OHAPTER XI. SECTION B

HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGIATE INSTITUTES.


CHAPTER OHAPTER X1. HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGIATE INSTITUTES.CHAPTER OHAPTER X1. HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGIATE INSTITUTES.CHAPTER OHAPTER X1. HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGIATE INSTITUTES.CHAPTER OHAPTER X1. HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGIATE INSTITUTES.



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A Survey of Education. The Province of Saskatchewan Canada. A Report. Government of the Province of Saskatchewan. by Harold W. Foght, Ph.D. Specialist in Rural School Practice, 1918

Chapter 11 SECTION A (previous)

Chapter 12 (next)

Copyright



OHAPTER XI.

HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGIATE INSTITJjTES.
Three main demands underlie present progress in secondary edu-
cation in North America: (1) That the high school shall be an integra] part of the public school system; (2) that higl,! school opportunities shall be available for all boys and girls, and that all boys and girls will gothro'Ugh the high school course; (3) that the high school shall offer a wide variety of- courses, designed to meet. the needs of all boy.s and girls, not merely those who are going to college.
The High School an Integral Part of the Pt.blic. School System.- Saskatchewan aims to offer a complete educational programme to the children of all its citizens, including eight years of elementary school, four years of high school, and four years of university work. In practice, however, the high school, while it is free to all who can avail themselves of its privileges, is not yet regarded as an integral part of the public school system. By the "public school" in Saskatchewan is understood the elementary school system, not the high school. Indeed, the high school is a separate institution, maintained by its own board, and having almost no contacts with the elementary schools or with the public school authorities in charge of elementary education. There is .as yet no generalcon«eption of an uninterrupted twelve years of public education for every boy and girl, under one. system, and directed by one authority. The Extent of High School Provision in Saskatche1Van.--It would :hardly be expected that so young a commonwealth as Saskatchewan, with its broad expanse of territory and its scattered population, could yet provide high school facilities for all children of high schooL age. The 22 regularly recognised high schools and collegiate institutes enrolled. at the time of the survey, 2,662pupil_s. In addition, 43 towns and 130 villages reported some continuation work of high school grade in con- nection with the public schools, enrolling 1,529 pupils. At most, there- fore, 5,000 boys and girls out of 'approximately 40,000 of high school age (14-18) were r:eceiving high sChool education in. the fall of 1917.1 It would see.m. unnecessary. to point out what a dangerously low percentage thIS IS for a;ny natIOn under modern conditions, but especially f?r a co~monwealth.hke Saskatchewan, dependent upon public educa- tIon for ItS democratIC leadership.
. . A T-raditional Course of Si1.dy.-The high schools and collegiate . InStItuteS of Saskatchewan offBr almost excIu.sive]:y the traditio.aal coui'se of study of the eastern provinces and the eastern states of the American unLon. Economic, social, .and civic demands are only beginning to make themselves felt. AgrICulture, the one great industrial interest of the Province, fills a relatively unimportant role as compared with Latin and mathematics. The high schools of Sa~katchewan are meeting the nee?s of the ~ne small group of boys and gIrls who are going to college or llltO teachml!,'; they are neglecting the large mass of boys and girls who most need high sc~ool education i~ a democracy. . .
'The compl.ete official figurcs for 191? sho,:\,cd :;1,849 students in regularly recognised ~ll~gmtes or !ugh s,ehools and 3,256 domg high school work in towns or villa

g
es not haVIng recogmsed high schools. . .

88



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89

THE BHnT SCHOOL AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM.
The. high schools and collegiate institutes of Saskatchewan are orgau:sed under The Seconda.ry Education Act (1907), which author.. ised the e.stablishment of high school districts within the limits of town and city municipalities. High school districts may be established, provided that: . .
(1) At the time of the receipt of the petition for such establishment there are at . least five teachers regularly employed in the schools situated within the
municipality and organised under the' provisions of The School Act. .
(2) Within a period of two years prior to the receipt of such petition no .other high school district has heen established withll:i a distance of forty miles from
. the municipalities as measured by the nearest road allowance:
(3) It is shown to the satisfaction of the Minister that if the district is established
there will be in attendance at. the high school at least twenty-five pupils
ahove Grade VIII.

//

Regarding the distinction between a high school and a collegiate institute, the Act provides that any high school in the Province may be rai.sed to the rank of a collegiate institute on the following conditions:
(1). That the average attendance of pupils above Grade VIII attending the high school for the two terms next preceding the date of application was at. least
,seventy-five, and that during such terms at least four duly qualified teachel'l!
were regularly employed.
.
(2) That the board has provided or is prepared to provide within one year accom-
modation suitable for the pupils and staff of a collegiate institute satisfactory
to the Minister. '.
(3) That aU regulations of the Department with respect to collegiate institutes have been. complied with. .
The regulations of the Departmellt of Education provide,. in
substance, that:
(1) In every high school there J3hall he at least two teachers continuously employed. (2) In every collegiate institute there shall be at least four teachers continuously employed.
(3) Admission to the high schools and collegiate institutes'shall be by qualifying exa,minations for Grade VIII' diplomas, except that in cities where Grade VIII isineluded with the high school, no examination is required, and in cities having recognised high schools or collegiates admission on joint certificate of. the superintendent' of schools and. the high school principal . is allowed, provided the eighth grade tep-cher has been reported as sati~- factory by the inspector of schools. AJ1y pupil may write upon the Grade VIII examination.
Other regulations cover requirements ~egarding scientific appar-. atus,) duties of principal, qualificatioIliS of principals and teachers, c,ertificates, and course of study.
It will be noted that the high schools and collegiates were created as separate in&titutions. Before the passage of The Secondary Education Act (even in Territorial days, in fact), high school instruction had been given, as it is now in mallY place.s throughout the province, in connection
with the regUlar public school 'fork. Regina had a separate high school V building as early as 1889. The effoot of the Secondary School Act waR.
to~rl;i!te special "high school districts," to be presided over by separate boa:rds of trustees. While dignifying the high school idea, theref~Jre, the Act gives legal sanction to a most unfortunate break in the educational
chain. . The experience of other countries has shown that proper extension and development of high schools are largely dependent upon the recognition by the public of the principle that the high school and elementary school are parts of a continuous educational plan. . Here dnd there communities in Saskatchewan have takencognisanc,e of this defect



