642 SASKATCHEWAN AND ITS PEOPLE wards Doctor) Goggin, Principal of the Manitoba Normal School, was appointed Superintendent of Education for the Northwest Territories and the teaching profession was placed upon a more or less scientific basis. When we look at our present University at Saskatoon which has attained such a high standing under its distinguished Principal Dr. Murray, our normal and collegiate schools, our consolidated school districts and the whole splendid scholastic organisation of the present day, it is interesting and instructive to look back and realise the "day of small things" from which such magnificent results have been achieved. Some years ago, when the province was progressing by leaps and bounds new schools were or- ganised at the rate of one a day. For ten years Dr. Goggin carried on the good work and was ably succeeded by Mr. McColl, who became the first Deputy Minister of Education for the province, being succeeded by the present Deputy, Mr. Augustus H. Ball, M. A. We have been fortu- nate in our Ministers of Education, viz: Sir Frederick Haultain in the old Territorial days; Premier Walter Scott; Hon. J. A. Calder and now Mr. S. J. Latta, during the provincial era. DUAL LANGUAGE AND SCHOOL QUESTION. The reader would not thank us very much for going into controver- sial matters in any great detail, and we shall be content with a broad and necessarily incomplete statement. A sharp line of division in opinion arises at the very outset. The French, broadly speaking, claim that they should have the same right to their language, religious education and school control in the west as in Quebec. On the other side there is a strong body of opinion which denies that they have any special rights in the west at all. The prairie country was not part of Canada when the treaty guaranteeing French rights, privileges and customs was signed, or even at Confederation; how then can the French have any rights other than those conferred by the common citizenship, shared by all? On the face of it this seems somewhat conclusive; and it naturally is so to those who are unsympathetic to French claims. But there is another side. The French very early disputed the Hudson's Bay charter, and at one time held the Bay. They also claimed priority in the west through their voy- ageurs, traders, explorers and missionaries, and it is difficult with fair- ness to dismiss the claim as a mere crafty afterthought made when the value of the Territory involved became apparent. It will come as news to many that nearly all of what is now Saskatchewan was once a portion of the Province of Quebec; and tile authority for this will not be dis- puted when we say that we base it on a statement made in the House of Commons by the Hon. David Mills, whose sympathy with Quebec was not as a rule very conspicuous. In 1875 in the debate on the Northwest Territories Act then under consideration, Mr. Mills is recorded in Hansard as informing the House of Commons that "under the Quebec Act of 1774 the western limit of what is now (1875) the Province of Quebec was fixed at the forks of the Saskatchewan and the head waters of the Mississippi.
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