Family folklore is that my HACKING ancestors were related to Henry Hacking of the First Fleet - my family legends, passed down through Great-grandfather George Hacking and his daughter Elizabeth, are usually surprisingly reliable; the same folklore also came down through the family of George’s elder brother James Hacking.
My maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Hacking (later Burke), was the daughter of George Hacking (1846-1920), master confectioner of Melbourne. George, aged nearly 5, with his father (Liverpool cabinetmaker James Hacking, 1811-1868), his mother (Elizabeth Bayes, 1816-1903, born in London), her father William Bayes (a trunk and portmanteau maker), and George’s four surviving siblings, sailed on 1st August 1850 from Liverpool as intermediate passengers on the Courier, a ship of about 1000t, to Port Phillip (now Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) - the Courier also carried passengers for Adelaide where it proceeded after leaving Port Phillip.
Why did the family emigrate? We do not know but no doubt cabinetmaker James could well afford the fares as his father William Hacking, a cabinetmaker and publican and owner of several houses in Liverpool, had died in 1837 leaving much of his estate (including houses and a coalyard - not to mention his Best Bench and Chest and Tools) to eldest son James. Sadly, it seems that James left his family following the birth of another son five years after their arrival in Port Phillip and came to a doleful end twelve years later - but that is another story.
Great-grandfather George Hacking and his brothers and sisters (aged from nearly 12 down to just 5 months when they arrived) must have had an exciting voyage - in George’s obituary in the Melbourne “Age” in 1920, the story is told of how their ship was chased by pirates off the Cape Verde Islands and evaded capture only after a pursuit of five days.
More excitement was in store when the ship arrived in Port Phillip on 11th November 1850 - the news of Separation from the Colony of New South Wales was brought the same day by the Lysander which had come via Adelaide. The Melbourne “Argus” announced that a royal salute would be fired at noon and was to be answered by all vessels in harbour. The news was spread by beacons, and there were public holidays, illumination of buildings, fireworks and other celebrations. Early Sydney-Melbourne rivalry was revealed by a dispatch from Sydney in the “Argus” which read: “We have been a good deal amused here by your account of the Separation festivities, and more especially by your description of some of the transparencies wherein the ruin of Sydney is predicted as an unavoidable consequence of its severance from Pt. Phillip. So far from feeling despondency, our mercantile men are of the opinion that Sydney will gain by the change”.
The name Hacking
The name Hacking (very much a Lancashire name) is said to have come from the lands/mesne manor of Hacking dating back at least to the 13th century. Hacking Hall, built at the beginning of the 17th century or earlier, stands today near the confluence of the Ribble and the Calder near Billington in Lancashire. The name has been spelled in the records in every which way - I have seen (at least) Hacking, Hackling, Hackin, Hackins, Hacken, Hacket, Haken, Hakin, Hecking, Hocking, Ackin, Acking, Ackkine, Aiken, and Aicken.
Henry Hacking, Quartermaster of HMS Sirius of the First
Henry Hacking (often recorded under other spellings) was listed as born in the Blackburn area of Lancashire and 33 years of age when he signed up at the beginning of 1787 as Quartermaster (i.e. navigator/helmsman) of HMS Sirius, leading ship of the First Fleet under Captain Arthur Phillip. Henry had previously served on the Sirius, formerly named the Berwick, though I have no details of that service. HMS Sirius was about 500t and had 20 five pound guns; the post captain was Captain Hunter.
The first record of Henry’s many escapes (perhaps he had, even earlier, already used up some of his lives?) is described by Lieutenant David Collins. The Sirius spent some time laid up for repairs in what is now Sydney’s Sirius Cove. Henry “being reckoned a good shot”, was sent to shoot game for the officers and crew of the ship. This is a sad story for us to read today but both Collins and Hacking were men of their times, and perhaps Henry felt he was (or indeed perhaps he really was) in mortal danger.