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90



in the Act and have tried to remedv it on their' own initiative. In onc city the citizens have seen to it that the high school board and the "public school" board are identical in membership. In another city the secretary t~easurer of the public school board is also the secretary. treasurer of the hIgh school board. In other cities there are points of contact through . individual members. .
A second provision of the Act, significant in its implications if not in its effects, is that confining high schools to "towns and citv ~unici- palities." In thus' appearing to exclude the rural districts "from the ~nefits of high schools in their midst, the Act reflects conditions inher- Ited from older communities, where the democratic view of educatiOTI
has been' slow to take hold, and where current opinion still reo'ards eclucationas somet~ing to be parcelled out on the basis of ability to'" pay, rather than somethmg ~et up by all the people to guarantee a perpetual de~ocracy. based, on mt:e11igence. What Saskatchewan needs we- . emmently IS the type of high school not contemplated at all; apparentIv, inTh0 Secondary Education Act-~a rural high school designed for the people of the open country.
The Act makes possible, of course, the establishment of excellent :ural high schools in the towns, and these can be made sufficiently rural ~n type to serve as centers for high schools adapted to rural needs; bnt It should be noted that the conception underlying this section of The Secondary Education Act must be radically ch,anged if Saskatcl1ewan's r~ral secondary requirements are to be met, Public policy requires that hIgh .school education shall be available for all boys and girls, but espeCIally for those in the country. It needs to be constantly borne in :nmd tha~ pub.lic high .sc.hool education, like public dementary education, IS npt prlmanly a pnvIlege bestowed by the state upon an individual. ,but an; ess~ntial measure .of ~ro1:€ction; it is not merely that the boy~ and glrlS, m the rural fiVe-SIxths of Saskatchewan need high school education for themselves, but that the Province, for its own ~ake and the sake of its future, needs 'them to have it. It is for this reason ,especially important that the Pravince devote a large share of its ener- gies in the future to the development of the high whool work now attempted in some two hundred villageS' and small towns.
Bringing the High School and the Grades Together.-Experienc," outside of Saskatchewan suggests several steps' that are necessary in obtaining proper integration of gradeiS and high school. These may be summed up as follo"\'\1s: (1) A method of easy transition from the elementary school to the high schDOl; (2) administration of the high 6chool and the elementary schools under the same school board and by a single superinhondent of schools; ( 3) education of the public to Jool, upon graduation from high school, rather than completion of the eight grades, as the minimum goal for normal boys and girls.
With a uniform, centrally dir~cted system of elementary schools, such. as Saskatcheyv-an. has, it is difficult to eoncei ve of. any justification for separate exammatlOns for entrance to high school. Pupils who com-
. plete eighth grade work satisfactorily should be admitted to the high. school, or, more correctly speaking, to the ninth year of their school course, without question, and by the same principle, pupils below eighth





91

grade should not be admitted to high school merely because they can pass an examination. The special examination system, applied at the point of contact between elementary school and high school, serves no useful purpose; it merely PUtiS undue emphasis upon examination,; as, a test of school work,1 and at the -same time accentuates a, gap between elementary school and high school that should not exist.
Whatever plan may be adopted to make the transition from elemen- tary school to high school more gradual, and to integrate the work of the two divisions,2 :rp.uch will still depend upon the attitude of the public. If the twelVe years of publiCly provided education are to be welded together into' one system, every effort must be made to have the publici see that this plan is to its interest. The people must be made to
. .
realise, mft only that Education through high school is the least they can anow their children, but that this education, to be effective, must be given in the form of a unified sys.tem, under the direction of a single board responsible to the people.

EXTENT OF HIGH SCHOOL PROVISION IN SASKATCHEWAN.
According to the census of 1916 there were, in Saskatchewan at
the time of the survey, 40,822 boys and girls 6f high school age (14 to'

J'IISKA rCNEW",N
Nop .sh(J"";'~ itJ(ttfiiM °/ CC1t/pyltTf",. In"tilvl,,, and IflfJh S~ho"!.s.

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'For a more detai]ed discussion of theSaskatchewanexaminationsystem,sec page 155. 'For :L discussion of the junior high school proposal, ~ee page 100.

.



92

18 years). Regularly recognised collegiate institures and high schoo]s in the Province totalled 22, with .113 reachers and 2,662 pupils. . The conditions under which high schools and collegiates may be established. have already been described.l High school instruction for 1,529 pupils was also reported by 43 towns and 130 villages. .'
Statistics f6r the 22 regularly recognised collegiate institutes and high schools are given in the following table:

'rABLE 18.~COLLEGIATE INSTITUTES AND HIGH SCHOOLS; TEACHERS AND . STUDENTS, 1916-1917.2' .

I', I

 

Teachers

 

 

Students

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Juruor

Middle

Senior

T-otal

 

lVi.

F.

