Saskatchewan One Room School Project


Saskatchewan One Room School Project provides an online history for current generations to enjoy, preserve, and experience, our historical educational, architectural, and cultural, heritage.
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SUNNY CORNER SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 3930


By Allen Ohrt


Leo Martin wrote to me in the 1990s (everyone told me that he would not bother!)


Received your letter this AM. Will give you what my wandering memory can reach. Yes, my mother was a very early Secretary-Treasurer of the school for some time.


It required 15 or 16 school-age children living in the district to apply for the opening of a new school. To reach that number, two farmers in the district each hired a couple with a school-age child. Seventeen eligible children were okay. After the due process, the request was granted. The school was built in the summer of 1917.


Florence Cook was the first teacher. After a few years, she married Eddy Mitten; they farmed four or five miles east of Milestone for a period.


I think Les Likevetz is a good source of information as he gathered information a few years back.


I know Winona, MN, quite well. My grandfathers also emigrated to Winona County in the 1800s, grandfather Martin before the Civil War. In face he was drafted in the Union Army from the new state. My father and mother were born there and married there in 1905. Grandfather and grandmother Martin died in Winona, grandfather in 1903 and Grandmother in 1918. My father is buried there as well.


The US Cavalry horses made their last trip on the Northwest, travelling up in North Dakota in 1914, the last grand march of US Cavalry. I was in grade school at the time.


Well, enough of this……Leo


A note in passing:


Brother Keith and I met Leo in the Golden Mile Shopping Centre in November, 19??. I recall that Leo stammered rather badly, but not at this encounter. He said he was over 80 and he was very alert. He told us that the Martin farm house was constructed from a plan (not a Sears house). Also, the Temple house, the Ryan house and a couple of others were built by Mr. Martin for each of the Martin boys. Then Alfred Ohrt used the same plans, but added two feet to each dimension.


Leo said that Alfred ran away from home at one time and hired out to Charlie Mooney who built a small barn on the Martin homestead (many years later Keith tore the barn down). As Moonie was drilling a halter hole in a manger, he asked Alfred if it was through yet, then spit tobacco juice in his eye – yuk! Alfred quit at that very moment.








SUNNY CORNER SCHOOL DISTIRCT NO. 3930 by permission, Lang Syne Book Committee


The school was petitioned for in May, 1917. There were 18 school-age children and 14 families with a land area of 12,160 acres, assessed value $364,800.00. The order was issued July 17, 1917.


Boundaries of the school district: Sections 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 in Tp. 12, Range 18, W2 and Sections 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11 and the east halves of Sections 6 and 7, Tp. 13, Range 18, W2. The Order was signed by Fred Maidens, reeve, and J.M. Scott, secretary-treasurer, Municipality of Scott No. 98.


The school site was approved on the first knoll on the west side of the residence of Peter Martin on S1/2 of Section 4, Tp. 13, Range 18, W2, 100 rods east of the west boundary of that land. Approval from the Municipality of Lajord No 128 was signed by D.B. English, reeve, and M.A. Hesla, secretary-treasurer. Ratepayers were: P. Martin, Henry J. Ohrt, Henry Lucas, Frank Kangel, John Culhane, John Lekivetz, Wm. Milton, John Webb, B. Shaw, W. Tempke, Pete Ohrt, Harry Ohrt.


Following are the names of the last board of trustees: Charles Ballman, John Martin and Ann Daley.


Teachers of Sunny Corner School:


1917 – 1918 Flo Lillian Cook

1918 Verna C. Kingbury

1919 – 1921 Ruth M. Schiefner

1921 – 1922 Margaret Swift

1922 – 1924 Lillian Bradley

1924 – 1925 Mrs. Alice M. Malone

1935 – 1926 Bertha Crorar

1926 Macie A. LaFoy

1927 – 1928 Ellen O. Bradley

1928 – 1930 Anna Connaughty

1930 Anna Jane St. Jacques

1931 – 1934 Eva Ingram

1935 Mary Curtis McCrady

1936 – 1939 Margaret Louise Metz

1939 – 1942 Catherine Kilden

1942 – 1943 Isabell G. Fyvie

1943 Vida Oliver

1943 Winnifred Walsh

1944 Margaret Frances Larson

1944 – 1946 Ruth Ann Dickrager

1946 Molly Terresa Heck

1946 – 1948 Dorothy Grahame

1947 Marjorie Jean Herrick

1948 – 1950 Mary Katherine McGeough

1950 – 1951 Jeanette Bouree


Sunny Corner School: Four different sites were offered, one being on the North East corner of Section 21 (Henry Ohrt). The above noted site near Martin’s house was adopted, being more near the center of the new district.


Records from the Saskatchewan Archives:

1918: Trustees included: Henry Ohrt, Chairman; Henry Lucas, Secretary-Treasurer; Harry Ohrt

1920: Trustees were: Harry J. Ohrt, Chairman; H.F. Lucas, Secretary-Treasurer; Henry J. Ohrt;

W. Turner of Milestone was appointed Auditor.

1922: Harry Ohrt, Chairman; W.A. Houghtaling, Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. P.A. Martin was appointed Auditor.

Margaret Swift was hired as Teacher in 1922.

1930: Mrs. Martin became Trustee and W.G. Turner of Milestone was appointed Auditor.

1939: Arthur Ohrt as Chairman’ Jack Ryan and Mrs. Martin as Trustees; Hubbard Morevic was appointed as Local Attendance Officer.


Sunny Corner School opened in 1917 and was closed in June 1960. Like many others of its kind it existed for just over 40 years, mirroring the socio-economic changes that have taken place in the great central plains of Canada and U.S.A. Everyone had anticipated a continued population growth of the prairies similar to the earlier growth of Minnesota and Iowa. It just did not happen. They had not considered the dirt storms of the 1930s, etc.



Wilfred Matchettinformation from Wilfred obtained May 23, 1996 and compiled and submitted by Allen Ohrt


Our family (Matchett) moved from Pangman to Milestone in April 1923 to occupy the farmstead known today as the Sherman farm (one mile south and ½ mile west of the Ohrt farmstead). My oldest sister Zella attended high school at Milestone while the rest of us went to Sunny Corner School until the end of the school year in June 1923. The powers-that-be then decided that we should be attending Balidock School to the south so our time at Sunny Corner was brief.


Teacher: Lillie Bradley.

