Cemetery Preservation: Preserving Landscapes of Memories

Graceful Delight


Cemetery Preservation: Preserving Landscapes of Memories



Cemeteries are revered as consecrated, sacred places in the community, a place of value to the residents in the community. The Saskatchewan Genealogy Society has launched the SCCMP "The Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program" -discontinued, no longer available. The program guidelines, and application information are available online. Through this project, the SCCMP provides matching grants as assistance to restore, and care for cemeteries which are in need of assistance.

As a first step of assistance, please ensure that all cemeteries are registered with the Saskatchewan Cemeteries Registry as per The Cemeteries Act of 1999. The Saskatchewan Genealogy Society has placed a Saskatchewan Cemetery Index online which records the designated Rural Municipality for the area. All cemeteries need to be registered to protect burial sites in order to maintain and preserved these unmarked sites. Contact the Municipality Clerk in the Rural Municipality office.

As genealogists, archaeologists and historians are aware, cemeteries and their tombstone markers face many hazards, from weathering, commercial expansion, neglect and abandonment. Cemeteries in jeopardy benefit greatly from record creation. Multiple agencies across the province of Saskatchewan are transcribing, video taping and photographing over 3,430 cemeteries. Additionally cemetery indexes area available through Amicus at the Library and Archives Canada. However, the Registrar of Cemeteries has 406 cemetery plans 12% of recorded cemeteries, and the Land Titles Registry notes 700 cemetery land locations, 20% of known cemeteries. In many cases the rural municipality office will have cemetery plot records, however old cemeteries or older cemetery sections may have no known plot records available.

"The common conception that the cemetery holds the memory of all who died and were buried before us is a false one," writes Meredith G. Watkins. Cemeteries have undertaken Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to ascertain the completeness of their cemetery internment records. The town of Langham, for instance, undertook such a venture to identify burial sites which would correlate with existing cemetery plot records. Such GPR surveys also prevent disarticulation in an inactive cemetery or where cemetery plot records were lost due to office fire or calamity. The resulting cemetery sketches and survey maps are invaluable tools showing all landscape features, height and age of vegetation, terrain type, contour, slopes as well as all burial sites.

Cemeteries, the silent historian


Cemeteries do indeed, silently document the past local histories and biographies. As William Dollarhide, notes, genealogists do make ancestral discoveries at cemeteries, and are not "obsessed with death, burials, or other ghoulish activities." It is from the cemetery records or tombstone inscriptions that an ancestor can be located with certainty, unless there are no records, no tombstone erected or if the cemetery is unkempt. In Saskatchewan, it is invaluable to learn legal land nomenclature, the township, range and meridian survey system, to augment Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and view historical placenames in the vicinity of the cemetery. These placenames lead to compiled family histories published mainly for the 75th anniversary of the province (1980), however some books went to print in 1955 (50th provincial birthday) and others in 2005 (the 100th anniversary). These local history, family biography books contain a variety of records, cemetery history and occasionally the cemetery transcription as well. The imperative of keeping proper citations, digital records, differentiating between primary source and secondary source records is noted the book Evidence! Citation & Analysis for the Family Historian written by Elizabeth Shown Mills for genealogists.

Locating homestead locations will help to ascertain the locale, city or rural municipality. Then the cemetery, funeral home, newspaper used for an obituary and death certificate fall into place. However cemetery and probate records may fall short if the ancestor decided upon cremation or drawing up a personal will. Sharon Debartolo Carmack delves into additional records of death such as "autopsy and coroners' records, death certificates, obituaries, death notices, wills and probate, prayer and memorial cards and funeral home records, and mortality schedules."

The practice of erecting a grave marker made of wood in the shape of a cross was erected to commemorate a grave site may have succumbed to one of the numerous prairie fires which historically ravaged the prairie grasslands in blazing sweeps hundreds of miles across. The lack of stone or permanent grave markers, erosion, surface land cultivation, landscaping, prairie fires, exodus of local families and the subsequent deterioration of community and services contribute to the neglect of a grave site, the location unknown to future generations. As John P. Nickel notes, "in the early days when there were no cemeteries, many burials were done in school yards, gardens or fields." " "When people died, they would essentially bury them there, wherever it happened, everywhere. There were no cemeteries," said Germann in a CBC news report, "With settlement and erosion, these things get exposed."