Total

--

--

~I~

 

 

 

 

 

 

.M. F.

M. F.

 

 

 

 

 

 

--

--

e---

-

Collegiate Institutes-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moose Jaw. . . . . . . . . ..

8

4

 

12

79

123

29

51

14

12

308

Moosomin. . . . . . . . . . . .

1

3

 

4

15

37

3

29

2

5

91

Prince Albert. . . . . . . ..

5

2

 

7

42

68

15

22

2

8

157

Regina. "" .. . . . . . . ..

14

4

 

18

123

198

68

55

20

30

494

Saskatoon. . .. . . . . . . ..

16

4

 

20

178

256

74

114

'12

44

678

Weyburn. .. .... . .. ....

4

1

 

5

20

47

19

29

4

6'

~25

Y orkton. . . .. . . . . . . . ..

2

2

 

4

39

49

12

27

6

3

136

High Schools-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Battleford . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1

 

2

3

15

 

8

 

2

28

Carlyle. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

..

3

 

3

2

17

4

5

1

2

31

Estevan. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

2

2

 

4

14

30

3

20

5

4

76

Humboldt. . . . . . . . . . . .

1

2

 

3

5

22

4

6

2

2

41

Indian Head. . . . . . . . . .

1

2

 

3

11§

16

10

14

 

 

51

Maple Creek. . . . . . . . ..

3

1

 

4

24

 

4

2

1

40

Melfort. . . . .. . . . . . . ..

1

2

-.

3

10

20.

3

15

2

 

50

North Battleford. . . . "

2

2

 

4

-22

34

4

9

5

2

76

Oxbow........:......

1

1

 

2

12

19

11

16

..

5

63

Qu'Appelle...........

2

1

 

3

8

18

4

6

..

..

36

Strassburg. . . . . . . . , . . .

1

1

 

2

7

13

1

7

 

 

28

Swift Current. . . . . . . ..

3

2

 

5

22

.32

7

12

2

4

79

Wilkie. . . ............

1

2

 

3

10

14

61 5

:: I::

35

Wynyar< .>

1

1

 

2

9

21

4 5

39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

281 459

--

 

TotaL...........

70

43

113

640,

1,073

79 ,i30

2,662


The towns and villages reporting high school work are listed below, with the enrolment in each class. . It will' be noted that very little senior form work is done, but that a rather large amount of junior and middle form. instruction is given in these schools. Oomplete returns from all the towns and villages would probably make but slight. differences in the figures. The 1915 report of the Department pointed out that "52.08 per cent. of the pupils taking junior high school work (in the entire Province), 37.6 of these taking middle form high school work, and 16.15 per cent. of these taking senior form high school work were enTolled in other than high schools and collegiate institutes." .

1 See page 89.
2 Arcola High School omitted; no returns.

. .

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.

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93

TABLE 19.~HIGH SCHOOL 'ENROLMENT IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS; TOWNS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

~1

 

 

 

 

 

Town

J uruor

Middle

Senior

Total

Alameda.

 

 

 

12

 

16

 

28

Alsask.

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

9

Assiniboia.

 

:

14

 

8

 

22

Balgonie.. . ::

 

 

7

 

3

 

10

Bredenbury..

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

Canora. .. . ..

 

 

32

 

6

 

38

Carnduff.

 

 

 

16

 

9

 

25

Craik.

 

 

 

9

 

7

 

16

Da v:idson. ..

 

.,

11

 

7

 

18

Fleming. ..

 

 

17

 

1

 

18

Francis....

 

 

5

 

9

 

14

Govan.

 

 

 

13

 

10

 

23

Grenfell..

 

 

18

 

9

 

27

Gull Lake"

 

 

12

 

2

 

14

Hanley.. .

 

 

16

 

6

 

22

Herbert..

 

 

11

 

5

 

16

Kamsack.

 

 

12

 

8

 

20

Kerrobert.

 

 

10

 

2

 

12

Kindersley". : : : :

 

 

12

 

5

 

17

LanIgan. . . . . . . .

 

 

11

 

3

 

14

Lemberg. . . .. ..

 

 

7

 

3

 

10

Lloydminster. ..

 

 

20.

 

14

2

36

Lumsden.

 

 

22

 

9

 

31

Macklin..

 

:

4

 

2

 

6

Milestone. . . ..

 

16

 

2

 

18

Morse. . ..

 

".

7

 

1

 

8

Mortlach.

 

 

13

 

 

 

13

Ogema..

",

 

 

6

 

 

 

6

Outlook.

 

 

13

 

7

 

20

Radisson. .

 

 

16

 

5

 

21

RadVille. ..

 

 

12

 

 

 

12

Rosetown.....

 

 

17

 

5

4

26

Rosthern.

 

 

7

 

5

 

12

Rouleau. :

 

 

15

 

 

 

15

:Saltcoats.

 

 

13

 

3

 

16

:Scott..

 

 

 

8

.

 

 

8

"Shaunavon.

 

 

7

 

2

 

9

'Sintaluta.

..

 

6

 

.8

4

18

Wapella..

 

 

16

 

1

 

17

Watson..

 

'.

1

 

 

 

1

Whitewood:

 

 

15

 

19

 

34

Wolseley. , . . . . . .

 

18

 

7

 

25

Yellow Grass.....

 

13

 

3

 

16

 

 

 

Total.

520

 

212

10

742


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Vmage

TABLE 20.-HIGH SCHOOL ENROLMENT IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS-VILLAGES.