Students were:

Eileen Matchett

Hazel Matchett

Walker Matchett

Wilfred Matchett

Harold Tempke

Mae Tempke

Robert Money

Arthur Money

Paul Sobchuk

(from the ‘Lang Sang’ history – Paul and Anna were born in the Ukrane to Michael and Irene Sobchuk. In 1913 their father emigrated to Canada when Paul was four and Anna two. It was only after World War I in 1921 that the remainder of his family were able to join him in Canada. Steve and Peter were born in August 1922. (note: Peter attended Sunny Corner for a year or two while I attended – Allen Ohrt)).

John Martin

Eugene Martin

Bernard Martin

Peter Martin

Ronald Houghtaling (born 1911)

Ross Houghtaling (born 1912)

(from a history submitted by Ruth in the Milestone History: In 1921 dad bought the Lekivetz farm where we

lived until 1928 when mother, dad, Ronnie and Ross moved to Gray. We children attended Milestone public and

high schools and Sunny Corner School. Dad was secretary at Sunny Corner School.)

Lillie Faullman

John Faullman (or was it Frank?)

Lawrence Gummow

(I believe he started the following fall when we were then going to Balldock School. Lawrence was having trouble

handling the pony that he rode so we travelled together for a half mile when our paths separated – he turned north

and we turned south.)


Note from Allen Ohrt - Wilfred recalls watching our house (Ohrt house) being constructed by Al Winkler during the spring of 1923. He also recalls that 1923 was a wet summer.


Incidentally, while travelling through Estevan on May 22, 1996, I called my old teacher Mrs. Glaspey (formerly Mary McCrady) who resides in Estevan. The tax-free store at North Portal is owned by a Masonic acquaintance. He also knew Mary as his French teacher during high school at Estevan.


Wilfred died in the 1990s.



















The Era of the 1920s


The ‘roaring twenties’ in rural Canada meant post-war prosperity for many farmers. Some built huge new barns for horses that continued to provide most of the power required for the farm operation. Larger farms had steam, kerosene or gasoline mammoths for plowing and to power grain separators. Trips to California or even Europe had become possible for a few of the more fortunate. Smaller gasoline tractors such as Fordsons, Case, etc. were being introduced. Many families were still able to survive on farms as small as 320 acres (some of these were tenant farmers).


Lennie Lekivetz wrote (compiled and submitted by Allen Ohrt):My first school teacher in 1918 was Miss Flo Cook (later Mrs. Eddy Mitton, Gordon Mitton’s mother), then in 1920 Ruth Schiefner (on that picture in the Milestone History book). I put that picture in with a few others that you see. Sorry I can’t give you much other information. The Martins would not give me any information when I phoned them and as you notice they put nothing in the book.


Note from Allen Ohrt – In the history book, Lennie noted “after 1921 I attended Milestone School until dad moved us back to the farm in the winter of 1927-28.” The above-mentioned photo of the 1920s shows: Ruth Schiefner as teacher (for three terms 1919, 1920, 1921); John, Eugene and Peter Martin, Harold and May Tempke; Harry and Vera Webb; Leonard Lekivetz; Howard Elmer and Eloise Lucas. The Lucas family lived on the farm where Robert Ohrt now resides – they moved to Amulet or thereabouts probably in the 1930s. Mrs. Lucas at one time became an M.L.A. Later when I attended Luther College in Regina their daughter Dorothy was a classmate. Mother spoke of Bob Money who was a student of that era.


Allen Ohrt submits: My mother, Margaret Elizabeth Swift, served as teacher 1921 – 1922. She and my dad were married on December 27, 1922. She had been a boarder at the Henry J. and Anna Ohrt farm home. Other teachers that followed are noted previously.



The Era of the 1930s – recalled by Allen Ohrt


The decade of the 1930s was the era of the Great Depression, marked by poverty, grasshoppers, wire-worm infestations, drought and the resulting prairie dust storms. Poverty in a small rural school setting was evident by the frequently ragged clothing and shoes with holes and by the used lard pails which served as lunch buckets. Grasshoppers consumed any vegetation that could survive. All the road ditches were filled with blown ‘top-soil’. The weeds that grew along fence lines that still surrounded most of the fields also held the blown dirt. The resulting ‘soil dunes’ that completely covered the fences were the new boundary markers and often were higher than the roads that paralleled them.


Frequently the sun was blotted out and the sky was darkened by the dust in the air and many afternoons the school room was so dark from the dust clouds that reading was near impossible.


I recall being kept in school until 6:00 p.m. because the teacher feared we might loose our way in the blinding dust storm. I don’t recall similar detention because of a snow storm of blizzard!


Horse drawn farm equipment continued as the mainstay of the farm operation. However, animals needed feed and water. The severe drought conditions of the 1930s reduced thee necessities. Even without the financial where-with-all it became necessary for some mechanical substitution. IHC 10-20s, 15-30s and othe types allowed farmers to husband larger tracts of land and a few smaller tenant farmers moved on.


I, Allen Ohrt, enrolled in Sunny Corner School in August 1930. I was 6 ½ years old. I attended regularly until I had completed the eighth grade in June 1938.


The teacher for 1930–31 was Anna Jane St. Jacques. Obviously she was my first teacher although I have but the dimmest of memory of her. However, I do recall looking forward to a new teacher for grade two.


The first teacher that I do recall was Eva Ingram in 1931-34. Eva lived with her folks at their nearby farm. She drove a car, probably the family car, possibly the 490 Chev, originally purchased by the family in 1918 (Milestone History, From Plow to Now). The car sticks in my mind because all of the boys sat in it and talked during recess on one dreary rainy day in the fall of 1934, before her death. Eva died on the 23rd of July, 1935, at age 23 years. I did not attend the funeral but I remember driving past the Milestone United Church with my dad and my neighbour Charlie Gummow on the day of her funeral service. Eva had been ill for a part of her last year at the school and finally was unable to continue.


I barely recall one or more substitute teachers for a period of time until Mary Curtis McCrady (later Mrs. Robert Glaspey) came. I received the following note from her:


I taught at Sunny Corner from October or November 1934 until October 41, 1935, when I resigned and

married. That was a long time ago and I can only remember you, Joyce and Rosemary Moravec. There were also some Shermans and Lekivetz’s. I know the register was full of blank days when apparently no one taught and everyone was behind in the year’s work. I looked through old school pictures and can’t find a single one of Sunny Corner but I do remember Grandma Ohrt. I stayed there during the winter months and she did her best to spoil me. And of course you lived next door.


I knew all the Swift family and went to school with Phoebe.


