There were different reasons, settlement places and time frames for English immigration to Saskatchewan.
English Gentleman Adventurers: The Hudson Bay Company (HBC) was first incorporated in 1670 as "The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay," or "Company of Adventurers From England" to make, ordain, and establish within the Land and Territory so admitted as aforesaid all such Laws, Institutions, and Ordinances, and to constitute such Courts and Officers, as may be necessary for the Peace, Order, and good Government of Her Majesty's Subjects and others therein. Rupert's Land Act 1868. " Early explorers paved the way to establish Cumberland House (1774) the first of many HBC trading posts built in the area now know as Saskatchewan. HBC fur trading posts were established along water ways facilitating travel by canoe and York Boat and they were located mainly in northern Saskatchewan as this more heavily forested area favored the fur trade. The British ran the Hudson Bay Company (1670-1863) from its head office in England, and the various indigenous tribes brought furs to the Hudson Bay Trading Post till 1774 when Cumberland House was built. The Hudson Bay then hired Orkney Island men and British orphans as 'pedlars'. A ship sailed annually to York Factory on the Hudson Bay. In 1821, the administration districts of the Northwest Company and the Hudson Bay Company are merged into the Hudson Bay Company. Many retirees of the Hudson Bay Company settled with a Canadian family in the Red River Settlement. The Anglican, Protestant, Church of England missionary posts helped establish education and were the backbone for the public school system now used in Saskatchewan. The HBC posts are listed at the Hudson Bay Company Archives (HBCA) web site: Hudson Bay Company Forts.
British North America: Canada's Dominion Lands Act of 1872 initiated a huge campaign with Private, Railway and Government Land Colonization companies all advertising for settlers to come West to Canada. These settlement areas were mainly south of the tree line. Victorian England (1815-1914) encouraged emigration as Britain emerged from the industrial revolution (1750 - 1850). Many immigrants were attracted by the Dominion Government, Railway and land agency advertisements portraying Canada's west was seen as a wild, romantic, frontier British colony. The immigration of the late 1800's was mainly from Eastern Canada and Britain, recreating the west from a fur trading frontier to an industrial farming capitalist metropolis. These 'Orangemen' were of the protestant faith, valued fealty to the British Empire, and Victorian belief systems.
Boer War (1899-1902) Canada sent support to Britain in the Anglo-Boer War in South Africa. Veterans of the Boer War received scrip land in Western Canada, some settling near Little Quill Lake Mair, and Scrip, Saskatchewan.
British Home Children (1880-1930)* : 100,000 children were emigrated to Canada by fifty child-care organizations: Bernardo children, children from the Church of England Waifs and Strays Society, etc. The British Child Emigration Scheme whereby Britain wished to populate its colonies persisted until the mid-1960's interrupted only by WWI and WWII also sending 15,000 children to Australia, New Zealand, and Africa. These children were between the ages of 6 and 15, and many were sent to Canadian farms to work as indentured farm labourers. Some older boys from St
Vincent’s Orphanage in London were placed in Saskatchewan and Alberta by Father A Douglas. The Government of Canada designates 2010 as the Year of the British Home Child..
immigrantchildren.ca » 2010 Year of the British Home Child
2010 - The OFFICIAL Year of the Home Child!
Young Immigrants to Canada Researching Your British Home Child In Canada
British Harvester Assisted Immigration of the 1920's: During the 4 week period of harvest, many farm labourers were required to help homesteaders with the harvest. Rail lines, and shipping companies in conjunction with the Dominion and British Government enabled lower rates on fares to Canada for those seeking employment during this time. In 1923, 12,000 British immigrants came and 80% stayed. In 1928, 8,500 British immigrants arrived in 66 reserved vessels. About 600-700 of these immigrants went immediately to the United States. Some stayed to help with the harvest and 6,368 eventually returned to England. In 1929 approximately 3,952 British harvesters came to the west. In the 1930's harvesters were more heavily recruited from B.C. and the U.S.. Harvesters were recruited locally until improved mechanization enabled the farmer to be more self sufficient during harvest.
English - Saskatchewan Colonies:
Coal Creek Colony : The Coal Creek Colony was established by 38 English families enticed by Canadian Pacific Railway advertisements. They settled in the spring of 1930 south west of Rockglen, Saskatchewan. Due to the 1930's drought, initially 13 families migrated further north to the North Battleford, Saskatchewan , Wynyard, Saskatchewan areas, and by 1937 only 6 families remained.