Junior Mid. Senior-

Junior Mid. Senior, ViJIa,ge

.Aberdeen. . . . .4
Abernetby. . ,11
Aneroid: . . . . . . . . . .9
AvonJea3
Aylesbury. . . . , . .1
Balcarres. . ". , .7
Birch Hills. . . . ,10
B!adworth, 8
Blaine Lake. . . .. ,7
Borden. . . . . . . . . .2
Bounty Village...3
Brock...', 1
Broderick. . . . . . . ,3
Brombead... .. . ., .' 2 Brownlee. . .. . . . . . . , 6
Buchanan. . . . . . . . ., 12 Bulyea. . . . .. ' . . . . . . 1 Cabri (Consolidated) 12 Cadillac. . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Carievale. . . . . . . . . . . 9 Coblenz Hill. . . . . . . . 2 Central Butte. . . . . l'
Ceylon.. . . .6
Chamberlain. . . . .1
Co!gate. . . . . . . . .10
Conquest. . . . . . . . . . . 2
. Creelman6
Cupar. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Drinkwater. . . . .2
Dubuc. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dundurn.. . . . . . . . . .' 3 Earl Grey. .. , . , . ... 11 East End.. ....3
Eden wold. .. .. .. .. . 4 Elbow. -. . . . . . ' . . . . 6 Elstow. . . . . . . . . . . .. . 6 Esterhazy. .. . . . . . . .
Expanse. . . . . . . . . . .. 10 Eyebrow. . . . . . . . . .. ' 7 Fillmore. . . . . . . . . . . 8 Forget. . . . . . . . . . . . . '2 Fort Qu' Appel1e. ' . . . 5 Gainsborough """ 15 Glenavon. . . . . . . . . . . 3 Glen Ewen. . . . . .. . . 2 Goodwater. . . . . . . . . 1
Grayson.. .- . .. .. .. . 2 Griffin. . . . . . . . .7
Hafford. .. .. ..
:: : . 3 Hague.. .. .. .. . .. . 1 Halbrite. . . . . . . . . . 3 Harris.. . .. . .. .. .. . 3 Heward. . . . . . . . . . . , ,8 Imperial. . . . . . . . . . . 5 Invermay. .. . .. . . . . 1 Kelliher'.. . .. . .. .. .. 2 Kenaston.. .. .. .. .. 4 Kinistino . . . . . . . . .. 14 Kennedy. . . . . . . . . . . 3 Khedive. . . . . . . . . . . 3 Kipling. ... . . . . . . .. 11 Kisbey... . .. . . . . . . . 7 Lampman.. . . . . . . . . 8 Lanar... ..1
Lang. . . . '" . . . . . .. 10 Langp.nburg2

1

. .
10 3

2 1 2

2

5

1 3

3:1

 

2

 

:)

 

2

12

1

1


1 1

2 7 2

Lash burn
, 9
Laura. . . . . . . . .1
Lemsford... 1 Leslie. . . . . , . ,1
Limerick. . . .;2
Lipton.. ' .6
Lockwood, , .1
Loreburn. . . .8
Lus~and.. 6 Macoun,. '. '17
Maidstone. .3
Manor. . . . . .4
Marcelin. . . . ,6
Markinch. . . .1
Marquis. , . . . ,2
Ma,ryfield. . . ,13
Maymont2
MacNutt. . . . . . .1
Midale.. .. .. . . . ' . .. 14 Milden. . . . . . . . .3
Montmartre. " . . . . . . 3 Neville. . . . . . . .2
Nord.4
North Portal. . , . , . . 8 Neudorf.. .. '2
Pan~an1
Perdue. . . . . . . , .2
Portreeve. '. . . . , ' , ,6
Prelate. . . . . . . . . . . .4
Punnichy... ..,2
Quill Lake. . . . .2
Redvers,.,. . . . ,8
Rocanville. . ...13
Roche Percee. . . . . . . 1
Rockhaven. . . . . . . .2
Semans. . .. . . . . . . . . 7 Shel1brook. . . . . . . . . . 2 Sprinl!:Side. . . . . . . . . . 1 -Spy Hill. ...'.4
Star City'9
Stockholm5
Stoughton: . . . . . . . . . Ii. .
, Success.. .. . .. .. .3
Swanson8
Theodore. . . . ....
Tisdale. . . . . . : . . . .. 12 Tompkins..' . 4
Truax.. . .. .. .. ..3
Tyvan. . . . . . . . . . .6
Unity. . . . . . . . . ' . . ' . 6 Vanguard.' . .. ,8
Verwood. . . . . . . . . . . 2 Viba¥4
'Viscount. . . . . . . . . . . 9 Waldeck. . . . . . . ' .
Waldron.
Warman : .
, Wawota............ Webb.,... ........
WeIw.yn. . . . . . . . '
Wilcox. . ~ . . . . . . . . . . Windthorst. . . . . . . . .
Wroxton. . .- . . . . . . . '. Young. . . . . ... . . . . .

