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FORT HAWKINS and FRONTIER GEORGIA

Southeast America's 19th Century 
Peoples, Places and Personalities

Dianne Dent Wilcox

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Time Line Ft. Hawkins | People at Fort Hawkins | People Mentioned in the Writings of Benjamin Hawkins 1796-1816|Place Names |Bibliography

 FOREWORD
Macon, Georgia is one of America's cities that grew from a frontier fort. East Macon is older than what became Macon (in 1823) by over twenty years. The Fort Hill Cemetery precedes Macon's "oldest" cemetery, on Seventh Street, and the burials at Ocmulgee National Monument precede the Fort Hill Cemetery. "Oldest" is simply a perspective judgement when it comes to history. With this in mind, Macon's "oldest" fort may have been the stone fortification atop Brown's Mount, or they may have been the fortifications and trench works at the Ocmulgee National Monument. The "oldest" European fortification in Middle Georgia is probably the Ocmulgee Trading Post of 1690. Then there's Fort Hawkins.

FORT HAWKINS 
Where It All Began...

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 Print available from
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Fort Hawkins was one of a series of forts built along the Unites States' frontier. It was originally garrisoned by men from Milledgeville's Fort Wilkinson who moved here after an 1805 treaty with the Creeks opened lands between Commissioner's Creek (Jones County) and the Ocmulgee River. The number of soldiers and people at the fort varied with the events of the early nineteenth century. At one time, there were seven people stationed at the fort: at another time there were 1,400 Native Americans present for annuity payments. Andrew Jackson had 1,000 Tennessee Volunteers here, and Georgia provided hundreds of militiamen for various campaigns. Many of these men were trained or received supplies at Fort Hawkins. The Ocmulgee River was the boundary of the United States from 1805 until 1820, and Fort Hawkins protected that boundary from possible invasions of Spanish, to the south; French, to the west; and British (wherever they could move Native Americans against the United States; and various Native American groups who were willing to oppose encroachment of over-zealous "Americans" into Native held lands.

Interest in preserving Fort Hawkins as a cornerstone to Macon's early heritage has "torch-bearers." There seem to be people in each generation who recognize the local, state, national [and world] significance of the old fort. In 1828, Anne Royal commented that the fort was decaying, and in 1882, Ed Ervine tried to get city council to move a blockhouse to Central City Park and preserve it as a historic landmark. Both blockhouses stayed on the old fort site until 1870 when the Northwest house blew down in a storm. Henry Jones moved the Southeast blockhouse to Main Street after 1882. Mr. Jones used the blockhouse as a barn until it burned in the early 1900's. From 1914 until 1966, the torchbearers were members of the Nathaniel Macon Daughters of the American Revolution. These ladies dedicated a marble monument in 1914, by 1929 had plans ready for the present reconstruction, completed the blockhouse in 1939 [construction dates are 1937, 1938 and 1939 in various sources], and opened the museum in 1966. The next torchbearers were John Pellew, Robert Cramer, Randy Smith, the Freemans, and the Fort Hawkins Neighborhood Association. The Central Georgia Council of the Boy Scouts of America served as fort custodians during the 1970's, and eighth to twelfth grade high school students provided fort tours from 1989 until 1997 with other tours handled by the Middle Georgia Historical Society. My involvement with Fort Hawkins began with the high school students, in 1989, and has moved to directing the Fort Hawkins Project for Georgia Military College and serving on the newest Fort Hawkins Commission.

Currently, the Fort Hill Neighborhood Association maintains the landscaping provided by the East Macon Garden Club, and the City of Macon handles maintenance. The new Fort Hawkins Commission is exploring, with the help of the Macon Heritage Foundation, options for developing the fort site. So, our "torch" burns. I hope to see a 1.4 acre complete stockade and educational site rebuilt by Fort Hawkins' bicentennial in 2006.

The research in Fort Hawkins and Frontier Georgia is a compilation of things I've learned over the last ten years. There is much more to learn. I hope [the publication of this information will inspire] individuals who read it [to] contribute to _ further additions. I welcome information about the fort, or about Georgia from 1780 - 1830. The cultural combinations that the frontier represents also fascinate me. This history shows that whatever our ethnical backgrounds, we are people who work for common goals. I have a wish for Middle Georgia [and for America] greater than seeing a reconstructed Fort Hawkins opened for our children; it is that Middle Georgia's people will see that we are all people. People, I believe, who are created in God's image, who should live by His rules, and should always work together for common goals.

I am currently the Academic Dean at Georgia Military College's Robins Air Force Base Campus and can be contacted at (478) 327-7375 or by email: dwilcox@gmc.cc.ga.us. My book contains a Fort Hawkins Chronology [day by day details from historic journals], an index of People at Fort Hawkins, People in Hawkins' Writings, Fort Houses and Places and a Fort Hawkins Bibliography. At present, plans are to place the indexes and bibliography online. Please recheck this site from time to time for additions. The minute the first index goes online, descendents of people listed, or not listed, will begin to contact me, and I will begin to add their information to what we have now.

FORT HAWKINS and FRONTIER GEORGIA

Book available from
Diane Dent Wilcox
Georgia Military College
78 MS / DPEE 620 Ninth Street, Suite 113
Robins Air Force Base, Georgia 31098-2232
dwilcox@gmc.cc.ga.us

 $20.00 

Notes From Fort Hawkins and Frontier Georgia, 2nd Edition: Southeast America's 19th Century People, Places and Personalities by Dianne Dent Wilcox (ISBN 1-890307-23-8 placed online by the author) For references see: "Fort Hawkins Bibliography." 

People at Fort Hawkins

(Dates indicate that one of my sources specifically listed the person at Fort Hawkins on that date. Obviously people were at the fort more than for the specified date.)

Anderson, Thomas F. Capt - militia in a regiment commanded by Col. Jones (4 Regiment (Jones') Georgia Militia War of 1812). (supplied by: John Davis davisje@erols.com)

Bell, Jonathan - Assistant Deputy Paymaster General, Division of the South, 1 August 1814 (date of appointment?)

Bissel, Brigadier General - Commanding 2nd Infantry (Old) at Fort Hawkins 1806-1809 (?), Commanding 1st Infantry Regiment (New) after the War of 1812.

Blackshear, Brigadier General Davis is at the fort with Major General John McIntosh in 1814. In charge of part of the 2,500 militia mustered in by Phillip Cook. Brigade Commander in Georgia Militia.

Burr, Aaron - Passed by Fort Hawkins under arrest for treason in 1807. It is likely that Burr was imprisoned overnight at the fort.

Boote, Captain William R. - 2nd Infantry Regiment - commands until November 1806. The 2nd Infantry from Fort Wilkinson built Fort Hawkins in 1805. Commanding 1806. Major 1806. LTC 13 December 1813. 7th Regiment, COL (Staff) 6 April 1813 - 27 May 1815 (?)

Booth, David.

Butler, BVT. Colonel Robert - Adjutant General, Division of the South, 5 March 1815 (?)

Champlain, BVT Major, S. - Deputy Quarter Master General, Division of the South, 1 March 1815 (?) Ford.

Cook, Major Phillip - November 1814 had 210 officers and men at Fort Hawkins. One source calls Cook "Captain." He commands the fort after May 1812, and his family lives with him inside the fort. The 3rd Infantry has 73 men stationed at Fort Hawkins on 6 June 1812. Cook is promoted to Major 15 August 1813. Ford lists Major Phillip Cook as commanding 1812 and 1815. "Fort Hawkins - Wilderness Stronghold" says that Cook commanded the "8th U.S. Infantry" and "In November [1814] an army of 2,500 militia were mustered in at the fort" by him.

 Cook, Martha - First "Euro-American" child born at Fort Hawkins. [Family legends say that Martha was born in a blockhouse because there was a threat of Indian attack at the time of her birth.] Her father was Major Phillip Cook. Martha Cook Winship did much to help the hospital efforts in Georgia during the War Between the States.

Crawford, Elijah - Served in Booth's Battalion with Captain John Walters' Company. Enlisted in the Georgia Militia for six months beginning 21 March, 1814 ending 6 May, 1815. He was discharged at Camp Hope [a Revolutionary War and War of 1812 training camp on the Bibb and Jones County Line near Georgia Highway 49] near Fort Hawkins. He enlisted from Franklin County, Georgia at Fort Hawkins. For his six month's service he was paid $46.26 and a subsistence of $0.79. He "drawed" (SIC) "one blanket." On 1 March 1815, Elijah Crawford was serving under General Andrew Jackson at Camp 3 Mile Creek, near Mobile, Alabama, during the Battle of New Orleans.

Davidson, William T. - Garrison Surgeon's Mate, Fort Stoddert, 13 June 1808. (date of appointment?)

Dent, James T. - Judge Advocate, Division of the South, 19 July 1813 (date of appointment?)

Floyd, Major General John - "Commander of Georgia Militia." In September 1813, Floyd assembled 3,600 Georgia troops at Fort Hawkins.

Frierson, James - Appointed in 1826 by Governor Troup to examine and mange Fort Hawkins and the trading post property. William Ford's letter says that this appointment was 12 May 1821, and that land not used by the military was being leased to private citizens. The community that develops is called New Town.

Gaines, Gen. Edmund P. - Commander of Military Departments 6,7 and 8 (Norfolk to Pensacola) made his headquarters at Fort Hawkins. Later moved and ordered Fort Hawkins closed. One source calls Gaines "Major General Gaines, Commander, Headquarters, Eastern Section, Division of the South" and says that Gaines is "at the fort during the early Indian Removal" in 1818.

Glascock, Gen. Thomas - assembled troops at Fort Hawkins to fight with Jackson.

Green, Thomas - (1758 in Virginia - 1845 in Georgia) served in the Revolutionary War (Gulliford Courthouse, NC). Transported guns between Milledgeville and Fort Hawkins 1812- 1816. Worked for the Indian Agent (Benjamin Hawkins). Wilcox has a hard copy of a receipt dated 20 August, 1813, "showing that Thomas Green was sent to Milledgeville (then State Capital) to get military supplies from the Governor for Fort Hawkins. Less than two weeks later, another receipt signed by Thomas Green shows that he got 150 muskets with bayonets to deliver to Fort Hawkins."

Halstead, Jonathan - factor at Fort Wilkinson March 26, 1802 and first factor at Fort Hawkins - Halstead's salary was $1,000 annually with a $365 expense account. Datelines on Halstead's letters may show that the trading post was originally outside the fort and was later moved inside - His datelines change from "Ocmulgee" to "Ocmulgee Old Fields" (1806) and then to "Fort Hawkins" (1808). Halstead died in December 1814. On July 12, 1806, Jonathan Halstead, then the factor at Fort Wilkinson, wrote a letter to Secretary of War Henry Dearborn in which he indicated that the move from Fort Wilkinson to Ocmulgee Old Fields was underway. In this letter he indicated his concern over the apparent lack of provisions for the factory's operation in the post which was being constructed on the heights overlooking the Ocmulgee River. He wrote: "In the place [plan] of the Garrison forwarded to Captain Boote I observe that the factory is not taken into view, I should wish to be informed whether it is to be within the Garrison or not and also whether I am at liberty to put up a temporary one which, with what assistance I can get from Captain Boote, will not cost more than fifty or sixty dollars." It was obviously a good thing that the factory was being moved at this time since the facility at Fort Wilkinson was badly deteriorated in 1806. Halstead noted, for example, "and were we at liberty to remain here free of rent it would not be advisable as there is a great falling daily (which would materially injure the public property in it.) The foundation has become so rotten and settled that it is with difficulty we can open or shut a door." Halstead received permission to construct a building for the Indian factory at Ocmulgee Old fields. On September 12, 1806, he wrote the following to Secretary Dearborn: "In obedience to the directions contained in yr. Favor of 10 July last, I immediately on the receipt there commenced erecting buildings at Ocmulgee Old Fields for the reception of the public property, etc. now at the place [Fort Wilkinson] and expect to move the goods from this by the 25th of this month." The layout and location of Halstead's Ocmulgee buildings are not known.

Hawkins, Benjamin - Chose the site for Fort Hawkins - The fort was constructed in 1806. "In 1795 President Washington appointed Mr. Hawkins, then a U.S. senator from North Carolina, as one of three commissioners to treat with the Creek Confederacy. In 1801 Colonel Hawkins [former Revolutionary War interpreter for George Washington] was appointed principal agent of Indian affairs south of the Ohio River. He was one of the leading actors in treaties with the Indians, and in 1812 he was the sole commissioner in Georgia" (Kilowatt News, May 1946).

Hawkins, William (1777 in North Carolina - 1819 in Sparta, Georgia on a return trip from settling the estate of this uncle, Benjamin Hawkins). Served two years at Fort Hawkins as assistant to his uncle. William was educated at Princeton [as was Benjamin], became a lawyer in 1797, served as Speaker of the House (1805) and was elected governor of North Carolina in 1810 - The Virginia Magazine

Hogson, Adam - traveled from Fort Hawkins to the Flint River in 1820.

