Ware Callaway's brother, Emerson Callaway, was the one soldier from Inman Methodist Church who went to WWII and did not return home. He was killed in action as noted on his marker. Emerson was buried with his parents in the Inman Cemetery.
Ware Crowell Orr Callaway
excerpt from The Autobiography of an Ordinary Man in tan Extraordinary Century, the 20th Century A.D.! (Vol. 1) by Ware Callaway, 1997, published by author, and reproduced here by permission. Mr. Callaway died 1999. Ware Callaway was the son of Howard Callaway and Elizabeth Johnson, who came from families that founded the lands to the East of the Flint River following the Treaty of Indian Springs. "Mr. Howard" and "Miss Lizzie" had four children, and moved to the Inman community from the Bear Creek area in the early 1920s. Excerpts from page 91 of Autobiography and forward.
"Mr. Howard" and "Miss Lizzie" had been thinking of moving....Mr. Howard wanted to get where the roads were passable for his car, so that he could work more days out of the year! "Miss Lizzie" wanted to be nearer "her" church was one reason. Another was the need to be nearer a school for her two small children. The Bear Creek area was far removed from the nearest school of any type and the nearest one was at Woolsey, which was approximately three miles away. These two reasons weighed heavily with "Miss Lizzie"!
Perhaps, the reason most in the mind of "Mr. Howard" was that the roads, mentioned above in the Bear Creek area were terrible, and getting out by car almost impossible for over half the year. My father needed to be where he could come and go each week day to earn money as an artisan, a brickmason. He did not earn his living by farming, where the farmer usually left the farm only rarely. The road through Inman, from Fayetteville to Griffin was a "highway" compared to the wagon road where they were living!...His "T-model Ford".... could carry him and his workers, or his family for a joy ride along at fifteen or twenty miles an hour over the better road in Fayette County!
Inman became incorporated under State of Georgia laws in 1911, which gave it certain legal rights and benefits. These will be shown as I tell the story of the institutions and businesses in the village, now becoming a town!
The church in most rural communities and town was the center of social activities, other than public education in schools. The Inman community had two Methodist churches, one for the White race and one for the Black race. In the 19th century, both of these were located approximately one mile from the village called Inman. These two churches both had burial grounds or cemeteries! In the early 20th century it was decided that the White Methodist church would relocate in the center of this small community of Inman! The cemetery adjoining was not to be disturbed, and burials there have been continued to the present time! As a matter of fact, this burial ground is the resting place of my grandparents, Tom and Alice Johnson; my parents, "Mr. Howard" and “Miss Lizzie" Callaway, and several children of both of these families!
The new Inman church for Whites was built on a street which I knew as a child as "Church Street"! It was short! This street was a dirt road. It had no buildings on the left side for its entire length other than the church building itself. On the right side of this street were two residences; the Dan McLucas and the Dell Minter houses! At the end of the street was the Harp family house with three unmarried members living there with two elderly males and one female! Adjoining these three houses and the church were open fields of cultivated row crops of cotton and corn, belonging to these families!
The church building in my day...no longer exists but was near the center of the little village on a street leading away from the depot, Post Office and stores. Great water oaks bordered the street with two or three dwelling houses on the opposite side of the road. Mr. Howard probably did what little brickwork was necessary on the church building, (without pay), such as the pillars supporting the church building and the small chimneys which carried the smoke and fumes from inside the cast iron "pot belly stoves" used for heating in cold weather.
The church, as here, in most rural communities or villages was the center of all social activities, including religious services and funerals and non religious gatherings to discuss local projects and improvements. Sometimes, the services of the preacher were conducted every Sunday; other times the pastor would serve one or more churches in the county, and would preach one Sunday out of four at one or the others! He would preach the extra Sunday in the month, if any, at the Inman, which was where a parsonage, or a home, for him and his family was located!
The structure of the church was usually of wood material. It had one entrance with a vestibule, or lobby, with a belfry, which we called a steeple, in which hung a huge bell used to call the faithful to worship on meeting days, the "Sabbath", and to toll for the funeral of the dead when one of them passed on! Sometimes, it was rung in mischief by us boys, particularly on Halloween nights and the fourth of July!
As you passed through the vestibule there was two doors, one on the right and one on the left, through which the only other room was entered. This was an auditorium in which there was a pulpit with rails enclosing the area where it was located. It was from this pulpit that the pastor delivered his sermon. There was a piano for the musical part of the service, before and after his sermon. I suspect that "The Faithful" enjoyed this the most of all! The songs were "Amazing Grace", "Swing Low Sweet Chariot, Etc."! The area to the right and the left of the pulpit contained "The Amen Sections", the one on the right being for the elderly ladies and the one on the left was for the elderly men, the matriarchs and the patriarchs of the church!