2

3'
7 1 2

2 4

. . 1 1

2

8

4

fi

1 7 4 2 4 2 8 1 1

12

1

Totals. . . . . . . .. 632' 141

- ---

14



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95

While S:tskatchewan does not begin to- reach all her boys and gi.r15 with high school education, it must be said that in many respects the facilities offered are supei.jor to those in most parts of N orth Ameri~a. In physical plant and equipnient, in training and experience 'of the: teaching staff, and in other important particulars, Saskatche,wan's high' schools. and collegi.ate institutes rank high.
High School Buildings.-Few school buildings anywhere are as good as those in which most of the collegiates and high schools are housed-they are attractive, substantially built, and reasonably well ,equipped for the type of work they undertake. Some of the buildings are'rendered unusually attractive by flower gardens, the only drawback being that. these gardens are usually the wDrk of a professional gardener nther tnan of the students. The possibilities of student participation ir. care of lawns, flower gardens and shr11bber.1 as an educational motive
Building programmes have necessarily been affected by the war, but .despite this the secondary schools are, as has been indicated, welJ 'housed. Gymnasium and auditorium facilities are no-t as complete as they should be, but the return of normal cond!itioDS will doubtless remedy this., In one or two communities the school boards have shown special foresight in acquiring abundant land fDr the high school. It should be possible for Saskatchewan cities and towns to have high ,school sites of ten ,acres or more for future development and to meet 'th.e demands for space that ,will come, not merely from the bettel' :attended high schools, but from the additional types of education that the high schools of the Province should be introducing more and marc in the next few years.
The Tear;hiny F01'ce, in the High Schools 0AU1 Collegiates.-TU1C teachers form a group of men and women of uniformly high quali- ~tiC'ations in training and experience. Of 63 collegiate teachers reporting, only two have had as little as one year of teaching experience; 32 have had 10 ye'ars' experie:u.ce or more; 10 hav'e had 20 years', and one 31 years' experience. Especially significant, in view of the suggested mpproc'hernent of the upper grades and the present high school, is the amount of elemeutary school experience these high school teachers have had.. Of the' 63 collegiate teachers reporting, 52 have had some elementary experience; of the 38 high school teachers, 31 have had elementary experience, the amount ranging from one to 13 years. For' collegiate inatitutes, the average 'amount of experience is 3 year;; element~ry and 7.7 secondary; for high schools it i~ 3.4 years elementary and 3.5 secondary; and for the high schvols and collegiates togeth0r it is 3.1 years in elementary schools Ij.nd 6.1 years in secondary schools.
;'" The teachers in the high schools and collegiates, both men and women, are almost without exception university graduates. Both by training' and experience, therefore, they merit high salaries. vVhiJe the salaries are in fact somewhat higher than in the States, they are by . no means as high as they might well, be for t.he' type of service rendered. In the collegi.ates the salaries range from $1,400 to $3,000. the median being $1,800. In the high schools the range is. -from ,$900

'"



96

t() $2,000, with the median $1,400. For both groups together the- average is $1,800 and the med~an is between $1,600 and $1,700.
It is important to note that while the Saskatchewan high school teachers are ,highly trained and experienced, they form a group of com- paratively youthful men and. women. The average age is 32 years, and the median age (in this case a safer indication) between 29 and 30. In the collegiate institutes alone the average teacher'& age is 34- and the median 31. This combination of experience and youthfulness: constitutes a very real asset for education in the Province, especially in view of the movement for better integration of the high school and the grades, which will demand men and women who know intimately both elementary and secondary education?, .
As the high school population grows, questions of admini~tration in collegiate institutes and high schools will ,become more acute. Just as in the larger domain of city scho01s,2 so here problems of manage- ment will require special study. The mechanics of handling large Qodie& of students; attendance' and scholarship records, programme making, student government, and all the other' details that loom sufficiently large in the daily lives' of high school faculties, even under present conditions, will outgrow existing machinery and methQds, and will necessitate special consideration such as some of the school&--, notably the Regina Collegiate-JITe already giving. As with the entire- citv school system, so with the secondary schools, it will be n~sar.V" to . in"iat upon a greater amount of professional supervwon and administr.ation than is at present provided. High school principals will not be expected' to acbninister a large school and teach besides.

THE COURSE OF STUDY.

Admirable as ,the teaching force in the Saskatchewan ,high schools and GOllegiates is, generou~j though the provision for high school build- ings and equipment may often be, the Provincial high school can render only small part of its real service, because it is hampered by a narrow and traditional course of. study. It should be said at the outget that this n,arrow course of study is' not the fault of the men and women in the schools. Many of them would welcome a much more diversified course of study than is po.."Sib-le under the regulations. .
The courses provided for. in the regulations are as follows':
. General course . COIil.lnercial course
Teachers' courseCA-.@.~~ure:>
Matriculation -
An examination of Table 21 below shows that only two of thesl}
courses exist in actual practice to any extent. In an the, Province only 12 pupils (all girls) ,are reported in the general course. S Moose Jaw, Regina and Saskatoon report a total of 119 pupils in the commercial course, and Saskatoon reports 5 in agriculture. All but a few per cent. of the pupils (2,517) ,are in' the teachers' course and the matriculation course, Dr in a combination course that includes both.

'See below, "The Junior High School."
'S~e Chapter X.
'Regina,5; Saskatoon, 4; Oxbow, 1; and Qu'AppelIe, 2.



97

TABLE 21.-COLLEGIATE INSTITUTES AND HIGH SCHOOLS, EN)WLMENT BY COURSES, I 1916-1917 .
Matricu- Compined

I
Com-
lation Trs. & Ma-mercial
course tclculation course

General course

Teachers' course

---------------

Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls

---------

/1

CoJlegiate Institutes-
Moose Jaw, , ., , ., , Moosomin. . . . , , , , . Prince Albert. , , , . , Regina. . . , , , , . . , . , Saskatoon'' , , . .
Weyburn,., ., , .'.. Y orkton . . , , . ,
High Schools'- Battleford, . , , Carlyle... " , , , , Estevan, . . . . . . , , , , Humboldt.. '." . . ., . Indian Head, . . . , . , Maple Creek. . . . , , . Melfort. , . . . . . , , , . North Battleford,. , Oxbow"""..
Qu'Appelle,, ,
Strassburg. . , . . , , . . Swift Current., , , . . Wilkie'.. . . , , , . .
Wynyard'." ,. ,
Totals, , , , , , , , ,

 

38

51

19

18

 

 

30

26

 

20

71

12

;30

 

 

 

 

 

59

98

 

 

18

24

 

 

5

41

156

33

9

132

90

5

23

4

76

152

9

8

161

231

15

19

 

37

78

25

33

 

 

 

 

 

5

12

2

1

50

66

 

 

 

2

15

 

10

 

 

1

 

 

6

22

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

47

8

7

 

 

 

 

 

11

30

4

5

 

 

 

 

 

21

30

..

