Milledgeville-Baldwin County, Ga.
In The News 1930's - 1940's

January 3, 1930
Macon Telegraph
  Milledgeville, Ga, Jan. 2, James L. Ivey, 81, pioneer citizen of Milledgeville and Baldwin county, died at his home here this morning after a protracted ilness. Funeral services will be held Friday afternoon from the residence.
   Mr. Ivey celebrated his birthday Dec. 24 and the same time celebrated the 57th anniversary of his marriage. He was a young man during reconstruction days and helped in the rebuilding of Baldwin county after Shermans march through. He had been a member of the Primitive Baptist church for 60 yers.
   His widow, one daughter, Miss Mattie L. Ivey, of Atlanta; three sosn, Charles A., Leland K., and William H. Ivey and a number of grandchildren survive.

Saturday March 29, 1930
The Augusta Chronicle
DR. H.D. ALLEN'S DEATH. Dr. Dawson Allen, the founder of "Allen's Invalid Home" died in Milledgeville Saturday night. No man was more beloved in that town. He was a man of skill and sympathy, and there are people all over Georgia who testify to his kindness and care. He was a lovable man. He married Miss Sallie Whitaker. There are six children, three sons and three daughters. Two of his sons were associated with him in his invalid home. He was a member of the Board of Directors of Merchants and Farmers Bank, and his colleagues presented him with a silver testimonial of his services. He will be missed in Milledgeville and the state generally - Savannah Press.

August 8, 1930
The Augusta Chronicle
Doctor Name On Sanitarium Board Milledgeville Physician Appointed By Governor
Special to The Chronicle. Milledgeville, Ga. Aug. 7 - Dr. Richard Binion, prominent young Milledgeville physician, has accepted the appointment on the board of trustees at the Georgia State sanitarium tendered officially Wednesday by Governor Hardman. Dr. Binion succeeds Dr. T. M. Hall, of Millledgeville who resigned because of ill health.
     The new trustee has served for a number of years as official physician of the state prison farm, physician of the Georgia Military college, surgeon of the city hospital, member of the staff at the Allen Invalid home, and in addition has a large private practice. He is a native of Sparta, but has practiced in Milledgeville for a number of years. He married Miss Frances Conn, daughter of the late John Conn, wholesale merchant. They have one child, Frances Powell Binion.
     Dr. Binion has served as alderman for the city of Milledgeville, and is said to have refused demands of his friends to run for mayor.

March 4, 1930
Macon Telegraph
   Milledgeville, Ga., March 3. John H. Lee, 60, died here Sunday at noon after an illness of several months. Mr. Lee had been in failing health for years.
   He is survived by his wife and several children. The funeral was held from the Union Hill Methodist church near Stevens Pottery this afternoon, Rev. J. H. Farr officiating.

October 29, 1930
Macon Telegraph
Benjamin Brookins, Confederate Army Vet, Dies at 100. Benjamin Brookins, 100-year-old veteran of the Confederate army, died here last night at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Winnie Purvis, at 1635 Broadway. A farmer of Baldwin county all his life, he had lived here only since August.
   He is survived by the following daughters and sons: Mrs. Jennie Wynn, Mrs. Mollie Miller and John Brookins, all of Milledgeville; Mrs. Purvis and Mrs. Maggie Stanley, of Macon, and Ed Brookins, of Fort Gaines. he also leaves three brothers, John of Cooper Station, and Sam and Zack Brookins of Washington county.
  Mr. Brookins was a member of Mt. Olive Baptist church of Baldwin county. Funeral services will be held in Milledgeville, futher arrangements to be announced later.

February 27, 1931
Macon Telegraph
   ~excerpt~ Simplicity characterized the wedding of Miss Estelle Stephens and Mr. Harvey Jordan Veal, of Milledgeville which was solemnized Sunday morning, Feb. 15, at 10:30 at the home of the bride's parents, Col. and Mrs. E. L. Stephens, in Dublin. Rev. L. C. Gray, pastor of the First Methodist church...........
  After a wedding ytrip Mr. and Mrs. Veal will be at home to their friends in Milledgeville where Mr. Veal is owner of the Milledgeville Music Shop.
  Mrs. Veal is the youngest daughter of Colonel and Mrs. Stephens. She attended G. S. C. W. in Milledgeville.
  Mr. Veal is the son of Mr. and Mrs. O. F. Veal, of Milledgeville. .............

