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This Day In Florida History  --  August  

AUGUST 1

1861 The steamer, U.S.S. Mohawk, takes up a blockade position outside St. Marks.

Confederate President Jefferson Davis recommends the promotion of Edmund Kirby Smith and William W. Loring, two prominent Floridians, to the rank of brigadier general in the Confederate army.

1862 Yellow fever breaks out aboard Federal naval vessels in Key West, forcing several vessels to leave the harbor in search of safe refuge.

The 5th Florida Infantry Regiment (about 1,500 men) departed Monticello today for service with Stonewall Jackson's command.

1898 Spanish soldiers resume their attack on American soldiers at Malate in the Philippine Islands.

Arroyo and Guayama, Puerto Rico, are captured by American troops, who also occupied the town of Juan Diaz.

1899 The first issue of the St. Augustine Record is published. The price for a single issue was two cents.

1900 Frank T. Hobson, former Justice of the Supreme Court of Florida, was born in Hagler, Alabama.

1904 Dredging started today on the deepwater channel for the Port of Miami. Hundreds of workers are employed around the clock to complete this project.

1939 Today is the birthdate of the Florida Highway Patrol.

1942 Florida Caverns State Park at Marianna opened to the public today.

1962 Governor Farris Bryant calls the Florida Legislature into special session to devise a new reapportionment plan for the state. This was in response to the Supreme Court decision in the case, Baker versus Carr, in 1962. The Supreme Court ruled that federal courts could consider challenges to state apportionment plans.

1981 Maria Marinello Korvick became the first Hispanic woman to serve as a circuit court judge in Florida when she assumed this office in Miami. Korvick had entered the United States as a Cuban refugee in 1961.

AUGUST 2

1799 A joint U.S.-Spanish survey of the U.S. southern border at the 31st parallel from the Mississippi River experienced a delay because of the heavy rains at its Chattahoochee River base camp.

1864 William Miller, the head of the Confederate Conscript Bureau in Alabama and Florida, was commissioned as a brigadier general today. Miller had been seriously wounded while on duty with the 3rd Florida Infantry regiment. He had also previously served with the 1st Florida Infantry Regiment.

The schooner, U.S.S. Stonewall, moved up the Manatee River and destroyed a saw mill, a grist mill, and a sugar mill that reportedly belonged to Confederate President Jefferson Davis. No Federal casualties were reported.

1894 The Suwannee Democrat begins publication. The Democrat is the result of a merger between two pioneering newspapers in Live Oak.

1898 Spain notifies the United States that it will accept the American ultimatum to end the Spanish-American War. Negotiations begin to finalize the terms of the peace accord.

General Garcia, leader of the Cuban forces, captures Mayuri.

American army units regarded as "immune" from Yellow Fever are ordered to Cuba for garrison duty.

1991 STS 43 was launched from Cape Canaveral.

AUGUST 3

1763 Spain transfers title to Florida to Britain in exchange for the return of the City of Havana, Cuba, which had been captured when Spain allied itself with France in the French and Indian War. Britain controlled Florida from 1763 until 1783, when it again became a Spanish possession at the end of the American Revolution.

1862 Commenting on the response of Florida men to calls for Confederate service, Governor John Milton informs General Edward A. perry that some counties doe not have enough men left to have "a militia officer, Judge of Probate, Clerk or Sheriff." More than 15,000 Floridians served with state or national Confederate forces.

1864 Troops of the 8th U.S. Colored Troops arrive in Palatka in time to save a 25-man detachment of Union 40th Massachusetts Cavalry. Federal losses were 3 killed, and eight captured; Confederate losses, if any, are unknown. Federal troops abandon Palatka.

1898 American forces under the Command of General Brooke arrive at Arroyo, Puerto Rico.

1958 First successful test of the 85-foot tall Atlas missile from Cape Canaveral. The success of this test launch accelerates the American Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) program.

AUGUST 4

1842 The Armed Occupation Act was passed by Congress. Each settler who would settle and cultivate five acres or more of land in eastern and southern Florida for a period of five years would receive 160 acres of land and one year's rations from the Federal government. Settlers were expected also to provide militia service, if needed, to control the activities of the warring Seminole Indians. This was the prelude to the official declaration of the end of the Second Seminole War on August 14, 1842.

1862 The 6th and 7th Florida Infantry Regiments, the 1st Florida Cavalry, and the Marion Artillery are assigned to Davis' 2nd Brigade of the Confederate Department of Tennessee and are stationed at Knoxville.

1864 Federal General Birney's Brigade from Florida, some 3,000 troops, arrive as reinforcements for Hilton Head, South Carolina. Many of these troops are former slaves, who have been recruited into the U.S. Colored Infantry.

1898 American generals commanding U.S. forces in Cuba petition the War Department to remove their soldiers from the island in order to prevent additional casualties from yellow fever.

1944 Ceremonies were held at the Underwater Demolition Training facility in Ft. Pierce to celebrate the 154th anniversary of the U.S. Coast Guard.

1984 The Cypriot freighter, Wellwood, rammed Molasses Reef, the only living coral reef in continental United States' waters, and destroyed 19,000 square feet of living coral. Stuck on the reef for 12 days, additional sections of the reef were destroyed when tugs worked to free her from her perch.

AUGUST 5

1845 Benjamin Byrd takes office as the first state treasurer for Florida. His term lasts until he is replaced by William B. Hayward on January 8, 1848.

1861 The Federal Ship Jamestown, operating off the coast near Fernandina, captured the Alvarado, the first reported capture of a blockade runner in Florida waters. The residents of Amelia Island, who witnessed the capture, attempted to come to the aid of the stricken blockade runner. The Union ship captain, fearing a rescue foray from the nearby shore, ordered the Alvarado burned.

1863 Residents of Tallahassee had the opportunity to purchase civilian goods brought in by blockade runners at a public auction held by A. Hopkins and Company. Among the lots offered for sale were 12,000 hooks and eyes, three dozen pocket knives, and 48 cases of toilet soap.

1898 Reacting to the petitions of the American generals leading the invasion forces in Cuba, the War Department orders all American soldiers who are "well" to withdraw to the United States. The description "well" meant those not suffering from yellow fever. Although Spain has accepted the American ultimatum to end the Spanish-American War, fighting continues as the diplomats from both nations negotiate the final settlement. The war has lasted 3 months and 15 days so far.

1906 The Everglades Land and Sugar Company send a 40-man crew into the muck lands west of Dania to begin ditching operations in preparation for sugar planting.