We have two children, Bob and Dianne and six grandkids. I went back to teaching in 1956, finally got my degree and taught high school French until I retired. We have been wintering in Texas for the past 15 years – enjoy the winters there.


Well I’m sorry I can’t tell you any more but it was nice hearing from you. I you make up a history I would like to have one……Mary Glaspey”. (note - the Glaspeys lived in Estevan)

Mary died on the 6th of January, 1990, aged 91 years.


At Milestone I knew Mary’s parents, Mrs. and Mrs. Robert McCrady, and her brothers Charlie and Alex (who was killed in 1942 during the war). Mary added that she can recall Jennie Parsonage’s name on one of grandma’s windows. Charlie Ballman had given Jennie a diamond engagement ring; the boys claimed it came from Woolworth’s but she showed them that it was real!


Margaret Louise Metz taught during the years 1936-39. Margaret’s brothers Nick and Don were members of the Toronto Maple Leafs during those years so the students all became immersed in events of the National Hockey League. She interested Charlie Gummow and I in stamp collecting and gave each of us a few stamps from her own collection.


Our family motored to Vancouver, B.C. leaving in late October 1926 and returning March 1937. On our return we stayed overnight in Milestone and on the morning after our return dad and I went to the farm to ‘dig-out’ the drive. Along came the Gummows and nothing would do but for me to go to school. It seems to me that we spent a good share of the day talking about my experience in Vancouver’s Templeton Junior High School.


Before departing, the previous fall Miss Metz had suggested that I copy and study several hand-written paged of the history lessons that she had prepared. Otherwise, school went on as if I had not even been absent. Undoubtedly she considered that the trip and change of school had been worthwhile. During the 1930s I do not suppose that anyone else had even dreamed of travel anywhere!


Everyone had an autograph album in those days. Margaret Metz wrote the following in mine:


Dear Allen;

There is a destiny that makes us brothers

None travels his way alone

All that we spend in the lives of others

Comes back into our own.”

May your school-day memories be the happiest.” M. L. Metz


Sunny Corner School was one mile north and one-half mile east of our farm. The James and Eva Gummow family lived one mile south and one mile west of our farm. Laurence, Geraldine and Charlie rode a horse-drawn buggy or sleigh (in season) and for four years stopped at our house to pick me up.


It seems that Mom and Dad were forever hurrying me out the door because I was never dressed and the Gummows were cold sitting out there in the open. Laurence was several years older and probably drove with us for only one or possibly two years. Geraldine was about one year younger. I have the impression that both Laurence and Geraldine had spent an additional year in the school taking correspondence courses. The Gummows moved to Richardson, Sask. in the early spring of 1938 . A year or so later the Gummow family moved to Ontario. Charlie was killed in Holland in 1944.


When my sister Joyce began school in the fall of 1934 she and I began to ride our own vehicle, drawn by a placid old plow-horse called “Mickey”. By now Charlie had a Welsh pong and often rode beside us. One day he charged up behind us at considerable speed. The horse stepped into a hole just as he joined us. Charlie skidded over its head and landed, unharmed, on mother earth.


Six or seven buggies or carts were parked behind the school and the horses were houses in a small barn. At noon some member from each of the families (usually one of the boys) went to feed the family horse with a sheaf of oats and some snow or water to drink. To quote Jack Lekivetz (in ‘Ties that Bind’ Riceton section): “Each day when, school was let out, there seemed to be a chariot race to be the first out of the school yard gate”.


There wee three or four of us in the first grace: Genevieve Tempke; Robert Ryan (I believe he was in the same grade?); Charlie Gummow and I. There were students in each of the eight grades but aside from the Gummow’s and Tempke’s and Rosemary Moravec, I cannot remember who else attended during my first year or two.


William Tempke family included: Harold who attended in 1920; Earl who was still in the school for a year after my appearance; Bernard who was likely two or three years my senior; Genevieve, my classmate; Margaret, about the age of my sister Joyce. When the Tempke’s moved to the Regina area in 1937 a farewell party in the Martin house was attended by everyone in the neighbourhood. That event was clearly remembered because of my first encounter with ‘Chinese Checkers’. The board was set up on the huge kitchen table and everyone was eager to try his hand at the game.


Hubert Moravec family: Rosemary and Dorothy. Rosemary went to Notre Dame at Wilcox after completing grade school. In 1938 the family moved to a farm south of Regina and later to the state of Oregon.


Charles and Janet (Jennie) Ballman family: Frances, Laurence, Fern, Cleone, Maxine, Gerald and Wayne. Frances began in the fall of 1935 (one year after my sister Joyce), Laurence and Fern by 1938.


Jack Ryan family: Robert and a younger sister attended in the early 1930s but later moved to Wilcox. In those days everyone was supposed to conform to certain rules. Marjory Ryan (the girl’s name) was supposed to use her right hand for writing. Her reply was as clear as if was yesterday. “But I can write bestest with this hand”! Doesn’t that say it all! At the annual Christmas program, Santa’s sheep-skin coat had a familiar appearance resembling the one that Jack Ryan wore!


Walter and Anna Daley family: James, Edward, David and Mary. It seems to me that Mary began school after I had finished.


Joseph and Agnes Lekivetz family: Agnes, Josephine, Joseph, Rita and Jackie. Apparently due to economic conditions of the 1930s they moved from Regina to the farm in March 1921 and the children came to Sunny Corner School for five years. The family then moved to Lang where they attended Lang. Agnes and Josephine however had desks in the room while they took Provincial Correspondence Courses of High School.


George and Anna Lekivetz family: Mary and Margaret and Donald. The girls came to Sunny Corner about the time that their cousins attended. Redefined boundaries of the district forced them into the Crocus Prairie School District. They are in a 1936 photo of that school.


Bernard Martin also spent a year at Sunny Corner doing correspondence courses during the 1930s. I presume that he had previously been in Regina Schools. He brought his own library table instead of using an under-size desk.


Andrew Harazny family: Peter, Walter, Mary, Olga, Bill, Juli-Anne. I recall only the first three of them during my days at Sunny Corner. The family later attended school in Lang.


Sobchuck family” Peter (and possibly sister Annie?) were at Sunny Corner for one or two years. Later it was decided that the boundary for the districts placed them in Crocus Prairie District. Peter is shown in a 1936 Crocus Prairie photo.


Webb and Mildred Sherman family” Norman, Ula Mae, Kenneth and Ralph attended from 1933 for about two years and the family was then required to shift to Baldock School as boundaries were defined.


