1849 William Dunn Moseley, the first governor
elected under Florida's statehood, left office today, and Thomas
Brown, the second governor of Florida (October 1, 1849-October 3,
1853), assumed office. Brown was born in Westmoreland County,
Virginia, on October 24, 1785. He served in the War of 1812. He
became the chief clerk of the post office at Richmond, and, while
chief clerk, is credited with inventing the postal box. (For more
information about Brown, see entry for August 24.)
1862 The Federal Expeditionary Force, under the
command of Brigadier General John M. Brannan, landed at Mayport
Mills on the St. Johns River. The land troops were accompanied by
the Union gunboats Paul Jones, Cimarron, Water Witch, Hale, Uneas
1867 The first post-Civil War voter registration
results were filed in Tallahassee. Some 15, 441 African-Americans
registered to vote compared to 11,151 whites.
1888 F. W. A. Rankin, Jr. assumes office as the
Florida Secretary of State and would hold the job until succeeded by
Jno. L. Crawford on January 21, 1881.
1895 The City of Cocoa, originally settled as
Indian River, incorporated today.
1910 Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, 19th governor
of Florida (January 3, 1905-January 5, 1909), died today in
Jacksonville at age 53. Broward, an orphan at age 12, worked as a
logger, a farm hand, and a steamboat roustabout during his early
years. In later life, he owned a steam tug, The Three Friends, which
he commanded on eight voyages through the Spanish blockade of Cuba.
Broward was carrying a cargo of war material.
Elected sheriff of Duval County twice, Broward also
served as a member of the Jacksonville City Council, a member of the
1901 Florida House of Representatives, and the State Board of
The Broward administration reorganized the state's
institutions of higher learning under a Board of Control. In
addition, the administration encouraged efforts to drain the
An unsuccessful candidate for United States Senator
in 1908, Broward won the Democratic nomination (and the general
election) in 1910, but died before he could assume office.
1949 Long Range Proving Ground (missile testing)
was activated at Cape Canaveral.
1965 Floyd T. Christian assumes the office of
Superintendent of Public Education. Christian was the last person to
hold this office, since the title was changed by the Constitutional
Revision of 1968 to the Commissioner of Education.
1966 On this date, former Governor LeRoy Collins
resigned his office as the United States Under Secretary of
1975 The division of Florida Land Sales,
Condominiums and Mobile Homes of the Department of Business
Regulation assumed regulatory authority for the condominium industry
in the state. Russell McCaughan is credited with creating the first
condominium in Florida in Boca Raton. The first legal documents
concerning the ownership and operation of this development were
filed on November 2, 1962.
1979 Former Governor Reubin D. Askew was sworn
in as the United States Trade Representative with the rank of
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, serving as a member of
President Jimmy Carter's Cabinet.
1672 Ground breaking ceremonies are held in St.
Augustine for the construction of a coquina fortress capable of
withstanding attacks from British colonists in Carolina.
1862 Federal troops landed at Buckhorn Creek,
between Pablo and Mount Pleasant Creeks near Jacksonville. Troops
under Brigadier General John M. Brannan are attacking Confederate
emplacements at St. Johns Bluff. Union gunboats are slowly moving up
the river, shelling all houses and barns they encounter.
1863 A Federal detachment from the gunboat, Port
Royal, attacked salt works near St. George's Sound. Six boilers, two
large vats and several kettles were destroyed.
1864 The U.S. schooner, O.H. Lee, arrived in Key
West today. The schooner will take up blockade duty off the coast
near St. Mark's.
1874 Green Cove Springs, first settled by
loggers in the 1820s, was incorporated.
1885 Florida's first female representative in
Congress, Ruth Bryan Owen, daughter of three-time unsuccessful
Democratic candidate for President, William Jennings Bryan, was born
in Illinois. Mrs. Owen served from 1929 until 1933 when she was
defeated. It is suspected by some observers that her staunch
opposition to the repeal of Prohibition was the primary reason for
1900 Florida's first law school campus, the John
B. Stetson University College of Law, opened in Deland.
1972 Dr. Curtis McCray welcomed students to the
first day of classes at the University of North Florida. McCray, the
first president of UNF, presided over the faculty, staff, and
students of the University's 1,000 acre campus. Florida
International University in Miami was also opened in 1972, although
classes their began in late September. Dr. Gregory Wolfe was
1802 John Gorrie, the acknowledged inventor of
air conditioning, was born today. Gorrie, a physician, was born in
Charleston, SC. The idea for artificially cooling air in limited
spaces was recognized by the U.S. Patent office when it granted him
Patent Number 8080 on May 6, 1851.
A statue of John Gorrie was placed in the Capitol
rotunda in Washington, DC, in 1914. Gorrie is one of two Floridians
1853 Thomas Brown, the second governor of
Florida, left office today and was succeeded by James Emilius
Broome. (For more information of Brown, see entry for August 24.)*
*Abraham Kurkindolle Allison had proclaimed himself
the acting governor of Florida on September 16, 1853, because of the
absence from the state of Governor Brown and the President of the
Florida Senate, R. J. Floyd. Under the Florida Constitution, which
did not allow the governor to leave the state, such a proclamation
1862 The Federal attack on Confederate positions
along the St. Johns River has been halted because of intelligence
that three Georgia regiments were being rushed to reinforce
Confederate forces. Confederate forces, evacuated from positions at
St. Johns Bluff, arrive by train in Baldwin for reorganization and
1887 The State Normal School for Colored
Students, now Florida A and M University, began classes today with
fifteen students in attendance.
1904 The school for African-American students,
destined to become Bethune-Cookman College, opened in Daytona Beach
under the direction of Mary McLeod Bethune.
1905 Governor Fuller Warren, the 30th governor
of Florida, was born today in Blountstown. For more information on
Governor Warren, consult for September 23.
1962 The Mercury 8 space vehicle was launched
today from Cape Canaveral.
1817 Luis Aury, a reputed general in the Mexican
independence movement, raised a flag on Amelia Island and declared
himself in possession of an independent republic.
1862 The U.S.S. Somerset, under the command of
Lieutenant Commander English, attacked Confederate salt works at
Depot Key. The landing party from the Somerset was augmented by a
strong force from the U.S.S. Tahoma, under the command of Commander
John C. Howell. The salt works were destroyed. Salt was recognized
as a "strategic material" for the Confederacy.