AUGUST 6

1763 Colonel Augustine Provost of the British Army accepts possession of West Florida from the Spanish at Pensacola.

1827 George Franklin Drew, twelfth governor of Florida [January 2, 1877-January 4, 1881] was born in Alton, New Hampshire. After a short sojourn in Columbus, Georgia, Drew built a large saw mill at Ellaville in Madison County, Florida. Drew's election in 1877 is regarded as the "end of Reconstruction" in this state. He died in Jacksonville on September 26, 1900.

1840 Dr. Henry Perrine, an amateur botanist and resident of Indian Key, was killed by Seminoles. His family were hiding in a root cellar under the house, and, although the house was set afire by the Indians, survived the attack. At dawn, they left their hiding place and managed to put to sea in a small boat. They were rescued by a schooner anchored close by. A neighbor, Jacob Housman, also survived the attack.

1862 The blockade runner Columbia arrived in Key West under guard by the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba. The Columbia's cargo was all war materiel, including rifles, powder, cartridges, blankets, and cannons. Although the ship's master claims to be a British vessel, Federal naval authorities do not accept this as being true.

1863 The British-built Oreto begins alterations that will transform her into the Confederate gunboat Florida at Green Cay, Bahamas. This action provides part of the basis for a $15,000,000 claim against Great Britain by the United States at the end of the war.

1864 The Federal gunboat Metacomet arrived in Pensacola with Confederate and Union wounded from fighting around Mobile.

1868 Present State Seal of Florida authorized.*

1898 American troops under the command of General William Shafter begin their evacuation of Santiago, Cuba.

1945 Floridians, like other Americans, are shocked by the news that the United States had obliterated the Japanese city of Hiroshima with an atomic bomb on August 5. Nevertheless, they express approval of President Harry Truman's decision to drop the bomb.

1978 Edward Durell Stone of New York, architect of the new Capitol Complex in Tallahassee, died on this date. Stone was a controversial architect who also designed the John F. Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C., the United States' Embassy in New Delhi, India, and the General Motors Building in New York. He worked in cooperation with the Jacksonville firm of Reynolds, Smith and Hills.

AUGUST 7

1719 The French Fort San Carlos (Pensacola) surrendered unconditionally to Spanish forces.

1775 The British sloop, Brigantine, was boarded by a party of 27 American rebels while at anchor in St. Augustine harbor. More than 100 barrels of gunpowder were taken.

1840 Survivors of the Seminole massacre at Indian Key are rescued.

1836 Fort Drane (near Ocala) was evacuated by Captain Charles S. Merchant and his men because of sickness. The evacuation of the fort meant a loss of 12,000 bushels of corn waiting to be harvested in nearby fields.

1868 George J. Alden assumes office as Florida Secretary of State, succeeding Benjamin F. Allen.

1891 The City of San Antonio (Pasco County) was originally incorporated. San Antonio is the site of Saint Leo College and Saint Leo Abbey.

1898 Spanish forces garrisoned at Guayomo, Puerto Rico, are defeated in a skirmish with invading American troops. American diplomats await the Spanish response to the terms of the surrender agreement which will end the war.

AUGUST 8

1863 The U.S.S. Sagamore captured the English sloop, Clara Louisa, ten miles north of the Indian River. Later that date, the Sagamore also captures the British schooners, Southern Rights and Shot. Still later that day, the Sagamore captures the American schooner, Ann (off Gilbert's Bar). All the ships were suspected of trying to run the blockade at either the Indian River or Jupiter Inlet.

1896 Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Florida's Pulitzer Prize winning author, was born on this date in Washington, D.C. She won the Pulitzer Prize in 1939 for her best-selling novel, The Yearling. In 1946, it was made into a movie and has subsequently been remade into a television special. Rawlings lived in Cross Creek, FL, where she wrote six novels, a volume of short stories, and a collection of essays. Her work dealt with the vicissitudes faced by the hardy settler families on Florida's frontier and the natural beauty of her adopted state. She died on December 14, 1953. (For more information about Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, see Gordon E. Bigelow, Frontier Eden or Elizabeth Silverthorne, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings. For a different look at Rawlings and Cross Creek, see J. T. Glisson, The Creek [Gainesville: University Press of Florida])

1898 Spanish prisoners-of-war embark from Santiago, Cuba, for Spain.

In Washington, the U.S. government receives Spain's formal response to the American peace proposal.

1942 Four German saboteurs who landed at Ponte Vedra Beach on June 17, 1942 are executed by the U.S. Army in Washington, D.C. The four, along with a second group of four who landed on Long Island, were on a mission to sabotage defense plants, utility systems, and other installations. (For more on the Florida landing, see Michael Gannon, Operation Drumbeat.)

1967 Voters in Duval County and Jacksonville approved the consolidation of both units of government by a 2-1 margin. Jacksonville thus became the largest city in Florida, according to acreage.

1968 Richard Milhouse Nixon received the nomination of the Republic Party Convention on its first ballot. This was the first ever national Republican Convention held in Miami Beach.

1989 STS 28 was successfully launched from Cape Canaveral.

AUGUST 9

1565 From the account of Pedro Menendez's expedition to Florida in 1565 by Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, the chaplain to the expedition. This account is taken from Charles E. Bennett, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline: History and Documents (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1964), p. 144. [We will continue with portions of this account in the coming days and will simply cite it as Laudonniere and Fort Caroline.--moderator]

"At noon, Thursday, August 9, we identified the island of San Juan de Puerto Rico and as night had fallen, our pilot ordered sails furled so that we would remain still among many banks surrounding the island and port...."

1841 Colonel William Jennings Worth implements his policy of white resettlement in Florida when he provides assistance and protection to a band of 13 whites and eight slaves in a small settlement at Cedar Hammock.

1863 The Florida Kilcrease Artillery, under Captain F.L. Villepique, left Tallahassee to take up a new duty station at Savannah.

1898 General Nelson W. Miles informs the War Department that no more troops are needed in Puerto Rico and requests that no more be sent.

1908 The Tampa Evening News, published by the Tampa Morning Tribune Company, ceased publication.

1971 Robert Gray (18), announced his candidacy for a seat on the Tampa City Council. He finished third in a four-person contest,

AUGUST 10

1565 "With an agreeable and clear day we arrived in at the port of Puerto Rico, Friday the day of the good-fortuned Saint Lawrence. About three in the afternoon we entered and within the port we found our Capitana and its smaller companion ship that separated from us earlier. The cries of joy from all sides were inexpressible, praising the Lord for bringing us together again. At once the Captain and the Ensign joined us and we celebrated with them some preserves and other things I had brought.