Hughes, Major Daniel - Factor after Magnan. Accepted the post in March 1816. In August 1816, the factory was moved to Fort Mitchell on the Chattahoochee.

Jackson, Andrew - Indian Fighter in the War of 1812. Later president of the United States. Defeated the "Red Sticks" at HorseShoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River in what is now Alabama on March 27, 1814. Jackson used soldiers who were stationed and / or trained at Fort Hawkins. He arrived at Fort Hawkins on February 19, 1818 with 1,000 Tennessee Volunteers for troop rendezvous. Jackson passed through the Fort Hawkins area in 1818 on his was to the Creek and Seminole Wars. Jackson was at the fort on 1 May 1814, and there are copies of letters he wrote from Fort Hawkins currently in the Fort Hawkins Museum.

Jerrison, John - storekeeper and postmaster at Fort Hawkins 1814.

Keiser, Lieutenant Colonel - Acting Deputy Quartermaster General from 11 January 1818 through August 1819.

King, Colonel - Commanding 4th Infantry Regiment at Fort Hawkins 27 May 1815 (?), 1816 (?), 181?.

Little Prince - Creek Chieftain who met with General Mitchell and General William McIntosh for Native American annuity payments at Fort Hawkins in 1819.

Magnan, Charles - Assistant Factor to Jonathan Halstead.

McCall, Roger - One of the first settlers to arrive at Fort Hawkins for the settlement of New Town - 1818.

McCurry, John - Private in War of 1812. Served at Fort Hawkins in 1815. Later moved to Hart County, Georgia on a land grant - from signed affidavit for pension by John McCurry 28 September 1850.

McDonald, James Madison - The son of William McDonald and Rutha Jan Wilson McDonald who was born at Fort Hawkins in July 1814.

 McDonald, Colonel - Commanding 7th Infantry Regiment (New) at Fort Hawkins, 27 May 1815 (?), 1816 (?), 181?. This is probably William McDonald. A letter from one of his descendants says, "William McDonald was born in NC in November 1781 and married Rutha Jane Wilson in GA in 1813, probably in Jefferson County, GA. Their son, James Madison McDonald, was born at Fort Hawkins in July 1814. From tax records it looks like the McDonalds left the area c. 1818 for Early County, GA."

McDougall, Captain Robert - Commander of Fort Hawkins in 1809. Legend says that McDougall [married a Creek woman] died at the fort and was buried in a small Indian mound. [There is a mound at the Ocmulgee National Monument named "McDougall Mound." Archeologists did not find human remains in the mound. History records, however, that there were three more small mounds between Fort Hawkins and McDougall Mound that were destroyed during the construction and expansion of Macon.] William Ford's letter says McDougall was 1LT with the 3rd Infantry Regiment. He commands Fort Hawkins, but he is court-martialed and dismissed on 7 August 1809. He also dies in 1809.

McIntosh, General John - In charge of part of 2,500 Georgia Militia mustered by Phillip Cook in 1814.

McIntosh, Major General Thomas - At Fort Hawkins with Brigadier General Blackshear in 1814.

McIntosh, General (Chief), William - Revolutionary and War of 1812 officer. Half- Scott chief of the Lower Creeks. Met with General Mitchell at Fort Hawkins to oversee the annuity payments to Natives in 1819.

Meaders, Barnabas - served in Capt. Thomas F. Anderson's Company of Georgia militia in a regiment commanded by Col. Jones (4 Regiment (Jones') Georgia Militia War of 1812).
"that he volunteered in the County of Franklin in the State of Georgia and entered the service of the united states at Fort Hawkins in the State of Georgia . . . ."(supplied by: John Davis davisje@erols.com)

Mitchell, General David Brydie - Former Governor of Georgia, successor to Benjamin Hawkins as Indian Agent. Met with the last large assembly of Native Americans (1,400) at Fort Hawkins in 1819. The Natives, including General (Chief) McIntosh and Little Prince, were there to receive annuity payments granted in treaties, and to work out Native and United States differences.

Pickney, General Thomas - commands Fort Hawkins (6th Military District) in 1813.

Price, Edward - First Factor at Fort Pickering at Colerain. Established guidelines for Indian Trade in Georgia. (Price may or may not have been at Fort Hawkins.)

Robertson, M. - Publisher of The Georgia Messenger, moved publication from Fort Hawkins to Macon in 1823. Wilcox says that the first name of The Georgia Messenger was The Bulldog, and that a later version is today called The Macon Telegraph.

Rose, Simri - Publisher of The Georgia Messenger, moved publication from Fort Hawkins to Macon in 1823. Wilcox says that the first name of The Georgia Messenger was The Bulldog, and that a later version is today called The Macon Telegraph. Rose's portrait now hangs in The Macon Telegraph's offices. Rose was instrumental in the planning of The City of Macon and planned what is now "The Oldest Landscaped Cemetery in the United States (Rose Hill) in 1840 in return for his chosen burial plot.

Saffold, James.

Seagroves, James - Indian Agent before Benjamin Hawkins.

Scott, Major General Winfield - Passed through Fort Hawkins 1814-1815.

Smith, Harrison - One of the first settlers to arrive at Fort Hawkins for the settlement of New Town in 1818.

Smith, Captain Thomas A. - Commander of Fort Hawkins until 1810. On 9 June 1810, double rations are granted by The War Department.

Strong, Christopher.

Walters, Captain John - Commanded a company of Georgia Militia.

Whitlock, Ambrose - Deputy Paymaster General, Division of the South, 19 March 1815 (date of appointment ?)

Wimberly, Ezekial - [ The General Ezekial Wimberly Memorial Bridge is now located on Highway 96 between Highway 247 - Hawkinsville Road and I-16 just south of Robins Air Force Base.]

Woolfork, Thomas - bought the abandoned and decommissioned fort site in 1828. [Nine Woolfork family members were murdered with an ax at a family plantation in the late 1880's. Tom Woolfork, a son, was hung for the murders. See (Shadow Chasers by DeLoach.)]

Wright, Edward - Second Factor at Fort Pickering and then at Fort Wilkinson - appointed March 1799. (Wright may or may not have been at Fort Hawkins.) 


Infantry Regiments from a letter by William Ford

BG Bissel - Commanding 2nd Infantry Regiment, Fort Hawkins, 1806-1809 (?) Old 3rd Infantry Regiment Fort Hawkins 1809 (?) - 1812. 7th Infantry Regiment Mississippi and Alabama Territories - 44th Infantry Regiment, formed during the War of 1812, former station unknown - 1st Infantry Regiment (New)

 COL McDonald - Commanding 8th Infantry Regiment, Fort Hawkins 1812-1815 (?) - Old 10th Infantry Regiment - formed during the War of 1812, former station unknown. Old 36th Infantry Regiment - Old 7th Infantry Regiment at Fort Hawkins 27 May 1815 (?), 1816 (?), 181?

COL King - Commanding 12th Infantry - probably formed during the War of 1812, former location unknown - Old 14th Infantry Regiment - Old 20th Infantry Regiment - Old 4th Infantry Regiment at Fort Hawkins 27 May 1815 (?), 1816 (?), 181?

MAJ GEN Gaines - Commanding 1st Infantry Regiment, new - 4th Infantry Regiment, new - 7th Infantry Regiment - 2 brigades, new - 8th Infantry Regiment, new - Division of the South - Headquarters of Eastern Section at Fort Hawkins 1818 - 181?, new.

The Nations

Benjamin Hawkins was called "The Beloved Man of Four Nations" or "Iste-chatelige-osetat-chemis-te-chango." These nations are the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Creek. The Creek Nation divided during Indian Removal into the Creek and Seminole Nations. The word Seminole means "those who have gone away." During removal, most Creeks were taken to reservations in Oklahoma [Okmulgee is the capital] on "The Trail Where They Cried." Some Creeks, refusing removal, escaped into the swamps of South Georgia and Florida. They are now called Seminoles, and they never succumbed to the Unites States' demands that they be moved west. Many Native Americans, today, call themselves Creek-Seminole to indicate the relationship and heritage to both groups.

Holtzclaw says, "There were five different tribes speaking five different dialects among the Creeks. There were Muskhogees, Hitchittees, Utchees, Natchez and Coosada."

Holtzclaw's statement is partially correct. The term Creek is a European designation applied to people that early explorers found living near small running streams, or creeks. The Native American name for these people is Muscogee or Muskegean. Muskegean refers to any number of tribes descending from the early Master Farmers whose earthworks are demonstrated at Macon's Ocmulgee National Monument. Holtzclaw's Muskhogees, Hitchittees, Uthchees, Natches and Coosada fall into this group as do the Yamacraw. [Note: Some people note this relationship, and some contend that the Muskegean's are not related to the Master Farmers.]

Hotlzclaw related an encounter between Hawkins and the Queen of the Tuckabatchee at Hawkins' Flint River Indian Agency. The account, from a letter written by Hawkins reads: "A few days ago while I was sorely afflicted with rheumatism, so as not to be able to turn in my blanket, the arrival of the Queen of Tuckabatchee was announced to me. That town is sixty miles distant.

"I invited herself and her friends to spend two or three days with me, which they did. Early one morning she came to my bedside and sat down. I awoke and she accosted me thus: 'My visit is to you; I am a widow; I have one son so high; (holding her hand three feet from the ground. I have a fine stock of cattle, and I wish them secured for my use and for my son. I know you are the Iste-chatelige-osetat-chemis-techaugo and my relations are not careful of my interests. If you will take direction of my affairs, the chiefs have told me you may settle my stock where you please, and it shall be safe. When you go to Tuckabatchee you will have a home. Perhaps I am too old for you, but I will do any thing I can for you if you will take me. If you take a young girl into the house, I shall not like it, but I will not say one word: Maybe I can't love her, but I'll not use her ill. I have brought some aus-ce (cassine yupon) for you [also called Cassina Holly - It is a berry beverage known to the Natives as "The Black Drink." It purges the body by inducing vomiting. The Queen was offering Hawkins a "home remedy" for his rheumatism.] I want some clothes for my boy and myself. You can give them to me, and make the traders take cattle for pay. If you direct them, they won't cheat me_when you were in the upper towns last year I went twice to see you. You took me by the hand and asked me to sir down. I wanted to speak to you then but I could not_'

"I replied to her: You shall be gratified; you may return home. I will have your cattle put at a proper place, and I will take care of them for your son. If you have any desire to cal me cha-e-he (my husband) do so! But you must not forget, I have not yet determined to set up in that capacity in any of the Four Nations. But you are at liberty, as you already have one child, to carry it on in my name. The Children will be mine and I will take care of them and of you."

Holzclaw goes on to explain that in Native culture the children belong to the mother's family and that no Native woman would accept Hawkins' terms. However, upon the television release of True Women (A Hallmark Presentation on CBS, first presented in May of 1995 and starring Dana DeLany, Angelina Jolie and Powers Booth), some Chehaw Creeks contacted author Janice Woods Windle. The Georgia Creeks told Windle that True Women told the story of their family. When Janice asked, they told her that Lavinia Downs, Hawkins' legal wife of 1812 and already the mother of six of his children, and the Queen of Tuckabatchee were the same woman. [This confirmed a family legend and a premise of True Women that Janice's ancestor Cherokee Hawkins, Benjamin Hawkins' daughter, has half-Creek.] Further confirmation that Lavina Downs was Creek came from the Chehaws who showed Janice that the marriage of Hawkins and Downs is recorded in the official Marriages of the Muskogee.

* from Fort Hawkins and Frontier Georgia pp. 92-102.
 

People Mentioned in the Writings of Benjamin Hawkins 1796-1816

Note: The year following each name in this index indicates the year of the letter in which Hawkins referenced the individual. Hawkins was an interpreter for George Washington during the American Revolution, a North Carolina senator, a Continental Congressman and Indian Agent for all Tribes South of the Ohio River. He wrote letters extensively and made copies of his letters. What we have today is what remains after most of Hawkins' personal papers burned with his home withing months after his death. His connections include five United States president's, Spanish governors, socialites, traders, missionaries and all of "The Nations" of what is now the Southeastern United States. Sometimes, Hawkins gives only names; at other times he gives historical, genealogical, and educational information. He was even teaching Thomas Jefferson a working vocabulary of Creek words.

Ageyauhowlo - 1802.

Alexander, Jeremiah - 1797.

Allen - killed by Indians. 1798.

Allen - a theif put to death at St. Mary's. 1805.

Allen, James - 1799.

Allen, John - 1807.

Allison, John - owned a mill. 1797.

Allison, Samuel - Ensign II Regiment, commanding at Fort Pickering . 1797, 1798. Antonio - Vincente Floch's interpreter at Pensacola. 1799.

Appling, Daniel - Colonel and commander of VII Regiment. 1815.

Appling, Lientenant - 1812. Arbuckle, Mathew - Captain of III Regiment. 1811.

Armstrong, John - 1813, 1814.