1863 The master of the United States schooner
Two Sisters reported that he was unsuccessful in catching a
suspected Confederate schooner off the coast of Bayport.
1904 Mary McLeod Bethune opens her school in
Daytona, Florida. (See entry for July 10 for more information)
1905 Orville Wright performs the first
thirty-minute flight in an airplane.
1922 The lake campus of Florida Southern
College, founded in 1885 and first named the South Florida Seminary,
opened. The college is affiliated with the United Methodist Church.
1950 Governor Fuller Warren dedicated the
Stephen Foster Memorial at White Springs in formal ceremonies today.
1957 Floridians, like other Americans, were in
awe at the Soviet Union's successful launch of the SPUTNIK I
satellite today and very apprehensive about what this meant for the
future of the world.
1857 Madison Starke Perry, fourth governor of
Florida (October, 1857-October 7, 1861), took the oath of office
today in Tallahassee. Perry, elected as a Democrat, had represented
Alachua County in the 1850 Florida Senate. Perry's administration
was a busy one that saw the settlement of the boundary dispute with
Georgia, the expansion of railroads in the state, and the
re-establishment of the Florida militia. Perry was governor when
Florida seceded from the Union on January 11, 1861.
Perry was succeeded in the governor's chair by John
Milton. Following his tenure as governor, Perry served as the
Colonel of the 7th Florida Regiment until illness forced his
retirement. He died at his Alachua County plantation in March 1865.
1861 Lt. Seton Fleming assumes the position of
Adjutant of the 2nd Florida Infantry.
1862 The City of Jacksonville was occupied today
by Federal forces. The city is practically deserted. Union pickets
encountered Confederate cavalry two miles east of the city.
Confederate units are camped about 12 miles west of Jacksonville.
1863 Major Pleasant W. White, Confederate
Commissary Agent for Florida, received a request from General
Braxton E. Bragg for Florida cattle to feed the Army of Tennessee.
(The White Papers are in the Florida Historical Society Collection
at the Tebeau-Field Library of Florida History in Cocoa.)
1894 Cuban exile leader Jose Marti arrives in
West Tampa to consult with Fernando Figueredo, one of the leaders of
the Cuba Libre movement in Florida.
1931 The first classes begin at the University
of Tampa (then called Tampa Junior College) in the Hillsborough High
School Building. The University of Tampa would later acquire the
Tampa Hotel, built by Henry Plant, on a permanent lease from the
City of Tampa.
1862 Floridians are voting today for state
offices (Senate and House of Representatives) under the new
Confederate Constitution of Florida.
1863 The sloop, Last Trial, which had sought
shelter in Key West because of heavy weather, was searched by
Federal officials and 26 sacks of salt discovered on board. With no
cargo manifest and no flag on board, the sloop is declared a
blockade runner (a fact admitted by the sole crewman on board) and a
prize of war. Her captain, George Elliot, was arrested in Key West.
1864 Lieutenant W. P. Randall of the Federal
bark, Restless, reports that men from his ship destroyed salt works
at St. Andrews Bay. Fifty boilers, 90 kettles, 31 wagons, 500 cords
of wood, and 150 buildings of various kinds.
1873 The Marien Hospital, homes and businesses
are devastated in Key West by a violent hurricane.
1891 The 26th governor of Florida, David
Scholtz, was born today in Brooklyn, New York. Scholtz received his
Bachelor's degree from Yale in 1914 and a law degree from Stetson
University in 1915. In World War I, he served in the U.S. Navy. In
1917, Scholtz was elected to the Florida House of Representatives.
From 1919-1921, he was the state's attorney for Volusia County and
then served as a City Judge.
Elected as governor in 1933, Scholtz was a strong
supporter of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. He also
presided over the creation of the Everglades National Park.
In 1938, he ran for the Democratic nomination for
United States Senator. Following his defeat, he spent much of his
remaining years in New York, although he maintained his legal
residence in Florida. Scholtz died on March 21, 1953, while in the
1763 On this date, British Florida was divided
into East Florida and West Florida by Royal Proclamation. The
dividing line was the Chattahoochee-Apalachicola River.
1861 Madison Starke Perry (see October 5 entry)
turned the reins of state government over to Governor John Milton,
the fifth governor of Florida (October 7, 1861-April 1, 1865)
Milton, who was born on April 20, 1807, in Jefferson County,
Georgia, was a lawyer who practiced in Georgia, Alabama, and New
Orleans before coming to Florida as the captain of a volunteer
company in the Seminole War. In 1846, he moved to Jackson County. In
politics, Milton was an powerful Democrat and an ardent states'
righter. In 1850, Milton was elected to the Florida House of
An early secessionist, Milton was instrumental in
leading Florida out of the Union (3rd southern state to do so) and
he encouraged Governor Perry to seize Federal military
establishments in the state.
During the Civil War, Milton cooperated with
Confederate authorities, unlike some other southern governors. He
worked with Commissary Agent Pleasant W. White to forward Florida
cattle and salt to Confederate armies.
When the Confederacy collapsed, Milton retired to
his home near Marianna, and, on April 1, 1865, he put a gun to his
head and pulled the trigger. In his last statement to the Florida
Legislature, he stated that "...death would be preferable to
1862 A Federal army transport captured the
Governor Milton on the St. Johns River near Enterprise.
1864 The C.S.S. Florida was seized today by the
U.S.S. Wachusetts in Bahia Harbor, Brazil, after a surprise attack
while the Confederate ship was at anchor under the protection of the
Brazilian government. The Wachusetts' was under the command of
Commander Napoleon Collins, whose defiance of international law and
the expressed prohibitions of the Brazilian government led to his
eventual court-martial and dismissal from the Union Navy. Secretary
Sumner Welles, however, restored Collins to his command.
Brazilian protests over this blatant violation of
international law continued until 1866.
1889 The Dade County School Board ordered the
payment of $12 for the annual rental of a house in Coconut Grove
which would be used for a school.
1930 Edmond J. Gong, the first Chinese-American
to be elected to the Florida Legislature, was born in Miami.
1862 Confederate forces under General Braxton E.
Bragg engage a Union army under the command of General Don Carlos
Buell outside Perryville, Kentucky (Chaplin Hills). Despite the fact
that neither army commander was aware of the importance of this
battle and never committed all of their resources to the fight, the
Battle of Perryville ended the Confederate invasion of Kentucky.