"Ever wonder what happens when a church closes, members move away, and a cemetery is left uncared for?" asks the Heritage Cemeteries Project. Unmarked cemeteries are particularly hard to find, and derelict abandoned cemeteries quite often have no burial register, cemetery plot map, death certificates, grave markers or other markers such as the case for Efremovka and Spasovoka Doukhovor Cemeteries. "In some cases, a burial spot may be an abandoned cemetery," reports Colorado Cemeteries, "when the owners of the property have left the area, and the property is no longer the responsibility of anyone."

Typically there are family cemeteries, church owned, private, national, city, town and municipal cemeteries. Cemeteries may have undefined property boundaries, no signage or access roadways creating difficulty when locating graveyards.

The dates of cemeteries can be reflected by the types of monuments demarking the grave sites. Tombstone markers have evolved from wooden markers, stone mounds or circles, sandstone slabs, marble stone work, granite tombstones and the contemporary polished granite and marble. Additionally, in a cemetery, there may be headstone, footstone, ground tablet, basal table grave, ruin, cross, pedestal obelisk, pedestal column, Funeral home plaque, or bedstead set in an urban, country, family, private, isolated or rural setting. Mausoleum architecture, be it Romanesque, Gothic Revial, or Art Deco, they, too, reflect time periods in history, social values and chronological trends.

From the inscriptions, the names and dates are vital to the genealogist assembling a family tree. Additionally, symbols, backgrounds, art, Religious iconography, accomplishments, commemorative items, epitaphs, carvings, and sentiments are recorded by those remembering their dearly departed. These symbols may indicate a social identity such as membership in organizations giving way to additional information and further genealogical research. Family burial plots show groupings or symbols indicated they are related in some way.

According to Robert Redfield, “acculturation” is the “phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups.” The adaptions of ethnic bloc settlements is evident in their burial customs, cemetery tombstone styles and the language chosen for the tombstone inscriptions.

Young pupils do not have to wait till University, they can be exposed to archaeological studies by visiting a cemetery and studying the culture of the community and the changes it its culture. Cemeteries tell the story of the deceased, those who mourned them, their views of death, and the society in which they lived.

Trends and customs in burial customs of ethnic, cultural and spiritual communities demark cemetery sections or complete graveyard styles of internment and tombstone design. Such was the case for Verna Elinor Gallén who detailed "variations in the expressions of social identity provided by the different Saskatchewan Finnish cemeteries" in Silence We Remember: The Historical Archaeology of Finnish Cemeteries in Saskatchewan. Noting the details of both tombstone and grave yard tells a story of communities in Saskatchewan, their growth and development, in times of sickness, war, and health.

Archaeological Cemeteries

The Heritage Property Act oversees the burials not found in a registered cemetery. On discovery of an historical burial site, the Minister is contacted as well as the appropriate agency, church or church historical documents, Indian band, First Nation or Euro-Canadian descendants before any archaeological excavations would be considered. To confirm land ownership, information can be obtained from the provicial land registry through Information Services Corporation (ISC). The "Central Burial Site" along the South Saskatchewan River has been established for respectful internment of ancient First Nations burials where appropriate and under consultation with appropriate interest groups to determine final re-burial. Here rest over 200 internments. "This is considered a very sacred burial ground to First Nations," says Carlos Germann director of Saskatchewan's heritage conservation branch, "unique in that it accommodates all different tribal affiliations." If the burial site is not threatened or in jeopardy, the site is recorded, and restored. In the case of a discovered homestead burial, similar legal decisions are made regarding the burial site preservation or removal and relocation to a local cemetery. In Saskatchewan, if the soil is disturbed, a permit is required in Saskatchewan. Approximately five to fifteen Archaeological burial sites are found each year.

Swift Current is south east of the Gray cemetery examined between 1970 and 1974 and documented in Quaternary Dates and Verebrate Faunas in Saskatchewan by R.E. Morlan,R. McNeely, S.A. Wolfe, and B.T. Schreiner. In this pre-historic site, 304 internments were found here dating back 3,000 to 5,000 years. The Gray Cemetery, a National Historic Site, is part of the Oxbow Culture, a part of the Middle Precontact Period..