Collins writes: “The natives, who had for some time past given very little interruption, towards the end of the month attacked Henry Hacking, one of the quarter-masters of the Sirius, who, being reckoned a good shot, was allowed to shoot for the officers and ship’s company. His account was, that, being in the woods, a stone was thrown at him from one of two natives whom he perceived behind him, and that on looking about he found dispersed amoung the trees a number that could not be less than forty. Wishing to intimidate them, he several times only presented his piece toward them; but, finding that they followed him, he at last gave them the contents, which happened to be small shot for birds. These he replaced with buckshot, and got rid of his troublesome and designing followers by discharging his piece a second time. They all made off; but some of them stumbling as they ran, he apprehended they had been wounded. This account met with more credit than could usually be allowed to such tales, as the person who gave it was held in great estimation by the officers of his ship both as a man and as a seaman.”
After the First Fleet arrived at Port Jackson there were concerns about the provisioning of the settlement. It was decided to send ships to Norfolk Island. On Friday, 19th March 1790, the Sirius was wrecked at Norfolk Island and the records again show Henry apparently staring death in the face - and escaping.
Lieut. Ralph Clark, who had been landed elsewhere on the island, and
was watching the Sirius come into the bay, wrote in his diary
for Friday 19 March 1790
“[Sirius] was obliged to goe about for She could not weather the Reef of Point Ross but She mist Stays … about 12 oClock the[y] Endevoured to put her about but She would not Stay - She go in the trof of the Sea which forst her Stern formost on the Reef … gracious god what will become of use all, the whole of our Provision in the Ship now a Wreck before use … there is at present no prospect of it except that of Starving - what will become of the people that are on board for no boat can goe along Side for the Sea … every body expects that She will goe to pices when the tide comes in … I am So low that I cannot hold the pincle to write …”.
In truth, the real problem was that Ralph’s “pocket Book is foul and will not hold any more” - and, of course, Henry neither drowned nor starved.
Reg Wright tells us, rather more plainly, that
“Disaster struck on 19 March when the Sirius was wrecked. Miraculously there was no loss of life. People remaining on board were hauled through the surf on a traveller attached to a 7 inch hawser strung between the wreck and the shore.”
The provisions, too, were safely unloaded from the wreck.
Nevertheless, Captain Hunter and most of his crew (including Henry?) were stranded for some 11 months before they were taken back to Sydney, and thence on the Dutch snow Waaksamheid back to England.
Dr Mollie Gillen tells us that the Waaksamheid left for
“on 28 March 1791 … and anchored in Portsmouth Harbour on 22 April 1792 after a tedious voyage of some 13 months. … The supernumerary passengers were discharged into HMS Duke on the 27th while a court martial was held on board HMS Brunswick to try Captain Hunter, the officers and crew of Sirius. All honourably acquitted, they were then discharged on 4 May to be landed at Portsmouth.”.
Presumably the acquitted crew members included Henry Hacking, escaping with his life yet again?
Henry Hacking, having left the Waaksamheid, signed on as a second master on the convict transport Royal Admiral just a couple of weeks later. Why? Who knows, but sign on he did, the ship sailed on 30th May, and by October 1792 Henry was back in Sydney where he (and others) jumped ship. There are stories that the captain of the Royal Admiral was the problem but even when Henry was offered a passage back to England on another ship it was clear that he would refuse to return to England. Was this because his involvement with Ann Holmes, a 16 year-old convict from York on the Royal Admiral, had begun or was there some other reason? Whatever the reason, he was not punished and was allowed to remain in the colony.
Henry was highly regarded and trusted. Next he turned explorer - though his discoveries are not well recognised due to the fact that he was illiterate and so did not record them himself. He ranged far and wide, trying to find a way across the Blue Mountains, and exploring south as far as what is now Port Hacking - named after Henry.