There were students in each of the eight grades. The teacher gave everyone a brief assignment and then spent some time with Grades 1, 2, and 3. Fourth and fifth Grades were grouped for most classes as were the 6, 7 and 8 Grades. If you listened to the things around you, most material would be familiar after about five or six years! As a rule I was attentive but I recall slight rebellion when I was expected to do a sewing project (darning a sock or putting on a button was okay but now sewing a seam!).


Sometimes in mid-afternoon, when everyone seemed dull and sleepy, the teacher would have everyone doing calisthenics in the aisles until swirls of dust were about our ears. There was no other physical education – all of the school day was devoted to the three ‘R’s’. (The same applied to later years in high school.)


We played softball before the 9 o’clock bell, at recesses and at noon hour. Sunny Corner, Crocus Prairie, Hendrickson and Brighton Schools had several annual school picnics with softball tournaments. Our school invariably finished in last place! My cousins attended Crocus Prairie and subtly flaunted their athletic superiority!


The Town of Riceton annually hosted a field day for sport competition (perhaps it was at Gray one year?). Not being such of an athlete I recall when I actually won a third place ribbon for jumping or funning. One year, about 1936, my dad drove us all over to Riceton for the all-day event in the back of our 1927 International truck. I can identify with Jack Lekivetz when he stated, “I remember attending Riceton Field Day which most schools around the district attended. At sports, I was a washout.”


Someone one year sat planks up in the school yard and flooded a small rink for us. It was an excellent thought but most of our efforts were spent in shoveling the snow drifts off each day after which we were too exhausted to do very much skating. One year an early snow melt was followed by another freeze and we had several acres of the best ice ever. It lasted for two days, however, and quickly melted again. That last afternoon before the ‘melt-down’ was interesting. If you skated fast you could keep out of the water but when momentum decreased skates began to break through…the water was not deep fortunately. On pleasant winter days all of the kids (and at times the teacher would join us) played ‘fox and goose’. Other summer or fall school events were: prisoners-base’ pump-pump-pull-away (teams throwing a ball over either side of the school building, then attempting to catch prisons from the other side).


I felt really sorry for myself one day. As everyone played outdoors, I stared out of the window because a loose tooth provided so much discomfort that I could not masticate and I was starving! Mom or dad helped that problem later that evening! Speaking of feeling sorry for myself…I came home from school one afternoon with an ear ache. I rushed into the house for some TLC but could not stir up my mom. Grandma Ohrt’s house was only a few hundred steps away, so off I went, where I was reassured and fell asleep on the couch. A while later mom came looking for me. She had been home all the while napping and had not heard my supplications.


In winter, on blustery days, the boys played ‘hockey’ on the basement floor. The air was clogged with dust within a few minutes. The alternative was to be upstairs dancing with the girls (the teacher played the piano for them)! Not much choice for pre-teenagers.


The telephone system was relatively primitive with a single overhead wire (earth for a ground). One morning on the way to school after a sleet storm, Joyce and I noticed a broken wire. The telephone was dead. At recess all the boys walked back to the broken section and attached it to the barbwire fence. The telephone was functioning again (simple one-wire ground system).


The school room was heated by a furnace in the basement. A single grill over it was about in the center of the classroom. The teacher came early to stoke up the fire. One extremely cold day the room did not warm up until almost noon time so we all wore our overcoats and moved the desks as close as possible to the centrally-located heat source.


The teacher stood over the furnace grill. Her wooden pointer inadvertently dropped through the grill and onto the top of the firebox. Soon smoke and flames issued forth! No panic – it was soon extinguished and all returned to their usual positions.


During my first year at school, Lawrence and Geraldine Gummow and the older Tempke children set up a hot-lunch program. The acquired a coal oil stove. The menu at least included boiled potatoes. Perhaps I helped peel them? Other items are beyond my recollection. The ‘boys’ room’ at recess during winter was the furnace room. By twisting old coat hangers or other pieces of wire, we developed a method of toasting out sandwiches in the furnace. We’d lose a few of course but the taste of hot toasted sandwiches was a welcome change of menu. Our lunch buckets were stowed in the ‘cloak room’, which room did not benefit from excess heat (the central furnace grill provided heat only for the school room).


Christmas Concerts were signal events in the rural schools all over the country. Approximately half of each school day became practice time for a month or more before the appointed day of the concert. All desks were rearranged or moved outside and replaced by plant seats. The platform was also of planks, borrowed from the Milestone lumberyard. Every footstep across them produced a minor thundering sound. Electric lighting was then unknown in the country so gas and/or kerosene lanterns were set up, hissing all the while (wouldn’t that make a fire marshall blow his mind!).


Every student had one or several parts to perform in various plays. The concerts were essentially the means of teaching theatrical skills and were quite successful. We sang many carols and that filled the category of music instruction. People travelled several miles to attend. The concerts were followed by country dancing – usually a piano player and a fiddle provided the music. One year the boys found a ‘homebrew’ bottle in the basement on the day following the concert. We all had to try a sip. It was a disgusting taste! I don’t think the teacher was aware of our discovery!


My years at Sunny Corner ended in the spring of 1938 when I had completed the eighth grade. I was by then the only one in the class. How vivid is the memory of the last morning that I wrote the Grade Eight Departmental examinations! Miss Metz and I were the only ones in the room as all other students had completed their year on the preceding day. What a lonely feeling after those wonderful eight years of being a part of a ‘rural school family’.


When I enrolled in Milestone High School, our family rented a house in Milestone and moved into it in early November. Joyce had spent four years at Sunny Corner. Keith had enrolled for a few weeks in the fall of 1938 but subsequently Joyce and Keith spent their remaining school years at Milestone.


Charlie Gummow Charles Robert Gummow was born November 6, 1924, at Milestone. The James and Eva Gummow family lived across the field, one mile south and one mile west of our farm. We were in the same grade at Sunny Corner and became inseparable friends. I probably have never had a closer friend.


Charlie had an older brother Lawrence, about five years my senior, and an older sister Geraldine, about three years older than I. When I first began going to school I rode in their buggy. as they drove past our house.


The Gummow’s house (a Schiefner farm) was a one and one-half story and heated only by a coal-burning space heater in the living room. I frequently slept over at their house and in winter Lawrence, Charlie and I shared the same bed, covered with many layers of blankets. The temperature was cool to say the least. In the summer, when the un-insulated upper story bedroom became too hot, Lawrence and Charlie set up an old bed outside, behind the house, under the starry-decked heavens. Three of us again slept there. When the sun awakened us at dawn, Charlie and I awakened and went for a swim in the pond. We had to chase the cows out first! The pond was filthy but cool.