Union forces were 37,000 strong, while the
Confederate army had a strength of only 16,000. Union casualties
were 845 killed; 2,851 wounded; and 515 missing. Confederate
casualties were 519 killed; 2,635 wounded; and 251 missing.
Florida units involved in the Battle of Perryville
were the Florida 3rd Infantry Regiment and the Florida 1st Cavalry
1863 Union Brigadier General Alexander Asboth is
named to assume command of Federal forces in West Florida.
1885 The first trees were cleared for streets in
Ybor City by workers under the direction of civil engineer Gavino
1966 The state headquarters for the Florida Bar
Association, chartered in 1889, were dedicated in Tallahassee.
1861 Federal forces on Santa Rosa Island near
Pensacola were scattered in a surprise raid by Confederate troops.
1862 A Court of Inquiry, directed by Captain
Wilkinson Call, today decided that Lieutenant Colonel Charles F.
Hopkins was not guilty of dereliction of duty in regard to the
evacuation of the St. Johns Bluff position on October 2.
1863 The Union schooner, Two Sisters, set sail
from Cedar Key after spending three days making repairs to its sail.
1876 The town of Baldwin was incorporated today.
1913 The Secretary of the Navy appoints a board
to select a site for naval aviation training. Pensacola was
eventually chosen as the site and thus began that city's long
association with naval fliers. So many aviators pass through the
training facility, date, and marry local females, that Pensacola is
known as "The Mother of the Navy."
1946 C. M. Gay assumed office as the Comptroller of
Florida, a position he held until he was replaced by Ray E. Green in
1980 James Earl "Jimmy" Carter became the first
President of the United States to visit the Capitol in Tallahassee.
President Carter spent October 9-10 in Tallahassee, slept overnight
in the Executive Mansion, and signed into law (in the Chamber of the
House of Representatives) the Congressional Act appropriating
$100,000,000 for refugee relief.
1861 General Edmund Kirby Smith, a native of St.
Augustine, was named to command the Confederate districts of Middle
and Eastern Florida.
1863 The Federal schooner Two Sisters turned a
small boat carrying two men back to the shore while on patrol duty
off the coast of Bayport.
1896 Cuban patriot leaders L. Figueredo and
Martin Herrera spoke at a benefit ball for Cuban refugees in
Cespedes Hall in Tampa. The Cuban population in Tampa's Ybor City
and West Tampa were strong supporters of "Cuba Libre."
1905 President Theodore Roosevelt designated
Passage Key in Tampa Bay as a protected breeding reservation for
1917 Robert N. Dow, Jr., former managing editor
of the Jacksonville Journal was born today in Jacksonville.
1963 Emory Bennett Causeway (State Road 528
across the Indian River) was opened today. It was formally dedicated
on the 17th by Governor Farris Bryant. Emory Bennett was a native of
Volusia County, but a resident of Cocoa when he entered service, who
earned the Congressional Medal of Honor in the Korean War. Bennett's
mother cut the ribbon at the dedication ceremonies.
Here is the official citation for the Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S.
Army, Company B, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place
and date: Near Sobangsan, Korea, 24 June 1951. Entered service at:
Cocoa, Fla. Born: 20 December 1929, New Smyrna Beach, Fla. G.O. No.:
11, 1 February 1952. Citation: Pfc. Bennett a member of Company B,
distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at
the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action
against an armed enemy of the United Nations. At approximately 0200
hours, 2 enemy battalions swarmed up the ridge line in a ferocious
banzai charge in an attempt to dislodge Pfc. Bennett's company from
its defensive positions. Meeting the challenge, the gallant
defenders delivered destructive retaliation, but the enemy pressed
the assault with fanatical determination and the integrity of the
perimeter was imperiled. Fully aware of the odds against him, Pfc.
Bennett unhesitatingly left his foxhole, moved through withering
fire, stood within full view of the enemy, and, employing his
automatic rifle, poured crippling fire into the ranks of the
onrushing assailants, inflicting numerous casualties. Although
wounded, Pfc. Bennett gallantly maintained his l-man defense and the
attack was momentarily halted. During this lull in battle, the
company regrouped for counterattack, but the numerically superior
foe soon infiltrated into the position. Upon orders to move back,
Pfc. Bennett voluntarily remained to provide covering fire for the
withdrawing elements, and, defying the enemy, continued to sweep the
charging foe with devastating fire until mortally wounded. His
willing self-sacrifice and intrepid actions saved the position from
being overrun and enabled the company to effect an orderly
withdrawal. Pfc. Bennett's unflinching courage and consummate
devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and the military
1861 Confederate forces in Tampa captured two
sloops, the William Batty and the Lyman Dudley, both home based in
Key West, and thirteen sailors who were made prisoners and taken to
1862 Federal forces evacuated the City of
Jacksonville today and returned to Hilton Head, SC.
1887 James E. Hamilton, the famous "Barefoot
Mailman," drowned today near Pompano Beach. Hamilton was responsible
for the Jupiter to Miami mail route and died while on duty.
1968 Apollo 7 was launched from Cape Canaveral
1565 French Admiral Jean Ribault, along with
approximately 200 of his men, was put to death by Pedro Menendez de
Aviles and Spanish soldiers on the banks of the Matanazas River near
St. Augustine. Only sixteen individuals were spared this slaughter.
Of Ribaut, Menendez reported to King Philip II of Spain:
"I had Jean Ribaut with all the rest put to the
knife, understanding this to be expedient for the service of God our
Lord and of Your Majesty; and I hold it very great good fortune that
he should be dead; for the King of France could do more with him
with fifty thousand ducats that with others with five hundred
thousand; and he could do more in one year than another in ten, for
he was the most experienced seaman and corsair known, and very
skillful in this navigation of the Indies and the coast of Florida."
1861 The U.S.S. Dale, under the command of
Commander Edward M. Yard, captured the schooner Specie off the coast
of Jacksonville with a large cargo of rice.
1864 Union troops, operating from Jacksonville,
move south along the eastern bank of the St. Johns River, laying
waste to orange groves.
Federal Rear Admiral Cornelius K. Stribling arrived
in Key West to assume command of the East Coast Blockading Squadron.
1964 Florida residents are busy preparing for
Hurricane Isbell which is expected to hit the Florida coast near
10,000 Islands tomorrow.