Arnold - a slave at the Indian Agency. Hawkins said Arnold was, "brave as Caesar [another slave] as long as he remianed in service and a traitor only when he deserted us." 1811.

Aron Harad Oketeqockenne - "Harad is a native of Roanoke in North Carolina, about 30 miles below Halifax; he was attached to the British during the war, and has resided in the Creek Nation ever since the evacuation of St. Augustine. He has an Indian wife and three children." Harad talked to Hawkins about acquiring a trading license. 1797.

Auwillagnee - wife of Opioche Tustanwick Hajo. Lived in Hillabees. 1796.

Badmouth - an "Indian of the Tallassee on Tallapoosa." 1797.

Bailey, Dixon - a "half-breed" killed by Indians. 1813.

Bailey, Fletcher - a brother of Dixon Bailey, also killed by Indians. 1813.

Bailey, Mims - a borther of Dixon Bailey. Mims and his family were also killed by Indians. 1813.

Bailey, Mrs. - married to Richard Bailey. Mrs. Bailey may have been Native Amercian because she is discussed in a paragraph about Indian women who adopted "industrious way." Her daughters are mentioned as being "married to white men." 1796.

Bailey, Richard - "His stock of cattle 200, horses 120, hogs 150 and 7 slaves. He is a native of England, served in Savannah, to the carpenter and joiner business, has been 40 years in this country_. Mr. Bailey's two daughters are married t owhite men; they both spin cotton and the youngest, Elizabeth Flethcer, can read and write and it very industrious. This whole family are [sic] remarkable for being healthy and cleanly. This may be owing to a custom continued by Mrs. Bailey. She and her family every morninng winter or summer bathe in cold water." Mrs. Bailey is further discussed in a paragraph about Indian women who adopted "industrious ways." 1796, 1797, 1798.

Baker, Captain - a British officer ? Baker was accused, with his company, of killing Henry Marshall, "a lad at school _ on Sappalo _ after [Marshall] had surrendered" in a "manner shocking to humanity." 1797.

Baldwin, William - the schoolmaster of the Hawkins children. Baldwinn taught "reading, writing, arithmatic and Geography and lectures in Botany." 1812.

Barnard, Timpoochee - Son of Timothy Barnard. 1816.

Barnard, Timothy - Half-Creek scout who served Benjamin Hawkins. 1797, 1802, 1804.

Barnett, William - 1815, 1816.

Barrow, James - "native of Red Banks on Tar River in North Carolina" and the pilot for Hiram Monger and Flood Megrew. Barrow carried letters for Hawkinss. 1797.

Beasley, Major - 18133, 1815.

Benzien, Christiann - 1810. Bibb - Doctor. 1816.

Big Feared - also known as Ochese Tustunnuggee, Tuskegee Tustunnuggee, or Feared. 1797.

Big Warrior - 1814, 1816.

Bilbo, Mr. - 1798.

Black Fox - also known as Enolee. 1803.

 Blackmoree, Major - 1797.

Blackshear, Davis - 1815.

Bloody Felloww - also known as Nanetooquh - "a Chief of the Cherokees." 1798, 1801.

 Bloomfield, Samuell F. - the assistant agent for the post office. 1806.

Blount, William G. - a superintendent for Indian Affairs in the South who became Tennessee's first governor in 1796. Blount was expelled from the Senate, before impeachment, for seizure of Indian lands with intent to sell to Anglo settlers. 1813.

Blum, Mr. - in Tennessee. 1797.

Bobb - a Negro who belonged to Stephen Sullivan and who was one of the murderers of Colonel Kirkland, Kirkland's son and others in 1789. See McGillvray, General.

Bollmaan, Eric - Doctor and associate of Aaron Burr. 1807.

 Boote, William R. - commander at Fort Wilkinson and building commander of Fort Hawkins. 1806, 1806.

Bowen, Captain - 1798.

Bowlegs, Billy - also spelledd Boleck. A Chief. 1812.

Bowles, William A. - a self-proclaimed leader of the hostile Creeks and Seminoles. Bowles called himself "Director General of the Creek Nation." 1799-1803. He died in a Cuban prison. Called "Capetunne Lappe" or the prince of liars. 1800.

Bowyer, John - Captain III Regiment. 1799. Major of II Regiment and commandant of Fort Stoddert. 1812.

Boyakin, Samuel - a Doctor from Milledgeville. 1812.

Brashear, Turner - "He is a native of Maryland, of good character, understands the Indian language." 1801.

 Briggs, Mr. - 1806.

Brown, James - Senator from Louisiana. 1813-1817, 1819-1823.

Brown, John - one of three men to examine John Catt about the murder of Colonel Kirkland's party in 1789.

 Brown, Thomas - Colonel "Brown had been British superintendent of the Creeks during the last years of the Revolutionary Way; New Providence Island in the Bahamas. Its principal city, Nassua, became an important British port after the American Revolution" (Grant). In 1797, Hawkins reported a rumor that Brown was to gather the southeastern Indians against the United States.

Brown, Mrs. - the widow of a man murdered by Uchees. 1798, 1803.

Bruce, Mr. - 1798, 1799.

Bucshunabbe - 1801.

 Bullard, Eleazer - 1801.

Bulloch, William B. - 1810.

Burgess, James - Creek Interpreter. 1796. Hawkins wrote to Burgess in 1797.

Burk, Mr.

Burns, Colonel. One of the commissioners of Georgia. 1798.

Butler, Lieutenant - "arrived here [the Creek Agency] from Charleston, Virginia." 1812.

Butler, Thomas - Lientenant Colonel and commander of III Regiment. 1797, 1798.

Byers, James - "U.S. Factor at Tellico. This letter [from Hawkins to James McHenry, June 4, 1797] constituted the main evidence against Senator Blount, who was expelled from the Senate. The exact details of Blount's plan are unknown but in [a] letter to James Carey, a Cherokee interpreter, Blount wrote: 'You are, however to understand that it is yet not quite certain that the plan will be attempted, and to do so will require all your management; I say, in whatever you say to Rogers, or anybody else, do no let the plan be discovered by Hawkins, Dinsmoorr, Byers, or any other person in the interest of the United States or Spain'" (Grant and Thompson qtd, in Grant). 1797.

Caesar - a slave of William Traylor, captured by Indians and later returned to Traylor through Hawkins, 1809.

Campbell, David - "The Honorable." Represented Tenesseee on boundary commissions in 1777 and 1792. Mentioned in Hawkins' writings in 1797.

Campbell, James - 1800.

Candry, John - Hawkins bought some corn, potatoes and fodder from Mrs. Candry for a poor Native woman near Long Swamp and Pine Log on November 28, 1796. Candry "was from East Florida since 1783; he uses the plough and has some fine cattle." 1796.

Cane, John - the husband of Lucy Cornell Cane. John died at Tensaw. Vica Cane was their daughter. 1796.

Cane, Vica - the daughter of Luch Cornell Cane and John Cane. "A little girl" in 1796.

Capitchuchee Miccoo - King of the Seminoles. 1814.

Carey, James - a Cherokee interpreter who was cautioned by Senator Blount not to let Blount's plan be known to "hawkins, Dinsomoor, Byer, or any person in the interest of the United States or Spain. Blount asked, 'can't Rogers contrive to get the Creeks to desire the President to take Hawkins out of the nation; for if he stays in the Creek nation he can and will do great injury to our plan'" (Thompson qtd. In Grant). Blount planned selling Indian lands to white settlers and was eventually expelled from the United States Senate. 1797.

Carney, Captain - 1799.

Carondelet, Franciso Lusi Hectooor - Spanish governor-general of Louisianaa. 1797.

Carr, Mrs. - 1810.

Carr, Thomas - "a trader." "He is an old man, has resided many years in the nation, has suffered much by the uncertain and precarious situtation of a trader among the Indians during times of war." Hawkins went on to say that Carr was "an honest funny seaman" who called himself "Scotch" but had "the Irish dialect" (Grant) 1797.

Carson - 1800.

Carson, Joseph - Captain. 1799. Cary, Mr. - 1808.

Cassedy, Charles - 1815.

Castleberry, Mr. - "73 years of age." 1814.

Catt, John - of Holston, one of the murderers of Colonel Kirkland, Kirkland's son and others in 1789. See McGillvray, General.

Catt, Mrs. - wife of John Catt. Mrs. Catt was "an Indian woman of the fish ponds," and she was one of the murderers of Colonel Kirkland, Kirkland's son and others in 1789. See McGillvray, General.

Caupichau Micco - Chief of Miccosooce and the Seminoles. 1814, 1815, 1816.

Chacopohla Emaultau - a Seminole Chief. 1812.

Chandler, John B. - a mail contractor through Creek country. 1809.

Chasse Tunnee - 1797. Chehaw Micco - 1799.

 Chisholm - 1807.

Chisholm, John - 1797. Chuleoah - 1801.

Chunoheleek - Cherokee line survey representative. 1797.

Chuquilatague - also known as Doublehead. 1801.

Churchman, George - a Quaker, 78 years of age. 1809.

Claiborne, William C. C. - Govenor of the Mississippi Territory. 1801-1812. Governor of Mobile. 1807.

Clanton, Edward - 1812.

Clay, Joseph - a Savannah merchant who transacted business for Hawkins. 1802, 1803.

Clayton, Mr. - 1803.

Clark, John - "a Scotchman." 1796. General and commissioner of Georgia. 1803.

Clem, George - a trader. 1796.

 Clements, John - Colonel. 1798.

Cleveland - Mr. Richards' clerk. 1796.

 Clinch, Duncan - Lieutenant Colonel IV Regiment. 1816.

Cloxanah - Cherokee commissioner during the line survey. 1797.

 Clymer, George - went with Hawkins and Pickens to negotiate with the Creeks.

Cobert, George - a Chickasaw Chief. 1797.

Cochran, John - 1797.

Cocke, John - a General "in Tennessee," who called for Hawkins' removal from office. 1812.

Coffee, John - "Tennessee militia general, land speculator, and supporter of Andrew Jackson" (Grant). 1816.

Cohojjee - a chief. 1799.

Coiucatee - of Running Water, Cherokee commissioner during the line survey. 1797.

Colbert, James - Major and "father of the Chicksaw Colberts." 1801. 1808.

 Colberts - "among the Chickasaws." 1802.

Cook - 1798.

Cook, Joseph - 1810.

Cook, Phillip - "Cook was promoted to Major in August and was in command of Fort Hawkins" (Grant). 1813, 1814.

Coosau Mico - Native American. 1797.

Cordy, Arthur - interpreter. 1797.

Cornell, Alexander - also known as Oche Haujo. Half-breedd Creek Chief and interpreter. Hawkins wrote to Cornell from the Flint River on February 10, 1797. Cornell is also mentioned by Hawkins in 1798, 1799, 1802, 1810, 1811, 1812.

Cornell, Davy - also known as Dog Warrior. A Chief and son of Alexander Cornell's brother, Joseph. 1797.

Cornell, George - the oldest son of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Cornell. George was a trader. 1796.

Cornell, James - a son of Mr. and Mrs. Cornell. In 1796 "James is a lad at school." 1799.

 Cornell, Joseph - deceased by 1796 "formerly interpreter." Joseph's wife was Mrs. Cornell who became a trader. They had four children: George, James, Lucy and Davy. (Davy was also known as Dog Warrior). 1796, 1797.

Cornell, Mrs. - a trader "has four children and four grandchildren, she is a widow, the wife of Joseph Cornell, deceased, formerly interpreter. George her oldest son is a trade [Georgia has a wife]. James is a lad at school. Lucy, her oldest daughter is a widow, her husband John Cane died at Tensaw. She has three children. Vica, the youngest has one little girl." 1796.

Cornells, Davy - also known as Efau Tustunnuggee - a son of Joseph Cornells.

Cornells, Georgia - the uncle of John Keen. 1813. Cornells, James - 1813.

Cornish - 1800.

Counts, Mr. 1797. Cousins, Billy - son of George Cousins and cousin of Intummaule. 1797.

Cousins, Georgee - father of Billy Cousins. 1797.

Covington, Leonard - Colonel of Wade Hampton's force. 1811.

Coweta John - 1798.

Cowoppe - also known as Little Prince, Micco Thlucco, Tustunnuggee Hopoie, and Far Off Warrior. A son of Efau Haujo, also known as Mad Dog.

Cox, Zacariah - "Cox and several other speculators had formed the Tennessee Company in 1785 and later purchased some 3,000,000 acres in the vicinity of Muscle Shoals. The purchase was part of the first Yazoo Land sale and was in territory belonging to the Chicksaws. Despite a proclamation by President Washington forbidding settlement, the company had attempted one in 1791 only to be repulsed by the Indians. Six years later Cox revivedd the scheme as a result of the second Yazoo Land sales, built a large boat armed with cannon, and planned to settle the town of Elk. However, once again he abandoned his efforts, largely because of a warning by Hawkins and the threat of U.S. troops commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Butler. Cox left for Natchez where he was arrested in August, 1798; escaping, he fled to New Orleaans where he died soon after" (Grant). Cox was called the leader of the Ecunnaunuxulgee (those greadily grasping after Indian lands regardless of government approval). 1797.