In the early spring of 1938 the Gummows moved to another Schiefner farm near Richardson, SK. I was then the only one in the eighth grade for the remainder of the year.


A couple of years later, the Gummow family moved to Parry Sound, ON, where Jim worked in a war factory. For a year or more Charlie worked in a cordite factory (he sent me a thread of cordite in the mail – a no-no)! Charlie enlisted in the Army (Queen’s Own Canadian Rifles). He died on December 23, 1944, as a result of wounds and is buried somewhere in Holland.


(insert)


School Hot Lunch Program

(or often not so hot)


Eight years of lunch box sandwiches at Sunny Corner School were not so bad when considering that such is the fare for a life-time for many workers.


My lunch box was a traditional black one with a rounded dome where the thermos bottle was to be stored. In those days, temperature maintenance in thermos bottle depended on a double-walled glass insert, which was rather easily broken I was soon to discover. Thereafter the ‘dome’ portion of the box remained unused. During the 1930s no one was well-to-do. Some of my classmates in the nearly desperate category depended on used lard pails to carry their lunch. One spring lunch period comes to mind. We were all seated on the ground on the sunny south side of the school house. Peter Harazny opened his lard bucket only to discover its contents were as marked – lard! Tears began to well up but he was saved from the pangs of hunger. His parents had realized the problem and a trail of dust down the road heralded the arrival of his father bearing the proper lard pail lunch box.


Generally mom prepared peanut butter and banana sandwiches; occasionally they contained jam, cheese or even meat. On one of my truly miserable days at school a loose tooth prevented mastication and what should the sandwich choice be for the day? None other than crunchy peanut butter which my uncomfortable tooth would not tolerate. Or to quote the Scottish Bard Robbie Burns – “Some hae meat and canna eat’. My stomach called for food but my tooth would not cooperate.


As a first grader I can recall that the older students acquired a kerosene stove for the basement and for a short period of time we were able to supplement our simple cold sandwiches with hot potatoes – an unbelievable addition.


During miserably cold winter days the boys often segregated themselves in the basement furnace room. Someone came up with the idea of twisting coat hangers to support a sandwich that could be toasted over the coal fire. Those toasted morsels were tasty indeed however, only too frequently, someone would inadvertently bounce another’s elbow and several calories went up in smoke.


Then summer would finally come, as it always does! On those occasional great days of spring the teacher and the entire school ate outside in the sun.


To be very truthful, those days in the one room country school were ‘golden days’. Those were ‘extended family’ days. It was a real joy to get back to school and be with ones friends.


When I began high school we moved into town. The lunch hour was 1 ½ hours, allowing sufficient time to run home for lunch. Of course we lived on the opposite side of the town from the school. Milestone was not a metropolis however and the six to eight blocks did not constitute a trek! Besides, by that time I had a bicycle which considerably reduced the travel time.


It was a relief to be rescued from the lunch box. But of course things can change! Boarding in the year of medical school frequently involved more lunches, this time of the bag-lunch variety. H.A. Ohrt – April 1998



The Decade of the 1940s


Canada joined with Great Britain and declared war on Germany during September 1939. Farm help became scarce. Boys and girls were in demand to assist in harvesting operations and at times some schools closed to allow them to help. Scarcity of teachers forced some school to be closed.


Otherwise there were few changes on the rural scene. Machines and trucks had not been replaced or upgraded during the Depression years of the 1930s. There was virtually no production of domestic machines or vehicles until after the conclusion of WWII in 1945. Commodities continued to be in short supply during most of the 1950s.


Joyce, Keith and I attended school in Milestone in the fall of 1938 when I began high school.


Frances (Ballman) Sauve has provided her recollections of Sunny Corner School as follows:


1939 – 1943 Isabel Fyvie was from Moosomin. SK. Her father died during her time at Sunny Corner (I could be wrong but it seems to me that he had been a guard at the jail in Moosomin). I believe that she boarded at Moravecs.


1943 – Winnifred Walsh came from Yellow Grass (I believe). Boarded at ?


1944 – Margaret Frances LarsonI have no recollection.


1944 – 46 – (see letter in The Decade of the 50s)


1946 – Molly Teresa HeckI know absolutely nothing about her.


1946 – 48 – Dorothy Grahame(see her letter in The Decade of the 50s)


1947 – Marjorie Jean Herick came from Gull Lake-Shaunavon area. She boarded with mom and dad. She was a very cheerful person, always busy and full of fun. She later married a man whose name was Palen who worked for the Saskatchewan Government in Regina (I heard that they moved to some place in South America where he was helping set up cooperative farms but I don’t know for sure).


1948 – 50 – Mary Katherine (Kay) McGeough address was Parry, SK. Their family went to our church. We were very good friends from a very young age. She boarded with mom and dad. She was later married to Joe Zagazeski from Belle Plain, SK, (later divorced).



The Decade of the 1950s


The 1950s decade was one of beginning change. Bigger became synonymous with better. Many labour-saving devices were incorporated into farm machinery, new and larger, more powerful farm equipment became available and subsequently the farms became ever larger. Fewer farm workers were required. Tenant farmers were eased off their rented farms as owners could now farm those acres as well as their parent farms. Fewer families meant fewer school-age children. Enrollment dropped and rural schools began to close as larger school districts were being formed.


Sunny Corner School registration of June 1950 included Wayne, Gerald, Maxine and Cleone Ballman and Jeanette McArthur.


1948 – 1950 – Mary Kathyrn McGough was teacher. Her salary during the 1950 school year was listed as $14,000.00 per annum. Trustees were John Martin, Charles Ballman and Anna Rose Daley (Anna died in August 2000, age 97, at Winona, MN). Non-attending students (i.e. living in the district but registered in the Lang School) were: Larry Martin, John, Julianne and Olga Harazny. Robert Ohrt attended school at Corinne, SK.


1950 – 51 – Jeanette Bouree boarded at mom and dad’s. Later she married a Schukowsky from near Avonlea, SK. (Quote Francess Ballman)


Due to continued decreased enrollment shared by many small rural schools of the time, Sunny Corner School was finally closed in June 1951 at the end of the school year.


I took a photograph of Sunny Corner School in 1955. Shortly thereafter the building was moved to Milestone and was converted into a residence on Main Street for the school unit.