1998 Today is Columbus Day, a national holiday,
but it is also "Farmer's Day," an official Florida holiday.
1861 The U.S.S. Keystone State captured the
Confederate steamer Salvor near the Dry Tortugas Islands with a
cargo of cigars, coffee, and munitions.
1862 Union troops occupying St. Augustine are
described by the Savannah (GA) Republican as bing respectful of the
local population and commended for supplying the city's poor with
rations from Federal warehouses.
1863 The U.S.S. Two Sisters is on a
reconnaissance mission near Clearwater. The Union gunboat Tahoma
joined the other Federal ships (Adela, Stonewall Jackson, and Ariel)
on blockade duty at the mouth of Tampa Bay.
1896 The steam tug, Dauntless, captained by
Napoleon B. Broward, future governor of Florida, arrived at
Cienfuegos, Cuba, with a cargo of arms and ammunition for the Cuban
revolutionaries fighting the Spanish army.
1947 The first underwater show was presented to
the public at Weeki Wachee Springs.
1960 The Seminary of St. Vincent dePaul at
Boynton Beach was incorporated by the state as a non-profit degree
1848 David P. Hogue assumes office as Florida's
Attorney General today. Hogue would hold this office until April 19,
1853, when he was replaced by Mariano D. Papy.
1861 Confederate General Braxton E. Bragg
assumed command of the Department of Alabama and West Florida today.
1862 Throughout Florida efforts are underway to
collect used clothing suitable for Virginia winters and funds to
purchase the material that cannot be acquired through donations to
equip Florida troops for the upcoming winter in the Army of Northern
1863 The 8th Florida Infantry Regiment
participated today in the Battle of Bristoe Station when General A.
P. Hill's corps struck the retreating rear units of Union General
George Meade's Army of the Potomac. Although Hill's assault
disrupted the Union retreat, it did not break their lines and Meade
was able to prepare defensive positions around Centreville, VA.
Lieutenant Colonel William Baya of the 8th Florida is listed among
1880 The first city council meeting held in the
newly incorporated town of Brooksville in Hernando County.
1894 The Jewish congregation Schaarai Zedek is
founded in Tampa. Former mayor Herman Glogowski is named the
permanent chairman of the congregation.
1902 The town of Sarasota was incorporated
today, although the incorporation does not become effective until
January 1, 1903.
1903 Henry Laurens Mitchell, the 16th governor
of Florida (January3, 1893-January 5, 1897) died today in Tampa.
Mitchell was born in Jefferson County, AL, on September 3, 1831.
1914 The first town meeting was held today in
Pinellas Park in Pinellas County. The community was founded as a
sugar cane growing area.
1862 Crews from the U.S.S. Fort Henry ,
operating on the Apalachicola River, captured the Confederate sloop,
G. L. Brockenbrough, with a cargo of cotton.
1863 The U.S.S. Honduras captured the British
steamer, Mail, near St. Petersburg. On board were 176 bales of
cotton, six barrels of turpentine, and about $2,500. The capture of
the Mail followed a three hour chase by the Honduras, which was
assisted by three other Union ships--the U.S.S. Two Sisters, the Sea
Bird, and the Fox.
It is reported that the Union Navy now has
thirty-three ships in its East Gulf Blockading Squadron, based in
1864 A column of Federal troops have been
raiding orange groves south of Jacksonville and east of the St.
Johns River. More than 300 barrels of oranges have been captured.
Some of the oranges are bing distributed to Union troops in the
area, and the remainder are bing shipped to the Union stronghold at
Hilton Head, SC.
1884 The Florida Dental Association (then
referred to as the Florida State Dental Society) was founded in
Jacksonville at a meeting in Library Hall.
1889 Edward Aylsworth Perry, 14th governor of
Florida (January 6, 1885-January 8, 1889), died today in Pensacola.
Born in Richmond, Massachusetts, Perry attended Yale University,
taught briefly in Alabama schools, and entered the practice of law
in Pensacola in 1853. As the elected commanding office of the "Rifle
Rangers," he entered Confederate service in July 1861. He served as
captain, colonel, and brigadier general. He was severely wounded at
Frayser's Farm (June 30, 1862) during the Seven Pines (May 31-July1,
1862) campaign. He commanded Florida troops during the Battles of
Fredericksburg (December 13, 1862) and Chancellorsville (May 1-4,
1863). He missed Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) because of a bout with
typhoid, but did participate in the Wilderness campaign where he was
again wounded. Following his recovery, Perry was assigned to command
the Alabama reserve troops, a task he fulfilled until the end of the
After the war, Perry resumed the practice of law.
Active in state and national politics, he was elected governor in
1885. During his administration, Florida adopted a new Constitution
and established the State Board of Education to oversee the public
1926 Francis Houghtaling of Miami registers as
the first student enrolled at the University of Miami.
1934 National Airlines begins operations in
Florida with the inauguration of a 142 mile air mail run between St.
Petersburg and Daytona Beach, with stops in Tampa, Lakeland and
Orlando. National Airlines began its operations with a second-hand
single engine Ryan airplane.
1964 Jacksonville's Bob Hayes won the Olympic
gold medal in the 100 meter dash in the Tokyo games. His time for
this event was ten (10) seconds even.
1829 Governor William P. Duval today signed the
charter documents for the incorporation of Christ Church Parish, an
Episcopal congregation in the City of Pensacola.
1861 Confederate Major W. L. L. Bowen, commander
of Fort Brooke (Tampa), has ordered the two sloops captured recently
(see entry for October 11) to be turned over to the Confederate
naval commissioner as legal prizes of war.
1863 The U.S.S. Tahoma and the U.S.S. Adela have
been ordered to seize two Confederate blockade runners, the Scottish
Chief (owned by Tampa resident James MacKay) and the Kate Dale. The
Union plan is to shell the town and Fort Brooke and, under the cover
of darkness, to send men ashore to destroy the blockade runners. The
citizens of Tampa hold an emergency meeting to form a military
company to defend the city against the Union forces. Confederate
troops from the 2nd Florida Infantry Battalion are on hand to help
repel the Federal invasion.
1963 Twin "Vela Hotel" satellites were launched
by the Department of Defense at Cape Canaveral today. The satellites
are designed to detect nuclear explosions in space at a maximum
range of 100,000,000 miles.
