establishment, chiefly by reason of its situation at the foot of the mountains, was of benefit to the immigrants is true; also that Sutter treated them kindly, though not more so than a dozen others; but that he did so at a personal sacrifice, as has been so often claimed, is not true; for Sutter's letters of that time are full of self-gratulations on hisl ucky chance to exchange food and cattle for wagons and implements, to hire mechanics, and to have his land increased in value by the influx of settlers. Neither is it true that Sutter in '45-6 was friendly to the U.S. or to the immigrants as Americans. He did not, as has been claimed by himself and friends, refuse an offer of $100,000 for his property that the immig. might not be deprived of a refuge; on the contrary, he did his best to sell, and failed chiefly because the Mex. govt saw a cheaper way to get the property by buying the Russian mortgage. And as elsewhere stated, I have the captain's original letter, in which he warned Gen. Castro against Gillespie as a secret agent of the U.S., urged the govt to buy his fort, and advised the stationing of a garrison there against the immigrants! Perhaps had this been known pioneers in later times would have been less profuse in their praise of the noble-hearted old patriot. Suwerkrop (E.A.), 1848, at Hon. from S.F. on the Julian. 

Swab (Emmanuel), 1847, Co. G, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Swain, 1848, from Hon. on the Sagadahoc. S., 1829, mr of the Susana. iii. 149. S. (Chas A.), 1829(?), nat. of Mass., said to have visited the coast in the whaler American, iii. 179, and again on the same vessel in '38, though I find no record of such a vessel in either year. He returned in '49 to stay as a farmer, miner, and contractor, dying at S.F. '84 at the age of 71, leaving a widow and son. S. (F. B.), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (Isaac), 1823(?), on the roll of the Soc. Cal. Pion. S. (Josiah H.), 1847, at Mont. '47-8; perhaps came in '46 on a whaler, and one of Maddox's volunteers, said to be living at S.F. '84. Swan. Swaine, 1794, one of Vancouver's men. i. 526. 

Swan (John A.), 1843, nat. of England of Scotch parentage, who came as a sailor on the Soledad from Mazatlan after 11 years of adventure as a sailor in many parts of the world. iv. 400, 568, 651. He made two trips with Capt. Cooper on the schr California in '43-4, then quitting the sea. He kept a little shop and sailors' boarding-house at Mont., his name appearing from '44 on Larkin's books and in other records; made a trip to the gold-mines in '48; went to Fraser River in '59-63; again visited British Columbia in '64-6; and has since resided at Mont. He has written many articles on the olden time for the newspapers, which, with others in MS., have place in my collection, some of them being named in my list of authorities; and he has furnished me besides from time to time many useful items for this register. Swan's writings are not only interesting, but remarkably accurate, his memory being rarely at fault, and the tendency to testify on matters beyond his personal knowledge-too prevalent among pioneer writers-being in his case reduced to a minimum. His work in this direction merits high praise. In the later years down to '85 this kind-hearted old sailor, 73 years old, burdened with poverty and deafness, lives in an old historic adobe at the former capital, delighting in the old ruins that keep alive his dreamy recollections of the past; and occasionally, with 'pioneer of '43' plainly inscribed as credentials on his hatband, he makes a trip to S. Jos‚ and S.F. to look after the constantly lessening band of his old-time acquaintances. S. (Lyman), 1848, passp. from Hon. S. (Thos M.), 1848(?), in Napa Valley acc. to testimony in later litigation. Swanich (James), 1845, Delaware Ind. of Fr‚mont's party '45-7. iv. 583, 587; said by Martin to have been killed on the Or. frontier '46. Swanson (Joseph), 1848, in S.F. letter list; cl. in '53 for land in Contra Costa. Swartout (Hamilton), 1847, Co. A, Morm. Bat. (v. 469). Swartz (John S.), 1847, Co. E, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). Swasden, 1847, doubtful name in a Mont. list. 