Cozens, Doctor - 1812.

Craig, Colonel David - involved in Indian negotitations in 1797.

Crawford, William H. - 1815, 1816.

Crawley, Mrs - "the prisoner from Tennessee is safe here." 1812.

Crody - 1797.

Crook, Benjamin - 1796.

Crozier and McCorry - 1797.

Cumins, John - a doctor of the Mississippi territory. 1807.

Cunningham, Robert - Captain of the Vii Regiment. 1798, 1813.

Cussetuh Micco - also known as Fat King and The Boot "of Cussetuh." 1797. 1798, 1803.

 Cussetuh Tustunnuggee - 1798.

Cussoleatah - Cherokee commissioner during the line survey. 1797.

Dale, Samuel - a colonel of Monroe County. 1816.

Dallas, Alexander J. - "Secretary of the Treasury who acted as Secretary of War until William H. Crawford arrived in August" (Grant). 1815.

Darling, Dennison - postal agent on a route from Athens to Fort Stoddert. 1807.

Darouzeaux, James - mentioned by Hawkins in 1796 and then listed as the half-brother of Samuel Thomas (deceased) in 1797.

Daughterty, Cornelius - an old Irish trader who lived at Quanasee. The wording of Hawkins' jounral seems to indicate that Daughtery was dead or had moved from the area in 1797. Davie, William R. - 1801.

Dearborn, Henry - 1801, 1802, 1804, 1805, 1807, 1808, 1809.

Deven, Captain - partner of Captain Wallington and "the sutler at Fort Wilkinson." 1805.

Dexter, Samuel - Secretary of War, June 12, 1800 - December 31, 1801. 1800.

Dinsmorre, Silas - 1796, 1797, 1798, 1799.

Dog Warrior - also known as Davy Cornells. A Creek Chief and son of Alexander Cornells' brother, Joseph. 1797, 1798.

Donnelly, Patrick - 1796.

 Doublehead - also known as Chuquilatague. A Cherokee Chief_accused of being too friendly with whites. 1801, 1807.

Downing, George - a trader from Pine Log who had half-breed brothers. Son of Mrs. Gagg. 1796.

Downs, Crawford - Grant stated that this is probably a relative of Lavinia Downs Hawkins. 1816.

 Downs, Lavinia - First mentioned in a Hawkins' letter on December 31,1798. Later married to Benjamin Hawkins.

Doyell, Nimrod - also spelled Doyle. An assistant to Hawkins. Also listed as an agent and interpreter. 1813.

Drew, William - "a native of Virginia. He has an Indian woman who was kind, good natured and attentive. He is a trader, and silversmith, the latter he took up himself by way of amusement a year or two ago. The chief of the business in this line in making broaches, rings and ear bobs." 1796.

Drinker, Henry - 1797.

Duke of Orleans - spent five weeks in New Orleans. 1798.

Dun- murdered with Snell by the Hitchitis. 1812.

Durand, Peter - 1813.

Durand, Mrs. - "the oldest sister of Mr. McGillvray, she had eleven children, eight are living." Mrs. Durand was a trader, with eighty slaves, but bad management and bad credit with Mr. Panton in Pnesacola, left her poor. Her husband was described by Hawkins as "a man of good figure, dull and stupid, a little mixed with African blood." Her sister was Mrs. Weatherford. 1796, 1799.

Durgin, Hendrick - a trader. 1796.

Durouzeaux, James - "a long time trader and interpreter among the Creeks" (Grant). 1797.

Earle, Eliass - 1816.

Earle, Mr. - 1815.

Early, Peter - 1813, 1814, 1815.

Easley, Roderick - a colonel "of the High Shoals of Apalachee." 1807, 1809.

 Ecumchat Emaultau - of Hickory Ground. 1815 Ecunnaunuxulgee - "those greedily grasping after Indian lands regardless of government approval." 1797.

Edington, James - a mial carrier from Knoxville to Fort Stephens. 1808.

Efau Haujo - also known as Mad Dog of Tuckabatchee. Hawkins sent a message to Efau Haujo, an Upper Creek Chieff, in February 1797. 1798, 1799.

Efau Tustunnuggee - also known as Davy Cornells, a son of Joseph Cornells. Mentioned in the Hawkins' papers in 1797.

Elautaulau Hoomuh - 1801.

Elhart, Michael - a Dutch trader to the Creeks. 1797, 1798.

Elliocott, Andrew - 1799.

Ellis, Thomas - a resident of the Creek Agency. 1812.

Emaltau Thlucco - 1805.

Emaultau Haujo - 1800.

Emautlee Hutke - translated White Chief. 1796.

Enolee - also known as Black Fox. 1803.

Esaugetuh Emissee - "The principal Creek diety, Master of Breath" (Grant). 1799.

Eufaula Tustunnuggee - 1802.

Eustis, William - 1810, 1811, 1812.

Fan Omingo - 1797.

Far Off Warrior - also known as Little Prince, Tustunnuggee Hopoie, Micco Thlucco and Cowoppe.

Fatio, Philip - 1801, 1807.

Faulkner, William - a friend of Hawkins from Warrenton, North Carolina. 1796, 1797.

Feared - also known as Ochese Tustunnuggee, Tuskegee Tustunnuggee or Big Feared. 1797, 1800.

Ferguson, Hugh - a Scotsman. 1799.

Few, William - "Georgia delegate to the Constitutional Conventionnn and the state's first senator. " 1798.

Fielder, John - Captain. "At the High Shoals of Apalachee." 1798, 1803.

Fife, James - "a half-breed on Coosa River." 1802.

 Fisher - a trader at Autossee. 1808.

Fisher, Colonel - a mail contractor through the Creek Agency. 1815.

Fletcher, Elizabeth - daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Richard Bailey. Elizabeth was described as being the youngest and able to "read and write and is very industrious." 1796.

Flournoy, Thomas - "Brigadier General Thomas Flournoy appointed March 10 to command of Military District No. 7 (Louisiana, Mississippi Territories, and Tennessee). The United States was divided into nine military districts with a general in command of eadh; Military District No, 6 (General Pickney) embraced Georgia and the Carolinas" (Grant). 1813.

Floyd, John B. - 1813.

 Folch, Vicente - Vincent Floch y Juan. Governor of Pensacola. 1799, 1803.

Folsome, Edmund - a Chief. 1801.

Forbes, John - one of the executioners of John Catt after the murder of Colonel Kirkland's party in 1789. Menioned in 1806. Forbes was 'successor to William Panton [Leslie and Panton of Pensacola]. The firm name was changed to John Forbes and Company ion 1804" (Grant).

Forbes, Thomas - 1801.

Ford, James - reported dead in 1805.

Forrester, John - storekeeper for Panton, Leslie and Company. 1799.

Foster, Doctor - "arrived from Jamaica." 1801. Foster, George Wells - a resident of Greene County. 1797, 1798. Foster, James - "of the district of Natches." Hawkins signed a passport for Foster to go into Georgia. "James Foster [was] a native of South Carolina, and he [resided' in the Natches since he was a boy." 1797.

Fowler, Godfrey - 1797. Francis - a woman mentioned when Hawkins wrote to Edward Price asking for a household supervisor. 1797.

Francis, Josiah - Chief of the local "prophets." 1813.

Freeman, Constant - Major and Agent of the Department of War in 1796. Paymaster in Georgia. 1796, 1797, 1798.

Freeman, Thomas - "surveyor on the Ellicott boundary commission who was replaced by David Gillespie." 1798.

Freeman, Timothy - a captain of Randolph. 1809.

Fromentin, Eligius- senator from Lousiana, 1813-1819. Fromentin and his wife were at the Creek Ageny in 1813.

Fullaupau Haujo - Chief of Eufaula. 1814.

Fushatchee Micco - also known as Hopoie Micco or White Bird King - Creek Chief of Tookaubatchiee. 1797, 1802.

Fushaw Micco - 1797.

Gagg, Mrs. - "the mother of the Downings." 1796.

Gaioso, Mauel Luis Gayoso de Lemons y Amorin - Spanish Governor-General of Louisiana (1789- 1797) and former Governor of Natchez. 1798. Died July 18, 1799.

Gaines, Captain - I Regiment at Fort Stoddert. 1810. Gaines, Edmund P. - 18100, 1815.

Gaither, Henry - Lt. Colonel Commander of III Regiment at Fort Fidius. 1797, 1798, 1799, 1800.

Galphin, John - reportedly stole some hogs. 1797.

Gambold, John - Revd. Mr. - a Morvaian missionary at Spring Place. 1807.

Garvin, Mr. - 1803. Gelabert - Governor. 1800.

Gentry, John - killed by Upper Creeks "on the waters of Cumberland." 1797, 1798.

George, Thomas, James and Tiltagee- "half-breeds; they live near Mr. Grierson. The two first have stocks of cattle and horses. Thomas has 130 cattle and ten horses." 1796.

Gerry, Mr. - 1798. Giles, William B. - "a leading Virginia Jeffersonian" (Grant). 1800. Gillespie, Doctor - 1797. Graham, Georgia - 1815, 1816.

Grandpre', Carlos de - captain in command of Spanish troops at Baton Rouge. 1807.

Grantland, Fleming - 1812.

Grayson, Robert - "a Scotch gentleman [of Hillaubee] _ had all his Negroes (73) and every living eatable [sic] taken from him." 1813.

Grayson, William - the son of Robert Grayson of Hillaubee. 1813.

Greer, Sergeant - 1797.

Grey, William - 1800.

Grierson, David - a son of James Grierson and heir of Mrs. Anne Hopkins. 1796.

Grierson, George - died in the home of John Milledge. 1796.

Grierson, James - a brother of Robert, Thomas, William and George Grierson. "James was a Colonel of the militia in the neighborhood of Augusta. He was killed at the siege of Augusta after his surrender to the American arms." Mrs. Ann Hopkins willed her property to Jane Pettigrew and the children of James Grierson: James Thomas and David. 1796.

Grierson, James Thomas - a son of James Grierson and heir of Mrs. Anner Hopkins. 1796.

Grierson, Robert - "a native of Scotland, who was intelligent, had lived many years in the nation as a trader, and had an Indian family; that had large possessions, Negroes, cattle and horses." He lived at Hillabees. "The family of Robert Grierson are his wife, Sinnugee, of the family Spanalgee; their children, Sandy, Sarah, Walter, David, Liza & William. Sarah is married to Stephen Hawkins [a resident trader]." Robert Grierson had four brothers: James, Thomas, William and George. "James was a colonel of the militia in the neighborhood of Augusta. He was killed at the siege of Augusta after his surrender to the American arms. Thomas was an officer in the militia in the service of the U. States. He died on or about the year 1775. He left a son, a half-bree, in the Euffaulies. He had 500 acres of land on little river, 8 miles below Writeborough, on Upton Creek, adjoining the land of James Grierson and Joshua Saunders _ Mrs. Anne Hopkins of Augusta, died in the year 1775 or 6. She gave by will her property to Jane Pettigrew, and the children of James Grierson, James Thomas and David. Jane Pettigrew was sister to three children on the maternal side. She married David Homes, a nephew of George Galphin. Homes died at Pensacola the year 1799. After the siege of Augusta the Rev. James Seymore carried some of the Negroes to Savannah, and from thence to Augustine. He died on his passage from thence to Providence, and Mr. Thomas Forbes, partner of Mr. Panton, took possession of the Negroes_. John Milledge took "Georgee, the youngest of his children to his house where he died" in 1796. In 1797, Hawkins describes Grierson as "a Scotch trader of Hillabee who had extensive holdings including 40 slaves." 1799.

Grierson, Sandy - 1797. Grierson, Sarah - daughter of Sinnugee and Robert Grierson. Married to Stephen Hawkins. 1796.

Grierson, Thomas - "Thomas was an officer in the militia in the service of the U.States. He died on or about the year 1775. He left a son, a half-breed, in the Euffaulies. He had 500 acres of land on little river, 8 miles below Writesborough. On Upton Creek, adjoining the land of James Grierson and Joshua Saunders." Thomas was a brother of Robert, James, William and George Grierson. 1796.

Grymes, Mr. - a partner of the contractor. 1802. Guyton, Isaac - also spelled Guion. Captain II Regiment scheduled to take Natchez when the Spanish evauated. 1797.

Habersham, John Major - first mentioned in the Hawkins' papers in 1796, 1797, 1798. Habersham informed Hawkins of a declaration of was between Britain and Spain in 1797. He is called "a prominent resident of Savannah and collector of the port who apparently assisted Hawkins in financial arrangements" (Grant).

 Hagel, Christian -a trader "called Huffle, a native of Germany - has a wife." 1796.

 Hague, John - a trader. Called Savannah Jack. 1798.