The floor area so described above was level with the entrance. At this point the floor area of the remainder of the auditorium was elevated gradually to the rear of the church, being three feet higher in the extreme rear than the vestibule, the Amen section and the pulpit at the front of the church building. This elevated area was served by two aisles with benches to the right and the left and in the between. It was here that the younger persons, children and other persons sat. This church had no Sunday School rooms, so curtains suspended to overhead horizontal wires were hung which made it possible to create separate spaces for the conduction of lessons for the different age groups.
Before leaving our church at Inman, two things should be noted! First, there was no air conditioning and often adequate heating was lacking, also! Second, there were no nurseries, and crying babies and their distraught mothers often had to make hasty exit through the front doors! In all, however, our church served our community and village remarkable well! I remember that these children and their mothers would then go to the outside rear of the church, where there was an unfinished space under the elevated space above that had sand boxes in which they could be pacified and quieted from crying!
There was no well for water at the church, so the routine was for older boys to go across the street to Mrs. Minter's house and bring two full buckets of drinking water and place them on a shelf in the vestibule between two "gourd dippers". There were no indoor toilets and those that were available were two separate "privies" down paths behind the church and somewhat hidden behind bushes!
This church at Inman, which is described above, was preceded before its construction in 1920 by a Methodist Church which was mile and a half away toward the East on the Inman/Hampton Road and toward the Flint River. This old church was known as the Liberty Chapel Methodist Church and the ground on which it [stood] was donated in 1849, and it is to be presumed that a log house was built on this one and a half acres and a cemetery established across the road. This church stood alone among hundreds of acres of farm lands. This log church served less than ten years when a new church built with sawed lumber was built across the road from the log church and adjoining the cemetery. It is said that they sometimes had preaching in the middle of the day during the week, and especially on Saturday. The White men farming in the area would drop the chains and tie their mules to the plow stocks and walked to the church to attend the service. Afterwards, they would return and hook the chains to the plow stocks, and continue the work! Those farther away from the church would do the same except they would not leave their mules, but would remove the plow gear and ride the mule to the church!
The old log church building soon disappeared and acreage remained vacant to be soon covered with new growth. This continued for forty or fifty years at the end of which time the McLucas family bought this land as it was put up for public sale. They continued to own this tract until 1928, when "Mr. Howard", my father, bought this land. He immediately put me and my brother Harold, to clearing it for cultivation! We had to cut the trees, pile and burn the small brush and plow the new ground to plant peas in a broadcast fashion. It was "tuff" clearing new grounds by adults and twice as "tuff" for us young boys!
The stores in Inman were small retail country stores owned and operated by individuals, who generally knew everyone in the little town by their first names. There were three of these stores by the beginning of "The Extraordinary 20th Century". Only one of these store buildings remains to this day in the latter part of this century and it has been abandoned for a decade! [This] brick store, the McLucas general store, appears...together with a wood frame store building next door, which was one of the original three mentioned above! This wood building was also a general store, and built, owned and operated by the McLucas family before they built the brick store. The other of the three stores was across the road. It was larger, but was a general store also. This building was torn down a few years ago to allow for the construction of a new Methodist church in Inman.
The dirt road in front of these building was the Inman/Hampton Road. The street along side was Church Street, also dirt which led to the Inman Church 1/2 block away. This intersection was the center of Inman in my childhood!
I remember these stores as I was sent there by "Miss Lizzie" to get kerosene for our lamps, as well as other products, and she would give me a dozen of fresh laid eggs out of our chicken nest to swap for the fuel, instead of fifteen cents which we didn't have!
These stores were known as "General Merchandise Stores" here and throughout the land in America at the beginning of the 20th Century. This was as it should be as they were depended upon for 95% of all household, clothing, medical, energy and building supplies (other than wood), toys, foods (other than those produced on the farm), and a wide range of other items, among which was coffins and shrouds! These stores acted somewhat like banks, as they would provide credit for these products with open accounts which would fall due and payable at harvest time as most of their customers were farmers or tenant farmers, who always felt that they owed their souls to the country store! The tenant farmers were both White and Black. In my childhood, the Black tenants out numbered the White tenants, probably three to one in number, whereas the general population, men, women and children was nearly equally divided.