East London Artisans Colony near Moosomin in the Qu'Appelle River Valley started up in 1880. These settlers were sponsored by Lord de Winton and Baroness Burdett-Coutts.
Cannington Manor was a bachelor society initiated by Captain Edward Mitchell Pierce. The Moose Mountain Trading Company established this English middle class society south of Moosomin, Saskatchewan.
Barr Colony: 2,000 immigrants excited by an article written by Rev. Exton Lloyd, an Anglican clergyman, to 'The Times' and further expounded by Rev. Isaac Moses Barr left England in 1903. In 1904, they were joined by an additional influx of settlers who travelled by rail to Edmonton and followed the Saskatchewan River to the Brittania Colony, later called the Barr Colony. The immigrants included Reservists and Yeoman from the South African Boer War, Western Australia gold miners, India and Ceylon tea planters, and Englishmen from other British colonies Hong Kong, Brazil, Central and North Africa, Egypt who had all heard of Brittania (Barr) Colony. The city of Lloydminster in this area still bears tribute in its name to Rev. Exton Lloyd. Due to natural increase Paynton, Aberfeldy, Southminster, Buzzard, Marshall (later called Stringer Settlement) were Saskatchewan towns also settled by Barr Colonists.
Bell Farm (1882-1896) was an inspiration of Major William R. Bell. The Bell Farm lands included the town of Winro and was located in Valley Farming Company Lands north of Indian Head, Saskatchewan, and east of Qu'Appelle. Many of the families who worked at the Bell Farm later purchased these lands when the 13,000 Bell Farm acres were offered for sale in 1896. The Bell Farm no longer exists as it could not meet its colonization requirements set out at purchase time by the Dominion Government. Some of the reasons are: the Rail line went south of the farm, 16 squatters not aware of the Bell Farm arrangement demanded restitution for land they had an interest to homestead, Bell Farm staff enlisted in the North West Rebellion causing the economic condition of the Farm to flounder in this 1885, the railway upped the price for odd numbered sections of the Bell Farm area.
Saskatchewan Settlement Placenames:
On the 1881 census the North West territories had a population of 19,000 of which 15,000 were first nations, 3,000 mixed, and 1,000 British and Canadian settlers. There was a large English settlement area already established in southern Ontario ( called "Upper Canada" before confederation 1867). Approximately 57% of Saskatchewan residents were classified as British on the 1901 census. The following are towns initially settled by English settlers. Due the rush of immigrants who came to the prairies following the homestead offer by the Dominion Land Act of 1872 many towns and areas became a mixture of ethnocultures as people pressed further west to claim land.
Moose Jaw Gen Web Region supports the settlements of Baildon (Cataraqui district), and Kayville which had original settlement by the English.
Cannington Manor (The East London Artisans), East London Artisan Colony are situated in southern Saskatchewan in the Weyburn Gen Web region.
Dilke, Hednesford, Imperial, Lumsden, Penzance were some settlements in the Regina Gen Web Region.
In the Yorkton Gen Web Area there are settlement place names of Abernethy Homestead, Churchbridge, Cotham, Saltcoats (Church Colonization and Land Co.), Sumner Parish(near Esterhazy), Yorkton, Qu'appelle Farming Company (Bell Farm).
Anglia, Evesham, Ibstone (was Oban Junction and Charlton),Rutland, Senlac are located in the
Battleford Gen Web area.
Found in the Saskatoon Gen Web area are the towns of Crystal Springs, Glamis, Gledhow, MacDowall, Normanton, and the Saskatoon Temperance Colony (Ontario - English settlers) which had an initial settlement of English settlers. See also Canadian-Saskatchewan ethnic resources.
As mentioned above, Aberfeldy (Barr Colonists), Alingly, Ashley (was Hewitt Landing), Barr Colony , Longhope, Marshall (Barr Colonists: Stringer Settlement), Paynton (Barr Colonists) were English settlements found in Lloydminster Gen Web region.
James Isbister started an English speaking settlement near Prince Albert. Also in the Prince Albert Gen Web region were Whitestar (where Brother Corbeil Roman Catholic Orphanage cared for a dozen of the many BHC), and Meath Park.
Source | Bibliography | Ethnic origins and History |
Resources | Sask Gen Web