June 17, 1931
Macon Telegraph
BENTLEY-HAM. Mrs. J. A. Ham, Milledgeville, Ga., announces the marriage of her daughter, Mary Eudelle, to Mr. Carl L. Bentley of Toomsboro, Ga., on Sunday, June 14.

October 1931
The Union-Recorder
MRS. MARY BABB BURIED AT BLACK SPRINGS FRIDAY Former Resident Died in Macon Thursday Afternoon After Ten Days Illness
     The remains of Mrs. Mary Pierce Babb were brought here Friday afternoon from Macon, and carried to Black Springs Baptist church in East Baldwin, where the funeral services were conducted by Rev. W.W. Williamson, of Macon. Mrs. Babb died at a hospital in Macon Thursday afternoon, after a ten days' illness, following a fall in her bedroom in which she sustained a fractured hip.
    Mrs. Babb, a native of Hancock County, was born February 6th, 1853. She was the daughter of Everett Hamilton Pierce and Mary Francis Mullis Pierce. She made her home here a number of years, and went to Macon twenty years ago. She is survived by three daughters, Mrs. H.M. Edwards, Mrs. J.C. Humphries, and Miss Pearl Babb, all of Macon; and two sons C.H. Babb, Macon, and J.F. Babb, Miami, Fla; several grandchildren,great-grandchildren, nieces and nephews.
Mrs. Babb was a member of the church for over fifty years, and her life a consistent one.

December 4, 1931
Chronicle Telegram, Elyria, Ohio
Samuel P. Brooks, president of Baylor University for more than 25 years, born in Milledgeville, Ga. Died at Waco, Tex., May 14, 1931.

January 18, 1932
Macon Telegraph
     Milledgeville, Ga., Jan. 17. Funeral services for Emmett Moran, World War Veteran who died in Albany yesterday, will be held here at 10:30 o'clock tomorrow morning. Members of the Morris-Little post of the American Legion will have charge of the services.
  Mr. Moran has been in ill health since the war and had been confined to several hospitals. He was married in Albany two weeks ago and is survivd by his widow, his mother, Mrs. P. L. Moran, of Milledgeville; two sisters, Miss Florence Moran, of Milledgeville, and Miss Katherine Moran. Little Rock, Ark.; four brothers, J. W. and William Moran, of Chicago; Edgar Moran, New York, and Allen Moran, Orlando, Fla.

November 29, 1932
Macon Telegraph
WOOD-RENFROE. Mr. and Mrs. I. N. Wood of Milledgeville announce the marriage of their daughter, Louise, to Mr. Julian Renfroe of San Francisco, Cal., the ceremony having taken place Oct. 30.

June 19, 1932
Macon Telegraph
HOMER THOMPSON. Funeral services for Homer Thompson, brother of Mrs. G. L. Cook of 121 Clisby place, will be held at 4:30 o'clock Sunday afternoon in Moore's mortuary, Milledgeville.
   Mr. Thompson died at 6 o'clock Friday afternoon at Milledgeville, after a short illness. He is survived by his wiow, formerly Miss Marine Pitts, Milledgeville; his sister, Mrs. Cook, and seven children.

December 25, 1932
Cleveland Plain Dealer
  BISHOP PUBLISHES BOOK OF HIS LIFE. Ecclesiastic of Colored M. E. Church Chronicles Career From Slavery.
  Dr. Charles Henry Phillips, 10828 Drexel Avenue N. E. bishop of the northeastern district of the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church and author of numerous pamphlets on social questions, has written an autobiography which went on sale yesterday.
  Bishop Phillips for a long time was editor of the Christian Index, official organ of the Colored M. E. Church, in Nashville, Tenn. He moved to  Cleveland twelve years ago and serves churches in Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, New York, New Jersey and Maryland.
   Dr. Phillips' book, titled "From the Farm to the Bishopric" is an interesting story of the clergyman's life from 1858, when he was born in Milledgeville, Ga., to the present day.
   "Though born in slavery, I was too young to know anything experimentally of that institution," Bishop Phillips writes.
   The book records his experiences on the farm where he was born, in college where he won numerous degrees and in ecclesiastical life, where he has won for himself many pastorates and many honors. There are interesting notes on his four trips to Europe as a delegate to conferences.
  There are two Colored M. E. churches in Cleveland, one at Cedar Avenue S. E. and E. 46th Street, another at Woodland Avenue S. E. and E. 63rd Street.