Archaeological study reveals vital cultural, architectural, spiritural and societal histories. The forgotten cemetery of the St. Vital Parish (1879-1885) located on the Battle River near Telegraph Flat, North West Territories was established in 1877. Telegraph Flat was later named Battleford. Following the 1885 North West Rebellion, the Roman Catholic Mission of St. Vital chose the North West Mounted Police (NWMP) Cemetery near Fort Battleford and later, the Town of Battleford Cemetery This meant that the original cemetery abandoned, and the location forgotten till its discovery in 1999. A meticulous archaeological survey uncovered mortuary practices, spiritural and cultural customs, health and disease, artifacts, and rituals providing an in-depth documentary of the early history of the Oblate priests, the community and the 19th century Battleford area. The names of those interred was derived from parish registers, national, provincial and municipal archive records, Battleford's North West Historical Society and newspaper accounts. The extensive Archaeological research was compared to the records held by the Parish register. Similar acheaological investigation was applied at the Industrial School Cemetery at Battleford, and the two sites studies were compared. A reburial cemetery was held in 2002, and commemorative marker erected in 2003.

Near Canora, Saskatchewan, the Doukhobor Cemetery of Besednoye village was excavated and studied in detail by archaeological investigation. Seventeen internments were found here, and according to Jon Kalmakoff, eight of these have been identified.

The third archaeological cemetery studied in Saskatchewan was the Nisbet Presbyterian Cemetery discovered in 2004. Between 1866 and 1874 twenty-one internments took place at the Nisbet Mission cemetery. "The examination of cemeteries proffers valuable, multi-faceted information pertaining to the past," writes Lisa Marie Rudolph in, An Osteological and Historical Examination of the Presbyterian Forest Centre Cemetery Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, "the comprehensive nature of burial and cemetery projects necessitate the involvement of local interest groups and specialists for the study to be successfully completed in a considerate manner." A re-burial ceremony was held the following year at the South Hill Cemetery in Prince Albert.

Communities benefit from historical areas of historic and aesthetic value which bear "a unique or exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared" and can be protected under the Heritage Property Act. The Heritage Conservation Branch of the Saskatchewan Ministry of Tourism, Parks, Culture and Sport (TPCS) has published the Guide to Preparing a Provincial Heritage Property Nomination. As such, "Heritage property is broadly defined as any property that is of interest for its architectural, historical, cultural, environmental, archaeological, palaeontological, aesthetic or scientific value and includes archaeological and palaeontological objects." Under such desigation and protection an historic cemetery would be listed in the provincial Heritage Conservation Branch's Saskatchewan Register of Heritage Property and the Canadian Register of Historic Places.

The Globe and Mail reported that in 2008 the National Archives records were reviewed to locate cemeteries, and burial sites near Indian Residential Schools or IRS churches. Amongst these is the Regina Indian Industrial School cemetery, located on the west side of Pinkie road, unmarked but for a wooden fence. The Municipal Heritage Advisory Committee "believes that actions should be taken to develop recommendations to ensure that the site ofthe Regina Indian Industrial School cemetery be suitably and appropriately recognized."

Recording and Memorialising

Through the Rural Municipality office cemetery clean up committees are established throughout the province to care for active cemeteries. Volunteers come togethers with lawn mowers, weed whackers, and chain saws to maintain active burial grounds to comply with their community standards.

Education is the key, to preserve a derelict cemetery. For historical conservation purposes it is wise to learn what to do, and what not to do. The Saskatchewan Historic Cemetery Manual - discontinued no longer available and the A Graveyard Preservation Primer by Lynette Strangstad outline precautions necessary to increase awareness about cemetery preservation. Use caution in an historic cemetery site near large cementery monuments, as these too, may break and topple. Trained volunteer cemetery crews, archaeologists or professionals recommended by the Saskatchewan Heritage Foundation are required for preservation work on an historic graveyard in need of restoration. For such work, grants and assistance is available.

Non-invasive methods of reading fading inscriptions is imperative to preserve information for future generations of genealogists. Do no harm is mandated, headstones should not be sprayed with solvents or cleaning supplies as these may enter cracks, and further erode the stone. A simple mirror or plain rain water may help to bring out the shadow play on the inscription. "Rubbings" onto paper should never be made on stone which is soft and may break apart under the process further eroding a delicate stone. For example when attempting to read an eroded head stone, do not make rubbings with light weight paper that the wax or ink colour may bleed through.