Major Donald K. "Deke" Slayton today resigned his
commission in the United States Air Force to assume a position as a
civilian pilot for NASA. Slayton was one of the original seven
Mercury astronauts and would be eligible for further space flights
in his new position.
On another front, NASA announced its investigation
of "possible improprieties" by a contractor which leased automobiles
to the Agency. The contractor, Management Services, Incorporated,
was accused of selling automobiles which had been used for only two
to three years to NASA employees for as little as $50.00.
1863 The Union ships, Adela and Tahoma, shelled
Tampa today. A number of casualties were inflicted. On land, Federal
troops reached the Hillsborough River at about 6:00 a.m. Sighting
the Scottish Chief and the Kate Dale, they set both ships on fire.
The Scottish Chief had a cargo of 156 bales of cotton, while the
Kate Dale carried 11 bales. Confederate forces, under the command of
Captain James Westcott, attacked the Federals later in the evening
and killed five soldiers, wounded ten, and took seven prisoner.
Confederate losses were not reported.
The famed "Cow Cavalry" continued its roundup of
cattle in the Tampa region for movement to Confederate troops in
Virginia and Tennessee.
1887 The disputed claim by the states of Georgia
and Florida to some 1,507,200 acres of land from Chattahoochee to
MacClenny is settled in Florida's favor today by a Federal court.
1943 The first discovery of oil in Florida is
announced by officials of the Humble Oil Company in Fort Myers.
After a thirty year search, the company reached an oil reservoir at
11,700 feet while drilling at Sunniland in Collier County.
1854 George Lindley Taber, pioneer Florida
Horticulturalist and founded of the Glen Saint Mary Nursery Company
(1882) in Glen Saint Mary, was born in Vassalboro, ME.
1863 Federal soldiers wounded in yesterday's
skirmish near Tampa have been evacuated to the lighthouse on Egmont
Key. In a display of 19th century gallantry, Confederate Captain
James Westcott, who commanded the successful action against the
Federals, informed the Union soldiers that their dead would be
buried with full military honors in Tampa.
1864 Approximately 200 Federal soldiers from
Fort Barrancas in Pensacola attack a small group of Confederate
cavalry in Milton. One Union soldier was killed and several others
wounded. There is no record of Confederate losses.
1906 A hurricane hit the Florida Keys and 130
men were killed when 120 miles-per-hour wind struck construction
sites of Henry Flagler's Overseas Railroad. Long Key was
particularly hard hit. Captain Steve Bravo, a legendary Indian River
steam boat captain who had taken a position with Flagler's company,
was one of the individuals caught in the storm. He was the captain
of the St. Lucie, which hauled men and supplies to work camps. Here
is a description of the 1906 hurricane from Fred A. Hopwood's book,
The Golden Age of Steamboating on the Indian River (Cocoa: Florida
Historical Society Press, Reprint Edition, 1998)
On October 17, 1906, the St. Lucie left the FEC's
terminal dock on 5th Street and headed out of Biscayne Bay on an
overnight trip to the Keys. Pushing a barge filled with fresh water
for workers and carrying 120 passengers and crewmen, nothing
appeared out of the ordinary and the trip was regarded by the St.
Lucie's captain, Steve Bravo, as routine. So routine, in fact, that
Bravo, having brought the steamer safely out of Biscayne Bay, turned
command of the vessel over to the first mate, Robert Blair, and
retired to his cabin for the night.
Unknown to Bravo, Blair, or FEC officials, a
hurricane was battering the Keys and heading directly for Miami. At
an inquiry hearing later, Bravo reported that there had been no
reason to suspect that anything was out of the ordinary, although
"The barometer was showing low, but not more than it had for the
past two weeks." The St. Lucie's long and wide steel hull (122' by
24') was considered stable and safe in even stormy conditions. When
the steamer encountered the first winds and rain of the hurricane's
outer bands, no one was unduly alarmed.
At about three o'clock in the morning, Blair had
Captain Bravo roused from his sleep. When the captain reached the
upper deck, it was apparent that the steamer was caught in a gale,
blowing out of the east. Little did Blair or Bravo realize that
these winds were part of the counter-clockwise winds of a larger
storm. As the barometer continued dropping, Captain Bravo decided to
seek safe anchorage at Elliott's Key and to ride out the storm.
Dropping anchor in seven feet of water on the leeward side of the
island, Bravo felt that his boat was safe from the storm.
By daylight, however, hurricane strength winds were
blowing, and Elliott's Key was under several feet of water. Waves
were washing over the lower deck of the St. Lucie, and parts of the
boat's superstructure were beginning to give way. Passengers and
crewmen were ordered to don life jackets. Suddenly, about seven
o'clock in the morning, the winds died out and the waves receded.
Captain Bravo ordered the chief engineer to "get up a full head of
steam so that the St. Lucie could make a run for it, if necessary."
Despite the lull in the storm, the barometer, which
had dropped to a low 28.8 inches of mercury, indicated that there
was more bad weather to come.
Second Officer J. W. Grant ordered two lifeboats
lowered. Ten men climbed aboard to go to the aid of a schooner that
tossed at anchor between the St. Lucie and the shore. Before the men
could reach the ship, the lull ended and the storm resumed. The
temporary reprieve had been the eye of the hurricane, which had
passed directly over Elliott's Key. Suddenly 120 m.p.h. winds struck
from the west. The men in the two lifeboats were swept ashore by the
renewed winds. Caught in the thicket of mangrove trees along the
shore, the men clung tenaciously to the roots and managed to ride
out the fury of the storm safely.
On board the St. Lucie, matters quickly turned
worse. Bravo ordered a lifeboat to be lowered into the tossing
waves. He placed the steamer's only woman passenger, a Mrs. Pierce,
and her six-year-old son aboard the board and then ordered six
crewmen to serve as oarsmen. Once released, the lifeboat was grabbed
by the waves and hurled ashore, where it came to rest against a
building wrecked by the hurricane. Mrs. Pierce, her son, and the six
crewmen quickly grabbed hold of the building's structure, an act
that saved their lives.
Within an hour, all hope for the St. Lucie was gone.
The great steamer was being torn to pieces by the unrelenting winds
and waves. Bravo reported to the inquiry board that, "We were
fighting for our lives." Large pieces of the superstructure were
hurled about like tiny matchsticks, and desperate crewmen struggled
to find something to hang on to. It was a hopeless cause.