The Same day the Admiral [Menendez] and I went ashore and visited the General by whom we were warmly received. Since I had not been requested for supper that night, the next day the General asked me to stay in a good house so that we could talk together; and I expressed my appreciation. We were in port four days, three days of it pouring rain.

Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline.

1861 The Third Florida Infantry is mustered into Confederate service today on Amelia Island.

1862 (This selection is taken from - "Rose Cottage Chronicles: Civil War Letters of the Bryant-Stephens Family of North Florida"--edited by Arch Frederic Blakey, Ann Smith Lainhart, and Winston Bryant Stephens, Jr. Published by the University Press of Florida [Available through The Print Shoppe at Tebeau-Field Library of Florida History--TebeauLib@aol.com]--this collection of more than 800 letters offers an unusual look at service in the Confederate military and life on the home front. Periodically we will quote from these letters and cite them simply as "Rose Cottage Chronicles."--Nick Wynne, Moderator.)

[George Bryant to Davis Bryant]

Rose Cottage Aug 10, 1862

My dear Brother.

As Henry wrote Willie a short time ago, and told him about every thing, I think it is time for me to try and tell you something about what we do here in this part of the world. This morning Henry, Willie Stephens, and I went to see if we couldn’t get a few gallons of Alligator oil; but we did not succeed in getting any; Henry shot at a fine fellow with Winston's riffle, we don’t know whether he hit him or not, but we think he did, we did not see any more of him.

Henry and Willie have gone fishing...They took Taylor and the gun expecting to kill some squirrels, Henry has killed four out that way lately; Rosa is very fond of them, when she sees Henry bringing them she says, Henry got querrel...

Sunday morning. Henry and Willie got back yesterday a little while after sunset and brought fifty three fish, they were small but sweet. They killed a very large fox as they were coming back; he had quite a fight with Taylor after he fell. Mr. Stephens went up to the Oklawaha River and killed a fine bear; he has just sent us a piece.

All send a great deal of love.

1864 Confederate cavalry and a detachment of the 102nd U.S. Colored Infantry clashed near Baldwin (north Florida). A section of railroad tracks was destroyed by the Federal troops. This is part of a series of on-going clashes between the two armies.

1898 U.S. General Lawton is appointed Military Governor of Cuba, while in Puerto Rico, the town of Coamo is captured by American troops.

President William McKinley submits a protocol to Spain outlining the terms upon which the United States is willing to end the Spanish-American War.

AUGUST 11

1844 John Branch was appointed the sixth territorial governor of Florida on this date by President John Tyler.. Branch was born in Halifax County, North Carolina on November 4, 1782. He served as governor of North Carolina, and as a United States Senator from that state. In addition, Branch also served as the Secretary of the Navy. He was succeeded as governor by William Dunn Moseley, who became the first governor of the new state of Florida on June 25, 1845. Branch died in Enfield, North Carolina, on January 3, 1863.

1862 [Octavia Stephens to Winston Stephens]

Rose Cottage Aug 12, 1862

"...I am in the beef business this morning and my mind is pretty well stirred up, and I hardly know what to say, we got a beef weighing 315 lbs from Bright and will have to pay $18 for it. Burrel and Tom drove this one here before killing it and I hope we will have good luck in saving it, the weather bids fair for it, as regards sunshine. Burrel is going to put the hides in tan..."

"Rose Cottage Chronicles"

1898 Spanish Cabinet accepts the American Peace Protocol to end the Spanish-American War. Only the formality of a similar signing by President William McKinley remains before the "Splendid Little War" is officially and finally over.

1900 Infant mortality rate of 80% reported in one Seminole settlement in the Everglades.

1917 Governor Sidney J. Catts appointed the first county officials for the newly created Okeechobee County (May 8, 1917).

1931 Neptune Beach was created by voters in that city.

1953 Terry Bollea was born in Augusta, Georgia, though he later moved to Tampa and then to Venice Beach, California. A big boy--he weighed 195 pounds by age 12--Bollea got even bigger working out in the gym, where he began taking steroids (a fact he later testified to in court). At age 23 he had his first professional wrestling match. By the 1980s, the 6'6", 295-pound Bollea was wrestling under the name of Hulk Hogan. As a "good-guy" and biggest name for the World Wide Wrestling Federation, he always admonished his legions of young fans--known as "Hulksters"--to say their prayers. By the mid-'90s, however, Hogan had changed personas and now wrestled as bad guy "Hollywood Hulk Hogan" on Turner Broadcasting's World Championship Wrestling, shown nationwide on WTBS. From August 1996 to August 1997, Hogan was WCW world champion. However long he stays active, and whether he wrestles as a good guy or a bad guy, the Augusta-born multi-millionaire will be remembered as one of the biggest names in the history of professional wrestling.

AUGUST 12

1822 Jackson County, Florida's third county, was created on this date. It was named for Andrew Jackson, Governor of Florida and President of the United States.

Duval County, Florida's fourth county , was created on this date. The county is named for William Pope Duval (1784-1854) , Territorial governor of Florida from 1822-1834.

1862 The Federal steamer, R.R. Cuyler, arrived at Key West to begin its tour of duty with the East Gulf Blockading Squadron.

1863 The U.S.S. Beauregard is on station at the Haul Over Canal, thirteen miles north of Cape Canaveral. The U.S.S. Pursuit is stationed off the coast at Jupiter Inlet. Confederate blockade runners are suspected of using the Indian River area to land contraband cargoes.

1864 Two Confederate cavalry companies, accompanied by an artillery battery, advanced today against the 102nd U.S. Colored troops who are destroying tracks. Four men from the 75th Ohio were taken prisoner. The Federals dispatch cavalry from Baldwin and drive the Confederate forces back. Union losses were one killed and four captured.

1898 The Spanish-American War ended officially today when President William B. McKinley signs the Peace Protocol and orders a cessation of hostilities. The war has lasted 110 days.

1977 The Enterprise was launched in 1977. It was the first free flight of this space vehicle.

AUGUST 13

1862 Confederate General Joseph Finegan issues a request for slave owners to make their slaves available for work on the fortifications at St. Marks.

1864 Union naval commanders are under tremendous pressure from insurance underwriters to capture or sink the Confederate raider C.S.S. Tallahassee, under the command of Commander John Taylor Wood. The Tallahassee captured or destroyed nine vessels in two days. Secretary Sumner Welles dispatched a flotilla of more than nine ships to hunt for this raider.

1868 C. Thurston Chase assumes office as Florida's first Superintendent of Public Instruction. He serves until September 23, 1870, when he turns the office over to Henry Quarles.