In February 1794 Governor Grose made the first grant of land at what is now Sydney’s “north shore”. In October he made four grants of 30 acres each near what is now the Lane Cove shopping centre - and the first of the these was to Henry Hacking; a month later Henry was granted a further 30 acres at Mulgrave Place near the Hawkesbury River. Henry is remembered by a plaque at the Lane Cove shopping centre - it refers to him as Lieutenant Henry Hacking, a rank he did not hold.
By 1796, Henry was recorded as Chief Pilot of Port Jackson.
Henry, as pilot, brought the convict ship Marquis Cornwallis into port. Mr Matthew Austin, superintending surgeon to the convicts, laid a charge of assault in the Civil Court against the ship’s commander Michael Hogan, the ship’s surgeon John Hogan, and the pilot Henry Hacking. Mr Michael Hogan was required to pay £50 in damages; Henry and John were acquitted.
A present-day internet description of the same event says:
“In the years that followed more Europeans came to the land of the Awabakal to collect coal from the mouth of the Hunter River. According to traditional law the Europeans should have asked permission to enter onto their land and if they took something they should offer something in return. One incident was recorded where a group of Awabakal men confronted the Europeans and demanded things in return such as blankets, nets and axes. Henry Hacking, the party’s surveyor, fired on the Awabakal, killing three people, in order to protect his property. This incident occurred at the mouth of the Hunter in 1799.”
Henry Hacking gave evidence in the trial of William Kingston, Captain of the Hunter, who was charged with aiding and assisting Ann Holmes to escape - Ann was regarded as a prisoner, no record being able to be found in the colony of whether her term was 7 years (and thus already served out) or Life. According to the evidence, Henry had cohabited with Ann for upwards of seven years. What actually happened is confusing though it seems that Ann intended to leave Henry without his knowledge (with or without the children?). Henry discovered the plot (he missed her “Cloaths” from the house - they had been put on board Kingston’s ship “sewed up in a tablecloth”) and then asked Kingston to take all of them on the ship - himself, Ann and the children. In the early hours of the morning, Henry, Ann and two children came alongside the ship just outside the Heads, were discovered by the authorities, and Captain Kingston was charged.
It seems that, prior to the trial, Henry had given a sworn deposition saying that Kingston had agreed to take them without the Governor’s permission but, at the trial itself, Henry contradicted this evidence. Kingston was therefore acquitted and Henry was charged with “willful and corrupt perjury”. He was found “Guilty” and sentenced to 3 years at Norfolk Island - but his survival streak won through yet again. A day or so later, Governor Hunter granted him a pardon “in consideration of his former good character” and authorized Henry “to continue in His former service as Pilot of Port Jackson and the Adjacent Harbours”. Henry continued to prosper and subsequently was also appointed in charge of the gun battery and 13 men at Garden Island.
In January 1801, Ann Holmes had married William Bowen (one wonders what the story is behind this). Ann’s neighbour gave evidence that, on 20th February, 1802, he saw Henry Hacking with a musket in his hand and said “There is Hacking just stopped with a musket in his hand surely he has not come up to shoot Nancy!” Indeed he had - there was a shot and Ann Bowen, wounded in the side and the thigh, was heard to say “Oh Hacking I am dead” (she was not - she outlived husband William Bowen and went on to marry convict Thomas Henshaw at Windsor in 1812; her eventual fate is not known).
Henry was charged, found guilty and sentenced to death. Exactly what happened is not known but of course Henry was not executed; by July we find him as First Mate on the Lady Nelson which was to accompany Matthew Flinders in the Investigator on his circumnavigation of Australia. The Lady Nelson was small and slow, and after being damaged off the Queensland coast it was sent back to Sydney. And, in June 1803, Henry Hacking’s name was first on a list of Free Pardons which the Governor was “pleased to Grant” to mark the late King’s Birthday. But this happy situation did not last long.