 Hallowing King - also known as Youholau Micco. 1797.

 Halstead, Jonathan - replaced Edward Wright as U.S. Factor at Fort Wilkinson on April 1, 1802 and served until his death late in 1814" (Grant).

Hambleton, Mr. - "one of the men captured by the Spaniards near Mobile_has with three others been liberated." Grant states, "A Spanish force under Governor Folch attacked a small party of American fillibusters at Saw Mill Creek near Mobile on December 10, 1810. Seven prisoners were taken."

Hamby, William - an interpreter and Indian trader. 1814.

Hamilton, William - of the Georgia Militia. 1813.

Hammot, Mr. - 1810.

Hampton, Wade - Brigadier General who replaced Wilkinson as commander in the South. Hampton was directed by Hawkins to begin road construction from Fort Hawkins to the Creek Agency. 1811.

Hardiman, Prior - "of the district of Natches." Hawkins signed a passport for Hardiman to go into Georgia. 1797.

Hardridge - "two men _ of good character, who have resided among us for nearly twenty years _ and are connected by marriage with respectable Indian families." 1812.

Hardridge, William - "Hawkins indentified Hardridge as 'pilot and interpreter to our war parties.' Apparently he was one of the agent's numerous 'spies'" (Grant). 1815.

 Hargrave, William - Grant states, "A Spanish force under Governor Floch attacked a small party of American Fillisbuster at Saw Mill Creek near Mobile on December 10, 1810. Seven prisoners were taken including an elderly Revolutionary War veteran, Major William Hargrave." 1811.

 Harris - "fled to East Florida and is a notorious thief and without property." 1805.

 Harris, Charles - of Savannah. General, a patriot of East Florida. 1813. 1815.

Harrison, William - 1800.

Harrison, William Henry - General who defeated the Indians at Tippecanoe and Governor of Indian territory. 1812.

 Hawkins, Benjamin - The children of Benjamin Hawkins and Lavinia Downs were Georgia, Carolina, Cherokee, Virginia, Jeffersonia and James Madison Hawkins. Muskogee was included in Hawkin's will, but Woodward says Muskogee was a daughter of Timothy Barnard, raised by Hawkins and Downs (qtd. In Grant). Hawkins visited New York in 1796.

Hawkins, Philomen - a nephew of Benjamin Hawkins. 1816.

Hawkins, Stephen - a trader, married to Sarah Grierson. 1796.

Hawkins, William - Benjamins Hawkins' nephew who was Governor of North Carolina. Williams lived at Creek Agency ywo years when he was a young man. 1799, 1800, 1814.

Haws, James - his "halfbreed daughter" married Thomas Petit, the nephew of George Downing. 1796.

Haws, Sally - an interpreter for Hawkins. (May be a misspelling of Sally Hughes). 1796.

Hay, David - an assistant to James Sullivan, trader. Sullivan was away when Hawkins visited, so Hawkins was received by Hay. 1796.

Heath, Captain - 1798.

Henley, Henry - Captain. 1797.

Henley, Colonel. 1802.

Henley, David - "a native of Massachusetts, served as Agent of the Department of War stationed at Knoxville." 1797, 1798, 1799.

Henry, Captain. 1797.

Hicks, Charles - half-breed interpreter. In 1812, Hawkins called him the "late interpreter of the United States for the Cherokees." 1797, 1801, 1812, 1815.

 High Head Jim - a Creek Chief also known as Tustunnuggee Emalutau or Jim Boy. 1797.

 Hill, Roland - "Early in 1814 the British had planned to make Sir Roland Hill the commanding General of British forces south of Canada. The decision to attack New Orleans under Admiral Cochran caused the plan to be dropped" (Grant). 1814.

Hill, William - an assistant to Hawkins, as Agent of the Creeks. 1798, 1802. Hill committed sucicide in 1806.

Hillabee Haujo - "the leader of the party who committed the murders on Duck River." He was executed. 1812.

Hoboheithle Hajuo - of Thlotlogulgau. 1813.

Hoboheithle Micco - 1813.

Hochhe Homo - 1801.

Hoithleponiyau - 1813.

Holland, Johann Friedrich - assisted Burckhard and Petersen, the Moravian missionaries at the Creek Agency, while they were ill. 1810.

Hollinger, Eliza - Hawkins wrote to Edward Price from Cussetuh, October 23, 1797 and asked that Hollinger be sent to "superintend" Hawkins' household.

 Hollingsworth, Captain - "from East Florida." 1807.

Homastubbee - also known as Mingo Hom Masse Tubby. 1800.

Homes, David - husband of Jame Pettigrew and nephew of Georgia Galphin. "Homes died at Pensacola in the year 1799."

Hooker, John W. - U.S. Factor at Tellico. 1799, 1800.

Hopkins, Matthew - 1798.

Hopkins, Mr. - 1803.

Hopkins, Mrs. Anne - "of Augusta, died in the year 1775 or 6. She gave by will her property to Jane Pettigrew and the children of James Grierson, James Thomas and David." 1796.

Hopoie - of Thlotlogulgau. 1798.

Hopoie Fushatchee Micco - 1802.

Hopoie Micco - "Speaker of the Creek Nation." 1797, 1803.

Hopoithle Micco - also known as Tallassee King of the Halfway House and Tame King. Hawkins sent a message to Hopoithle Micco in February 1797.

Howard, Charles - "Lieutenant Colonel Carlos Howard, an Irish officer in Spanish service at this time under the command of Governor Gayoso" (Grant). 1798.

Hughes, Sally - an interpreter for Hawkins. (May be a misspelling of Sally Haws).

Hunt, William - "of Pawarta." Hawkins signed a passport for Hunt to go into Georgia. 1797.

Huntley, Nitta - an Indian. 1798, 1799.

Hutchings, John - Major. 1816.

 Ictepuccauchau Thluccoo - 1799.

Ingram, Charles - 1800.

Innerarity, John - a clerk working with John Forbes. 1806.

Intummaule - cousin of Billy Cousins. 1797.

Irwin, E. 1798.

Irwin, Jared - Governor of Georgia, January 15, 1796 - November 9, 1809. Mentioned in 1809.

Isaacs, Captain - one of the Coosada Chiefs and son-in-law of McGillvray. 1807.

Islands, Jo - 1799.

Itchhoo Haujo - Also known as Mad Beaver. 1813.

Iverson , Captain.-1815.

 Jack , Captain - 1813.

Jackson, Andrew - requested Hawkins' negotiate with Native Americans at Fort Jackson after Horseshoe Bend in 1814. Jackson was the designated negotiator, but he was dersirous of Hawkins' wisdom and reputation among the Indians. Mentioned in 1814, 1815, 1816.

Jackson, James - U. S. Senator and later governor of Georgia, January 12, 1798 - November 6, 1801. Mentioned in Hawkins' writings in 1798, 1799 and 1800.

James, Benjamin - an inhabitant of the Choctaws who left "that nation the 28 May [1797]. He has three sons, halfbreed, men grown; one a man of some learning, the other capable of managing his commerical concerns, and all of them, in a situation to know the temper and disposition of the nation, as well as the intrigues . . . [of] the Spaniards." 1797.

Jefferson, Thomas - 1800, 1802, 1803, 1806.

Jim Boy - a Creek Chief also known as Tustunnuggee Emaultau or High Head Jim. 1797

Johnny Haujo - The Indian name for Jeptha Tarvin. 1799.

Johnson - murdered by Indians. 1816.

Jones - killed by Indians. 1813.

Jones, Seaborn - "Georgia politician, first speaker of the Georgia House of Representatives" (Grant). 1798.

Juanah - of Cowee. A Cherokee commissioner during the line survey. 1797.

Juliano - Vincente Floch's interpreter. 1799.

Keanetuh, The Turkey - 1797.

Keen, John - the nephew of Georgia Cornells. 1813.

Kenhegee - Also called Perryman. "Chief of Miccossoce, the largest Seminole village" (Grant). 1799, 1800,1811.

Kennedy, Joseph P. - a lawyer from Mobile. 1810.

 Kershaw, Colonel - 1815.

Killgore, Robert. 1798. Killsone - "an innocent, respectable, friendly old man has been murdered, several of his companions stabbed with knives, and beaten with sticks, so badly that a report says an other is dead of his wounds." 1812.

 Kilpatrick, John Clark - surveyor to mark lines between the Indian nations and the United States with Hawkins in 1797.

Kinnard, Jack - John Wallington reported to Hawkins, "On my return to your house [from a short trip] I was informed that Jack Kinnard was very insulting to your family & threatened to bring up the Seminoles & burn your houses." 1802, 1803,1805.

Kirkland, Colonel - murdered in 1789. The incident and its aftermath were discussed by Hawkins in a letter to Robert Walton on February 11, 1797. "The murderer of Col. Kirkland came up to the nation. Sullivan's negro called at Mr. Weatherford's and told what had been done. Jourdan Morgan and John Brown went immediately and talked to Catt; he acknowledged he had done it. They then went over to McGillvray's and informed Robert Walton of it, and they all pursued fifteen miles, but did not come up with them; they returned and Walton sat out again with Bill Tally and a negro and pursued, and overtook them at Sullivan's. Mr. Walton entered the house and seised Catt, and took him down to the Hickory Ground in company with Mr. Grierson; there he got Red Shoes and another Indian to go with him, there and went to Mr. McGillvray's who sent for Governor White. The governor told McGillvray as it was not done in the Spanish dominions, he could not do any thing in it. . . . Mr. Walton took [Catt] and carried him to the camp where the murdered bodies lay; the buzzards had picked out the eyes and eaten some of their breast. Catt pointed out the two that he had killed; he upon seeing of them could scarcely speak, his appearance was wretched, his countenance changed, and appeared black. . . . After one knight's reflection McGillvray said the man must die, and directed John Forbes and Lewis Melford to go out with Walton and hear the prisoner make his defences, and if he was guilty to execute him. Mr. Panton was desirous of a regular trial, and that the prisoner should have some time to repent. McGillvray said no, these evidences of his guilt were sufficient and they should hand him; when there men examined him, he acknowledges the whole, and they took him 10 miles back over the English line, and hung him on the first convienient limb over the path. . . . When he came to the place where he was to be hung, he begged them to take his cloathes off, they were a suit taken from one of the murdered men. The answer to this request was, you die for the act by which you acquired them, and you have the least right to them. His body remained 3 or 4 months without being touched by any thing. The other bodies [of the murdered] were soon devoured by the wolves and buzzards. The negro still lives, and in possession of Mr. Sullivan. The Indian is also alive. When Walton entered the house and took Catt, the Indian was desirous of defending him, and would have killed Tally had not Sullivan prevented it . . . . The negro boy is in possession of Robert Grierson." Hawkins recorded this story in 1797.

Kussatah Tuskeneah - "a brother of the White Lieutenant" and an Indian factor." 1796.

 Laine, Patrick - Also spelled Lane, a trader from Tookaubatche, "native of Ireland, has a wife." Patrick Laine was also called Paddy Laine. 1796.

Lamar, Thomas - "probably a prominent resident of Hancock County." 1797 Colonel. 1798. Ledbetter, Colonel - 1798.

Lee, Lieutenant - Carried Hawkins's letter to Savannah. 1802.

Lemons, William - "a Davidson County in Tennessee. " 1802.

Leonard, Mr. - "of some medical knowledge." Assisted the post rider attacked in August 1805.

Lequex, Peter - "VIII Regiment, Assistant Deputy Quartermaster General, 6th Military District" (Grant). 1814.

Leslie, Robert - of Panton, Leslie and Company. 1798.

Lessly, Daniel - a halfbreed son of James Lessly. Also spelled Lesley. 1797.

Lessly, Francis - a trader in Othluwauly, also known as Wotecau. Hawkins called Francis Lessly, "an unworthy and unfit character." 1798.

Lessly, James - the trader. Also spelled Lesley. Hawkins said he appeared to be a "decent, respectable man." His trading post was at Eufaulauhatche. 1796, 1797.

Lewis ,Major -1801. Lewis, A. - a postmaster. 1807.

Lewis, Howell - Captain III Regiment. 1797.

Lewis, James - "of the district of Natches." Hawkins signed a passport for Lewis to go into Georgia. "James Lewis [was] a native of North Carolina, botn near the Shallow Ford of the Yadkin, he [lived] on Coles Creek 13 miles from the Mississippi, and 30 miles from the Natches." 1797.

Lewis, Kendal - a Lieutenant in charge of Hawkins' spies. 1814.

Lewis, Samuel, Jr. - 1799.

Lewis, William - "served as Agent to the Cherokees . . . after Silas Dinsmoor's dismisal in March [1799] (Grant). 1799, 1814.

Limbaugh, Christian - Mentioned in 1807, an assistant of Hawkins, originally from Germany, educated. Limbaugh was accused of stealing in 1815 and fled to Florida to escape investigation.

Limus- Mr. Marshall's servant. 1798.