Notes: Copyright Plain Dealer Publishing Co. Used with permission,

Acording to passport records, Dr. Phillips was born 17 Jan, 1858 in Milledgeville, the son of George Washington Phillips of Jasper County, Ga. and Nancy Phillips. The family was living in the Scottsboro district in the 1870 census and in the Meriwether district in 1880 censuus where  Dr. Phillips was listed as a school teacher. His book the History of The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in America, published in 1925 is online at

August 1933
The Union-Recorder
Miss Mattie Babb Died in East Baldwin Friday
  Miss Mattie Babb, after a protracted illness, passed away at her home in East Baldwin Friday Aug. 11th.
  The funeral and burial services were held at Black Spring church Saturday morning at eleven o'clock Rev. J. F. McCluney officiating in the presence of a large gathering of neighbors and friends. The following acted as pallbearers: Messrs E. R. Collins, W. H. Collins, T. C. Collins, Earnest Rowell, Sam Blizzard, Harvey Sullivan, Howard Kennedy and J. N. Kennedy.
   Miss Babb was seventy-five years of age, and was born in East Baldwin, her parents being the late Mr. Brinkly Babb and Mrs Missouri Harris Babb. She was a nurse at the Milledgeville State Hospital for twenty years and for the past eighteen years made her home in the house in which she died. She was of the Baptist faith, joining the Black Spring church during the years of her young womanhood, and her life was consistent with her profession.

The Union-Recorder
BABB-ROSE. Mrs. J.E. Babb, of Saint Augustine, Fla, announces the marriage of her daughter, Lillian to Mr. William T. Rose, Jr., son of Mr and Mrs. W.T. Rose of Rocky Mount, N.C. The ceremony was performed in Palatka, Fla., by Judge Causey Green, of Putnam County, Fla. For a number of years prior to her marriage, Mrs. Rose had made her home in Saint Augustine where she was employed in the office of A.H. Reeder, Auditor of Freight Accounts of the Florida East Coast Railroad. Mr. Rose is district manager of the Collier Publishing Company, working out of Atlanta. The young couple will make their home in Atlanta.

November 12, 1933
Macon Telegraph
Bloodworth-Dent Nuptials Are Held. The marriage of Miss Idella Bloodworth and Mr. Maner Dent of Milledgeville was solemnized a the home of the bride's parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Bloodworth, at Gray Saturday, Nov. 4.
  The bride wore a dress of blue corded silk with matching accessories. Mr. Dent is a native of Baldwin county, the son of Mr. and Mrs. L. H. Dent, Sr. He is employed at the Electric Maid Bakery, Milledgeville, where he and his bride will make their home on Wayne street.

March 1934
Union Recorder
A CONFEDERATE VETERAN PASSES. Mr. J. Wiley Vinson Went to Reward March 1st After a Long life.
   Mr. J. Wiley Vinson, Confederate Veteran, and one of Baldwin county's oldest citizens, passed away at his home in the Southwestern part of the county Thursday morning, March 1st. The death of Mr. Vinson resulted from a fall on the ice at his home Sunday February, 11th, when his hip was broken. During the weeks he lingered, he received the tender care of his loved ones, and everything possible was done to alleviate his suffering. He peacefully and quietly fell on sleep.
  The funeral and burial services were held at Bethlehem church in Jones county Friday afternoon at three o'clock in the presence of a large gathering of relatives, friends and neighbors of Mr. Vinson. Tributes were paid his life and memory by Rev. P. M. Allen and Mr. J. A. Moore.
   Mr. Vinson was born January 18th, 1847, and his long life was spent in the section of the county in which he passed away. He enlisted in the Confederate army, and rendered valiant service during the closing year of the War Between the States. He was a member of Camp Geo. Doles No. 730 U.C.V., and for the past several years has been chaplain of that organization. He was devoutly religious and his faith in God, and His sustaining power and assistance never wavered. Until his eyesight began to fail he read the bible, and was fervent in prayer. A good man has gone to his reward.
   Mr. Vinson is survived by his wife and seven children: James and Ben Vinson, of Gordon, and Tim Vinson, of Baldwin county; Tom and Ebb Vinson, of Meigs, and one daughter, Mrs. E. J. Adams.
   The death of Mr. Vinson leaves only two surviving Confederate Veterans living in this county, Judge B. C. Ward and Mr. Jesse Taylor, and two others of Camp Doles, Mr. J. B. Boatright, of Tennille, and Mr. T. J. Howard, of Haddock.......

