Some 'Military Actions' that involved Ontarians:
Seven Years' War (1755-1763)
Also known as 'The French and Indian War' this was the fourth war between England and France since 1689.
The second of these four wars was 'Queen Anne's War' (1702-1713) which gave England possession of several new colonies - Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the previously French territory around Hudson Bay (which includes some of current day Ontario).
The third war, 'King George's War' (1744-1748) centered around these new colonies and to whom they should really belong (England or France).
By the beginning of the 'Seven Years War', relations between England and France had esculated to the point where both were claiming, and fighting for, the same new lands in present day Canada and the USA. This also precipitated fighting amongst the English and French in other British & French colonies worldwide.
The war finally ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763 in which Britain received almost all France claimed land in Canada, all France claimed land east of the Mississippi River, and Florida from Spain.
The American (USA) Revolution (1775-1783)
Began when American colonies declared independence from Britain. In 1783 there was an influx of Loyalist refugees and British soldiers into Upper and Lower Canada and Nova Scotia.
The French Revolution / Napoleonic Wars (1800-1815)
While there is no conclusive proof of Canada's involvement in this war, Britain (along with several European countries) declared war against France. Considering that Canada was still a British colony at this time and Upper Canada (a British Colony) was situated next to Lower Canada ("New France"), it's quite likely that Canadians were involved in this war in some way.
War of 1812 (18 Jun 1812 - 24 Dec 1814)
USA declares war on Britain (which includes the British Colony now known as Canada). Battles include:
- 13 Oct 1812 - Victory at Battle of Queenston Heights, Canada
- 27 Apr 1813 York, Canada burned by USA
- 27 May 1813 Fort George, Canada captured by US
- 5 Jun 1813 Battle of Stoney Creek, Canada
- 24 Jun 1813 Battle of Beaver Dam, Canada
- 10 Sep 1813 - Battle of Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie, USA
- 5 Oct 1813 - Battle of Moraviantown, USA
- 11 Nov 1813 Battle of Crysler's Farm, Canada
- 5 Jul 1814 Battle of Chippewa, USA
- 25 Jul 1814 Battle of Lundy's Lane, Canada
- 24 Dec 1814 Treaty of Ghent ends conflict
Rebellion of 1837 (1837-1838)
Wanting to be free of Britain's rule two groups of reformers led by William Lyon Mackenzie (Upper Canada) and Louis-Joseph Papineau (Lower Canada), staged revolts against the British Crown. Each time the Militia was able to defeat the reformers and in the end both leaders were forced to flee to the USA (they did later return to the Canadas). Their followers weren't as fortunate, either being shipped to Australia or executed.
The American (USA) Civil War (1861-1865)
According to 'The Great Canadian Trivia Book': "Ottawa says that thousands of people from the territory that would become Canada, fought in the historic war waged over slavery and the economic rivalry between the industrial North and the agricultural South. Records of 'Canadian' participation in the war weren't kept, but Gaffen says historians have estimated that between 1,000 and 40,000 people, many of them immigrants from Ireland and England, were involved. He notes that most fought with the North because they opposed slavery or because they wanted to work and settle in the U.S. North. Many became American citizens after the war. Gaffen states that some blacks from the area surrounding what is now Windsor joined the war as did many French people from Lower Canada (now Quebec)"
From: Gladys Boice Tolbert, 8 Oct 2001
Some may not have mentioned their Canada origins in enlisting in Civil War-especially if family had been in the U. S. for some time. I have two collateral line family members who enlisted & failed to mention their Frontenac County birth. You may be able to access any pension files of soldiers or widows from National Archives in Washington D. C., or check the www.familysearch.org site catalog listing for Civil War Soldier records, & U.S.state archive listings for soldiers who served in Civil War, and that will give you info needed to get files from federal archives in Washington, D.C. You may be able to inter-library loan books in to your local library concerning Civil War.
Fenian Raids (1866)
Raids into Canada from the US
Boer War / South Africa War (1899-1902)
According to 'The Great Canadian Trivia Book': "Approximately 8,000 Canadians served during [this] war, with about 7,000 of them seeing action in South Africa. The rest performed garrison duty in Halifax. This was the first time a Canadian contingent was sent overseas. The soldiers served as part of the British Army but as Canadian soldiers. During the war 89 were killed, 135 others died by accident or disease, and 252 soldiers were injured."
World War One (1914-1918)
10% of Ontario's population joins
World War Two (1939-1945)
Canada declares war on Germany 10 Sep 1939
The Vietnam War (1961-1975)
According to 'The Great Canadian Trivia Book': "Exact figures are difficult to obtain, but the most widely accepted estimate is that some twenty thousand Canadians served with U.S. troops in the Vietnam War. Many of those fighting crossed the border voluntarily and signed up, while other Canadians were living in the United States and were drafted. The Canadian Armed Forces does not officially recognize the voluntary involvement of Canadians who fought in Vietnam."