 

3

8

 

 

 

3

7

8

22

 

 

 

 

 

24

29

4

1

 

 

 

 

 

4

11

 

 

27

34

 

 

1

18

~g 112

3

 

 

 

 

2

12

 

:: I ::

 

 

 

8

17 "

3

 

 

 

21

25 10

23

 

 

 

. . ., I .,

 

391 14~~

 

 

 

13 '26 "

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

12

433 919' 148

173

51

68


\
"'

-
' 1:0

Possible V ariations.- The narrowness of this provision in term;; of course of study is perhaps best indicated by a glimpse at the list of types of high schDol work recently. formulated by the United States Bureau of Education in its survey of the schools of San Francisco.4 . '1'he list i's as follows:
Types of Organisations: Types of Curriculum:
Four years, based on eight years ele-General.
mentary school.
' College prepg,ratory.
Six years, based on six years elemen-Classical.
tary schooL. Scientific.
Junior high school, three years, Literary.
Senior high school, three years.Professional.
Township high school.Co=erciaL
County high schooLAgricultUj:aL
Evening.Manual training, mechanic arts, tech-
Continuation. . nical.
Part time, co-operative.Industrial.
TechnicpJ.Homemaking, home economics, house-
Vocational.hold arts.
Cosmopolitan. . Normal.
. There are few communities in Canad;a or the United States whei'e all of these types 'Of Drganisatiol1 and curriculum will be found. The list expre~sed rather the variety offered. It is this variety that SaskatchEiwan lackf!-. .

'Arcola High School omitted: No data.
'Also Agricultural course, Boys
5, Girls O.
'Principal unable to supply data.
,
'Bulletin of the Bureau of Education, 1917, No. 46, Printing Office, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., price 65 cents.

page 272. Government



98

99

ment ?f each of. thtj three years in the subject stated. If recent ed~cah~nal expenenceof othe.r countries ,and states amounts to any- ~hIng, the ~ethod adhe.r~d to In these regulatiQns of indicating stages
, In pro?7ess In th~ tradItIonal subjects by references to such and such p~es I~ a prescnbed text is quite indefensible. Again and again the InJunctIOn appears: "Pages 122 to 2"37 of the prescribed 'text'"
''Lesson I to ~LIXincl~sive of the prescribed text"; "Page 228 to end of text (omIt pages 318-33.6 inclusive)." This is a made-to-order type of education that is wholly contrary to the spirit of file modern high school.
'
Th: courses of study clearly need, not mere.!y recasting, but complete revamJ?Ing, to ~ake them accord with present 'day ideals in secondary educatIOn. It IS clear that under such regulations as these there can be but one course of. study in Saskatchewan collegiates-a traditional coll.ege-preparatory course characterised by extreme narrowness of aim. I.t IS not merely that the subjects are composed of one group but the smgle group of subiects is presented with a curious narrowness 'of aim.
These comments are called forth by the Departmental course of study itself. Translated into terms of activities of
the school, this course of study means that practically nothing can be done to meet local co=unity needs. The smaller the communit!, ,the mo.re its work must necessarily be restricted to the formal thIngs that are to be tested by the Departmental examinations. The c~ntinu!ltion classes in the towns and villages without regularly r~cogll1sed hIgh ~chools or collegiates are especially affected by the tradi- bonal ~o~rse laId down ?y the regulations. One high school depart- ment vlSlted had 22 pupIls present, 8 boys and 10 girls in the third class and 2 boys and 2 girls in the second, class~ The pupils were questioned regarding vocational ambition. Eight of the 10 girls who I:eplied declared that they intended to be teachers; the other two expected to be nurse and stenographer respectively. Of the 9 boys who replied to the inquiry, two intended to be teachers, one a' telegraph operator, one a "mechanic or electrician," one a "teacher or a clerk in
. ban~ or office," one a mineral chemist, and one a druggist. Not one
aspIred to be a farmer or 1].nythinl!: else directly connected with Saskat- chewan's main business of agrieulture. Yet this school is located in a small to~, the center of a great farming community, and all but four of the fathers. of the, pupils are farmers or engaged in business directly related to farming.
'
It is not an indication of the failure of the high school that it guides its pupils into occupations other than those of their fathers. Quite the contrary. But it is 'an indication of narrowness of aim that the high school should offer its services only to such pupils as intend to teacp' or go into a profession, instead of broadening its opportunities t~ take in all'youth,. regardless of what their future is to be. Indeed, a hIgh school In a community such as that described, with abundant provision for instruction in scientific farming education for the home
and good citizenship, would undoubtedly attr~ct the best brains of th~ community to agriculture, besides giving the cultural opportunities that belong to all the youth of the country, and not merely to a. select, few who are preparing for the professions. Saskatchewan has thp