Linder, John - one of the murderers of Colonel Kirkland, Kirkland's son and others in 1789. See McGillvray, General.

Liston, Robert - "British minister in Philadelphia." 1797.

Little Prince (Tustunnuggee Hopoie, Micco Thlucco, Far Off Warrior or Cowoppe) a son of Efau Haujo (Mad Dog). Mentioned in 1814.

Little Turkey - 1801.

Lockhart ,Mr. - 1802.

Long Lieutenant- Also known as Tuskeinchau Chapco. A Creek Chief. 1803.

Lott, Arthur - "an honest old man, lately a member of the Legislature of Georgia, traveling among his friends as he thought, is fired on by four men and murdered without any provocation." 1812.

Lott, William - "was murdered eight miles this way [written from the Creek Agency] from his house by four Indians, without the least provocation." 1812.

Loughran, Mr.- 1807. Lovet - 1800.

Lovet, James - an illiterate trader. 1799.

Low, Obediah - a trader, "has an Indian wife and 2 children. He is from the upper part of Georgia. 1796.

Luckett, John R. - II Regiment. 1810.

Lyon, John - a botanist. 1809.

 Lyons, Samuel - "a hireling of Francis Lessly." 1798.

Lyons, William - "at Tookaubatchie Tallahassee, a hireling to James Moore. " 1798.

Maclin, Sackfield - an assistant to Hawkins. 1797

Macnac, Sam - Also spelled Moniac, a half-breed Creek. 1812.

Macomb, Alexander, Jr. - Lieutenant in 1802. Rose "to the rank of Brigadier General in the War of 1812, was named secretary and sent to Washington to carry the papers and settle the accounts of the commission [Indian Affairs]. " 1802.

Marchand, Sehoy - halfbreed wife of Lachlan McGillivray. McGillivray returned to Scotland leaving Marchand and his children in Georgia. 1799.

Macrae, Sam - "a half-breed of large property who keeps entertainment on the road, at whose house Meredith is buried, calls it [the murder of Thomas Meredith] an accident." 1810, 1812.

Mad Beaver - Also known as Itchhoo Haujo. 1813.

 Mad Dog - of Tuckabatchee or Efau Haujo. Hawkins sent a message to Efau Haujo, an Upper Creek Chief, in February 1797, 1798.

Mad Spaniard - a Lower Creek Chief. 1797.

Madison, James- President of the United States. 1800, 1803, 1811.

Marques de Casa Calvo - "Governor General of his Catholic Majesty at New Orleans." 1801.

Marquis de Montjoye - Spent five weeks in New Orleans. 1798.

Marshall, Henry - brother of William and son of Mrs. Marshall. He escaped an Indian masacre at his mother's home during the Revolutionary War, but was "afterwards killed at Sappalo; a lad at school by Capt. Baker and his company, after he had surrendered himself wounded a prisoner. This action is mentioned as having been done in a manner shocking to humanity." 1797.

Marshall, Joseph - a warrior of Tookaubatchie who was wounded in the head in a skirmish. 1813. Marshall ,Mr. - 1807.

Marshall, Mrs. - murdered by Indians, believed to be Chekaws, during the Revolutionary War.

Marshall, Thomas - a trader who owned property at Coweta. 1796, 1797.

Marshall, William - "a young man of 17 . . . a native of Ireland . . . murdered by an Indian" at a Coweta village in 1784.

Martin, Thomas - 1798 Captain I Regiment. 1799.

Mary - "a Negro woman . . . the property of a Captain Smith." Mary and several others were kidnapped by Indians and later returned to the Flint River Agency for Hawkins to restore them to Smith. 1806.

Mason, John T. - Superintendent of Indian Trade. 1813.

Mathews, George - Governor of Georgia 1787-1788; 1793-1796. "General." Mentioned in 1812.

Mauhlaugee - A Chief. 1799.

 Maumouth - "an Old Chief known to all of us." Maumouth reported the death of Thomas Meredith to Hawkins as a brutal murder committed by drunken Indians at McCrae's travern in 1812.

 Maxent, Maximiliano de St. Maxent - commander of the Spanish forces in Pensacola. 1799.

Mayfied - 1798.

McAllister, John - a prominent resident of Green County. 1803.

McCabe,

Mr. - 1801.

McCall, Hugh - Captain II Regiment, stationed at Fort Wilkinson. 1798 .

McCall, Jesse - a Major and commissioner of Georgia. 1803.

McCarty - killed by Indians. 1813.

McClish, William - also spelled McLish; a Choctaw interpreter. 1797.

McClure, Robert - a Chief. 1801.

McCobb - Captain. 1814.

McCurtin - 1800. Mcrae - a half-breed woman. 1809.

McDonald, David - "The man known as Daniel McGillvray was actually David McDonald. He assumed the name McGillvray hoping to share in the McGillvray inheritance, which he did" (Woodward qtd. in Grant).

McDonald, James - Colonel and commander of VII Regiment. 1816.

McFasshion - the principal chief of Hickory Ground and "a cousin of Gen. McGillvray." 1796.

 McGaskey - murdered by Indians. 1816.

McGee, Barlett - 1797.

McGee, Len - 1799.

McGill, Hugh - 1815.

McGillvray, Alexander - McGillvray's tribe was called "the largest and most warlike tribe in the south" (Grant). McGillvray and twenty-three chiefs went to New York (then the U. S. capital) for treaty signings in 1790.

McGillvray, Daniel - "The man known as Daniel McGillvray was actually David McDonald. He assumed the name McGillvray hoping to share in the McGillvray inheritance, which he did" (Woodward qtd. in Grant). 1802.

McGillvray, General - Hawkins wrote in 1797, "Having had some information of the execution of a white man by order of General McGillvray, for the murder of some white people who were trading through the Creeks, I [Hawkins] applied to Mr. Walton for information and he gave me this narrative: On or about the year 1789, Col. Kirkland, his son, and another white man, with one John Linder and a black boy, were going through the Creeks to Tonsau. They were met at the Little Suppulgaws by John Catt, of Holston, a negro, Bobb, belonging to Stephen Sullivan, Catt's wife, an Indian woman of the fish ponds, and an Indian man called The Murderer (this name he had for killing Mr. Scott's hireling). The travelers went about 10 miles to Murder Creek (Lucho Hatchee), and there encamped. The others continued 2 miles to the Big Suppulgaws. After supper the murderers took their horses, and went in pursuit of the travelers. Col. Kirkland had drank freely and gone to sleep, the murderers had given him some to drink when they met him and a bottle to take with him. Sullivan's negro crept up to a tree, took the gun and put it to the head of the old man, and blowed his brains out. Catt and the Indian rushed in, the latter with his hatchet and the former with his club and knife. The son jumped up on his hands and knees and said, I will tell you all about it, spare my life. . . Catt cut his throat with a knife; Linder had a timmahawk in his head; he after set on his hams, and throwing his head back, Catt stuck him in the throat. The murderer killed the other one; he had the hatchet stuck in his head, and traveled in the knight about 50 yards and died with his head in a branch. They had a good many papers and letters; these were burnt. They then took every thing except the clothes on the dead bodies. The negro boy they took prisoner, and they slept there all knight and returned." Hawkins recorded this story in 1797. 1803.

McGirth - killed by Indians. 1813.

McGraw, James - "of Tombigbee." Hawkins signed a passport for McGraw to go into Georgia. 1797

McHenry, Francis - "passes himself sometimes [as] an Englishman, then a Virginian, and again a Scotchman." 1812.

McHenry, James - Secretary of War. 1796. Mentioned in the Hawkins' papers in 1797, 1798, 1799, 1800, 1803.

McKee, John - Agent of the Cherokees beginning in 1794. Mentioned in the Hawkins' papers in 1800, 1802, 1812. Also Agent to the Choctaws. 1800.

McIntosh, John Houston - General during the War of 1812. Mentioned in 1797, 1814.

McQueen, James - "the oldest white man in the territory." 1796.

McQueen, Peter - 1813.

Medal Chief - 1802.

Meely, John - a halfbreed. 1799.

Megee, Leonard - "a halfbreed in the savannas, of good character." Hawkins wrote to Robert Walton on February 11, 1797 in hopes of employing Megee.

Megrew, Flood - "native of South Carolina." He was traveling on business and was"an inhabitant of Tombigbee."

Meigs, Return J. - Commissioner to the Cherokees in 1804 and 1805. Mentioned in 1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1815, 1816 "Colonel" 1801.

Melford, Lewis - one of the executioners of John Catt after the murder of Colonel Kirkland's party in 1789. Also mentioned in 1797. Melton - Captain - killed by Indians. 1813.

Menawa, Sam - "a very ealthy halfbreed." 1809.

Meredith, Thomas, Sr. - "a respectable old man traveling with his family to Mississippi Territory was murdered on the post road at Kettoma a creek 150 miles west of [the Creek Agency]." 1812.

Meriwether, David - 1807 A General "designated by Secretary Dearborn to aid Hawkins in getting further land cessions from the Creeks. Meriwether was a Brigadier General in the Georgia Militia and served in the House of representatives from 1802 - 1807.

Merritt, John - "of Georgia." 1799.

Merritt, William - "of Georgia." 1799.

Methogley - a hunter of Miccosooce. 1799.

Micco Auchulee - the old King of Coweta. 1808.

Micco Thlucco - (Little Prince, Tustunnuggee Hopoie, Far Off Warrior or Cowoppe).

Micco Youholau - 1814. Michael - 1798.

Michonubbau Micco - 1813.

Middleton - Captain. 1813.

Milledge, John - took "George [Grierson], the youngest of the children [of Robert Grierson] to his house where he died." 1796 Mentioned in the Hawkins papers in 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806. Governor of Georgia, November 4, 1802 - September 23, 1806.

 Miller - a blacksmith. 1799.

Miller, Arthur - a companion of George Mathews, implicated in the Yazoo Land frauds. 1797.

Miller, Jack - "the late brother of Tom Miller." 1802.

Miller, John - 1799.

Miller, Nicholas - stabbed in the arm by the Indian that killed William Marshal in 1784.

 Miller, Tom - "a citizen of the United States." and brother of Jack Miller. 1799, 1802.

Milton, Homer V. - Colonel III Regiment "of Alabama Heights." 1814.

Mingo Hom Masse Tubby - Also known as Homastubbee. 1800, 1801.

 Mingco Homastubbee - a leading Choctaw Chief. 1802.

Mingco Pooscoos -a Chickasaw. 1801.

Minor, Stephen - Major. 1799.

Mitchell, David B. - Governor of Georgia. Mentioned in 1810, 1811, 1812, 1813, 1816.

Mitchell, Samuel - Chickasaw Agent 1805 - 1806. Mentioned in 1797, 1798, 1800.

Molton - arrived from New Orleans. 1802.

Monger, Hiram - "native of Georgia." He was traveling on business and was "an inhabitant of Tombigbee." 1797.

Monroe, James - 1813, 1814, 1815 "Secretary of State Monroe was Acting Secretary of War from December 1812 to February 1813."; "Monroe was again Secretary of War, from August, 1814 to March, 1815" (Grant).

Moore, James - a trader. 1796, 1797.

Moore, Robert - Captain. 1811. Morans - Captian. 1800.

Mordecai, Abraham - "a trader among the Upper Creeks called by Hawkins 'a Jew of bad character'" (Grant). 1797.

Moreau, Jean Victor - French General in exile. 1807.

 Moreland - a man murdered by Indians. 1799, 1802.

Morgan, Jourdan - a trader at Wewacau [Witumpka] 1797; one of three men to examine John Catt about the murder of Colonel Kirkland's party in 1789.

Mosley, Lieutenant Mr. - a solider at Tellico (the Cherokee Factory) in Tennessee. This is "probably First Lieutenant Trueman Mosley, 13 Infantry" (Grant). Mosley went with Hawkins and two soldiers to Ocunna Station in 1797.

Mossley, Mr. (Lt.?) 1796. Probably First Lieutenant Trueman Mosley at Tellico. 1813. Motmileche - 1815.

 Mucckassee Hopoie - carried messages for Hawkins in February 1797. Mentioned in 1802.

Mucclassee Haujo - 1800.

 Mucclassee Micco - Upper Creek Chief. 1797.

Murderer, The - a Native American, known as The Murderer because he killed "Mr. Scott's hireling", and one of the murderers of Colonel Kirkland. Kirkland's son and others in 1789.

Nal, Mr. - 1809.

Nanetooquh - also known as Bloody Fellow. 1801.

Naubonelubby Thlocco - Native American of Coweta, accused of stealing stock. 1797.

Neclucko Hajo - a Creek chief in Hillabees. 1796. Neely, James - Chickasaw Agent. 1808?

Nehah Tustunnuggee - a commissioner. 1797.

Nene Hauja - Also known as Pathmaker. 1803.

Nenehomohtuh Emaultau - a Native American Chief. 1807.

Neuville - Captain. 1799.

Nicolls - Colonel. 1814.