A Letter from Ruthann (Diekrager) Harty – March 19, 1992


(Ruth Ann was included in photos of Crocus Prairie School 1940 and Riceton High School of 1941-41. She lives at Avonlea – Mrs. Laurence Harty).


Quote from Ruthann: “I graduated from Regina Normal School (now called Teacher’s College) in the spring of 1944. In the fall of 1944 I was hired as the school teacher at Sunny Corner School. This school was three and one-half miles south and one-half mile west of our family farm near Riceton so I was able to board at home with my folks and drive our horse, named Jim, and cart to school in summer and Jim was hitched to a cuter for the winter.


In early August of 1944 I stood before my first class of students in Sunny Corner School. These 11 eager faces before me included grades one through eight and these same students not only survived the 1944-45 school term but were able to advance and complete the 1945-46 school term with me as their teacher.


Because I was still a teenager and not far from being a kid myself and not much older than a couple of my older students, and because teaching for me was a novel experience, my memories of those early days are quite vivid and fortunately for me most of them happy ones with many humorous side effects.


My first two years of teaching did a great deal for the beginning of some wonderful years of teaching. My life had to take on a pattern of preparing lessons and assignments for each grade and teaching when a new topic came up.


It was important to spend as much time as possible with the beginners. If the children seemed to work a bit slower than you thought they should, it was likely that they were listening to a lesson being taught to another grade but this was still a valuable learning experience for those students. To keep order in the classroom, plenty of work had to be prepared for everyone. That was my homework every night and on weekends, often done by the light of a coal oil lamp or a gas lamp.


We celebrated evens like Mother’s Day and birthdays by making cards and gifts and sometimes a birthday cake. I treasure the beautiful wooden and glass serving tray that my students game me for my birthday February, 1945. The children signed their names on the back of it; Mary Harazny, Fern Ballman, Mary Daley, Olga Harazny, Cleone Ballman, Maxine Ballman, Julianna Harazny, Billy Harazny, Larry Martin, Laurence Ballman.


Teachers were to promote music, drama and encourage athletic activities. Many special times were held when celebration Hallowe’en, Easter, Valentines’ Day and of course Christmas. It was a big event and the highlight was the Christmas Concert. Planning practices started early in November and consisted of songs, humorous skits, drills and monologues. All parents and neighbours attended and everyone loved to see Santa who gave everyone a bag of goodies. Concerts around the district were on different dates so that all who could would attend and compare.


I laughed often with the students. I went outdoors with them at recess and at noon hour. We ate our lunches together and played the seasonal games together. Sometimes the weather was too nice to be indoors and we took some extra minutes. The school work would be finished just as quickly.


All of these ‘special’ days were celebrated with song, dance and pictures. Art was correlated with the subject. It was always a challenge to see who could draw the nicest card or picture. I had oral reading with the lower grades. Writing was taught as a separate subject and good writing was expected in all work. We had oral arithmetic, multiplication, table games, spelling bees and geography matches.


The students were hard workers in the classroom and excellent in sports. Highlights of the school year would be trips to the surrounding schools for ball games, spelling bees and finally being invited to participate in the Riceton Field Meet. Winning the Relay Cup and the Ball Cup on June 22, 1946, was a happy and proud day for all of us.


One part of my teaching I do not want to omit is the fifteen minutes after the noon hour when I would read to the whole class from a good book. Both teacher and students enjoyed this part of the school day.


The school yard ended with the traditional picnic with ball games and all kinds of races. Remember the sack, three-legged races and the wheel barrel races? Of course, there was always plenty of food. Good times and good sportsmanship were enjoyed by all.


The early years in the one-room school house were a good learning experience and one grew up fast becoming independent, developing coping skills and resourceful self-reliance. Thanks Sunny Corner School for a wonderful two years!”


A Letter from Dorothy Grahame – September 22, 1990


Note – Dorothy married Matt Battler from the Milestone district but now lives at Wilcox. The following narrative is from the Milestone history with her personal additions.


I finished Grade 12 at Wolseley High School June 1946 and enrolled in the Moose Jaw Normal School in September. Due to the shortage of teachers the Department of Education decided after two months to send us out, in relays, to keep the rural schools open. So after a crash course I was sent out on the train to Milestone and was met by Mr. and Mrs. Walter Daley. I was to board there until Mr. and Mrs. Mailman returned from Maple Creek where they were attending a funeral. The school kids had correspondence courses and were doing their lessons at home. In other words, school had not opened that term. My first day of teaching at Sunny Corner was October 23, 1946”.


I had met the Ballman children at school and had been told that their little four-room home with seven kids was to be my home. I could see it across the fields. I was relieved to see that the school had a phone in the teacher’s cloakroom and I vowed I would phone Mr. Bolton, the district superintendent, and tell him to come and get me before I went mad. (The trauma of my first week of boarding at the Daley’s produced a bad pain in my stomach and I spent a few days in bed). However my week in bed put an end to that for the time being. Mr. Ballman came to get me in his 1938 Buick. He had a growth of beard (since getting back he had been trying to catch up on fall work) and was so quiet on the ride home that I wondered what I was getting in for here!


The kids hadn’t impressed me that much (they had been batching while their parents were away). However, when we reached the door of the house Mrs. Ballman came out with her beautiful white hair, a bit of make-up and her clean print dress…..always a clean print dress. The house was spotless. She put her arms around me and said “You poor girl. Go straight upstairs to bed until supper is ready.” Needless to say…it was my first good sleep in a week!


I had my own bed until Fran came home on weekends then I shared it. But I shared the room with Fern and Cleone. It must have been terrible for Mrs. Ballman to board the teacher but she was calm and peaceful. For this I paid $17.00 a month. My wage was $100.00 a month.


It wasn’t long before I was one of the kids. We bet on wrestling matches on the radio. We had checker tournaments with playoffs. A neighbour, John Smith, taught us to play poker. I got scolded by Mrs. Ballman along with the rest of the kids. I was Dorothy to all until we hit the steps of the school, then I was Miss Grahame. No I was never “lonely.”


Sunny School was a one-room school with the furnace and toilets in the full-sized basement. The barn stood at the back side of a large playground that had as its only equipment four bases for the soft ball diamond. The children cleaned the school and the older ones looked after the fire. As we all went to school together in the morning, we entered a very cold school and had to keep ourselves active until it warmed up.