1906 Factory workers in Key West instituted a boycott of the streetcar system because of the three cents fare. Workers also demanded transfer privileges.

AUGUST 14

1559 First Spanish settlement in the present United States was established by Don Tristan de Luna Arellano. De Luna's party consisted of Dominican friars, soldiers, and settlers who built their settlement on the site of today's Pensacola. The settlement was abandoned after two years.

1861 The Union blockader, Mohawk, which has been operating off the coast of St. Marks captured and scuttled a Confederate ship to close off the channel to further use.

1842 Today Colonel William Jenkins Worth proclaimed the end of the Second Seminole War from his headquarters at Cedar Key. Although Colonel Worth officially ended the war, the actual fighting slowly died out over the next few months. [For more information, see John K. Mahon, History of the Second Seminole War 1835-1842 (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1967 and 1985).]

1864 Union General Alexander Sandor Asboth (an Austrian refugee and friend of Louis Kossuth), orders his troops, about 1,400 men, to leave Pensacola and move across the Perdido River for operations near Mobile Bay.

1874 Jonathan C. Gibbs, African-American politician, died on this date. Gibbs was a delegate to the 1868 Constitutional Convention , Secretary of State (1868-1873), and Superintendent of Public Instruction (1873-1874).

1888 Because of a yellow fever epidemic in Jacksonville, Fla., many

residents of that area fled by train to Atlanta. Fear that the epidemic would spread to Atlanta led city officials to require that every incoming passenger train be inspected by a doctor. Fortunately, none of the refugees fleeing to Atlanta ever caught the disease

1945 President Harry S Truman announced the surrender of Japan, thus ending World War II. Across the state, thousands of Floridians took to the streets to celebrate V-J Day.

1963 Ten Cuban refugees were taken to Key West by a U.S. Coast Guard cutter. The ten were rescued from Anquilla Cay, Bahamas.

AUGUST 15

1565 From the journal of Father Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, chaplain to the Menendez expedition:

"On the fifth day, Wednesday, the fifteenth, the day of our Lady, we embarked at ten o'clock. More than 30 men, including three of the seven priests who came, deserted and hid themselves in this settlement. The could not be discovered, dead or alive, which made the General (Menendez) very angry."

"I was not less so because it made hard work for me. I was offered a chaplaincy in this port, a peso of alms for each mass I might say, guaranteed for a year. I did not accept because I did not want to be talked about as the others were; and also because it is a settlement where little advancement is probable; and I wanted to see if my work would be rewarded by the Lord in the journey which I felt would serve the Lord, and our Lady, His Blessed Mother."

"Men are wealthy there, in cattle. There are men who own 20,000 and 30,000 cows, and as many mares worth 120 Spanish reales. The mares are not worth more, for there is nothing in which they can be profitably used unless it be occasionally to draw loads or to produce colts. As to the cattle, only their hides are profitable for they do not do work and have no value for anything else. A hide is valued at 11 or 12 local reales. They tried to persuade me to remain but it cost Lord Valverde, and I, 8 reales there for a half gallon of wine, not very good either. We stocked up with a few delicacies for the voyage, jerked beef and oranges, limes and potatoes and sugar cane. We got a dozen beef tongues with some dried loins. We did this because by the time we arrived there we knew the hungers we suffered at sea."

Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline.

1842 Monument to soldiers who died in the Seminole Wars is unveiled in St. Augustine.

1864 The Florida 2nd and 5th Cavalry Battalions are engaged by Federal troops in the Battle of Gainesville, which will last until August 19.

1934 The first Florida Emergency Relief Administration camp for unemployed women opened on Anastasia Island (St. Augustine). This Federal sponsored camp was the first in the South and was part of the New Deal Program of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

AUGUST 16

1862 [Willie Bryant to Davis Bryant]

Camp near Chattanooga, Aug 16, 1862

Dear Davis

I have written you but one letter since arriving here 4 weeks ago, waiting in the vain hope of something interesting turning up; but even now find myself in want of it. We are still at our old camp ground, tho' thousands of others have been moved, and in readiness to move on short notice, with as little definite knowledge and prospect as; the wagon trains from Tupelo for which we are told we are waiting before advancing, have not yet arrived; our brigade at present only compromising the 3d. and 4th Fla. have been assigned to Maj. Genl. Samuel Jones division, who is somewhere, but at present we are under the orders of Genl. Hardee at Chattanooga....

I spent nearly a day at Look Out Mountain this week and tho a very fatiguing trip on foot, enjoyed it and got a good dinner too...It is pretty hard getting along on Flour w meals of rice sometimes, and reduced rations of bad meat, but we still make out; when we move again we give up our tents and all but a very few cooking utensils...I shall write you once in awhile, and all of interest when I can and occasionally shall expect a letter from you---Goodbye for now!

"Rose Cottage Chronicles"

1863 The U.S.S. DeSoto captured the Confederate ship Alice Vivian in the Gulf of Mexico. The Vivian's cargo was cotton bound for European markets.

1864 The U.S.S. Honeysuckle returned to Key West today. The Honeysuckle was on station along the Indian River Inlet. The bark, James L. Davis, has been dispatched to take up this station. Until the Davis arrives on station this area has no blockade enforcers on duty.

1878 First post office established in the community of "Sara Sota."

1882 First two-and-one-half mile railroad bridge completed across Escambia Bay.

1898 The order is given to evacuate Key West because of a possible outbreak of yellow fever. All military personnel were ordered out of the city, including the wounded in Convent Hospital.

1947 Jacksonville Art Museum originally founded as the Jacksonville Arts Club.

AUGUST 17

1565 From the Diary of Father Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Chaplain to Pedro Menendez's expedition to Florida...

"At four o'clock in the afternoon of Friday, August 17, we came in view of the island of Santo Domingo. The General [Menendez], putting himself in the mercy of God, directed the Admiral's ship to take the Northern course and put into the mouth of a very dangerous channel which up to then had never been navigated. Although the Admiral and all of us were apprehensive, we must do the General's bidding. When we entered, the angry sea and heavy waves seemed ready to consume us. The Admiral ordered that I give comfort to the soldiers with prayers and counseling. All that night was dreadful."

Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline.

1862 The 7th New Hampshire Volunteers (Union) has been transferred to St. Augustine to relieve the 4th New Hampshire, which will be stationed at Hilton Head, SC.

1863 The U.S.S. DeSoto captured the Confederate steamer, Nita, in the Gulf of Mexico.

1864 Union forces were decisively defeated at Gainesville by Confederate cavalry troops under the command of Major J.J. Dickison. The Federal forces lose 28 killed, five wounded, and 200 taken prisoner. The Confederate loss is one killed and five wounded.