Henry Hacking, apparently in order to get rum, stole Government stores from a hulk on which they were stored. In November 1803, he and Robert Colpits were sentenced to death but Colpits’s sentence was remitted to transportation for 7 years on account of its being his first offence together with his long service. Henry’s sentence stood. But, as usual, not for long. The 'Sydney Gazette' for 20th November 1803 reported that Governor King “was pleased on Sunday last to Respite the Execution of Henry Hacken, ordered for Monday last, since when he has received a Pardon Conditionally on his being Transported to Van Diemans Land for Seven Years”. King offered Hacking to Lieutenant Governor Collins in Hobart saying “He is still a good man” and Collins welcomed the offer saying “I should (not withstanding the character he brought with him) be extremely anxious of availing myself of his, to me, well known abilities as a pilot”.
Henry Hacking arrived in Hobart Town at the beginning of 1804 and seems never to have been regarded as other than a free man; the February, 1804 listing of those victualled from His Majesty's Stores at Sullivan Cove, Derwent River includes convicts (nearly 200), the military and civil establishment, settlers, and 3 'others' or 'supernumeraries' - Mr Brown the Botanist, Henry Hacking, and Salamander (a Port Jackson native). That year, Henry was appointed Coxswain to Lieutenant Governor Collins with superintendence of all public boats. The following year, Collins described Hacking to King as “one of the most useful men I have”. In 1806, Henry appears on the List of Superintendents with an annual salary of £50. He even returned briefly to Sydney in that year to give evidence against a convict who had stolen a boat. Henry is mentioned several times in friendly terms in the diary of Rev. Robert Knopwood and clearly continued to be a useful man - on Christmas Eve 1806 "Henry Hakin returned from the Houin with 100 swans which were delivered to the prisoners” (not a happy thought today).
And Henry Hacking was also well regarded by Collins’s successor - in 1814 Lieutenant Governor Davey wrote to Lieutenant Jeffreys “As the navigation of the River at Port Dalrymple [now Launceston] may be difficult to a person who is a stranger to it, I shall direct Mr. Henry Hacking, Harbour Master and Pilot at this place, (Hobart), who is well acquainted therewith, to accompany you round”.
However by 1816 Henry Hacking, now in his sixties, was superannuated as he had become “useless as a Pilot from drunkenness and other infirmities”. Davey wished Henry to continue to receive £50 per annum as a pension but Governor Macquarie insisted that this was too high and the pension should be only £25. Davey got around this by appointing Henry as Poundkeeper (and, it seems, purchasing a house for him) and paying him an additional £25 for this job.
Henry appears in the general musters of free men in 1818, 1819 and 1822. In the 1819 Muster, Henry is listed as having 100 acres, 37 cattle, and a wife (who was this?) victualled by the Government. In 1822, Henry is recorded as owing a debt of £10 to the Government. Henry is recorded as having “resigned” as pound keeper in 1825.
On 22 July 1831, the burial records for St David’s Church, Hobart record the burial of Henry Hacking, Retired Pilot, Abode Hobart Town from Hospital. Henry’s age is recorded as 81 - though, if his age of 33 on the muster list of the Sirius is correct, he had not yet reached 80.
Whatever his age, Henry Hacking seemed, like the legendary Cat, to have had many lives and to have had the same remarkable facility for always landing on his feet.
Children of Henry Hacking (not with the lives of a cat) - Maria,
Edward and Christopher?
Henry’s children did not, it seems, inherit his (and Ann Holmes’s?) talent for survival. It is not proven who the children of Henry were but there are three candidates - Maria, Edward and Christopher - and their likely mother is Ann, the 16 year-old convict from York who came on the Royal Admiral in 1792, cohabited with Henry for some years, was involved in what led to Henry’s trial for perjury in 1800, married William Bowen in 1801, was shot and wounded by Henry in 1802 which led to another trial, and married Thomas Henshaw in 1812 (and was known as Hannah Henshaw).
Entries in the various NSW musters and in evidence at the trials confuse as much as they clarify on the matter of children of Henry.