I must say that I chose the worst year to move to the prairie. There were more blizzards than clear days. Hardly one and one-half months after opening of school I saw my first blizzard. The school windows were so thick with frost that we hadn’t seen out of them for ages, so it was news to me when someone announced that there was a blizzard blowing outside. I opened the door a crack to peep out and the door was nearly torn off the hinges. I needed help to close it. I couldn’t see the bottom of the steps. There was no way we could get home. There were no lights nor food in the school. But there was the telephone. I can’t remember if anyone slept. We likely tried for we had lots of robes from our cutter. I remember keeping the party line busy. David Daley relayed the quiz programs from the radio for us to guess.


As pupils I had Laurence, Fern, Cleone, Maxine, Gerald and Wayne Ballman (all of the family except Fran), Mary Daley and the Harazny family consisting of Olga, Billy and Julianne. There would have been more had school started in September. Larry Martin and David Daley were in Notre Dame at Wilcox. That is not exactly right. David had been at Notre Dame but had either quit or had been kicked out and was at home at the time I stayed there. He was the only one that took the bottle away from Walter at the table and told him to be quiet….especially one time that Walter was telling me over and over again how stupid the Canadians were for letting the Yanks come up here and buy their best land! Mrs. Daley only laughed nervously and said “Oh Walter!”


At Normal School we had been told NEVER to get involved in the neighbourhood gossip. So I had moved to the Ballmans determined that I would never let it out that Walter Daley drank! It has been a joke among us ever since, for the whole neighbourhood had been listening in on the telephone and had felt sorry for me!


I had taken Grade 11 in Alberta and as a result had to get my Grade !! geometry before I could get my teacher’s certificate. Going out to Sunny Corner had stopped that (I was taking it by correspondence) and when I was relieved in February of 1947 to go back to Normal School at Moose Jaw the hectic rush to get a full year into four months didn’t allow me extra time there. So I thought I would be teaching the following year on a permit and when they asked me back to Sunny Corner for the fall of ’47 I thought I had better take it.


As it happened, I stayed one week after Normal School closed, memorized the textbook and wrote the exam.


I went to Saskatoon to the university to take Phys Ed at Summer School the following day and found out in August that I had passed my Geometry with a 75% mark.


In those days we made our own fun. There were sleigh rides and usually one or two people skied behind. The Sattler’s had a batter-operated radio in their sleigh and we glided over the snow to the strains of ‘Buttermilk Skies’ and ‘The Old Lamplighter’ on the hit parade.


In the spring those huge banks of snow turned into sloughs making rafting irresistible. Every kid had a raft made of wood and discarded wash tubs.


One afternoon in spring on our way home from school, Lawrence was driving the team and the rest of us were piled in pell-mell along with books and dinner pails. Mary Daley followed close behind on horseback and a steady stream of chatter passed among us. Suddenly the neck yoke became unhooked and hit one of the horses under the chin. He reared, frightened the second horse and both headed for the ditch and a muddy field beyond. Lawrence frantically called for us to jump out, which we did….right in the middle of the slough. He stayed with the cart and managed to calm the horses to a stop. None of us was hurt but there wasn’t a square inch of us that wasn’t covered with mud. We had to feel around in the mud to retrieve our lost shoes, dinner-pails and whatever had tumbled with us. We cleaned ourselves in a ditch of clean water and arrived home a bit later than usual. I jokingly tall Lawrence that to this day I still resent the fact that the one who told us to jump into the slough didn’t even get his feet wet!


In 1948 I moved to Milestone and I could write a book on the difference between town and country kids!


Dorothy Grahame was born in 1927 at Prince Albert, SK. In the fall of 1946 she enrolled in Moose Jaw Normal School but after two months the Department of Education sent the students out, in relays, to country schools to keep them open during the teacher shortage. She opened Sunny Corner School on October 23, 1946.


In February she went back to Moose Jaw to complete a very rushed and condensed course before the end of June.

She returned to Sunny Corner for the 1947-48 school year.


In the fall of 1948 Dorothy began teaching Grades three to five in Milestone. In 1949 when she had completed the requirements of a First Class Certificate and Matt Sattler had completed university they were married. They resided in Wilcox, SK. Dorothy died a few years ago.



By Allen Ohrt, B.A. (Sask.), M.D. (Man.)


Modern educators seem disdainful of anything less than multi-room schools. There is a definite advantage and even necessity for these larger schools at the High School level but NOT in Grade School, in my books! At times I wonder if there is even any place left in the curriculum for ‘reading and writing and arithmetic’? In the years of my youth, we were even encouraged to hold pencils in a proper manner and not with one’s fingers twisted and wrapped around the writing instrument. We were taught penmanship, unheard of today! Of course ball point pens had not yet been invented and one had to master the art of writing with the greatest of all implements – the fountain pen! Pressing hard, as required for multiple copies of nearly everything written, has spelled the demise of that particular pen.


Other essential classes of those years and some totally ignored today are phonics, Geography and History, etc., subjects and arts now almost unknown. Another class, this one at the High School level, is unfortunately almost nonexistent – Latin! I believe the latter most essential, not as a language in itself but as an aid in the understanding of English. The absence of that understanding is painfully evident when the average younger person ‘attempts’ to write a letter. Many claim that our society has reached a near-record of functional illiterates. Word processors have almost removed the ability to add, even the simplest sums, and because of television many seldom, if ever, read books. Mark Twain said, “The man who chooses not to read books has no advantage over the man who cannot read them!”


All in the name of progress? I for one am not so sure!


American schools have an addition PROBLEM. It is called the athletic program within the school. Jocks win all the accolades and good students are known as ‘squares’ or ‘nerds’. Our schools now rank near the bottom of world academics and will continue to do so UNTIL scholastics again become the reason for an education system. Athletics are important to most young people BUT have no place in the academic setting – they should be extramural only.


Of all the twenty-odd years that I have spent in education institutions, those ‘good old’ days in a one-room country school were, without doubt, the best! In the fall of 1938 when I joined my high school classmates, all graduates of the Milestone Public School system, it became evident that I had acquired more knowledge than they had. Maybe I was just fortunate? i.e. To have had parents that encouraged education and to have had teachers that were dedicated to their profession!


Sunny Corner – by Joyce M. Ohrt Schwenke Apr. 1992


I have many happy memories of Sunny Corner. I credit the one-room school with my joy in education and love of learning new things even yet, almost 60 years later. Learning was fun at Sunny Corner. I felt happy and uninhibited. I felt that everyone was important. How could you play baseball unless everyone participated? There wouldn’t have been enough bodies! The older students helped the younger ones hit the ball and showed by example. When our children were growing up I felt they missed a lot by being one of 100 or so in a class where only the athletic got to play and only the talented sang or acted. I owe my individuality to the one-room country school.