The 17th Connecticut Infantry, under the command of Colonel William H. Noble, occupied the country near Starke. The 17th camped at Shake Rug Corner, near the Bellamy Road, that night.

1874 Samuel B. McLin, Florida Secretary of State, assumes the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction on a temporary basis, succeeding Jonathan C. Gibbs.

1898 Embarkation of African-American troops from Tampa to New York following the end of the Spanish-American War.

AUGUST 18

1565 From the Diary of Father Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Chaplain to Pedro Menendez's expedition to Florida...

"At dawn on Saturday morning, the 18th, we were reassured. As we proceeded, we found banks in the middle of the sea, where waves broke. The pilots made their soundings, studying the depths required for navigation. In places we found 4 fathoms and in other places less. About two hours before sunset we saw the landmarks of a low uninhabitable island, Aguana. God was pleased to allow us to take the banks and the island by day, so we could guard against danger. It was certainly daylight by permission of our Master and His Blessed Mother. If it had been night we could not have failed being dashed to pieces on them. The danger seen, since none of the pilots knew this area, they agreed to lower sails and heave to by the island so that we would not be lost traveling at night."

Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline.

1821 The Floridian, Pensacola's first newspaper, was established.

1864 Colonel William H. Noble, commanding the 17th Connecticut Infantry (U.S.), ordered some 4,000 pounds of cotton to be burned at the McCrae Plantation near Starke. Skirmishes between Confederate cavalry and Federal troops between Gainesville and Starke continue.

AUGUST 19

1863 Armed boats from the U.S.S. Norwich and the U.S.S. Hale attacked two Confederate signal stations on the St. Johns River. One signal station, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel A. H. McCormick, is taken. Five Confederate soldiers are captured, along with a trove of equipment. A sudden rain storm prevented the capture of the second station.

1864 An excerpt from the civil war diary of Hiram Smith Williams, who settled in Rockledge in 1872 and who served two terms as a state senator in the 1880s. Williams was a member of the 40th Alabama Regiment and was a combat engineer during the Atlanta Campaign.

"Our operations since the last record have been along our lines to East Point, the junction of the West Point and Atlanta and Macon road. In the meantime we have lived well. Blackberries plenty. Bought a bushel of wheat and had it ground into flour this getting 32 lbs. for ten dollars. Also have had any amount of green corn. Have been blockading roads in the front to our left, where we found plenty of good foraging. We are now at East Point where we have been building forts and fortifying generally. Got my baggage all safe except a few trifling articles the other day. For which, I was very truly thankful, as I had not change of clothing since they've been gone. This afternoon we received orders to go in the front of our left wing. Had rather dangerous times. We were only separated from the enemy's advance line of skirmishers by one field."

Lewis N. Wynne and Robert A. Taylor (Editors), This War So Horrible: The Civil War Diary of Hiram Smith Williams (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press)

1868 Simon B. Conover assumes the office of Treasurer of the State of Florida. Conover holds the office until he is succeeded by Charles H. Foster on January 16, 1873.

1977 Construction of Florida's present Capitol was declared completed on this day. The building was opened officially on March 31, 1978, by Governor Reubin D. Askew. The cost of the building was $43,070,741. The building has 22 stories above ground and three below. The 22nd floor contains a public viewing platform. Construction of the Capitol required 3,700 tons of structural steel, 2,800 tons of reinforcing steel, 25,000 cubic yards of concrete, 12,000 square feet of walnut paneling, 62,000 square feet of marble, 60,000 square feet of carpet, 92,000 square feet of terrazzo, 14 elevators, 30 miles of telephone wire, and 250 miles of electrical wire.

AUGUST 20

1862 The Florida 3rd Infantry Regiment, under the command of Colonel William S. Dilworth, assumes it new duty station at Chattanooga, Tennessee.

1863 The Union bark Restless captured the Confederate schooner Ernti with 135 bales of cotton.

An armed Union party attacked two Confederate signal stations on the St. Johns River. One was captured, but a heavy rain squall prevented the capture of the second.

1864 The first edition of the Union, a predecessor of Florida of the Florida Times-Union, was originally published as a "war news" sheet.

1868 Simon B. Conover assumes the office of State Treasurer. He holds this office until January 16, 1873, when he is succeeded by Charles H. Foster.

1889 The Quincy State Bank is chartered.

1943 The Breakers Hotel in Palm Beach is converted into a plastic/neurosurgery facility for G.I.s who have been wounded in action.

1967 Pam Kruse of Fort Lauderdale sets the world record for the 200 meter event (2:09:7) at an AAU meet in Philadelphia.

AUGUST 21

1817 In a move that augured military strategy of a half-century later, General Gregor McGregor, the conqueror of Amelia Island, orders a blockade of the Florida Coast from Amelia Island to the Perdido River.

1862 The U.S.S. Keystone State captured the British schooner, Fanny, off the coast of Amelia Island. The Fanny was carrying a cargo of salt.

1864 The following Florida units in Confederate service in Virginia participated in the battle at Weldon Railroad:

Florida 1st (Reorganized) Infantry Regiment

Florida 2nd Infantry Regiment

Florida 5th Infantry Regiment

Florida 8th Infantry Regiment

Florida 9th Infantry Regiment

Florida 10th Infantry Regiment

Florida 11th Infantry Regiment

1898 Key West is somewhat of a ghost town as military personnel continue to be evacuated in the face of a "yellow fever"scare.

1965 The Gemini 5 space vehicle is launched from Cape Canaveral.

1979 Sue Wegner became the first female police chief in Florida when she was sworn into office by Mayor Lucie Black of Minneola. Ms. Wegner was the police department's senior officer when she was nominated by then City Manager Richard D. Waters.

1988 Hurricane Chris battered Florida's east coast from Miami to Jacksonville.

1992 Wary South Floridians are keeping an eye on Tropical Storm Andrew as it makes its way across the Atlantic. On this day, Andrew sits about 600 east of Nassau with sustained winds of 65 miles an hour.

AUGUST 22

1814 United States troops under the command of Andrew Jackson entered Florida in pursuit of Creek and Seminole Indians, while Jackson occupies the City of Mobile.

1840 At the request of Territorial Governor Robert R. Reid, the U.S. War Department allocates funds for 3,000 horsemen to defend East Florida against attacks by marauding Seminoles.

1862 The C.S.S. Florida is reported in port at Cardenas, Cuba, for repairs. Union officials suspect that the real purpose of its visit is to recruit seamen for future raiding voyages.