~ "'\,:,

The Department's Oourse of Study.-The course of study as outlined in the Departmental "Regulations and courses of study for high schoOh and collegiate institutes,"l makes clear at once the limita- tions of the high school idea in the Province. The so-called "General course," under which practically no pupils' are classified, is described as 'for general .culture, and, except when local' conditions justify a charige, obligdtory upon all students."
The teachers' course is characterised as a "vocational course," but warning is given that it "should not be used as a basis fOT the classifica- tion of pupils." The "matriculation course" is for persons preparing for junior and senior matriculation for the university, but "the subjects for the matriculation examinations are identical pro ta-nto with those for second and first class teachers" diplomas respectively." The agri- cultural CQurse is labelled at once by the dictum that it is "intended for those students who have not passed the qualifying examinations for admission to high schooL" There is a commercial course, but it can be taken only when properacco=odation and equipment lave been provided.
Space ,does not permit a detailed. analysis' of the suggested subject matter for tha courses as given on pages 13-27 of the regulations. One or two things will be apparent at once to one who reads it from the viewpoint of high school' a:dministration. In the first place the direc- tions are entirely too detailed. Good high school teachers are not helpec.l, ,but embarrassed, by such statements' as the following.2

,;'

JUNIOR FORM.
Oral Reading.-A gerieral knowledge of the principles of oral reading; practice
in oral reading.
Supplementary Reading.-Careful reading of the books annually prescribed. Lite:rature.-A thorough study of the 13ubject matter, structure and language of such selections as are annually prescribed. Committing to memory of striking passages from these selections.
'
English Grammar.-A general knowledge of the principles of etymology and syntax, including the logical structure of the sentence and the inflection and classifi- cation of words. Elementary word analysis with the most important prefixes and suffixes. '
These four t'opics, together with writing, spelling, arithmetic and m~msuration, and geography, suggest that a good many subjects are carried forward into the high school years that s!hould have been long since completed in the elementary school. The conscientious school man, attempting to follow carefully the regulations and to prepare for the examinatiQns, makes ea.ch one of these a separate subject with time allotments in the programme, so that 50 periods a week is not unusual in Saskatchewan high schools, as compared with a maximum of 3001' 35 in communities below the international border.s The first seven statements under Junior Form, Part I, and the corresponding six under Junior Form, Part II, and Middle Form, might much rather be con- solidated into one, paragraph on "English," and the standard achieve-

lSeptember,1916, pages 12-27.
"From page 13 of the regulations. ,
3"The relief of the time-table from the pressure of a multiplicity of separate subjects as such is an evident necessity." (Royal Commission on Industrial Training' and Teclmical Education, page 10.)

:f'



100

101

l

chance, before her high school development becomes fixed in the tr~di- tional groove, to build a high school that shall, without sturender~ng the older cultural values, place its emphasis upon science, modern hfe, and the needs of a commonwealth whose wealth is in the land. Unlike many of the older states in the American union, which have had to retr~e their steps-like New England, for example, which educated her best brains away from the farms until today she is straining every nerve and spending. millians in money to bring them back-Saskat- chewan can start right, and, through her high schools, develop an educated rural citizenship.

SPECIA.L SECONDA.RY SCHOOL PROBLEMS.

work. The typical restless. pupil of 12 to 14 years at sixth grade is much more apt to stay in school if he sees the "high school" two years nearer to him aITd with it a new kind of work. The pupil who now leaves at the end of the eighth gmde is more likely to remain one more year if that year will mean completion of the junior high schoal course. These are not suppositiQUs; they constitute what has actually taken place in communities where the junior high school has been tried. The Province might well take steps to recognise the high schoolwork naw done in the towns' and villages, utilising this as the nucleus for a junior high schaol course that will give manual training, agriculture and home economics at least as much emphasis as is given at present toO the tradi- tiemal subj,ects.
. In the cities the problem is nat so simple. A beginning has been made in several plaC€s by taking the eighth grade into the high school. This is hardly more than an administrative device so far, however, and with the present legal separation of the two divisions of the educational system the pedagogical aspects of the problem are likely to be overlaoked in a contest over jurisdiction. On the other hand, the junior high schaol, if it could be adopted in the larger places in Saskatchewan, would undoubtedly further popularise secondary education, would furnish the begiunings of a definite vocational training that is very much needed, and would help settle the housing problem of some of the larger collegiate institutes, such as that at Saskatoon, for example. It should be emphasised that the object is not to get seventh and eighth grade pupils inlto an existing collegiate institute, however, but to create high schoal opportunities, of a more varied kind than now exist, for a much larger number aJ boys and girls. At Saskatoon, for example, where the colJegiate building is. overcrowded, one solution might prove to be to set aside one of the grade buildi"ngs, not now fully utilised, for the junior high sc1).ool, bringing together far the new school the next entering class. of the collegiate and the pupils from. the seventh and eighth grades. This might or might not prove feasible; it is the method found successful by Ruffalo and other cities in the states. The eFfective way to get at a situation like this, whether in Saskatoon 001' elsewhere, would be for a local commiEsion containing representatives from the collegiate staff, the public schools' staff, the high school trustees, thp public school trustees, emplayers, labaur workers, and the general public; to examine inta the local situation and see whether the junior high school idea is applicable. There were several such situations where the possibilities of the junior high school seemed to the Survey staff wort.hy of careful consideration by the local authorities.
Two objections are sometim.es urged to the junior high school. One is that~he eight-year interval is necessary for imparting general educa- tia:rlof the present type. To this it may be answered that the eight-year period is largely an accident-an American development quite foreign to the best European experience; that the seventh and eighth years are too often only periods for marking time; and that evidence is accumu- lating to show that what is naw given in eight years can probably be given just as well in six. In the case of Saskatchewan it should be noted that few of the pupilS who go through the eight grades take the full