Submitted by  Lillian (Lynn) Vinson Martin

March 17, 1934
Macon Telegraph
WILLIAM W. LYSTER.  Funeral services for William W. Lyster, 42, whose death occurred in a local hospital early Thursday night, resulting from injuries received in an automobile accident shortly after noon Thursday, will be held in Salem church, Baldwin county at 2 p.m. (E. S. T.) today. Rev. J. T. Collins will officiate and interment will be in the famly lot there.
   Mr. Lyster was born in Baldwin county, June 4, 1891, the son of John Lyster and Nancy Bloodworth Lyster. He had made his home in Macon for a number of years, being employed while here as blacksmith in Central of Georgia shops. For the past three years he had operated a blacksmith shop in the Big Sandy community in which he lived. He was a member of the New Haven Baptist church and of the W. O. W.

April 15, 1934
Macon Telegraph
Hawkins-Fowler Marriage Held.   Announcement is made of the marriage of Miss Sybil Hawkins, of Milledgeville, to Mr. William J. Fowler which too place in Aiken, S. C., Oct. 1, 1933. The Rev. Addock C. Holler, pastor of the First Methodist church, officiated at his home.
   The bride is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Hawkins, of Miami, Fla.,  and the granddaughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Hawkins, of Milledgevile, with whom she has been making her home for the past several years.
    Mr. Fowler is the son of Mrs. Mamie Fowler and the late Mr. Sam Fowler.
   Mr. and Mrs. Fowler will make their home in Sandersville.

June 8, 1934
Augusta Chronicle
CHURCH LEADER DIES AT MILLEDGEVILLE. Milledgeville, Ga., June 7 (AP) Mrs. Julia Powell West, a leader in the Methodist church here, died at her residence today after an illness of several weeks.
  Mrs. West, the daughter of the late Dr. T. O. Powell, for many years superintendent of the state hospital is survived by a niece, Mrs. Richard Binion, of Milledgeville.
  Funeral services will be held from the residence tomorrow with the Rev. Horace E. Smith, pastor of the Methodist church, officiating. Burial will be in the city cemetery.

October 1935
The Union-Recorder

Linton B. Babb Dies After Long Illness.      Mr. Linton B. Babb, aged fifty-four years, died at his residence on Oconee Heights Saturday October 12th, after an illness of eighteen months.
    The funeral services were held at the Hardwick Baptist church at 3:30 o'clock Sunday afternoon, Revs. J. F. McCluney and W.C. Budd officiating.
    The interment was in the Milledgeville cemetery, the following acting as pall-bearers: Messrs. Ralph Simmerson, J. R. Davis, Rob Robinson, Will Cook, W. A. Peeler and Ellis Tyler.
     Mr. Babb was for a number of years an employee of the Milledgeville State Hospital and was well known throughout the city and county. He was a member of the Black Spring Baptist church. Surviving Mr. Babb are his wife, formerly Miss Eva Palmer of Louisville, Ga,; two brothers, W.C. Babb, of Jacksonville, Fla., and W. R. Babb, of this city; one sister, Mrs. Julia Flury of this city