1864 An excerpt from the civil war diary of Hiram Smith Williams, who settled in Rockledge in 1872 and who served two terms as a state senator in the 1880s. Williams was a member of the 40th Alabama Regiment and was a combat engineer during the Atlanta Campaign.

"Yesterday we received orders about 2 o’clock to report to Corps HQ, for which I was not sorry as we were at work in the rain on breastworks for another Division. Camped at Utoy Church half a mile in rear of our line of battle, to the left of our Division. This morning we were ordered to make a lot of cheaveau-de-frize's for the protection of our line. They are made something like a horse rack, consequently the boys have christened them by that name. Worked hard at it all day."

Lewis N. Wynne and Robert A. Taylor (Editors), This War So Horrible: The Civil War Diary of Hiram Smith Williams (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press)

1992 This morning, Floridians were informed that Tropical Storm Andrew was now Hurricane Andrew, with winds of 76 mph. At 11:00 p.m., meteorologists reported that Hurricane Andrew now sported winds of 110 mph, was located about 500 miles east of Miami, still moving west toward the Florida coast.

AUGUST 23

1822 The City of Pensacola is incorporated by the Territorial government of Florida.

1844 Hamilton Disston, financier, was born this day. Disston, whose purchase of 6,250 square miles (4,000,000 acres) of public land for $1 million, prevented the state of Florida from having to declare bankruptcy in 1881. The entrepreneur tried to drain the "swamps and overflowed lands" he had purchased and made remarkable progress until he was caught short of cash in the Panic of '93. Depressed, Disston committed suicide that year. [For more information of the Disston Land Purchase, see T. Frederick Davis, "The Disston Land Purchase," Florida Historical Quarterly, Volume 17, Number 3 (January 1939), pp. 200-210.

1851 A tropical storm with high winds severely damages the tin roof of the capitol building in Tallahassee.

1992 Hurricane Andrew reached classification as a Category 4 hurricane today. Located about 300 miles east of Miami in the early morning hours, the hurricane continued to build in intensity. By 2:00 p.m., winds reached 150 mph. Hurricane warnings/watches were posted along Florida's east coast from Key West to Jacksonville and as far north as Ft. Myers on the west coast. Weather experts predicted that the hurricane would come ashore near Miami early on August 24.

AUGUST 24

1862 Company H, 2nd Florida Cavalry, transferred this date from Marion County to Alachua County. Under the command of Captain John J. Dickison, the unit is assigned to Camp Lee where it will be outfitted for service in the field.

1867 The second governor of Florida, Thomas Brown, died on this date. Brown was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on October 24, 1785. He served in the War of 1812, in the Virginia Legislature (1817), and was the chief clerk of the post office in Richmond. In 1828, he moved to Florida to a plantation near Lake Jackson in Leon County. After suffering monetary losses because of freezes, he entered the hotel business. He leased and operated the Planters Hotel in Tallahassee and later built the City Hotel. In 1834, Brown served as the Territorial Auditor. In 1838, he was elected as the President of the Legislative Council, and in 1839 was a member of the Constitutional Convention. Brown represented Leon County in the House of Representatives in the first state legislature (1845). His primary goal as governor was to expand internal improvements, including the possibility of draining the Everglades.

1902 Officials at Florida Female College (now FSU) announce plans for the establishment of a kindergarten training department to being with the opening of the Fall term.

1922 The failure of ice boats to arrive at Chokoloskee on schedule results in the loss of thousands of pounds of fish and alligators. The resulting stench was described by one resident as creating an "awful perfume."

1992 Between 4:00 and 5:00 a.m., Hurricane Andrew struck South Florida with winds of 145 mph. Some gusts of 164 to 175 mph were recorded. As it made its way across the state, the wind velocity dropped to 125 mph, but soon elevated to 145 mph when the storm entered the Gulf of Mexico.

Andrew exacted a heavy toll in human life (more than 40 persons) and in physical damage. The damages inflicted by this great storm totaled more than $25 billion, with the agricultural sector sustaining more than $1.05 billion alone. Some 12.7 million cubic yards of debris were eventually cleared from the hurricane area. Homestead Air Force Base was demolished, approximately 920 vessels were destroyed, and the Turkey Point Nuclear Facility sustained damages near $100 million.

The center of the storm or the area of maximum winds was very small and covered an area of approximately 12 miles. Weather experts reported a storm surge of 23 feet. Despite the tremendous damage caused by Hurricane Andrew, had the storm come ashore just a few miles north of its impact area, the City of Miami with its large population would have been leveled.

AUGUST 25

1565 From the Diary of Father Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Chaplain to Pedro Menendez's expedition to Florida...

At three o'clock on Saturday, the 25th of the month, the General came to our vessel to visit it and to bring artillery for the entrance into Florida. He brought two battering rams and two versos [small cannon]; and their powder and balls; and two lombards. After he had armed the vessel he made a speech setting out what we had to do on arriving at the port where the French would be. Not to be too long in this (which would be interesting to record according to the pros and cons that were expressed) the firm resolution of the General was that, despite the 2,000 Frenchmen being in port, we had to enter by defeating them in combat. I replied to him and charged it to his conscience that he look to the 1,000 souls that he had brought that he might give a good account of them. From this we passed to other things, which being lengthy, I will leave until we see each other, our Lord and His Blessed Mother being pleased. This same day, Saturday, the argument being over, the General called me and said these words to me: "They have told me that thous hast here a relative of thine." I said to him: "Yes, lord."--"Well if I had known it when I chose captains I would have taken care of him, but I did not know of it until on his part, Diego de Amaya told me of it and now I have provided him the office of Sergeant of the Flagship with Captain Mexica, who is a principal knight. He will have that until something better offers itself." I asked him for his hands that I might kiss them, and called the Lord Valverde that he might see him and give him thanks and entrust the General with the disposition of his person; for the Lord Valverde, Sergeant and Officer of the King, however established, would profit much from this. If he does well and gives a good account of himself, it is a post from which to rise to captain, which I will see done if I do not die before.

Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline.

1862 Federal General Rufus Saxton has secured the approval of the United States War Department to enlist 5,000 African-American troops.

1863 The United States tender, Fox, is on station at Key West.

1866 The Florida Freedman's Bureau Homestead Office opened today. More than 3,000 homesteads, more than in any other southern state, were awarded to Florida freedmen. Each homestead averaged 80 acres.

1894 Professor R. F. Massey signed a contract for the construction of a new building at the corner of Monroe and Main Streets in Jacksonville. This building would become the cornerstone of Massey College, which was founded in this year.