When the storm passed, nothing remained of the
once-proud St. Lucie but debris floating on the surface of the
In Miami questions were immediately raised about the
fate of the St. Lucie and its crew. The Miami Evening Record carried
the banner headline, "Where is the St. Lucie?" The paper reported
that, "Rumors have persisted that the St. Lucie had been overtaken
by the storm and that she had gone down with all on board." The
Miami Metropolis headlined its day-after edition, "Steamer St. Lucie
is Reported Lost." J. C. Meredith, Flagler's chief engineer, gave
credence to the story when he reported that he had traveled from the
Keys to Miami on his boat, the Lotus, and had seen no sign of the
St. Lucie. The barge the steamer had been pushing, however, was
found by Meredith.
The question of the fate of the St. Lucie was
answered when, on the following Saturday, the steamer Peerless
arrived in Miami with fifty-eight badly battered and exhausted
survivors. An additional twenty-five survivors had been ordered off
the Peerless prior to its arrival in the city to assist the steamer
Virginia collect the bodies of the less fortunate. When these weary
survivors protested their impressment into service by the captain of
the Virginia, he secured their cooperation only after threatening
them with violence.
The Metropolis reported that "25 or more are dead,
their bodies littering the shores and land of Elliott's Key."
Several additional bodies were discovered in the vicinity of
Soldier's Key. The actual number of persons from the St. Lucie who
died in the storm will never be known. Apparently no passenger
manifest was kept, and within a few weeks, the public lost interest
in the disaster. Miami newspapers, ever willing to cater to public
interests, pursued the matter no further.
Although some individuals insist that Captain Bravo
knew about the hurricane and recklessly proceeded into the storm, an
investigation by federal maritime authorities cleared him of any
wrongdoing. With no telegraph or telephone communications between
Miami and Key West, there simply was no way for any skipper to know
about the hurricane in advance.
1989 The shuttle (STS 34) was launched from Cape
Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center.
1993 Space shuttle STS 58 was launched today
from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral.
1863 The Chief Commissary officer for General
Braxton E. Bragg's Army of Tennessee, Major J. F. Cummings, today
appealed to Florida Commissary Agent Major Pleasant W. White for
more Florida cattle for Confederate soldiers fighting in northern
Georgia. He informs White that "Captain Townsend, assistant
commissary of subsistence, having a leave of absence for thirty days
from the Army of Tennessee, I have prevailed on him to see you and
explain to you my straightened condition and the imminent danger of
our army suffering for want of beef." (For more information about
this subject, see Robert A. Taylor, Rebel Storehouse: Florida in the
Confederate Economy (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995,
1864 Federal raiders, operating along the shores
of Escambia Bay, confiscate approximately 1,500 bricks, several
doors, and a large amount of window sash for use on Federal
fortifications/buildings in the Pensacola area.
An expedition made up of men from the U.S.S. Stars
and Stripes made its way up the Ocklockonee River in West Florida.
Today and tomorrow, this expedition will destroy an extensive
Confederate fishery on Marsh's Island and capture a detachment of
Confederate soldiers assigned to guard the fishery.
1928 The first edition of the Jewish Floridian
1976 Campaigning in Miami, Jimmy Carter outlined
his proposed health program, which would put more emphasis on
preventing disease and injury than in reacting to them. Speaking to
the annual convention of the American Public Health Association,
Carter said "we've stressed cure and ignored prevention. We've made
the hospital the first line of defense instead of the last."
FASCINATING FLORIDA FACTS:
State Song: Old Folks At Home (Stephen Collins
State Play: Cross and Sword (Paul Green)
State Bird: Mockingbird
State Fish: Largemouth Bass
State Shell: Horse Conch (Pleuroploca gigantea)
State Mammal: Manatee
State Animal: Florida Panther (Felis concolor coryi)
State Tree: Sabal Palm (Sabal palmetto)
State Gem: Moonstone
State Stone: Agatized Coral
1849 The third occupation of Fort Dallas in
Miami by the U.S. Army begins today.
1863 The U.S. tender Annie captured the British
blockade runner Martha Jane near Bayport. On board was a cargo of
26,609 pounds of sea island cotton, $1,206.88 in gold, silver and
U.S. currency, and $127.70 in Confederate money.
The Confederate schooner Ann of Nassau and another
small sloop were captured with cargoes of sea island cotton near
Bayport as well.
Major J. F. Cummings, Chief Commissary for the Army
of Tennessee, continues to press Major Pleasant W. White for more
beef for troops in North Georgia. "The army is to-day on half
rations of beef and I fear within a few days will have nothing but
bread to eat. This is truly a dark hour with us, and I cannot see
what is to be done. All that is left for us to do is to do all we
can, and then we will have a clear conscience, no matter what the
world may say." (For more information about this subject, see Robert
A. Taylor, Rebel Storehouse: Florida in the Confederate Economy
(Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995, p. 162.)
1864 The U.S. Navy Department ordered the U.S.S.
San Jacinto to report to Key West for blockade duty.
1921 The Tampa Bay-Tarpon Springs area was
devastated by a hurricane. The tide in Tampa Bay was 10.5 feet, the
barometric pressure was 29.11 inches, and the winds were 100
1837 Seminole chief Osceola and his party,
camped outside Fort Pepton near St. Augustine under a flag of truce,
are taken prisoner by U.S. troops.
1863 The U.S. bark Gem of the Sea captured a
small sloop with four men and a single barrel of turpentine. One of
the men was Richard Maiers, the former marshal of Key West.
1864 The U.S.S. Sea Bird, under the command of
Ensign E. L. Robbins, captured the blockade running British schooner
Lucy off Anclote Keys. The Lucy was carrying an assortment of cargo.
Confederate and Union troops skirmished today at
Bryant's Plantation in northern Florida.
1905 President Theodore Roosevelt visited
Jacksonville during a one day visit. Roosevelt spoke to white
students at Central Grammar School and to African-American students
at Florida Baptist Academy.
1912 Cohen Brothers, operators of Jacksonville's
oldest department store (founded in 1867), opened a "block square"
store in the St. James Building on Hemming Park.
1958 First launching of two USAF Bomarc missiles
within less than 10 seconds of each other at Cape Canaveral.