Photographing a tombstone from a variety of angles and a tight close up opens up the capability for image enhancement in photo software to enlarge, and manipulate photos to bring out the natural contrasts, and highlights in the photographic image.

Share your photographs or transcriptions with one of the many agencies recording and memorializing cemeteries in Saskatchewan. A kind courtesy to other researchers is to take photos of all the tombstones, and then submit them online to an organisation such as the Canada Gen Web Saskatchewan Cemetery Project

Cemetery Vacations

Cemetery tours and historical cemetery guide books enhance the interpretation of the community's evolution, providing information and cultural, historical and contemporary heritage interpretation. The Regina Ethnic Pioneers Cemetery Walking Tours and the associated books; Regina Ethnic Pioneers Cemetery Walking Tour Multicultural Tour 2 , Regina Cemetery Walking Tour Founding Fathers Blue Tour, and Cemetery Walking Tour : Multicultural. Tour 2 are examples of such an endeavour.

Such is the nature of the narrative documentation collected that this concise history becomes a significant source of information which honours and celebrates the memory of those who have gone before so they will never be forgotten ~ a source of community pride. Biographies of individuals, their families, occupations, and their spirituality commemorate the community and society in an historical viewpoint. Erecting monuments on cenotaphs, maps on billboard panels for visitors, pedestal mounted guest books during a commemorative re-dedication ceremony provide a link to achievements engaging visitors to recognize both the great individuals buried, along with the small pioneer families. “It is important because we are getting to the stage where, if we do nothing now, the memories of those people will vanish," reported Oliver Evans, “I don’t think they should be forgotten.”

Vacation time and holidays create a rewarding experience and an opportunity to get the whole family involved in history, and introducing them to family ancestry. Memorable events are created when connecting with the memory and significance of ancestral events, pioneering days, and family traditions. Standing in the footsteps of your great great grandfather placing flowers on the grave on your great great great grandmother . "He gazed on that very same stone," says Andy Linkins as he mourned his deceased mother. Remember to search respectfully, research as much as you can first and make contact with local organisations before you leave on your trip. Reaching "out to touch the final resting place of their ancestors," writes Kory Meyerink, pries "the lid off a family story forgotten by most of the living relatives."

Save our Saskatchewan Cemeteries

It is with honour and respect that cemeteries which have served communities for decades are recognized and cared for. "Burial grounds are an essential part of a community", as the town of Herbert says, "the little prairie cemetery, dotted with small bushes, little fences and crosses, perennial plants, flower vases and personal touches really do tell a story of those who have gone before." Cemeteries do indeed, express the social identity of their communities.

The Saskatchewan Historic Cemetery Manual - discontinued no longer available put out by the Saskatchewan Genealogical Society provides guidance to proceed on conservation and preservation of historical cemeteries, their clean up, repair and documentation. As Don Morgan, QC Minister of Justice and Attorney General notes, the operation of cemeteries in Saskatchewan falls under the purview of the Ministry of Justice and Attorney General....We have an opportunity to protect our heritage and if we don’t take steps to preserve it, it will be lost. As a province and a society we must make a commitment to identify and protect cemeteries."

Note:

The program, Saskatchewan Genealogy Society ~ Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program SCCMP, has been discontinued, however it ws intriguing, so the information is left here online.

