Areas- Boundaries and Population. Canada is
bounded on the east by the
All the Arctic islands, except
in the Dominion, as are also the islands of
The area of the Dominion is officially computed to be
3,729,665 square miles, of which 126,329 is water, ex-
cluding tidal waters, gulfs and
formation of the Dominion in 1867 it comprised only
square miles. Official estimates credited the country
with a population of 8,772,631 in 1921.
drainage areas; the Atlantic basin, the chief river being
the St. Lawrence; the
stream is the Nelson; the Arctic area, drained largely by
the Mackenzie; and the Pacific basin, whose most
important draining rivers are the
The eastern border is a highland formed by the
Appalachian Mountain system. On the western side of
and south east from the southern
boundary to the
Ocean. Between these two mountain systems lies the
In the north from
miles of level country covered with tundra.
West of the rocky mountains, the surface comprises
high ridges, valleys and tablelands. Southwestern
and, when irrigated, yields large crops.
The lowlands of
important farming section.
neigbouring maritime provinces constitutes another sec-
tion with an undulating surface broken by wide valleys
and interspersed with woods.
of perpetual snow and ice and also touches three
oceans. The climate shows great variations. In the
south and and east the rainfall is ample, and there is a
great range of temperature. Those sections are the
forest regions. The
and hotter summers. The rainfall in these Provinces
is much less than in the southeast section, and irriga-
tion or dry farming is in many places necessary for
successful agriculture. Yet the great plains are over
spread with native grasses highly nutritious for live
stock and capable of being cured into valuable hay.
the Rocky Mountains- as an oceanic climate, the
range of temperature being small and the rainfall
milder climate than
province is in the latitude of
Coal fields cover may thousands of square miles,
though at present the principal mines are operated
to supply demands for steamer coal
Pacific. Immense deposits of sub-bituminous coal are
being developed in the
stone, lime, salt, magnesite and pyrites are worked.
Vast supplies of natural gas are obtained in the prairie
provinces and in
lead, are mined extensively. Most of the world’s supp-
plies of nickel, asbestos, and molybednite are obtained
from Canadian mines. Yet here can be no doubt that
the country’s enormous mineral riches have hardly been
touched. During the year 1-29 the Dominion produced
metallic ores to the following amounts: copper
81,155,360 pounds; gold 766,912 ounces; lead 33,985,074
pounds; nickel 61,136,493 pounds; silver, 12,793,541
ounces; zinc, 40,166,200 pounds; and molybednite (exports)
(1910) 83,002 pounds. The nonmetallic minerals
totaled as follows: asbestos 167,731 tons; coal,
16,623,598 tons; salt 210,211 tons; arsenic, 2,408 tons;
pyrites, 174,744 tons; and gypsum, 429,144 tons. The
output of natural gas was 16,961,284,000 cu. ft. There
were also obtained structural materials and clay prod-
ucts to the value of $38,181,848.
and the best stocked in the world. They comprise 5,000
miles of Atlantic coast; 7,000 miles of Pacific, and
220,000 square miles of fresh water. The principal
food fishes taken in Canadian territorial waters are
salmon, cod, lobsters, herring, halibut, haddock, mack-
erel, hake, sardines, and whitefish. Salmon is the most
valuable. Much of the Dominion’s vast fish catch is
exported, salted, canned dried or smoked. The total
capital invested in fishing, canning, and curing in 1920
was $50,405,478. The number of persons employed was
75,696. The catch of the sea fisheries in the same year
was valued at $43,602,059, and of the inland fisheries,
$5,639,280. The value of the fisheries by Provinces was,
In 1920, the values of the principal kinds of fish
caught were; Salmon, $15,595,970; cod, $6,270,171;
halibut, $4,533,188; herring, $3,428,298; lobsters, $7,352,-
455; haddock, $1,522,680; sardines, $860,268; mackerel,
$1,126,703; whitefish, $2,015,299; smelts, $789,268; hake,
and cusk, $361446 and trout, $708,633.
Agriculture- Farming has always been the Domin-
ion’s main industry. Homesteads may be obtained by
intending settlers in various sections of the west and
north. About 50 p;er cent of the population is engaged
in the various branches of
known throughout the world as a great cereal-produc-
ing territory, ranking fourth among the countries of
the world in the yield of wheat and oats. Modern farm
machines have enabled the production of foodstuffs to
outstrip the growth of the population; hence the Dominion
is able to export immense quantities of grains and root
crops. The principal products are wheat, oats, barley,
flax, rye, buckwheat, corn, hay, and clover. Immense
quantities of potatoes, turnips and other root crops are
grown. A vast acreage is devoted to peas, beans, al-
falafa, and fodder corn. Grapes and orchard fruits
flourish in the
wheat brings the highest price in the world’s grain
markets. In 1921, the harvest of field crops yielded
(bushels); wheat, 329,835,300; oats, 510,003,000; barley
1,105,300; buckwheat, 8,451,500; corn 14,220,000; tur-
nips, carrots, mangolds, etc., 75,185,200; mixed grains,
22,614,500. In the same year there were also produced
11,587,600 tons of hay and clover. fodder corn yielded
5,637,600 tons. Sugar beets totaled 252,500 tons. With-
in a comparatively few years the alfalfa product has in-
creased from a few hundred tons grown for experi-
mental purposes to 646,800 tons in 1921. The aggregate
value of all field crops in 1921 was $985,959,400. This sum
shows a decline of over $500,000,000. from the previous
year. The value of field crops of the
for 1921 was $5,675,000.
crop, wheat had an average yield per acre of 14 bushels.
yield of 23.50 bushels per acre.
The dairy industry has become increasingly profitable,
and butter and cheese are exported in large amounts.
Most of the creameries and cheese factories are located
in the southeast Provinces, but dairy interest are ex-
of the world in the output of
cheese. In 1919
produced 166,421,871 pounds of cheese and exported
about 78 per cent of that amount. The total value of
the dairy products in 1919 was $135,196,602.
Livestock.- Much attention has always been given in
the Dominion to the raising of cattle, horses, sheep and
hogs. Breeds of milch cows and of horses have been
much improved in recent years. In 1921 there were by
official census in the Dominion 381,921 horses;
10,206,205 cattle; 3,904,895 hogs, and 3,675,860 sheep.
the wool clip in
Poultry products add considerably to the country’s
494 turkeys; 880,014 geese and 782,125 ducks. Rabbits
are raised in
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The New World Atlas and Gazetteer
edited by Francis J. Reynolds
Formerly Reference Librarian, Library of Congress.
Revised to Date by Adam Ward
New Population Statistics of Federal Census of 1920 of all States and Territories, of all Cities and Town of the United STates. World Maps revised to 1922-New maps showing new boundaries of all foreign states and their dependencies-New maps of each state of the United States, including their newly organized counties and other boundary changes to 1922-New Canadian maps-Physical and commercial analysis of United States and Canada- Analysis of all countries of the world-Illustrated Gazetteer of cities and Towns of the world. Profusely Illustrated.
P.F. Collier and Son Company New York.
Copyright 1917.by P. F. Collier and Son.
Copyright 1919 by P. F. Collier and Son.
Copyright 1920 by P. F. Collier and Son.
Copyright 1921 by P. F. Collier and Son.
Copyright 1922 by P. F. Collier and Son.
Note Maps bear date of first copyright only.
Revisions on maps to January, 1922, are protected by copyright on Complete Atlas.