Maria Hacking is accepted as the child of Henry and Ann - though I have seen no record of her birth nor any formal documentation linking her to Henry and/or Ann. Dr Mollie Gillen, in her entry on Henry Hacking, says that Ann Holmes “seems to have borne him a daughter, Maria (c1793)”. In 1812, Maria married hatter Reuben Uther (he came free on the Sydney Cove in 1807); witnesses at the wedding were Thomas and Mary Reibey (she of the Australian $20 note). Maria bore Reuben 6 children, the last in 1824. In 1826, Reuben inserted an advertisement in the 'Sydney Gazette' saying that he would not be responsible for his wife’s debts. In the November, 1828 Sydney census, Reuben and children Henry (11), Helen (6) and Alfred (4) are listed but not his wife Maria - and, when she came to her sad end, we learn that she had then been living in Hobart for nearly two years.
It was one Sunday afternoon in January 1829, that two boys playing
with a small boat at the Hobart brick pit at the top of Argyle Street
found the body of a
“respectably dressed woman … On being taken out and carried to the hospital, it proved to be the body of Mrs. Uther, whose husband is a respectable hatter in Sydney. A Coroner’s Jury sat on view of the body who returned a verdict - Found drowned. Mrs Uther had been missing for a week before her body was found, and some suspicious circumstances having attended her disappearance, the Coroner (Mr. Spode) took more than usual pains during a long and painful investigation to discover the truth, before the jury went to return their verdict.”
The extract above comes from a newspaper report in the ‘Hobart Town Courier’, repeated in the ‘Sydney Gazette’.
However Hobart’s ‘Colonial Times’, under the heading Mysterious
Occurrence, ventured into rather more purple prose saying
“a more than unusual degree of suspicion was attached to the death of the unfortunate individual in question - suspicion, amounting to a fear that a foul murder had been committed. … The Jury … returned a verdict of - ‘Found drowned, not known how the death happened.’ … let us hope their decision has been the real facts, and that self-immolation occasioned this lamentable catatstrophe … Mrs Uther … has these two years past lived in Hobart Town, pursuing a life of infamy, depravity, and guilt - the dangerous consequences of bad society and drunkenness, and which no doubt has, in one of the moments of inebriation, hastened her, unbidden and uncalled, into presence of an offended Maker, to answer for those iniquities so long persevered in, and summed up by a deed repugnant to every law, human and divine - SELF-MURDER.
According to the burial record, Maria was 35 and a labouring woman at the time of her death suggesting a birthdate of about 1793/4. There is not a mention of Henry Hacking in the newspaper articles or the burial record though he had been in Hobart since 1804. The inquest documentation has not survived.
The next, and perhaps best-documented, candidate for a child of Henry Hacking (and probably of Ann Holmes) is Edward Hacking or Aiken. Edward was at times recorded as Hacking and at times as Aiken; he was married as Hacking and his four children were born as Hacking. However, all the children subsequently adopted the spelling Aiken - perhaps to distance themselves from any suspicion that they might be connected to Henry Hacking? As with Maria, I have seen no record of Edward's birth and, unlike Maria, I have not seen his relationship to Henry Hacking mentioned in the various biographical entries about Henry. However, there is convincing documentation that he is Henry’s child (certainly more than I have seen for the other candidates).
Edward appears in many Musters (once with the name rendered as Hocking) as born in the Colony; his age in various Musters and on certificates suggests a birthdate of about 1795/6.
In 1824, Edward submitted a petition to the Governor seeking a grant
of land; the address on that petition is 78 Pitt St - the address of
the Hat Manufactory of Maria Hacking’s husband Reuben Uther. Edward’s
(successful) petition is annotated around the margins as follows:
“Edwd Hacking is the Son of Henry Hacking who for a long time had the Situation of Pilot at this Port, and at Hobart Town and I beg to recommend this petitioner for favourable consideration as Edwd Hacking is a most deserving and industrious young Man”.