Heritage Cemeteries listing



Currently there are over 100 designated National heritage cemeteries and about 40 in the province of Saskatchewan
Cemetery Name Municipality Date of Origin
All Saints Anglican Church and Cemetery Duck Lake, SK 1896
All Saints Anglican Church and Cemetery Pelletier Park, Katepwa Beach, SK 1887
Babulynci Church and Cemetery Ponass Lake RM 367 1931
Batoche National Historic Site of Canada and  parish of St.-Antoine-de-Padoue cemetery Batoche, SK 1870
Bekevar Presbyterian Church and Cemetery Hazelwood RM 94 1911
Beth Israel Synagogue Willow Creek RM 458 1906
Bethania Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church and cemetery St. Louis RM 431 1913
Bethel Church and Cemetery Ponass Lake RM 367 1917
Bethel Lutheran Church and Cemetery Historical Site Morris RM 312 1916
Bethesda Lutheran Church Caledonia RM 99 1912
Billimun St. Martin's Roman Catholic Church and Cemetery Glen McPherson RM 46 1927
Bonne Madonne Roman Catholic Church Hoodoo RM 401 1919
Cannington Manor Provincial Park and its cemetery Moose Mountain RM 63 1884
Charlow (Shiloh) Baptist Church and Cemetery Eldon RM 471 1912
Christ Church - West Patience Lake Blucher RM 343 1908
Church, Cemetery and Grotto in St. Peter's Colony Lajord RM 128 1904
Convenant Church and cemetery(Young Swedish Mission Church) Morris RM 312 1916
Earlswood Cemetery and Chapel Martin RM 122 1885 - 1958
Edgeley United Church South Qu'Appelle RM 157 1883
Elm Springs Ascension of Our Lord Roumanian Orthodox Church and Cemetery Old Post RM 43 1926
Emmanuel Cemetery Estevan RM 5 1905
Emmanuel Evangelical Lutheran Church and Cemetery Glenside RM 377 1913
Fairmeded United Church of Canada and Cemetery Silverwood RM 123 1910
Fleming Memorial Cemetery Fleming 1882
Hallonquist Church of God Coulee RM 136 1936
Highland Swedish Baptist Church and Cemetery Kingsley RM 124 1924
Holy Rosary Shrine and Cemetery Grass Lake RM 381 1918
Holy Trinity Anglican Church, Stanley Mission Stanley Mission 1854
Holy Trinity Church and Cemetery Birch Hills RM 460 1905
Jewish Cemetery Tullymet RM 216 1902
Kaposvar Historic Site Our Lady of Assumption Roman Catholic Church and cemetery Fertile Belt RM 183 1906
Kennell Anglican Church and cemetery Lumsden RM 189 1910
Kermaria Church and Cemetery Lake Lenore RM 399 1914
Kronau Cemetery Site Lajord RM 128 1896
Larson Mausoleum Lang, SK 1923
Lipton Jewish Cemetery Lipton RM 217 1902
Lipton Jewish Cemetery  Tullymet RM 216 1902
Little Moose St. Philip's Roman Catholic Church and Cemetery Three Lakes RM 400 1930
Little Stone Presbyterian Church and Cemetery Abernethy RM 186 1884
Longlaketon United Church Longlaketon RM 219 1886
Mancroft St. Peter's Anglican Church and Cemetery Wolverine RM 340 1910
Marieton Church and Cemetery McKillop RM 220 1912
Moe United Norwegian Lutheran Church and Cemetery Sasman RM 336 1911
Moose Creek United Church and Cemetery Moose Creek RM 33 1916
Moose Jaw Cemetery Moose Jaw 1911
New Stockholm Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church and Cemetery Fertile Belt RM 183 1917
Next of Kin Memorial Avenue National Historic Site of Canada Saskatoon, SK 1922
Norden Lutheran Church and Cemetery Kinistino RM 459 1909
Norrona Evangelical Lutheran Church and cemetery McKillop RM 220 1917
North Prairie Scandinavian Lutheran Church and Cemetery Preeceville RM 334 1918
Old Invermay Cemetery Invermay RM 305 unknown
Orkney Church Orkney RM 244 1893
Our Lady of Perpetual Help Emerald RM 277 1909
Peace Lutheran Church and Cemetery (Friedensfeld Krimmer Mennonite Brethren Church) Excelsior RM 166 1911
Pioneer Cemetery or Nutana Cemetery Saskatoon, SK 1884
Powley House, Swift Current Funeral Home Swift Current, SK 1912
Prongua Christ Anglican Church Battle River RM 438 1906
Roman Catholic Parish of St. Bernard and Cemetery Three Lakes RM 400 1918
Roumanian Church of the Holy Trinity and Cemetery Beaver River RM 622 1934
Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Cemetery Redberry RM 435 1911
Ruthenian Greek Catholic Parish of Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary Buchanan RM 304 1906
Saint Peter and Saint Paul Orthodox Church Stonehenge RM 73 1911