The Junior High School.-Schoalmen of the Province have for ,,;ome time been discussing the junior high school plan and its possibili- ties for Saskatchewan. In a word the junior high school means a Iearrangeinent af the twelve grades of education on a basis of six years of elementary and six of high school, instead of eight and foul' as at present; the juniar high school including the present ~eventh and eighth grades and the first year of the high school, orgamsed as a s~parate school from the "senlior" high school (last three years). EducatlOnally, the junior high school means much more than merely putting high school work down into the grades, however; it involves a complete readjust- 'ment af the school's attitude toward the world of realities and a delib- erate differentiatian of courses of study on the basis of individual and community needs.
The junior high school movement has made rapid progress in the United States during the past four years. Whether it is.. adapted to Saskatchewan conditions, however, is a question that must, in the last analysis, be answered by the educators of Saskatchewan themselves. It is in this spirit that the following discussioIl is offered regarding the availability of the plan for the Province.
The need of earlier entrance upon high school work, which has been one of the motives that have led to the establishment of junior high schools in the United States, is confirmed in the replies af the Saskat- chew3J1 collegiate and high schaol principals to the survey questiounaire. The prevailing age at entrance to junior form work in Saskatch'e;wan is from 13 to 15 for cities" with a usual entrance age of 14, and from 14 to 17 for the rural districts, 15 being nearer the usual age for the country. All those in charge of collegiate institutes and nearly all those in charge of high schools agree that the high school entrance age is too late, "particularly if the high Echool is to be more vocational," as one principal expressed it. "Much too late," "about two years too late," "too late, especially to learn language," are some of thecomment5. Only four of the 18 collegiate and high school principals who expressed themselves were at all satisfied with tile present admission ag'". Two of these thought the age was "about right" ; the ather two noted that in their judgment "a few are too young in entering." .
In the villages and towns where continuation sc'haoling is now carried on, the organisation of junior high schoo~s would be a simple process that would probably save many a boy and gIrl for more advanced



102

103

.eight years to do it1 and that Saskatchewan has a comparatively long school term, so that six full years of schooling in Saskatchewan should be equivalent to eight years in a system where shorter school terms prevail.
A second and a more insistent objection is to the early differen-
tiation of courses involved in the junior high school plan. . Those who offer this objection are afraid that in some way a caste system will be created by early .differentiation. The obvious answer is that for the most part pupils who take the vocational courses would probably not have remained in school anyway; so that the junior high school by offering differentiated courses for different groups of pupils has at the worst merely furnished training for those who would otherwise have to make their way without it. But the real answer to this argument must rest "vith the community. It. is the same problem and the same answer that.
confront us in the whole question of vocational education. If we, the public, Eet up a machinery for the better occupational training of all of us, each according to his needs, it is for us to see to it that this machinery shall not create a caste system, but shall produce in all members of the community that understanding of the value of every type of service which lies at the basis of a workable democracy. With vocational train- ing safely lodged in the control of the whole community, there can be little danger of a caste system or any other results antagonistic to democracy.
An Opportune Time for ReoJ'ganisation.-The present affords an excellent opportunity for a study by the school officers themselves of the whole problem of the relation of the high school to the rest of the educational system. Whatever studies are made now will make for a more rapid advance after the war. Everywhere secondary education is being surveyed and reconstructed. - England and France are already in the midst of a complete overhauling of the materials and aim;; of secondary education as the result of the experience of three years of war. In the United States a commission of university and secondary school men, working more or less directly under Government auspices, has been engaged for several years in an exceedingly careful formula- tion oJ the principles and methods of the various high school subjects.2 The whole field of secondary education is being explored as neve).' before.
,,:.

work done in connection with tfue public schools in .villages and towns not having recognised collegiates or high schools;
(2) Recognition, by the public anld the school authorities of the continuity of the twelve years of the educational syste~. The collegiates and high schools should be brought under the same board of school trustees as the elementary schools an< should>
be . an integral part of a complete system with a local school superintendent at the head. The examination bar between the eighth grade and the high school should be removed;
(3) A more systematic effort to irutroduce and popularise commer- cial and agricultural high school courses. The large cities should en~eavour .to get in touch with local industries prepar- at?r;}' to mtroducmg trade courses, especially of the co-ope i'- atIve or part-time sort. (See Ohapter XIV Vocational Education) ;
. '
(4) Ab:m~onment ?f the preserut examination system, thereby ~'ehevmg the hIgh schools of the necessity of repeating sub- Jects and making possible a simplification of the high school programmes. Thirty periods a week should be the maximum
with fewer nominal subjects and more. intensive work on th~ subjects given;
(5) Special study by each locality of the possibilities of the junior hIgh school plan. In recognising the continuation work done by t?e rubli~ schools the J?epartment should consider setting up .J~mor hI15h schools, wIth adequate provision for ma:imal trammg, agrIculture, and home economics.1

'See recommendations in Chapter IX.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

. The attempt has been made in this chapter to indicate certain essential steps in an effective programme for secondary education. By way of summary the following recommendations are offered:
(1) M.ore adequate high school provision, iIlvolving more high school centers and particularly the recognition of high school

'As evidenced by the large amount of under-age in the upper grades. See page

78.

'These studies are published as bulletins by the U.S. Bureau of Education and may be secured by any teacher in the Province wi~hout cost, provided application is made before the supply is exhausted. Inquiries regarding the work of the Commission on the Reorganisation of Secondary Education may be addressed .to Clarence D. Kingsley, State House, Boston, Mass., or to the Commissioner of Education, Wash- ington,

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