The signature on the annotation is that of John Piper J.P. - Captain John Piper was a well-known member of Sydney society, had come to Sydney in 1791, and had been a member of the court at Henry’s trials in 1802 (for shooting Ann Bowen) and 1803 (for theft of Government stores).
Edward Hacking, a sawyer, married Elizabeth Sarah Booker who came free on the Clarkson in 1812 and they had four children, the last just 2 months before Edward’s premature death aged 45; by that time the family had become known as Aiken.
There are some curious facts about Edward Hacking/Aiken. Dr Mollie Gillen, in the entry on Isaac Archer, notes that “Edward Aiken’s relationship to Archer and his wife is unclear, but in 1839 he was buried in their grave at the Sydney Burial Ground, age given as 45”. Under Sarah Burdo (Isaac Archer’s wife), Dr Gillen refers to “the one male natural child credited to her by Marsden in 1806 (probably adopted)”. Isaac Archer and his wife had both arrived in the First Fleet - Isaac as a marine (a private) on the Alexander, and Sarah Burdo (or Bordeaux or Purdoe) as a convict on the Lady Penrhyn - and, it seems, had no children.
There is no doubt that Isaac Archer, a successful farmer, bequeathed the bulk of his estate to Edward Hacking/Aiken and Edward’s male heirs, and no doubt that Edward is buried in the Archer plot (as also are Edward's granddaughter and sister-in-law). Descendants of Edward are sure that he was adopted by Isaac and Sarah Archer. When? Why? What is the full story?
Descendants of Edward Hacking/Aiken had in their family’s folklore a story of Edward’s having a brother Christopher who was drowned at sea. A Christopher Hacking is listed in the 1814 NSW Muster as born in the Colony and a Seaman on the Geordy. Christopher Hacking next appears giving testimony in Hobart Town in April 1815 concerning an attack by bushrangers or convicts on some settlers - the crew of the Geordy had gone to assist and its Master had been killed. The Geordy was wrecked at Port Davey in Tasmania in 1815 but it seems that the crew survived as we find a Chas Hacking (error of transcription for Chris?) appearing as chief officer on the schooner Victorine when it was in harbour in Hobart in April 1822 prior to sailing to Port Jackson/Sydney; the Victorine left Sydney on 30 August 1822 bound for the Isle of France/Mauritius via Hobart Town but was never heard of again - presumably Christopher was on board and was lost at sea?
It goes without saying that I am heavily indebted to the publications mentioned in the Bibliography below. Special mention must be made of the encyclopaedic work of Dr Mollie Gillen A.O. which is the bible of every First Fleet researcher (Dr Gillen was born in Sydney, is a graduate of the University of Sydney and, as I write, is alive and well in her nineties in Canada). I also owe significant personal debts to my niece Julie Taylor (who first kindled my interest in genealogy), to my cousins and fellow-descendants of the James Hacking who came on the Courier - Judy (Hacking) Herman, Lorna (Hacking) Cunningham, and Wendy Forbes; to Henry Hacking’s descendants Warwick Adams and Elizabeth Kohlhoff; to Hacking researcher June Rawlinson of Liverpool; and to Henry Hacking researcher Bill Taylor of Darwen, Lancashire. Several others have provided helpful information. Thank you all.
To date, I have not been able to establish any truth in that folklore connexion of my family to Henry. The earliest I can trace my Hacking family is to a James Hacking, sawyer, married in Liverpool in 1782 - I cannot find his birth. Given the dates, might James have been a brother of Henry Hacking?
As for Henry himself, there are a few records of a Henry Hacking born about the right time. Perhaps the most likely is a Henry Hacking, son of Edward and Catherine Hacking, baptised at Altham, Lancashire on 24 February 1754. This record is not in the IGI; unfortunately it seems that the relevant Bishop would not allow the LDS to film these and certain other records. It is interesting that the Henry baptised in 1754 had a father named Edward - and that Henry Hacking named one of his children Edward. And, noting that another candidate for Henry’s son is named Christopher, it is interesting that there are other Hacking records (in the IGI) of Hacking families in nearby Padiham where the names Christopher and Edward occur. There is also, in a record which has come fairly recently into the IGI, a marriage of a Henry Hacking to an Ellen Watson on 7 Sept 1773 at Altham - perhaps this was our Henry.