Nicholls, Edward - a British officer and agitator of the Creeks against the United States. Hawkins called Nicholls "a second Bowles." Mentioned in 1815.

Nitta Hooktees - 1797. Nonetooquh - Also spelled Nonetooqah and Nontuaka of Willtown, a Cherokee line survey representative. 1797.

Notetsennschaie - Native American. 1796. O'Kelly, John - the trader, and Indian factor. 1796.

O'Neil, Arturo - Colonel and governor of Pensacola. O'Neil was a Spanish commandant. 1797

 O'Hanlon, Felix - "an Irishman by birth, who had been a colonel in the Spanish service, afterwards a major in that of the British which he left on the score of his religion and now one of the commmissaries for the supply of fresh provisions to the army and navy in the West Indies and southwardly on the Spanish Coast." 1811.

O'Riley, Barney - "a half-breed son of John O'Riley [who] served as a guide for General Floyd." 1813.

O'Riley, Coronet - a "close relative" of Mobile's Governor Claiborne, who held a "high situation at Havvanah." 1811.

 O'Riley, John - lived four miles from Tuckabatchee. 1796.

Oakchume - 1801. Ocfuskee - Native American. 1796. Oche Haujo - 1798.

Ochese Tustunnuggee - also known as Tuskee Tustunnuggee, Big Feared, or Feared. 1797, 1798

Ocunna, The Badger - 1797.

Ogoscotah - a Native American chief. 1797.

Ogosatah - the uncle of Sally Waters. Hawkins was the house guest of Ogostah's family, but the chief was out hunting. 1796.

Okelesau - 1803. Oketeuoconne Tuttallossee - 1814.

Oliver, Captain - 1800.

Olivero, Don Pedro - Commandant at Mobile, also a Spanish agent to the Choctaws. 1797.

Oohallukeh - Cherokee line survey representative. 1797.

Oolaquah - Cherokee line survey representative. 1797.

Ooseooche- 1798.

Opio Dockta - a Creek chief in Hillabees. 1796.

Opioche Tustanwick Hajo - and his wife, Auwillagnee, had about seventy cattle. Lived in Hillabees. 1796.

Opoie Hutke - "of Ochebofau." 1798.

Ostanaulah Kecoh Tustkey - lived at Tuskegee. 1813.

Ottasie Matlah - a chief of the Creeks in 1796.

Owlelo Mico - Native American of Coweta. 1797.

Paine - a Chief who died. 1800, 1812.

Panton, Leslie & Company - British trading firm based in Spanish controlled Pensacola.

Panton, William - "a Scotch trader, was head of Panton, Leslie & Company of Pensacola, probably the most important trading company in the area" in 1796 (Grant). Panton wanted John Catt to have a formal trial after the murder of Colonel Kirkland's party in 1789. Panton was mentioned in the Hawkins' papers in 1796, 1797, 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801. Died at sea February 26, 1801.

Parish - a woman mentioned when Hawkins wrote to Edward Price asking for a household supervisor. 1797.

Parish, John - 1797.

Parker, Daniel - Chief Clerk, War Department. 1813.

 Pathmaker - Also known as Nene Hauja. 1803.

 Pauachucklui - Warrior Chief of the Cussetuh. 1797.

Pearson - Colonel. 1814. Peg.Mr. - 1798.

Perryman, James - a Seminole Chief. 1811.

Perryman, Thomas - A Seminole Chief, and "a relative of Bowles' Indian wife; they had quarrled in 1792 and Perryman continued to oppose him [Bowles]" (Grant). 1799, 1811

Perryman, William - a Seminole chief. 1811. Perryman - Also called Kenhegee. A Seminole Chief. 1811.

Petit, Bashel - 1796. Petit, Rachel - the wife of Tom Petit and the halfbreed daughter of James Haws. 1796.

 Petit, Tom - George Downing's nephew, was married to James Haws "halfbreed daughter." The Petits had "a little daughter with white hair and a beautiful rosy complexion." Petit (sometimes spelled Pettit) was a pilot and interpreter for Hawkins. 1796.

Pettigrew, Jane - an heir of Mrs. Anne Hopkins. "She married David Homes - a nephew of George Galphin."1796.

Phillips, Joseph - Colonel. 1812, 1798. Pickens, Major General Andrew - appointed by Washington with Clymer and Hawkins to negotiate with the Creeks. Mentioned in the Hawkins' papers in 1796, 1797, 1802.

Pinkey & Sam - 1796. Pickney, Thomas - 1813, 1814, 1815.

Pigot, Hugh - Captain who "reached the mouth of the Apalchicola [from Havvanah] on May 10. His ship carried 2,000 stands of arms and 300,000 ball cartridges" (Grant). 1814.

Piomingo - a Chickasaw War Chief. 1797.

Pitchlynn, John - a Choctaw interpreter. 1797.

Pope, Piercy Smith - "commanded the U.S. troops with the Ellicott Commission." Known as "Crazy Pope;" he died in July 1799. Pound, William - "He has been four years in the nation has a pretty little Indian woman, and one child." 1796.

Powell - Doctor from Lousiville, at Fort Wilkinson. 1802.

Power, Thomas - Secretary to the Spanish Commissioners. 1799.

Price, Edward - First mentioned in the Hawkins' papers in 1796. Price wrote to Hawkins on February 10, 1797. Price is also mentioned in the Hawkins' papers in 1798 and 1799. Price was the factor at Colerain in 1796. He had been factor since 1793. "Pro-agent of War" 1802. Later entry about Price was written in 1803 after Price's death in February 1799.

Puckshunubbee - 1801.

Randall, John - killed by Indians "with all of his family except Peter Durand, and one of his daughters." 1813.

Randall, Viney - 1813.

Randon, James - 1799.

Ratley, Richard - served as a pilot for Hawkins.

Ratley was engaged to serve Hawkins by Tom Petit and Ratley was "a native of Halifax district in North Carolina - an inhabitant for several years of the Creek Path, a town on the Tennessee." 1796 .

Red Eagle - see Weatherford, William. Red Shoes - Native American and one of the possey members who captured John Catt after the murder of Colonel Kirkland's party in 1789.

Reed, Hardy - a trader of the Upper Creeks in 1797 who lived in Coweta. According to Hawkins, Reed was illiterate. 1799.

 Reichel, Carl Gothold - 1807, 1808.

Rengil, Emanuel - the Spanish consul at Savannah. 1800.

 Rhoades, John - 1803.

Rhodes- Mr. - the loomaker. 1802.

Richards, William - a trader. 1796.

Richardson, James - 1797.

Rickard, William - Captain III Regiment. 1797.

Robbins ,Mr. - 1799.

Roberts - Doctor and public surveyor "with the Commissioners of Creek limits" who spent a day at the Creek Agency. 1816.

Robertson, James - "early settler in Tennessee and at various times agent to the Cherokees, Choctaws and Chickasaws." 1797 Called "General" in 1803.

Robertson - Mr. "a gentleman of Greensborough." 1803 .

Roddy - Mr. 1815. Rodington, George Martin - 1801.

Roe, David and John Van - sons of Mrs. Roe - traders. 1796.

Rogers - Major - 1810.

Rogers & Chisholm - Trading Firm. 1796.

Rogers, John - owner of a ferry at Clinch who had an Indian wife "and many children." 1797.

 Ross - Captain. 1815.

Ross - Lieutenant. 1815. Russel - son of Hoithlewaule. 1813.

Russel, Christian - "a Silician by birth." a Cherokee trader at Etowah. 1796, 1797.

 Russel, James - 1796.

Russel, Poley - "a free woman of mixed blood." 1799.

 Ruth, Martha - of Philadelphia. 1798.

 Rowland, David - 1816.

Sackfield, Maclin - 1797.

Salcedo - Governor General at New Orleans. 1813.

Sanchez - a Major in East Florida. 1813.

Sauluchee - the Indian name for John Shirley. 1798.

Saunders, Joshua - owned land adjoining Thomas Grierson and James Grierson. 1796.

Savannah Jack - John Hague - a trader. 1798.

Saxon, John - Lieutenant III Regiment. 1801.

Seagrove, James - Creek Indian Agent of the United States in 1797. Also mentioned in 1799.

Seaton - 1812.

Sessions - Mr. 1798; Sent Hawkins a newspaper "containing Admiral Nelson's account of the victory he obtained on the 1st of August over the French fleet." 1798.

 Sevier, John - "a leading figure in early Tennessee history. He was first governor of the state (1796-1801), and a member of the House of Representatives (1811-1815) (Grant). Mentioned in 1797, 1815.

Seymore, Rev. James - "carried some of the negroes [of the deceased Anne Hopkins] to Savannah, and from thence to Augustine. He died on his passage from thence to Providence, and Mr. Thomas Forbes, partner of Mr. Panton, took possession of the negroes." 1796.

Scott - Major. 1814.

Shapp Homo - 1801. Shaumburg, Bartholomew - German-born, Captain II Regiment at Fort Stoddert. 1799.

Shields - Captain from South Carolina. 1814.

Sheftal, Levi - an agent in Savannah. 180?.

Sheppard, John - "of Tombigbee." Hawkins signed a passport for Sheppard to go into Georgia. 1797.

Sherley - Mr. "the subcontractor." 1813.

Shirley, E. John - "an American." A trader at Thlotlogulgau, called Sauluchee by the Indians. 1798 .

Short Neck - 1797.

Shugert, Peter - 1800.

Sibley, John - 1807.

Sinnajijee - of Tookaubatchie. "an outlaw [who] scalped and otherwise ill treated Mrs. Smith of Tombigbee." The woman did not die. 1802.

Sinnugee - "of the family Spanalgee." Wife of Robert Grierson and mother of Sandy, Sarah, Walter, David, Liza & William. 1796.

 Smith, Daniel - commissioner to the Cherokees in 1804 and 1805.

Smith, George - "an Englishman." 1796, 1798.

Smith, John - 1807.

Smith - Mrs. near Tombigbee.

Sinnajijee, an outlaw Indian scalped and "otherwise ill treated" her, but she did not die. 1802.

Smith, Sam - a half-breed killed by Indians. 1813.

Smith, Thomas A. - Rifle Regiment. Smith commanded the troops at Fort Hawkins. 1810.

Smith, William - "he furnished money for borth Burr and Francisco de Miranda and was a land speculator" (Grant). 1807.

Snell - "long friendly to us, both [Snell and Dun] murdered by the Hitchitis." 1812.

Snell, Henry - an agent for Panton, Leslie & Company 1797. Hawkins wrote, "Mr. Snell having lawful business to transact in Savannah, within the State of Georgia. He is by these presents permitted to pass thro' the Creek land into that state; and I request the officer commanding at Fort James to facilitate his journey." 1797, 1798.

Soockeah - Native American. 1796.

 Sparks, Richard - Captain. 1797, 1810.

Spiller, Rachell - 1799.

Stagg, Major - 1797.

Steadman, Benjamin - a halfbreed chief. 1797. Steddman, John - a chief. 1813.

Steele - Mr. 1797, 1798.

Steiner, Abraham - Revd. Mr. A Moravian missionary. 1807.

Stephenson - Captain. 1815.

Steuart, John - a Colonel and "British Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the South from 1762 to 1775" (Grant).

Stewart, Daniel - commanded the Liberty County Militia. 1810.

Stewart, Capt. David - murdered, with his wife and two children by Indians, believed to be Chekaws, during the Revolutionary War. Stewart was the son-in-law of Mrs. Marshall at whose house they were all killed.

Stiggins, Joseph - a trader. 1796.

Stimmauketah - Native American of Tallauhassee, accused of stealing stock. 1797.

 Strother, George - Ensign III Regiment, commanding at Tellico Blockhouse. 1797.

Succuh Haujo - 1802.

Sucktoskee - "a professed horse theif of Eufaulahatche." 1802.

Sullacuhwolluh - Cherokee commissioner during the line survey. 1797.

Sullivan, James - a trader. David Hay was his assitant. Sullivan was away when Hawkins visited, so Hawkins was received by Hay. 1796.

Suquiltakeh - Cherokee commissioner during the line survey. 1797.

Swain, Thomas - II Regiment at Fort Stoddert. 1803.

T. McQueen & Le Prostre - a trading company in 1797.

Talemas Awotallegau - 1802.

Talemas Haujo - 1802.

Tallassee Fixico - "the runner." 1813.

Tallassee King of the Halfway House or Hopoithle Mico - Hawkins sent a message to Hopoithle Mico in February 1797, 1799. Talleyrand - 1798.

Tally, Bill - one of the possey members who captured John Catt after the murder of Colonel Kirkland's party in 1789.

Tarrapin, The - a chief? 1796.

Tarvin, Jeptha. Also called Johnny Haujo by the Creeks, and "an honest man" by Hawkins. 1799, 1800.

Tate, David - "a halfbreed of property who resided in Alabama." 1802.

Tattnall, Josiah - Governor of Georgia, November 7, 1801 - November 3, 1802. Mentioned in 1802.