Saints Peter and Paul Blumenfeld Roman Catholic Church and Cemetery Happyland RM 231 1915
Saron Evangelical Lutheran Church and Cemetery St. Louis RM 431 1907
Scandia Lutheran Church and Cemetery Lakeview RM 337 1914
Souris Valley St. Germaine Roman Catholic Church Laurier RM 138 1907
St. Andrew's (Halcro) Anglican Church and Cemetery Prince Albert RM 461 unknown
St. Andrew's Roman Catholic Church, Hall & Cemetery Martin RM 122 1899 - 1939
St. Catherine's Anglican Cemetery Prince Albert RM 461 unknown
St. Columba Anglican Church and Cemetery Marquis RM 191 1898
St. David's Anglican Church and Cemetery at St. Cyr Meadow Lake RM 588 1933 - 1934
St. Demetrius Orthodox Church Preeceville RM 334 1908
St. Elizabeth Roman Catholic Mission Church and Cemetery Gravelbourg RM 104 1927
St. Hubert's Church and Cemetery Silverwood RM 123 1935
St. Ignatius Roman Catholic Church and Cemetery Leroy RM 339 1928
St. John Bohoslav Krasne Church and Cemetery Big Quill RM 308 1927
St. John the Evangelist Ukrainian Catholic Church and Cemetery Prud'homme, SK 1945
St. John's Lutheran Church and Cemetery Edenwold RM 158 1919
St. John's Lutheran Church and Cemetery Riverside RM 168 1919
St. Joseph's Cemetery Kellross RM 247 1909
St. Laszlo Canadian Magyar Church and Cemetery Bayne RM 371 1903
St. Laurent Shrine Our Lady of Lourdes and cemetery Duck Lake, SK 1883
St. Mary's Anglican Church and Cemetery Prince Albert RM 461 1875
St. Mary's Church, Cairn and Cemetery Buchanan RM 304 1944
St. Mary's Mission of Maxstone (Our Lady of Assumption)  and Cemetery Stonehenge RM 73 1917
St. Mary's Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Church and Cemetery Hoodoo RM 401 1913
St. Matthew's Anglican Church Winnetka Edenwold RM 158 1927
st. Michael's Anglican Church Spalding RM 368 1909
St. Michael's Greek Orthodox Church and Cemetery (Bukowinaq) Hoodoo RM 401 1918
St. Michael's Ukrainain Catholic Church and Cemetery (Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church of St. Michael the Archangel)   Ponass Lake RM 367 1910
St. Michael's Ukrainian Greek Catholic Parish and Cemetery Emerald RM 277 1923
St. Paul's Lindsay Cemetery Prince Albert RM 461 unknown
St. Saviours Anglican Church and Cemetery Birch Hills RM 460 1905
St. Thomas Anglican Church and Cemetery South Qu'Appelle RM 157 1898
Stalker Cemetery Enniskillen RM 3 1885
Stone Church Cemetery Emerald RM 277 1884 - 1888
Stornoway Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church of Saints Peter and Paul and Cemetery Calder RM 241 1927
Synod of the Diocese of Qu'Appelle and cemetery (All Saints Anglican Church) Pense, SK 1909
Taylorton Cemetery Coalfields RM 4 1902
Thingvalla Church and Cemetery Churchbridge RM 211 1910
Tiny Lutheran Chjurch St. Boswells Glen Bain RM 105 1916
Ukrainian Catholic Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Cemetery Kellross RM 247 1942
Ukrainian Catholic Parish of HOly Eucharist (Kulikiw) Hazel Dell RM 335 1932
Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Redberry RM 435 1910
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Ascension and cemetery St. Philips RM 301 1934
Wheatwyn Church and Cemetery Cupar RM 218 1906
White Eagle Sacred Heart Parish and Cemetery Emerald RM 277 1915
Whitesand Norwegian Lutheran Church and Norwegian, Swedish and Danish Cemetery Invermay RM 305 1921
Zion Lutheran Church Lacadena RM 228 1926
Zion Lutheran Church of Flowing Well and Cemetery Lawtonia RM 135 1919



Additional Resources:


Links

Canada Gen Web Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project

Network Canadian Cemetery Management September 2010 Vol 24 No 10

Saskatchewan Gen Web Cemetery Resources and Organisations

Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Cemetery Index

Saskatchewan Historic Cemetery Manual - no longer available

SCCMP "The Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program" discontinued - no longer available

Books



Bibliography:


Links to sources are embedded in text above.
Additionally:
Redfield, Robert, Ralph Linton and Melville J. Herkovits

1936 Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. American Anthropologist 38(1):149- 152.

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