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Cumberland - A maritime county, bounded on the west by the Irish Sea, on the east by the counties of Northumberland and Durham, on the south by those of Westmoreland and Lancashire, and on the north it is separated from Scotland by the waters of the Solway, the Scot's Dyke and the river Liddal. At the time of the Norman conquest Cumberland was so impoverished, William the Conqueror remitted all its taxations.
The surface of this county is irregular, with rugged mountains and many beautiful valleys, as well as fine lakes, rivers and extensive woodlands.
Mineralogical productions of this county are rich and varied, and include lead, copper and iron ores, zinc, cobalt and black lead. The lead mines are at Alstone Moor, copper mines near Caldbeck, Hesket Newmarket and Borrowdale and Newlands in the neighbourhood of Keswick. At Crowgarth in the parish of Egremont is an iron mine, which is unrivalled for productiveness in Great Britain. The famous black lead mines are situated at the head of Borrowdale, in a place difficult of access.
The principal manufactures of Cumberland are the spinning and manufacturing of cotton into various fabrics, and calico-printing. Coarse linens, checks, woollens etc. are also produced in several of the towns, and Carlisle has long been famous for its ginghams. Several paper mills are established in different parts of the county. Earthenware is manufactured near Dearham and near Workington are ironworks, which employ several hundred workmen.
The county is divided into five wards, synonimous with the hundreds of the other counties. They are Allerdale above Darwent, Allerdale below Darwent, Cumberland, Eskdale and Leath. These contain one city (Carlisle) seventeen market towns, and one hundred and twelve parishes.
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