Charlton County was created on February 18, 1854, named in honor of Robert Milledge Charlton, a U.S. Senator and one of Georgia's foremost jurists, and was created from a portion of Camden County, Georgia by an act of the Georgia General Assembly on February 18, 1854.
Additional lands from Ware County, Georgia, were added to Charlton's borders by an 1855 act of the General Assembly. In 1856, an additional legislative act redefined the Charlton–Camden borders again with each county ceding land to the other.
Charlton County contains a large portion of the Stephen C. Foster State Park, and the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge and Wilderness Area. The county seat is Folkston.
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