In 1888, twelve years before the beginning of this extraordinary century, the 20th, a railroad was built through Inman, this was a 102-mile stretch beginning in Atlanta and terminated in Fort Valley, Georgia, where it connected with railroads going to Griffin and Columbus, Georgia. This railroad was originally chartered as the Atlanta and Hawkinsville Railroad Company in 1886, but no work [was] never done. The charter was reissued to the Atlanta and Florida Company which operated trains until 1895, when this road was purchased by the Southern Railroad System and operated both passenger and freight service in my childhood. And this Southern Railroad continued to operate until 1937.
General stores throughout rural Georgia had suffered because of the severe economic disaster of the collapse of the era of the "cotton economy"! Where there had been in the teens of the 20th Century two brick stores and one wooden store, by the 1920s there were only two brick stores left in operation....the last one, which operated to the middle of the 20th Century. Now in the last part of the 20th Century, one lonely wooden structure on the paved road two blocks away from these stores serves the minor needs of the people of Inman, GA.! For their major needs for groceries, etc., they motor to nearby larger towns and cities over paved roads and highways, all funded, built and maintained by government units either local or state!!
In my earliest years, my family bought ninety per cent of their needs from these stores which existed in the 1920s and the 1930s of the 20th Century. We bought coffee, which would be ground by the storekeeper from coffee beans; sugar by the scoop or in 25 lbs. bags; flour in 50 lbs. bags; cheese from Wisconsin by the pound cut from a round hoop of cheese, which set out on top of the wooden counter; kerosene by the gallon, which was kept in a square tank above ground and had a hand pump to use to fill your gallon kerosene can to carry it home with you; wooden matches by the box at a nickel, and we would use them to make log cabins; fences, for a pasture for cows and mules and pig pens for little pigs! We would make toy cows from brown Irish potatoes; toy mules and horses from red sweet potatoes; and little pigs from peanuts with varying numbers of nuts inside the hull! To all of these, we would attach heads, legs and tails with various materials, and eyes from some of "Miss Lizzie's" dress buttons. Manufactures toys were not available except from Santa Claus!
Other supplies in the general stores which we bought were aspirin, Hitchcock's liver medicine, castor oil which were our medicines of the day; cotton ginghams, flannel outing, denims and khaki for everyday men's and boy's work pants; and woolen cloth when available; and socks, shoes, overalls, men work gloves, mittens for the children and bloomers for the women! This is only a partial list of the items we acquired from our country stores!
Most of these items were bought on a charge account; that is on credit! This led us to buy as we needed. But, it also led us to go more heavily in debt, so that we reached a point where we would sing a song which went like this; "Grow another bale of cotton and what do I get, another day older and deeper in debt; St. Peter don't you call me now because I can't go, because I owe my soul to the country store"!
As we visit the little village of Inman, to which my mother and father moved in 1922, I should remind you, the reader of the 20th Century, that I am relating what they found when they arrived there in that year. I was much too young to remember how it was, yet it was to remain somewhat similar for the next twenty five years and has not changed much except for the buildings to grow older in visual appearance or disappear completely! Change did not occur in those days as fast as it does today at the end of the 20th Century! But from the above pages and the information of them that the 20th Century was fast becoming an "extraordinary century", and particularly such for "an ordinary little boy"!
The Inman Methodist Church and Miss Nannie's country store were two of the communities social centers, but the Post Office and the Depot were even more so. This was because the privately owned railroad and the Federal Postal Service were our "links" to the outside world! The passenger trains ran four times each day between Atlanta and Williamson, Georgia. They brought mail (penny post cards and 3-cent letters), parcels, Atlanta newspapers and a few passengers, of course!
We were always vain about "our city" and bragged about its importance because it had to have two names; Ackert, GA. and Inman, GA.! Ackert was the name of the freight depot, and Inman, was the name of the Post Office and the little village itself! Inman was a "flag stop" on the railroad in my day and the passenger trains would not stop unless someone wanted to get off or on! Therefore the mail and parcels were thrown off in heavy canvass mailbags as the train ran rapidly through our town! For the speeding train to get the mail, etc., the Postmaster or Postmasters would "bag it up and hang it on a grab" beside the railroad tracks. The mail clerk on board the train would extend from the mail car of the moving train an iron arm with a hook on it and snatch the bag and its contents onto the speeding train! The lonesome "peasants" on the ground would shout greetings to the engineer and trains' crews and wave at the passing passengers in the rail cars which had windows which could be raised for coolness in summer and lowered in winter for warmth!!
As soon as the Postmaster had retrieved the mail bag from outside, he or she would immediately begin to sort the mail and have it ready for delivery to the waiting recipients. You will notice that there were two front doors to the depot; one for the White patrons and one for Black patrons! The mail would be issued through different windows inside to those lucky enough to receive some letter from some relative or friend from some distant point! As this occurred, there would be much laughing, teasing and joking when good news was received; and sometimes, crying when bad news was gotten! The group lingered long as gossip continued to flow!