My first memory of Sunny Corner was the excitement I felt riding in the buddy – brother Allan driving “Mickey”. I knew something about school as Allan had been attending for four years but not every detail was known. For instance, during the first recess Jack Lekivetz and I got into a serious conversation behind the girls’ outhouse and were not aware that the ringing of the bell meant that we should re-enter the school. I remember my surprise when Allan was sent to find us.


My first grade classmates were Jack Lekivetz, Jim Daley and Peter Harazny. I remember the ticking of the wall clock and coloured chalk with which the teacher my means of stencils drew seasonal pictures at the top of the black board. There was a piano at the back of the room and I learned to play chopsticks during recess. The teacher didn’t play the piano but used it to get the pitch for songs. The tunes we learned by imitating the teacher. I don’t remember much about classes except sharing much with the second graders and listening in on upper grades exciting history lessons. I remember health, having our ears and fingernails inspected and getting a star next to our name if all was well. The pull-down maps were a marvel. I wondered if I would ever go to some of those places. Speaking of health, I remember a bucket of drinking water and a common dipper – what a novel idea when a new teacher asked us each to bring our own drinking cup. I remember that Mom got an enamel cup from Grandmother Ohrt’s cook car. Previously classmates shared everything including communicable diseases partly I assume from that common drinking dipper.


I enjoyed school and didn’t worry about grades. As a matter of fact ‘sight reading’ was the newest thing. I could read all about Jerry and Jane and Spot and Snow by looking at the pictures. If I hadn’t seen it before, I couldn’t read it. This fact was not evident to me until I attended Bigby School in Vancouver where I suffered the terrible agony of believing I was not perfect and began to hate this school I solved the problem by contracting red measles, was very ill and thankfully ended my Vancouver school year. Mom, aghast that I couldn’t read after almost three years in school, began to teach me phonics and by the time we returned to Saskatchewan in April I was reading and school was fun again. While ill in Vancouver, I was pleased and very happy to receive in the mail a large manilla envelope containing Valentine cards from all my Sunny Corner friends.


I remember playing tag, ‘anti-anti I over’, snow forts, snowball fights and soft ball. In winter in extreme weather we played either in the cloak rooms (blind mans bluff), royal bumps for birthdays or in the dusty basement which got more densely dusty as the recess progressed.


The Christmas Programs were intense, interesting and fun. The whole school became transformed – a stage, sheets for curtains, gas lamps brought from home and an audience. It was a place of magic. I remember my first grade program where I recited “Little Miss Muffet” and Jack and I being in some sort of Arabian nights skit. I owe my present “hamminess” to public appearances in these programs. I learned how exciting applause is. Another astounding thing about the programs was that there was generally music for dancing afterwards. I remember my astonishment at seeing Grandmother Ohrt well over 70 dancing a waltz with Uncle Art.


The teacher I most remember is Miss Metz, sister of the famous hockey players the Metz brothers from Wilcox. Her red hair was remarkable. She wore corduroy skits and jackets. No one had much variety of clothing. My school dresses were worn all week and washed on Saturday. Everyone was about in the same boat except Peter who wore the original layered look – the colder it was, the more sweaters he wore, all beautifully hand knit.


The teacher’s room – a small closet off the girl’s coat room – was forbidden territory so it was a “must see area”. The telephone was there so it was a prime spot for the purpose of rubber necking (listening to other people’s telephone conversations).


One day it got very dark with an impending dust storm. I remember Dad came to escort us home early.


We mostly rode to school but I remember one occasion when we walked. I assume that it was seeding time and possibly the horses were in use on the farm because we were all walking home. Someone dared Jim Daley to crawl through the culver. I can still see the expression on his face as he emerged pushing in front of him the skeleton of a long-dead rabbit, or was it a skunk?


I have no memory of any fights between students; we were a congenial group. I am very thankful for the experiences I had, the memories of happy times and the friends of my childhood.


Joyce M. Ohrt Schwenke



The above extensive and enjoyable information was gathered, compiled and typed out over the years by Allen Ohrt He wished it to be submitted to the One Room School House.. It was sent to and re-typed by Val Thomas of McTaggart, SK for submission.






Much appreciation and thanks are extended to Allen Ohrt for contacting several former teachers and pupils of Sunny Corner School House, and for submitting this story to share online at the Saskatchewan One room School House Project. Also gratitude and thanks to Val Thomas for typing up the notes and sending them in.


School District Maps Moose Jaw Sheet right
Sunny Corner SD 3930 map Tsp 13 Rge 18 W2 Saskatchewan></center>
<P LANG=Web master's note.


Sunny Corner SD 3930 located at Township 13 Range 18 West of the 2nd Meridian

Crocus prairie SD 3906 Township 13 Range 19 West of the 2n meridian

Hendrickson SD 4774 Township 3 Rage 19 West of the 2nd Meridian

Brighton SD 2380 NW Section 27 Township 13 Range 19 West of the 2nd Meridian

Baldock SD 993 SE Section 16 Township 12 Range 8 West of the 2nd Meridian


placenames

Gray located at Section 6 Township 4 Range 10 West of the 2nd Meridian (1905)

Section 18 Township 14 Range 18 West of the 2nd Meridian

Riceton Section 30 Township 13 Range 17 West of the 2nd Meridian

Milestone Section 15 Township 12 Range 19 West of the 2nd Meridian

Corinne Section 2 Township 13 Range 20 West of the 2nd Meridian

Bratt Lake Section 10 Township 14 Range 9 West of the 2nd Meridian

Lewvan Section 15 Towsnhip 12 Range 6 West of the 2nd Meridian

Lindley


Bibliography and Further Reading:



Title History of Milestone, 1893-1910
as compiled by A. W. Garratt of Milestone, Sask
Published [Regina, Sask. : Public Press, 1948]


Title From prairie plow till now : Milestone and districts
Published Milestone, Sask. : Milestone History Book Committee, 1984
ISBN 0889254273


Title Memory sketches of Gray
Published Gray, Sask. : Gray Homecoming Committee, 1984
Note "Dedicated to the Gray pioneers"


Saskatchewan golden jubilee : Milestone history Note Compiled by the staff and pupils, Milestone School.


The Ties that bind : Estlin, Gray, Riceton, Bechard
Riceton, Sask. : Bechard, Riceton, Gray and Estlin History, 1984.
ISBN 0889254567










































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