March 1936
The Union-Recorder

Mr. L. B. Babb Passes Away Suddenly Tuesday Morning At His Home in East Baldwin. Mr. L. B. Babb, one of Baldwin County’s outstanding farmers and beloved citizens for more that three score years, passed away suddenly Tuesday morning at his home in East Baldwin.
Mr. Babb had been enjoying fair health despite his age and his sudden death was a great shock to a great number of friends and relatives. Funeral services will be held at the Black Springs Church Thursday at 11 a.m. and interment will be in the Black Springs cemetery. Rev. W.C. Budd and Rev. Jessie Gilmore will conduct the services.
      Mr. Babb is survived by his wife, who was Miss Josephine Franklin; six sons, Jerome and H.H. Babb of Milledgeville, Avery Babb, of Granite Pass, Oregon, L.L. and Preston Babb of Baldwin County, Clifton Babb of McIntyre; two daughters, Mrs. John Bell Jackson, Hillside, PA; Mrs. Ernest Jackson, Milledgeville.
       Lawrence B. Babb was born in Baldwin County June 18, 1852. Sixty five years ago last June he was married to Miss Josephine Franklin, of Aiken, S.C. He began farming when a young man and has followed this profession throughout his life. He was a man trusted and beloved by a wide circle of friends and was known for his benevolent nature and devotion to the principal of honest toil. Mr. Babb was a successful farmer and was active until his death. He visited Milledgeville frequently and established himself in the confidence of the people of our community. For more than fifty years he was a member of Montpelier Methodist Church and adhered to its teaching in his relationships with his fellowman. He was loyal in the support of the church and in recent years when the church was reorganized, he had an active part in this work, serving as an officer in the church. Mr. Babb spent a long and useful life in this community and his death brings sorrow to his many friends and relatives.

The Union-Recorder
Permanent Beauty Machine Thermostatic and Automatic Controlled. Just received and ready to give you the newest type Coiffure. Our operators Mrs. Rubye Holland and Miss Lyda __ have just returned from the Beauty Show and course in Atlanta where they saw demonstrated and studied the changes and improvements in beauty culture. PHONE FOR APPOINTMENT. Babb’s Beauty Shoppe.  Milledgeville’s Oldest and Most Modern Beauty Shop

December 24, 1936
Macon Telegraph
Mrs. Maude Stanley Davis, 501 Carling avenue, died at a local hospital last night after an illness of several days with pneumonia.
   Mrs. Davis was born in Milledgeville Oct. 10, 1873. For the past 15 years, she had been connected with the Union Dry Goods  Company. She was a member of the Second Baptist church.
   Mrs. Davis is survived by one daughter, Mrs. Felton Rice, Milledgeville; one granddaughter, Joyce Baskerville, Milledgeville; two sisters, Mrs. Mattie Reagle,  Macon, and Mrs. J. J. Perminter, Macon; one brother, O. L. Stanley, Macon.
   Funeral services will be held at 4 p.,. today in the chapel of Hart's mortuary. Dr. J. E. Sammons will officiate, and interment will be in Riverside cemetery.

December 20, 1937
Macon Telegraph
   Milledgeville, Ga., Dec. 19. Funeral services for Benjamin Jackson, Jr., Milledgeville, 77, who died Saturday afternoon after an illness of three or four days, will be held Monday at 3 p.m. from Moore's chapel. Interment will be in the Black Springs cemetery.
   Surviving are his wife who was Miss Elizabeth Burt, five sons: W. L., M. J.,  Frank and O. P. Jackson of Milledgeville; Louis Jackson of East Juliette; three daughters, Miss Margaret Ballard of York, Penn; Mrs. R. M. Brown, Zephyr Hills, Fla., Miss Mary Jackson, of Milledgeville.

March 17, 1938
Macon Telegraph
Baptist Minister Dies in  Baldwin. John T. Pettigrew Had Served 50 Years in Georgia.
    Milledgeville, Ga. March 16. Rev. John T. Pettigrew, 89, who served Baptist churches in Baldwin, Jones and Wilkinson counties for 50 years, died at his home near here today. He was a former chaplain at the state prison farm. He had been in poor health for four years.
   The funeral is to be held at 3 o'clock Thursday afternoon in the Salem Baptist church in Baldwin county, with the Rev. Carl Minor, chaplain at the state farm and Joe Moore of Milledgeville, officiating.
   Mr. Pettigrew is survived by his wife, four sons, two daughters, and 17 grandchildren. The sons are A. T., W. A., and B. F. Pettigrew of Milledgeville, and L. G. Pettigrew of Ocilla; the daughters, Mrs. J. T. Ivey, and Mrs. Annie Jones of Milledgeville. 