The depot was also the freight warehouse and office for the shipment and receipt of heavy products, either in small quantities or box car load lots. Bale cotton, cotton seeds, and grains were products shipped out by rail. Fertilizers, chemical compounds such as drums or arsenic, farm machinery, household objects, such as cast iron cooking stoves and pot belly heating stoves and fruit and nut trees were shipped in by freight. It is to be remembered that in the first decade of the 20th Century, there were few or no trucks for transporting such items as these incoming and outgoing commodities. And of course, they were usually moved by wagons to and from the railroad station!
Near the depot there was a spur railroad track, which went to the cotton gin.
Alongside of this track and between it and the gin house were two warehouses, one for temporary storage of cotton bales and the other for storage of cotton seeds. Both of these products were to be shipped by freight trains as soon as quantities warranted. This cotton gin afforded employment for local farmers and their sons and others during the Fall and Winter months, when cultivation of crops had come to a stand still! The cotton gin was Inman's major industrial enterprise; "our factory", so to speak! [note: Please see Andrew Carl Welden, Sr. biographical sketch--owner of cotton gin.]
Let us look at the cotton gin. It was housed in a large rambling wooden and tin building with two stories. On the ground level were the furnaces and steam boilers which was used to generate steam power. This power was transferred by wheels and belts to move the gin machinery in the second story of the building, where the lint of the raw cotton was separated from the seeds. The seeds were moved by conveyer belts overhead by the loading and unloading yards to the seed warehouse. The lint was moved by belt and dumped into a square pressure holding enclosure! When this was full, pressure would be put on all sides and on both ends and a bale would be formed with jute bagging and metal bands to hold it firmly together! This bale would be dropped to ground level for storage in the adjoining warehouse for shipment by rail to the cotton mills in distant towns! Or to be loaded on the farmer's wagon for return to his farm if he did not care to sell at this time....
One of the great advantages that the Callaway family found in Inman was to be close to medical assistance by medical doctors!....Dr. J. A. S. Chambers....In this sanitarium, or hospital, he gave medical treatment, and from which he made visits to better the health of the people of his community. He shared this responsibility with Dr. John Welden, who also had a hospital, which still stands as a dwelling house in Inman! Dr. Chambers' hospital remains as a remodeled dwelling house. His sanitarium was next door to the Callaway family in Inman in my childhood! We were neighbors in the "sense of a neighbor" in the last part of the 20th Century, which is quite often much difference to living next door today to families that we don't even know their names or much about them personally or professionally! These neighbors, the Callaway and the Chambers families, had a ten acre cotton field between their houses and a path across it for getting to each other without going around the dirt road, which was a longer way!
It should be told here, that Doctor Chambers was a physician in the true sense of Hipprocrates of ancient Greece, "The Father of Modern Medicine", who lived in c. 460 to c. 377 B.C.! This doctor left to mankind a code of medical ethics which separated the practice of medicine from religion, superstitions and magic! It gave the profession of medicine an oath for a code of ethics based on a high sense of moral purity, unselfish service to all in need of medical assistance and a desire to instill in others knowledge of how to carry these goals forward! Doctor Chambers took this oath seriously and served his community of Inman faithfully for more than fifty years! This was done on his part without regard to financial gain!
A story is told by his neighbors, that in his last years he was almost penniless, but continued to patch an "old Model T Ford" together, and continued to visit the sick and ailing and "doctor" these without thoughts of getting paid! As the story relates, he was parked at the country store putting gas in it to go farther, when three of the area's "young bullies" drove up to gas up their father's newer "Model A Ford" and began to taunt the old doctor about his old and battered car! Doctor Chambers ignored them, but they persisted in their unruly remarks. After a bit more, he responded thusly: "Young gentlemen, this old car may not be much to look at, but it is paid for"! Then pointing a slim finger at them individually, he continued. "And sir, you aren't"; and pointing at the second one, he continued, "And sir, you aren't"; finally point at the third one, he said "And sir, neither are you"! He had delivered all three when times were hard and the parents couldn't or didn't pay! Truly a great man of the 20th Century, and I was privileged to sit up at "his wake" and be a pall bearer to help carry his coffin to its final resting in the Methodist Cemetery at Inman in 1938!