Swasey (Wm F.), 1845, nat. of Maine and overl. immig. from St Louis in the party that I have called by his name, which was really a division of the Grigsby-Ide party.iv.576, 587. For two months he wasemployed by Sutter as book-keeper, and at the beginning of '46 went by way of S.F. and S. Jos‚ to Mont., where he worked for a short time as clerk for Wm H. Davis, and from June to Sept. was consular clerk for Larkin at $60 per month. v. 16, 60. In Oct. he joined the Cal. Bat., serving through the southern campaign as asst commissary (v. 358); and having a 'Cal. claim' of $40 (v. 462). In '47 he came to S.F., where he was owner of a town lot, clerk of election, and sec. of the council. v. 648, 650. From '48 he was engaged in trade in partnership with Leighton & Co. at S.F. and with Southard at Napa. v. 670, 678, 681; also visiting the mines, and in '49 being a member of the S.F. district legislature and taking some part in politics. In '51-61 Swasey was a notary public at S.F., being also a witness in some of the famous land cases; in '61-6 capt. of volunteers and asst quartermaster at Benicia. He has continued to reside at S.F., though I find that he was appointed in '75 U.S. marshal of Wyoming, and has been a somewhat prominent member of the Pioneer Society, being the author of many gracefully written eulogies of dead pioneers. In '85, at the age of 60 years or more, though about 45 in appearance, he has received a new appointment as notary public. Of his family I know nothing except that his mother died recently in Cal. at a very advanced age. His View of S. F. in '47 is ment. in v. 676, et seq. Capt. Swasey has furnished me his recollections of California in '45-6; to him I am indebted for the invaluable New Helvetia Diary, of which, as Sutter's clerk, he was one of the authors; and in several other matters he has afforded me some assistance. 

Sweet (Chas C.), 1847, Co. D, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). S. (Paul), 1840(?), nat. of R. I., said to have landed at Mont. this year. iv. 120. In '43-5 a tanner near Sta Cruz, iv. 356, being named in the Branciforte padron of '45 as Engl., age 30, and single; perhaps served in Cal. Bat. '46-7 (v. 358), having a Cal. claim of $35 (v. 462); and still at Sta Cruz '49-80. Sweeting, 1848, doubtful name of a hotel-keeper at S.F. Brooks. Swift (Granville P.), 1844, nat. of Ky, and immig. from Or. in the Kelsey party, having crossed the plains in '43. iv. 444-5, 453. He served in Sutter's campaign of '45. iv. 486, 501; was a leading filibuster of the Bears in '46. v. 95, 104, 107, 110, 147, 153, 168, 172; and in '46-7 was capt. of Co. C, Cal. Bat. v. 184, 282, 289, 361; having a Cal. claim of about $2,000 (v. 462). He was a fine-looking man, over 6 ft in height, a crack shot, and of undoubted bravery, a bitter hater of the Mexicans. He settled on Stony Cr., Colusa, in '47; made a large fortune in mining on Feather Riv., with the aid of Ind., in '48-9; later a stock-raiser in Colusa and Tehama; from '54 ranchero in Sonoma; and from about '68 engaged in fruit-culture and quicksilver-mining in Solano, where he was accidentally killed in '75, at the age of about 54. He had a habit of burying his money on his rancho; several such deposits being accidentally found after he had forgotten them, and in one instance $24,000 having been stolen by an employee. S., 1807, mr of the Derby and Hazard; perhaps on the coast earlier. ii. 17, 78, 84. S. (Richard), 1846, Co. B, Cal. Bat., enlisting at Mont. in Oct. (v. 358). 

Swinburn (Wm), 1839, Engl. mate of the schr California, who became a lumberman in the Mont. district, getting a pass in '41. iv. 119. In '44 in S. F. dist, age 35. Swinson (Dav.), 1848, at Mont. Swords (Allen J.), 1847, Co. A, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499); d. at La Paz '48. S. (Thomas), 1846, major U.S.A., who came from N. Mex. with Kearny as quartermaster, and returned east with him in '47, after having made a trip to Honolulu for supplies; witness in the Fr‚mont court-martial. v. 336, 343-7, 356, 440, 452, 456. In the war of '61-5 he was chief quartermaster of the western dept, and in '79 lived in N.Y. as a retired brigadier. Sylvester (Anthony), 1845, one of the men lost '46 on the Warren's launch. iv. 587; v. 384. Syrec, 1848, named as having kept a store on the Moquelumne.