1983 Tropical Storm Barry struck Florida near Melbourne and continued across Florida. It exited near Tampa, crossed the Gulf of Mexico, gained hurricane strength, and hit near Brownsville, Texas, on the 28th.

1992 Today Florida is reeling under the devastation created by Hurricane Andrew. The storm is now about 250 miles southeast of New Orleans and moving west. Its winds, which had diminished to 125 mph are building again to 145 mph. Landfall is expected later today near Iberia, Louisiana.

AUGUST 26

1813 Harrison Reed, the ninth governor of Florida, was born at Littleton, Massachusetts, today. A businessman who failed in the Depression of 1837, he became a journalist/printer of political newspapers. Reed moved to Washington, D.C., in 1861 to become an employee of the Treasury Department. In 1863, he was assigned to Fernandina, Florida, as a tax commissioner. In 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed him to be the postal agent for the state of Florida. He was elected governor under the Constitution of 1868.

Governor Reed's administration was a stormy one. Florida was under a military occupation, and both Florida Democrats and Republicans opposed him. He faced two impeachment efforts by members of his own party. Lieutenant Governor William H. Gleason proclaimed himself governor in Reed's place when the Legislature adjourned while the Senate was considering charges against Reed.

At the end of his term, Reed retired to his farm. In 1875, he became the editor of the magazine, The Semi-Tropical. Between 1889 and 1893, Reed served as the postmaster of Tallahassee. In 1899, he represented Duval County in the state House of Representatives.

Harrison Reed died in Jacksonville on May 25, 1899.

1815 The Island of Key West was granted to Juan de Estrado, the governor of Florida, in lieu of payment for services rendered to the government of Spain.

1845 Hugh Archer assumes office as the Comptroller of Florida. He serves until January 2, 1847. Archer serves a second term from July until December 1847.

1861 The Confederate Congress approved an expenditure of $420,000 for the construction of three gunboats to protect the coast and rivers of Florida.

1863 The United States schooner, Beauregard, captured the schooner, Phoebe, off the coast of the Indian River. First sighted off Jupiter Inlet on August 23, the Phoebe was allowed to anchor at the Inlet. When a crew was dispatched to the shoreline, the Beauregard's commander considered this a violation of the permission and a likely attempt to ferry goods to Confederates.

1880 An unnamed hurricane struck the Florida coast near Cocoa Beach.

1920 The 19th Amendment grant women suffrage was formally ratified by a sufficient number of states to add it to the Constitution. Florida did NOT ratify this amendment until May 13, 1969. Despite the refusal of the Legislature to ratify the amendment, women had been granted the right to vote in city elections as early as 1917 when Florience Villa, Moore Haven, Palm Beach, and Pass-a-Grille allowed them to cast their ballots.

1950 Radiation Division of Harris Corporation, a major Florida technology company, is founded in Melbourne. Harris Corporation is now the largest single private employer in Brevard County and is a Fortune 500 company.

1960 The first student at Brevard Community College is officially enrolled. The college, founded on March 10, 1959, held classes in the old Cocoa High School building. BCC currently has four campuses in the county and has an enrollment of about 18,000 students.

1964 Hurricane Cleo strikes Fort Lauderdale with 130 mph winds late tonight. The storm continues throughout the early morning hours.

AUGUST 27

1565 From the Diary of Father Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Chaplain to Pedro Menendez's expedition to Florida...

"Monday, August 27, while we were sailing along and almost at the end of the Bahama Channel, Our Lord showed us a mystery of the sky. It was that at about the ninth hour of the night, a comet came out of the sky, borne almost directly above, but toward the direction of the rising sun and went away giving such a light from itself that it appeared to be like the sun and it went traveling to the West, where Florida is. It lasted about the length of time in which one could recite the Creed twice. We took it for a good sign, according to the custom of the sea."

Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline.

1861 The Howell Guards, a company from Leon County, left Tallahassee today with the eventual destination of joining the 2nd Florida Infantry regiment [as Company M] in Richmond, Virginia.

1862 The U.S.S. South Carolina attacked and destroyed the abandoned Confederate schooner, Patriot, which was aground near Mosquito Inlet. The schooner Anne Sophia was captured off the coast of Jacksonville today by the U.S.S. R. R. Cuyler.

1864 An excerpt from the civil war diary of Hiram Smith Williams, who settled in Rockledge in 1872 and who served two terms as a state senator in the 1880s. Williams was a member of the 40th Alabama Regiment and was a combat engineer during the Atlanta Campaign.

"The Yanks all left our front last night. Soon after breakfast went out to level down their works across the road so that our cavalry can get out and see what they're doing. Some new stratagem of Sherman's, I suppose. We'll see. Nearly all the boys think they are retreating and are highly elated with the idea. All Bosh! Had a fine time roaming over their camp getting crackers and bacon. Captured a fine sutler's wagon which was filled with good, but did not get any of them as [General Randall L.] Gibson's Brigade plundered it before we got there.

Lewis N. Wynne and Robert A. Taylor (Editors), This War So Horrible: The Civil War Diary of Hiram Smith Williams (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press).

1920 On this day, Fay Bridges of Sneads (Jackson County) cast her ballot in an election for mayor and constable. She thus became the first woman in Florida to vote in an election following the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution.

1957 Central Florida Community College is founded in Ocala on this date.

1970 Gwen Sawyer Cherry, the first African-American woman to serve in the Florida Legislature, was born in Miami in 1923. Ms. Cherry was elected to the Florida House of Representatives from Dade County in 1970. A lawyer, teacher and author, she graduated from Florida A &M University in 1965. Ms. Cherry was killed in a one-car accident in Tallahassee on February 7, 1979.

1985 STS 51-1 is launched from Cape Canaveral.

AUGUST 28

1565 Pedro Menendez de Aviles, in command of the Spanish expedition to Florida, sailed into a natural harbor on the Florida coast. He and his party celebrated the Feast of San Augustin with a High Mass. As was the custom, Menendez gave the location the name of the saint. Thus, St. Augustine was named. Not until September 8, however, would Menendez and his party return to the site to begin the first permanent settlement by Europeans in Florida.

From the Diary of Father Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Chaplain to Pedro Menendez's expedition to Florida...

Later Tuesday, the 28th, it dawned with a calm greater than any since the beginning of the voyage. We were a league and a half from the Capitana and the rest [of the ships]. I being weary and tired of reciting and petitioning God and His Mother to remedy the weather, about two in the afternoon, my God provided from His mercy and sent us a good wind. Immediately with full sails we joined the Capitana, and this which I now say I take for a miracle; That when we were in the calm and joined to the other vessels, none of the pilots of the Armada knew where we were (and there were some who said that we were 100 leagues from Florida); and God and the prayers of His Blessed Mother permitted that this same afternoon we recognized land. We drew near to discover what land it was and anchored a league off shore, and this all the rest did also. We found ourselves in Florida not far from our enemies, which was a great consolation and joy to all of us. This night the General ordered all the pilots to the Capitana to discuss their duties.

Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline.

1862 Colonel Edward A. Perry of the 2nd Florida Infantry Regiment is promoted to brigadier general.

1864 An excerpt from the civil war diary of Hiram Smith Williams, who settled in Rockledge in 1872 and who served two terms as a state senator in the 1880s. Williams was a member of the 40th Alabama Regiment and was a combat engineer during the Atlanta Campaign.

"What a lovely day. After putting on some clean clothes this morning, I went over to the Yank's works. Saw [Lucius] Potter of the 36th [Alabama Regiment] and passed the forenoon with him. Sherman's plans are not yet developed nor will they be until too late I think. Hood's ordeal has arrived, he will either make for himself a name that will live or he will be remembered only to be derided. It is the tide in his affairs, and I think he will fail. A few more days, perhaps hours, will decide his fate."

Lewis N. Wynne and Robert A. Taylor (Editors), This War So Horrible: The Civil War Diary of Hiram Smith Williams (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press).

AUGUST 29

1818 Spain severs diplomatic relations with the United States for failing to discipline General Andrew Jackson following his seizure and occupation of forts in Spanish Florida.

1868 Robert H. Gamble assumes office as the Comptroller of Florida. His term of office extended until January 15, 1873.

1899 The discovery and mining of phosphate near Juliette produces a tremendous population growth. Today city officials reported that the population has increased from 25 to more than 1200 in a single year.

1899 Joseph Hillis Miller, former president of the University of Florida, was born this date in Front Royal, Virginia.

1992 Hurricane Andrew, by now a tropical storm and after wreaking havoc on south Florida and the Mississippi Valley states in the central United States, merges with the remnants of Hurricane Lester, a Pacific storm, and dies out in Pennsylvania.

AUGUST 30

1565 From the Diary of Father Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Chaplain to Pedro Menendez's expedition to Florida...

"Thursday, the 30th, we were given a time of head winds which made us throw out the anchor. We were with contrary winds for four days so that we could not navigate further. When these were lacking, calm came to us and stopped us. We were anchored all these days about a league and a half off shore. The Capitana was about a league ahead of us. We could not reach her because of the swift current. Our General [Menendez], seeing that neither the pilots nor the two French prisoners in our company knew how to reach port by the few land signs (because the coast is so low and level and lacking in signs), decided to put 50 arquebusiers on land. Some captains made many bonfires so that the Indians would come up to see what it was. They are so animal-like they did not care about it and no one came. When our people saw this, they went into the land; and four leagues from there they found a settlement of Indians by whom they were well received. The Indians gave them good food and embraced them and begged for what was brought. The soldiers were so generous that they gave them many things they carried and the Indians gave them two pieces of gold, although of low carat. It showed that they had some and were in the habit of giving it in exchange. The Frenchmen with us said they had been in communication with them for some time."

"The Indians wished the Christians to remain there that night so they might feast them, but they did not accept because of the need of taking the good news to the General."

Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline.

1778 An American privateer raids the plantation of Dr. Andrew Turnbull during the American Revolution.

1862 Florida infantry units have played an important role in the Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) in Virginia. The 2nd, 5th, and 8th Infantry regiments are involved.

1863 The Federal blockade of the Florida coast line is proving effective in hampering the activities of privateers and blockade runners. The U.S.S. Potomska is on duty near Fernandina, while the Norwich and E.B. Hale are patrolling the St. Johns River system.

1961 A resolution establishing Edison Junior College is approved by the Lee County (Fort Myers) Board of Public Instruction. Edison Junior College is now Edison Community College and a new university, Florida Gulf Coast University, has also been established in the county (1996).

1983 STS-8 launched from Cape Canaveral.

1984 STS 41-D launched from Cape Canaveral.

AUGUST 31

1863 The Federal bark, Gem of the Sea, captured the Confederate sloop, Richard, which is owned by John Mooney and James Fuell of West Florida.

News was received in Tallahassee that men of the 5th and 8th Florida Infantry Regiments captured at Gettysburg are imprisoned on Johnston's Island.

1864 The following Florida units participated in Confederate General John Bell Hood's ill-fated attempt to break the lines of General William T. Sherman at Jonesboro (south of Atlanta):

Florida Marion Artillery

Florida 1st Cavalry Regiment

Florida 1st (Reorganized) Infantry Regiment

Florida 3rd Infantry Regiment

Florida 4th Infantry Regiment

Florida 6th Infantry Regiment

Florida 7th Infantry Regiment

An excerpt from the civil war diary of Hiram Smith Williams, who settled in Rockledge in 1872 and who served two terms as a state senator in the 1880s. Williams was a member of the 40th Alabama Regiment and was a combat engineer during the Atlanta Campaign.

"The ordeal is past and John Bell Hood is gone under. Went to East Point yesterday morning, remained there all day, and this morning early came down to Jonesboro. Our infantry reached here, and charged the enemy in their works as usual, only to be repulsed with heavy loss. This horrid useless waste of human life, this wholesale butchery is terrible and should damn the authors through all time."

"Our company reached the place just as the fight commenced, but did not see much of it. Had a hearty laugh at one of our Lieutenants, who was carrying a musket and teakettle. Directly a shell burst near him and away went the gun while he struck out in a dog trot. A few minutes after another shell bursted and a piece or rather spent fragment struck him on the leg, when away went the teakettle and away went the Lieutenant, who was seen no more until we were far out of danger. Thank god, I have stronger nerves than that."

"Our boys have been repulsed all along the line, and I see it requires no military man to tell that Atlanta is gone."

Lewis N. Wynne and Robert A. Taylor (Editors), This War So Horrible: The Civil War Diary of Hiram Smith Williams (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press).

1872 Charles H. Pearce, minister of the African-Methodist Episcopal Church of Tallahassee, is nominated as a candidate for a third Florida Senate term by Governor Harrison Reed at the Leon County Republican Convention.

1906 Elizabeth Hutchinson Broward, eight child of Governor and Mrs. Napoleon Broward, becomes the first child born to a sitting governor in the State of Florida. She was born in the Brown House on Monroe Street in Tallahassee.

1912 The Socialist Party of Florida, meeting in convention in Ocala, nominates Thomas W. Cox as its candidate for governor.