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from 'Fourth Census of Canada, 1901'
'Introduction - Instructions to Officers, pg.xviii'
How to Interpret Questions on 'Schedule No. 1. Population'

Census Question #5. Colour
47. The races of men will be designated by the use of "w" for white, "r" for red, "b" for black and "y" for yellow. The whites are, of course, the Caucasian race, the reds are the American Indian, the blacks are the African or negro, and the yellows are the Mongolian (Japanese and Chinese). But only pure whites will be classed as whites; the children begotten of marriages between whites and any one of the, other races will be classed as red, black or yellow, as the case may be, irrespective of the degree of colour.
Census Question #14. Racial or Tribal origin
53. Among whites the racial or tribal origin is traced through the father, as in English, Scotch, Irish, Welsh, French, German, Italian, Scandinavian, etc. Care must be taken, however, not to apply tile terms "American" or "Canadian" in a racial sense, as there are no races of men so called. "Japanese", "Chinese" and "negro" are proper racial terms; but in the case of Indians the names of their tribes should be given, as "Chippewa," "Cree," etc. Persons of mixed white and red blood - commonly known as "breeds" - will be described by addition of the initial letters "f.b." for French breed, "e.b." for English breed, "s.b." for Scotch breed and "i.b." for Irish breed. For example: "Cree f.b." denotes that the person is racially a mixture of Cree and French; and Chippewa s.b." denotes that the person is Chippewa and Scotch. Other mixtures of Indians besides the four above specified are rare, and may be described by the letters "o.b." for other breed. If several races are combined with the red, such as English and Scotch, Irish and French, or any others, they should also be described by the initials "e.b." A person whose father is, English, but whose mother is Scotch, Irish, French, or any other race, will be ranked as English, and so with any others - the line of descent being traced through the father in the white races.