1736 James Oglethorpe signed a treaty with
Spanish Florida Governor Francisco del Moral Sanchez in which both
sides agreed to control their Indian allies and stop molesting each
1863 Commander A.A. Semmes of the U.S.S. Tahoma
communicated with Captain James Westcott at Fort Brooke in an
unsuccessful effort to have the family of Acting Master's Mate H. A.
1884 A post office at Ruby (the forerunner of
Jacksonville Beach) opened today.
1957 Army Jupiter (IRBM) missile successfully
fired at Cape Canaveral.
1992 The space shuttle mission (STS 52) was
launched today from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral.
1838 The currency issued by Florida banks is
reputed to be the worst in the United States. Secretary of the
Treasury Levi Woodbury urges state banks to improve their condition
and to strengthen their currency issues.
1863 The U.S.S. Norfolk Packet, under the
command of Acting Ensign George W. Wood, captured the schooner Ocean
Bird off St. Augustine Inlet.
Lieutenant Ball of Dunham's Artillery (Florida
Milton Light Artillery, Battery A, Artillery) was killed today in a
fight at Cathey's Hotel in Lake City. His killer was J. A. Pickett.
1926 The University of Miami football team in
its first-ever game today defeated the Rollins College freshman team
by a score of 7-0. Approximately 4,000 fans witnessed this feat.
1984 Millard Fillmore Caldwell, the twenty-ninth
governor of Florida (January 2, 1945-January 4, 1949), died today at
his antebellum home in Tallahassee. Caldwell was born on February 6,
1897, near Knoxville, TN. He attended Carson-Newman College and the
University of Mississippi. After service in the Army in World War I,
he attended the University of Virginia.
He came to Florida in 1924 and practiced law in
Milton. In 1929 and 1931, Caldwell represented Santa Rosa County in
the Florida House of Representatives. From 1933 until 1941, he
represented Florida's Third Congressional District in the U.S. House
of Representatives. During his congressional service, he represented
the United States in international conferences at The Hague (1938)
and Oslo (1939).
Elected governor in 1944, he promoted the enactment
of the Minimum Foundation Program for public schools and the
development of the Capitol Center. After a number of Federal
positions, Caldwell was appointed to the Florida Supreme Court in
1962 and elected that same year without opposition. In 1967, he was
elected the Chief Justice. Caldwell retired in 1969.
1995 Florida and the remainder of North America
witnessed a solar eclipse today.
1785 Thomas Brown, the second governor of
Florida (October 1-October 3, 1853) was born in Westmoreland, VA.
(For more information about Brown, see entry for August 24.)
1792 Richard Keith Call, the third (March 1836)
and fifth (March 1841) territorial governor of Florida was born in
Pittsfield, Prince George County, VA. (For more information on Call,
see entry for September 14.)
1820 The Adams-Onis Treaty transferring title of
Florida to the United States was signed by the King of Spain.
1861 The U.S.S. Rhode Island, under the command
of Lieutenant Stephen D. Trenchard, captured the schooner Aristides
off Charlotte Harbor.
1864 The U.S.S. Nita, under the command of
Acting Lieutenant Robert B. Smith, captured the schooner Unknown off
Clearwater Harbor after her crew had escaped.
The U.S.S. Rosalie, under the command of Acting
Ensign Henry W. Wells, captured an unidentified blockade running
sloop off Little Marco Island with a cargo of salt and shoes.
On land, skirmishes broke out between Confederate
and Union forces near Magnolia, Fl. Florida units participating were
the Florida 2nd Cavalry and the Florida 5th Cavalry Battalion.
Cavalry, under the command of J. J. Dickinson, kill ten of the
fifty-five Union troops, wound eight, and take twenty-three
prisoner. There were no Confederate casualties.
1834 A Seminole Council was held today at Fort
King (Ocala). Osceola, Micanopy and other chiefs expressed strong
hostility to the policy of removal to lands west of the Mississippi
1864 A detachment of 600 Union troops leave Fort
Barrancas in Pensacola and attack the town of Milton. Nine
Confederates are taken prisoner. Several soldiers on both sides were
wounded. The Federal troops capture a small quantity of lumber and
timber. The ferry crossing across the river was destroyed by the
1865 The Florida Ordinance of Secession was
annulled by a special Constitutional Convention mandated by Andrew
Johnson on this date.
1903 The Germania Club, the pioneering
German-American social club, was organized in Jacksonville.
1921 Seven people were killed in the Tampa-St.
Petersburg area and more than 500 homes in Ybor City were destroyed
as the Tampa Bay area was struck by a violent hurricane.
1964 President Lyndon Baines Johnson was awarded
an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree at dedication ceremonies
for Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton. The University was
organized on July 1, 1962.
1971 Walt Disney World was officially dedicated
by Roy D. Disney in ceremonies held at the Lake Buena Vista Resort.
1972 Doyle Elam Carlton, the 25th governor of
Florida (January 8, 1929-January 3, 1933), died today in Tampa. (For
more information, see entry for July 6.)
1998 Daylight Savings Time ends today.
1861 The Department of Middle and Eastern
Florida has been defined as extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the
1863 The U.S.S. Two Sisters returned to Cedar
Key today after a cruise along the Gulf Coast.
1869 Martial law was imposed in Marianna today
in an effort to stem racial violence stemming from legislation
politically empowering freedmen in Florida.
1894 The town of Sneads was incorporated today.
1999 Golfer Payne Stewart and four other
passengers were killed when the Lear jet they were riding to a
Dallas, Texas, event experienced a loss of pressure. The plane,
which left Orlando International Airport, was last in contact with
controllers near Gainesville. Four hours later and 1500 miles away
it crashed near Mina, South Dakota. There were no survivors.
1785 The Treaty of San Lorenzo was signed
between the United States and Spain. The treaty opened the
Mississippi River to American commerce and the border between the
United States and West Florida was agreed to as the 31 degrees north
1819 Henry Bradley Plant, pioneer developer of
railroads on Florida's west coast and the founder of the Plant
System of railroads and steamships, was born in Branford, CT.
During the Civil War, Plant was the southern manager
for Adams Express Company, which he renamed the Southern Express
Company. Plant's services were considered so valuable to the
Confederate government during the war that he was excused from the
requirement that he become a Confederate citizen.