I will keep trying to find the connexion as who would not want to have such a one as Henry Hacking of the First Fleet somewhere on a branch - however distant - of their family tree? Though whether my forebears would have been so eager to claim him had they known his full history is another matter.
1. Adams, Warwick, 'Henry Hacking - First Fleet Sailor', Kith and Kin, #2 March 1986, Cape Banks Peninsula Family History Group, Pages 8-11
2. Baxter, Carol ed., Various Musters etc published by ABGR in association with the Society of Australian Genealogists Sydney 1980’s
3. Clark, Ralph, The Journal and Letters of Lt Ralph Clark, 1787-1792, ed. Paul G Fidlon and R J Ryan, Sydney: Australian Documents Library in association with the Library of Australian History, 1981
4. Collins, David, An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, 1798, Australiana Facsimile Editions No. 76, Adelaide, Libraries Board of South Australia, 1971
5. Donohoe James Hugh, The Paracensus of Australia 1788-1828 (Interim) 1998, JS Shaw North Publishing
6. Forsyth, Leslie, Henry Hacking, 1750-1831, An Early Australian at Sydney and Hobart, Quartermaster HMS Sirius, Explorer, Pilot and Harbour Master - Lieut Governor Collins to Governor King “One of the most useful men I have”, Published for the author in a limited edition of 50 copies by Willoughby Municipal Library, Chatswood, NSW 1982
7. Gillen, Mollie, The Founders of Australia, A biographical dictionary of the First Fleet, Sydney: Library of Australian History 1989
8. IGI (International Genealogical Index), Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints.
9. Internet: http://www.cat.org.au/forgottenwar/hunter.htm
10. Irvine, Nance, Mary Reibey - Molly Incognita, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1982
11. Knopwood, Robert, The Diary of the Reverend Robert Knopwood, 1803-1838; first Chaplain of Van Diemen’s Land, ed. Mary Nicholls [Hobart] Tasmanian Historical Research Association 197
12. Kohlhoff, Elizabeth, We Hereby Claim …, Henry Hacking c.1754-1831, A Collection of Contemporary Documents, early 1980’s (copy lodged with the Society of Australian Genealogists, Sydney)
13. New South Wales Government: NSW Pioneers Index
14. Newspaper: Colonial Times, 23 January 1829
15. Newspaper: Hobart Town Courier, 24 January 1829
16. Newspaper: Sydney Gazette, 30 August 1822; 8 November 1822; 7 Feb 1829
17. Nicholson, Ian Hawkins CBE, Shipping Arrivals and Departures, Tasmania, 1803 - 183, Roebuck Society Publication #30, 1983 Canberra
18. Philip, Judy, “Melbourne~Sydney Rivalry from the very beginning”, Port Phillip Pioneers Group Inc. Newsletter, No. 98, Vol. 20, No. 2, April-May 1997, http://home.vicnet.net.au/~pioneers/pppg5d.htm
19. Robinson: Robinson family history, (lodged at SAGHS)
20. Schaffer, Irene ed. Land Musters, Stock Returns and Lists: Van Diemen's Land 1803-1822, St David's Park Publishing, Hobart, 1991
21. Tasmania Government: Tasmanian Pioneers Index
22. Taylor, WJ, 'Blackburn Man Twice Escapes Capital Punishment!, Henry Hacking c.1753/4-1831', Lancashire, Vol 20 No 2, May 1999
23. Wright, Reg, The Forgotten Generation of Norfolk Island & van Diemen’s Land, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1986
First prepared by Judy Philip 2001
Copyright Judy Philip 2004 http://members.ozemail.com.au/~japhilip/henryh.html
Corrections and additions are welcomed.