Doctor Chambers was a general practitioner, as was Dr. John Welden, but Chambers became very interested in the treatment of typhoid fever, a disease when was very deadly in the 19th Century. The cure and prevention of typhoid proved a challenge for Dr. Chambers and he experimented with cures and thought seriously about the cause and best course to prevent it. It might be said that he became a "self taught specialist" and accepted the challenge to learn more! Dr. Welden became equally interested in the treatment of pneumonia, which was an equally deadly inflammation of the lungs, the cause of which was not known at the time of the early years of this extraordinary century! He also accepted a challenge to know more about its cure and prevention!
Both arrived at the conclusion that persons, who had either illness, could be treated in a special place; namely, their residences specially designed to include separate rooms for these patients. Perhaps, not a new idea of theirs, but carried forward by these pioneers in the field of medicine....
Dr. Chambers achieved much success as he learned early that the best way to save a patient with typhoid was to keep the body temperature as low as possible! He had no artificial cooling devices, and, since typhoid fever occurred only in the summer months, he had no natural ice! He used cool water fresh from the well! This water was at about 45 degrees, and if the body of the patient was immersed in this water, it would lower the fever, or the temperature! He was known around our area as "the doctor" for successfully treating this terrible disease! He was one [of] the earliest to advance the theory that the disease was transmitted from the "stools" of those suffering from the sickness to others by the common house fly! During the summer of 1933, my father, Mr. Howard, and my sister Blanche, was sticken at the same time with tyhoid and Doctor Chambers was handy to treat them without moving them to his hospital! I remember well that he was emphatic that their stools were taken to the cotton field between his house and ours and buried at least eighteen inches underground! His water bath treatment was done by my mother, my brother, Harold and by me! And I am happy to say, they recovered completely!
Before leaving the story of this man of medicine, Dr. Chambers, I should relate to you the fact that he was a planter, also, and had a great impact on agriculture and the development of new plants in his neighborhood, namely, kudzu and Bermuda grass! [From early photos]...you will notice a '"patch" of dark growth on the ground before [Dr. Chambers' sanitarium]....This is perhaps the original first planting of kudzu in the southeastern part of the United States, and may have been the first in the United States as a whole! In our area, erosion of the top soil had been for a couple of centuries a problem for the farmer! His soil was washing to the seas! The good Doctor read medical and agricultural papers avidly! He just happened to see where in the "Far East" of China the farmers had a similar problem, but had learned to partially control it by planting "kudzu", a running vine that continuously takes root and from a cover for the soil underneath and thereby prevents erosion! He immediately thought that this might solve the farmers problem here in the southeastern United States. He secured roots stocks from Chinese sources in the city of San Francisco, California. The green plant that we see in the extraordinary 20th Century are the "grandchildren" of the nodules, or roots! In the latter part of this century, we are not all in agreement as to whether it was a blessing or a curse! But one thing is sure; it stopped our soil from washing away and leaving "great gullies"! If the natives of the Far West had known about kudzu, we might not have the "grand Canyon" or other eroded wonderlands of that area!
The syrup mill....[was] quite common among neighboring farms such as my grandfather's across the Flint River in Clayton County, where I was born! As "the crow flies", this was about 1&1/2 miles from the depot in Inman!
...I will only remind all the citizens of this 20th Century of how the product, cane syrup, became a staple of our food supply! Maybe it played an equal part with flour for bread, and butter from the milk of our cows! In our area, the juice of the sorghum plant was squeezed and then cooked nearby in heated metal troughs to a delectable golden brown color of just the right thickness. Grandpa Tom Johnson was an expert at doing this! This made him a manufacturer as well as a farmer! This product was put in glass jugs and sealed tightly with a cork stopper and wax from a bee hive! If it was done correctly, it would last until "next years making"! If improperly done, it would turn to unusable sugar!
There were both a blacksmith shop and a shoe shop, "downtown in Inman"! Unfortunately they have long since disappeared. They did so without any of us recording their picture history! It is known by us "old timers", in "our mental pictures", that there was a shoe shop on the corner next to the "country store of Miss Nannie", which was operated by a relative of hers and of Dr. Chambers!..[It was] named the "Dorman Shoe Shop" and was for the repairs of shoes and other leather products.
Across the road, then a "dirt highway" to Hampton, Georgia, there was a huge spreading oak tree under which Was a smoke filled and blackened old building very much like the one of "Blacksmith" Arnold in nearby Fayetteville....The name of the blacksmith in Inman was Nat Pierce, who is remembered by no picture of him or his shop remain!....The shoe shop and the blacksmith shop were evidences of the beginning change from "home industries" of the 19th Century to the "town or factory industries" of the 20th Century. This change was to contribute greatly to making this 20th Century an extraordinary century!
Compilation Copyright 2008 - Present by Linda Blum-Barton