 August 3, 1939
The Union-Recorder
MISS BABB BRIDE OF MR. BROOKINS. Miss Edith Anita Babb daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Lonnie Babb became the bride of Mr. Roger Julian Brookins on Monday afternoon July 31st at a quiet ceremony performed by Judge Bertie B. Stembridge in her office at the courthouse. Mr. and Mrs. Brookins are well known throughout the county. They are both employed at Allen’s Invalid Home and have a host of friends who wish them much happiness as they begin their life together.

January 14, 1940
Macon Telegraph
   Mrs. C. C. Smith of Milledgeville announce the marriage of her daughter, Ethel Connelle, to John M. Nolan, the ceremony have take place Sept. 25, in Jeffersonville.

April 7, 1940
Macon Telegraph
Miss Hatfield Wed to Cooperville Man. Milledgeville. The marriage of Miss Edna Hatfield of McIntyre to Jonah Clance of Cooperville was solemnized Jan. 21.
   Mrs. Clance is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. S. W. Hatfield of McIntyre. At the time of her marriage she was connected with the beauty parlor in the Center building at the state hosptial.
  The couple will make their home in Cooperville.


April 16, 1941
Macon Telegraph
   Milledgeville, April 15. Mrs. Lizzie B. Jackson, died at her home Tuesdau afternoon.
   Funeral services will be held in the chapel of Moore's Funeral home at a time to be announced later and burial will be in Black Springs cemetery at 3 p.m.
    Survivors are five sons, W. L. and M. L. Jackson of Milledgeville, and Frank, O. P. and Lewis Jackson of Macon; and two daughers, Mrs. W. M. Brown, Zephlyn Hills, Fla., and Miss Mary Jackson, Milledgeville.

December 21, 1941
Macon Telegraph
   Milledgeville, Dec. 20. Mrs. Zora Turner Cook, died at her home here Satuday and funeral services will be held Sunday at 2 p.m. in Moore's funeral home chapel, the Rev. J. F. McCluney officiating.
    Surviving are her husband; three sons, A. R. Cook of Sparta; and D. O. and Woodrow Cook, of Milledgeville; six daughters, Mrs. D. C. Califf, Mrs. Lamar Roberts, Mrs. Walter Dixon and Mrs. Ralph Ivester of Milledgeville; Mrs. L. S. Smith of Devereaux; and Mrs. Dunbar Martin of Sparta, and a brother, Ivey Turner of Sandersville.

November 11, 1942
Macon Telegraph
  Funeral services for James Roland Woodall, retired M. D. and S. car inspector, who died at his residence, 177 North avenue Sunday evening, were held in the chapel of Hart's mortuary at 4:30 p.m. Tuesday. Mr. O. B. Belmont and the Rev. Swoll Sawyer officated and burial was in the Macon Memorial park.
   Active pallbearers wre J. W. Baxley, P. W. Newton, D. B. Dorsey, M.  P. Philmon, A. R. Wellons and W. P. Lindler. Honorary pallbearers were S.  L. Dyer, T. F. Waller, J. E. Driskell, H. H. DuPriest, N. T. Church and H. W. Robertson.
  Mr. Woodall had made his home in Macon since 1900, coming from Baldwin county. He was a member of the Hopewell Methodist church in Baldwin county, the Brotherhood of Railway Carmen and the Business Men's Evangelistic club.

January 28, 1943
Macon Telegraph
   Milledgeville, Jan. 27. John Thomas Ray, 70, an employee of the Milledgeville State hospital for the last 37 years, died Tuesday following a heart attack. He had been in ill health for the last year.
   Funeral services were held at 5 p.m. Wednesday at Oxford memorial Christian church in Hardwin with the Rev. L. A. Cunningham and the Rev. E. G. Orahood officiating. Burial was in the Milledgeville city cemetery.
    Surviving are his wife, the former Miss Addie Peacock, and one brother Bob Ray of Eatonton.

April 16, 1944
Macon Telegraph
Pair Is Married At Sparta Rites.   Milledgeville, Ga - Mr. and Mrs. Arnie Simpson announce the marrice of their daughter, Annie Lillian, to Frank McComb Chandler of Milledgeville and Sparta. The wedding took place April 1 in the home of the Rev. W. H. Barnett of Sparta, who officiated.
   The bride is a teacher of home economics in the Sparta High school. Mr. Chandler, a member of Baldwin county families, is Hancock couny's soil conservationist.

Eileen Babb McAdams copyright 2004