After the war, Plant began to assembled the Plant
System in the South. In Florida, the Plant System ran from
Jacksonville to Palatka and Sanford. Ultimately the Plant System
stretched to Tampa and points south. By 1895, Plant had more than
1,400 miles of railroads under his control and about 1,300 miles of
steamer routes. (See Edward A. Mueller, Steamships of the Two Henrys
(DeLeon Springs: E.O.Painter Printing Company, 1996).
Known as the "Father of Tampa," Plant erected the
Moorish palace known as the Tampa Bay Hotel, developed Port Tampa as
a deep water port, and made possible, through his railroad, the
development of West Tampa and Ybor City as cigar producing areas. He
also developed the Belleview Hotel in Pinellas County, at the time
the largest wooden structure in the world.
A friendly rivalry developed between Henry Plant and
Henry Flagler. When Plant opened his Tampa Bay Hotel (at a cost of
more than $4 million), it is reported that he invited Flagler to
attend. When Flagler responded, "Where is Tampa?" Plant answered,
"Just follow the crowds, Henry, just follow the crowds!"
The Tampa Bay Hotel served as the headquarters for
General William Shafter and the American Army during the
Spanish-American War. The fame of the hotel was spread nationwide,
and Tampa became the destination of America's wealthy tourists.
Tragically, Plant died just a year later
1924 New Port Richey is formally incorporated as
1961 St. John Vianney Minor Seminary is
chartered in Miami.
1862 The U.S.S. Sagamore, under the command of
Lieutenant Commander George A. Bigelow, captured the British
blockade running steamer Trier off the coast of the Indian River
Inlet. The U.S.S. Montgomery seized the blockade running steamer
Caroline off the coast of Pensacola.
Union soldier surprised a detachment of Confederate
cavalry at Gonzalia (about 20 miles north of Pensacola) early this
morning. All but nine of the Confederates were killed or captured.
1865 A constitutional convention, called at the
direction of President Andrew Johnson and Provisional Governor
William Marvin, met today in Tallahassee to write a new state
constitution as a condition for readmission into the Union. The
constitution, which was to become effective on November 7 without a
vote of the citizens, never became effective because President
Johnson lost control of the process of Reconstruction to
1887 Today the 834 registered voters of Punta
Gorda voted to incorporate the town.
1927 Today a chartered Fokker F-7 trimotor
airplane left the dirt runway at Key West's Meacham Field to
inaugurate Pan American Airways mail service to Havana. Twenty-eight
sacks of mail were shipped over the ninety miles of water. Three
months later, passenger service was started. Allen Morris notes that
"Because of Prohibition, the champagne christening of the maiden
flight that day had to take place in Havana rather than in Key
1959 The Broward County Board of Public
Instruction approved the financial arrangements for the
establishment of Broward County Community College.
1864 Brigadier General William S. Walker of
Florida assumed command of Confederate tools in Weldon, VA.
C.S.S. Olustee, formerly the C.S.S. Tallahassee and
under the command of Lieutenant William H. Ward, eluded Union
blockaders off the coast of Wilmington today to begin a nine-day
cruise against Union shipping in the Atlantic.
1939 The Bethlehem Lutheran Church in Lake City,
Florida's oldest Lutheran congregation (founded in 1859), today
celebrates its 139th anniversary.
1940 United States Senator "Connie Mack" was
born in Philadelphia, PA today. Mack moved to Florida when he was
eleven years old. He graduated from the University of Florida in
1966. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives prior to
becoming senator. Mack is currently Florida's "junior" senator and
is a member of the Republican Party.
1959 The United States Air Force launched an
Atlas rocket carrying a nose-cone camera today from Cape Canaveral.
The purpose of the mission was to photograph earth's cloud cover
from a height of 300+ miles.
1963 An Atlas missile launched today from Cape
Canaveral went out of control 2.5 minutes after launch and crashed
into the Atlantic Ocean. This marked the sixth successive failure of
the Atlas missile.
1998 Senator John Glenn took his second trip
into outer space today aboard space shuttle, Discovery. Glenn, who
became the first American to orbit the Earth on February 20, 1962,
also became the oldest American in space at age 77.
1558 Tristan de Luna y Arellano named by the
Viceroy of Mexico, Luis De Velasco, to head the Spanish expedition
to occupy Florida.
1862 Fearing what impact the Union occupation of
the Fernandina-Jacksonville-St. Augustine are might have on the
slave population of North Florida, Confederate General Finegan
authorizes Captain J. J. Dickinson and his Cavalry to assemble free
blacks and slaves with no owners present and to move them to the
interior of the state where they could be place in the charge of
some responsible white person.
1863 The U.S.S. Annie, under the command of
Acting Ensign Williams, seized the blockade-running British
schooner, Meteor, off the coast of Bayport, Florida, today.
1926 A skeleton believed to be that of a
prehistoric mastodon is uncovered near Venice Beach. Representatives
of the Smithsonian Institution are called to the scene to
1933 The first classes for the Palm Beach Junior
College start today in West Palm Beach.
1985 The shuttle (STS 61-A) was launched today
from Cape Canaveral.
1764 George Johnstone, the first governor of
British West Florida, arrived in Pensacola today.
1799 All Spanish and American military officers
are ordered out of West Florida today by William Augustus Bowles,
the Caucasian Creek chief. Bowles promulgated the order as the
"Director General" of the State of Muskogee, which had its capital
Mikasukee near present-day Tallahassee. Bowles was eventually taken
prisoner by an agent of the United States government who delivered
him to Spanish authorities in 1803. He was imprisoned in Havana and
1861 Governor John Milton reports to Confederate
authorities at Richmond that Union gunboats had captured the ship,
Salvor, owned and commanded by James McKay of Tampa, near Key West
with a cargo of "21,000 stands of arms, 10 boxes of revolvers, six
rifled cannon, and ammunition."
1900 Citizens of Jacksonville and North Florida
experienced eight distinctive earthquake shocks at about 11:15 a.m.
on today. The shocks, rated as 5 on the Mercalli Scale, produced
broken windows, cracked plaster, and broken dishes. Twice before in
1879 and 1880 Florida experienced earthquakes in the modern age.
1955 The Statutory Board was abolished on this
date and replaced by the Board of Bar Examiners, which is charged
with the responsibility of examining the moral and technical
qualifications of applicants seeking to practice law in Florida.
1957 A Snark Intercontinental missile was
launched from Cape Canaveral today and impacted on its target near
Ascension Island, more than 5,000 miles away.