Taylor - Captain. 1799.

Tecumseh - a Shawnee chief who led hostile Creeks to defeat against Andrew Jackson at Horseshoe Bend (Alabama) in 1814.

Tenskwatawa (The Prophet) - the brother of Shawnee chief Tecumseh..

 The Bark - 1801.

The Boot - Also known as Cussetuh Micco. 1803.

The Glass - 1801.

Thluccopoiechee - 1816.

Thrass - Sergeant. 1797.

Thomas, Ensign - Commander at Fort James. 1796 Thomas was mentioned as helping build Fort James in 1797, 1799.

Thomas, Isaac - "of German parents." 1796.

Thomas, Richard - a trader who was Hawkins' clerk; lived at Cussetuh in 1797.

Thomas, Samuel - Early trader mentioned in the Hawkins papers in 1797. He was already dead at the time of the writing. Thomas' half-brother was James Darouzeaux.

Thompson - Ensign. 1798.

Thompson, David - 1797.

Thompson, John - intereter for the Treaty of Holston. 1797.

Tims, Benjamin - murdered by a Seminole. 1798.

Tinsley, Samuel - Captain. 1814. Tire - Major. 1810.

Tomoho Holohtau - 1816.

Tookaubatche, Queen of - Tookaubatchie was a Creek town in Alabama is which Hawkins spent a good deal of his time. In a letter written March 4, 1797, Hawkins wrote to an unnamed woman and ended his letter, "with sincere wishes that you may be Queen of Tookaubatchie." Grant believed the addressee of this letter was Mrs. Elizabeth House Trist of Philadelphia.

Tooscehatche Micco - of Tookaubatchie. 1802 .

Topoki Thulucco Tustunnuggee - 1799.

Toulmin, Harry - "a prominent resident of Mobile", was later a federal judge in Mississippi.

Toulmin was at Fort Stoddert at 1807. Townshand, John - "an Englishman." 1796. Travis - 1799.

Traylor, William - of Seven Islands. 1809.

Tripplett, William M - Captain, "resigned from the army in July as a first lieutenant" (Grant). 1814

Trist, Elizabeth House - Grant assumes that a letter by Hawkins on March 4, 1797 is to Mrs. Trist saying, "Although no adressee is indicated, the letter is obviously to Mrs. Elizabeth Trist of Philadelphia, an old friend and frequent correspondant of both Hawkins and Thomas Jefferson." Grant calls this one of two surviving Hawkins' letters to Trist. The original letter is in the New York Public Library. In this letter, Hawkins discussed, "my love for red women and determination to better if practicalbe their situation." He further stated, "I have within my agency some beautiful young queens and I will order a factory set in motion, and make two for the boys." Hawkins mentioned the woman's brother, George. and friends, the Harrimans and Eastons. He closed "with sincere wishes that you may be Queen of Tookaubatchee." 1800.

Trist, Hore Browse - son of Eliza House Trist of Philadelphia. 1801.

Trudeau, Zenon - "a Spanish colonial official" (Grant). 1800.

Tullaupau Haujo - 1814. Tuns - 1797. Turnbull, John - a Choctaw trader. 1799.

Turner, Lavinia - the weaver. 1802.

Turner, Tillman - an Ensign in the III Regiment. 1812.

 Tuskegee Haujo - 1802.

 Tuskegee Tustunnuggee - Also known as Ochese Tustunnuggee, Big Feared, or Feared. 1797, 1798, 1800, 1802, 1813.

Tuskeinchau - of Chewhaw. 1815.

Tuskeinchau Chapco - Also known as Long Lieutenant. A Creek Chief. 1803.

Tuskeinchau Hutke - of Ocfuskee. 1799.

Tuskeinchau Thlucco - 1803.

Tuskena Patki (translated White Lieutenant) - an "old man, one of the principal chiefs of the Creeks, and head of the Oakfuskies, was out hunting" when Hawkins visited with his family. 1796.

 Tuskonahopoie - 1801.

 Tusscuppatapa Omingo - Chickasaw. 1797.

Tusseki Abbee - "of Nauchee." 1812.

Tussekiah Mico - Native American 1797, 1802, 1798.

Tustunnuggee Emaultau - of Tookaubatchie - A Creek Chief known as High Head Jim, or Jim Boy. 1797.

 Tustunnuggee Haujo - 1799.

Tustunnuggee Hopoie (Little Prince, Micco Thlucco, Far Off Warrior or Cowoppe) a son of Efau Haujo (Mad Dog) of Coweta Tallahassee. 1802.

 Tustunnuggee Thlucco (Big Warrior) - Creek Chief.

Tustunnuggee Thluec - "of Tookaubatchie." 1802.

Tustunnuggeeooche - "of Wewocau." Lived at the Black Warrior. 1813.

Tuzant, John - "the bearer." A trader among the Creeks. 1799.

Tyler, John - a blacksmith. 1797, 1798.

 Upaulike - of Kitchofoone. 1807, 1809.

Van, John and David Roe - sons of Mrs. Roe - traders. 1796.

Vann, James - a Cherokee Chief. 1797, 1801.

Van Renssalaer, Solomon - Captain of the Dragoons. 1797.

Vines, Nicholas - murdered by Cowetas. 1798.

Wade - Captain. 1797.

Wafford, William - Colonel. 1798.

Walker - Lieutenant. 1815.

Wallace, Squire - 1797.

Wallington, John - Captain - "late partner of Captain Devan, the sutler at Fort Wilkinson." "Asked Hawkins for information concerning the possibility of moving his establishment up the Ocmulgee, perhaps renting the ferry. He also gave to Hawkins what must have been distressing news: 'On my returen to your house [from a short trip] I was informed that Jack Kinnard was very insulting to your family & theatened to bring up the Seminoles & burn your houses'" (Grant). 1805, 1807.

Walliwer, Mr. 1799. Walton, George - 1798.

Walton , Mr. 1799, 1807.

Walton, Robert - first mentioned in 1796. Walton carried messages for Hawkins in February 1797. He informed Hawkins of the details of the Kirkland murders of 1789. See McGillvray, General. Walton was also one of three men to examine John Catt about the murder of Colonel Kirkland's party in 1789. Then he was one of executioners of Catt. Walton was an English trader among the Creeks for thirty-three years; he was banished by the Creeks, but allowed to return at a later date. Walton was a trader at Coosada in 1797, 1800.

Ward, John - 1813.

Warfield, Mr. - 1797.

Warren, John B., Sir - British Admiral partrolling the Altantic Coast. 1814.

Washington, George - 1798.

Waters, Sally - "a halfbreed wife of Col. Waters late of Georgia, she speaks the toungue well, it being her mother toungue, and she speaks English well enough for sommon subjects within the sphere of domestic objects." 1796.

Watts, John - Colonel. A Cherokee Chief. 1797, 1801.

Waxa Haujo - of Eufaula. 1809.

Wayne - 1813. Wears - Captain. 1797.

Wears, Colonel Samuel - lived in Sevier County in 1797.

Weasau - King of the Sawanogi [Shawnee]. 1798.

Weatherford, Charles - 1798, 1799.

Weatherford, William (Red Eagle) - raised thoughougbred horses "15 hands high" but with "feet somwhat too flat, owing to their being raised in flat swampy lands." Weatherford lived on the Alabama "one mile below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa." There were "five conic mounds of earth, the largest 30 yards in diameter, 17 feet high, the others all small, about 30 feet in diameter." Hawkins stated that the Alabama flooded "once in 20 to 25 years." When this happened, Weatherford took all of the stock that he could to the top of the largest mound for safety; "The remainder were lost." Mounds are described two miles from the river also. Webb - a post rider who was the victim of attempted murder in August 1805. His route was Coweta to New Orleans and the attack happened near Tookaubatche. Weatherford may have used these in a similar manner." 1796 Weatherford led 1,200 followers to defeat by Jackson in the Battle of Burnt Corn in 1813 and the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814.

Webb, John, Jr. -Lieutenant Webb "had been a captain before leaving the service earlier. He had re-entered as a first lieutenant" (Grant). 1797.

 Weelik - Cherokee line survey representative. 1797.

 Whartenby, Richard - Major (Brevet) VII Regiment. 1816.

Wheaton, Jospeh - a mail contractor. 1805, 1807.

 Wheel - 1801.

Whelocke Emaultau - Chickasaw. 1797.

 White, Governor Henry (Enrique) - the Spanish governor of East Florida (Pensacola) in 1789. White told Robert Walton that Spain had no jurisdiction in the Kirkland murder incident of 1789, 1801.

 White, Nick - lived 4 miles from Kettoma and 26 miles from Tookaubatche. 1805.

White, Nicholas - "a native of Mersailles, but resident in this nation [the Creek Nation] for 30 years; he has an Indian woman, and 4 children, 2 of each sex, 3 of them married to Indians." 1796.

 Whitner, Joseph - surveyor to mark lines between the Indian nations and the United States with Hawkins in 1797.

Whitney, John - 1797.

Wiggington, Mr. - 1813.

Wilkinson, General James B. - disagreed with Hawkins' policies concerning treatment of Native Americans. 1801, 1802.

Will - "a halfbreed." 1796.

Williams, Captain. 1812. Williams, Mrs. 1798.

Willoughbly, William Davis - 1800.

Wilson, Henry - 1797.

 Wilson, Thomas -a trader. 1797.

Winchester, James - 1797.

Wistar, Thomas - 1797.

Witaker - 1797. Woodbine, George - a British Lieutenant who "continued his attempts to stir up the Indians after peace had been made" (Grant). 1815.

Woodruff, Joseph - Captain. 1812. Captian III Regiment, passed throug the Creek Agency going west with 50 soldiers in May 1813.

Woods, Captain - 1798.

Wolf Warrior - A Seminole Chief. 1812, 1814.

Wopian Sisters - Sisters mentioned when Hawkins wrote to Edward Price asking for a household supervisor. 1797.

Wotecau - the Indian name for Francis Lessly. 1798.

Wright, Billy - a halfbreed Creek "of the Tallassee on Tallapoosa." 1797 He was the "brother of the late Mrs. Gunn." 1803.

 Wright , Mr. - United States factor. 1802.

Wright, Thomas - "Thomas Wright replaced Samuel Mitchell as Chickasaw Agent in 1806. He died five days before Hawkins wrote this [September 25, 1808] letter and was succeed by James Neely" (Grant).

Yauqmulgee - 1797.

 Youholau Chapco - a "good old interpreter" brought a scalp into his town. The letter which reported this incident discussed numerous whites murdered by Indians. Hawkins was disturbed by an increase in violence and used Youholau Chapco as an example of how Indian sentiment against the whites had changed. 1798, 1799, 1812.

Youholau Micco - of Coweta. 1802 Reported as dead in 1803. Zuniga, Maurico de - 1816.

Forts, Houses, and Place Names

Georgia was and is a military zone. Her 159 counties were subdivided into militia districts as early as 1751. The state was established to provide a "buffer" between the Spanish in Florida and the British colonies. By the time to the American Revolution, "enemies" of the new United States included Britain (through the War of 1812), Spain (in East and West Florida), France (in the Lousiana Territory), and any number of tribes (motivated by White encroachment of by enemy European nations). Georgia's oldest homes were forts. Wormsloe Plantation in Savannah is a fine example of fortified houses. The first European dwellings were Spanish missions. Even Georgia's fourth state capital, Milledgeville, built its statehouse with brick wall three feet thick. Georgia's place names are Native American, European, and honor numerous individuals important to the state, the nation, and the world. Many of these people had military connections, too. What becomes apparent is there is more to Georgia's history than most Georgians realize. Our military influences span time from the earthen fortifications shown at Ocmulgee National Monument to Warner Robins Air Force Base, Fort Benning, and Kings Bay Naval Base. The major sources for this section of Fort Hawkins and Frontier Georgia are Encycolpedia of Historic Forts: The Military, Pioneer, and Trading Posts of the United States by Robert B. Roberts (Macmillian, 1988), Place Names in Georgia by Kenneth C. Coleman, and The Log Cabin: Homes of the North American Wilderness by Alex W. Bealer and John O Ellis (Barre Publishing, Barre, Pennsylvania: 1978).

Alacoochee River - This name appears on an 1823 map. The words mean "Little Potato" from the Creek words ahalak - potato, and uchi - little. Alocoochee may be a misrepresentation of Willachoochee Creek.

Alcovy - Alcovy is a railroad stop in Newton Countynamed after the Alcovy River. The Muskegean name for the river is Ulcofauhatchie, meaning "A river among the pawpaw trees." This translation comes from the words ulcofau - paw paws among, and hatchie - creek.

Alecks Creek - Located in Wayne County, this creek is named for a Lower Creek Chief called Alleck or Captain Alleck. He lived near the Altamaha River and his name comes from the Muskegean word aleckcha or alikcha meaning doctor.

Altamaha River - The Altamaha bisects the lower state, draining 14,530 square miles of Georgia and dumps 100,000 gallons of water into the Atlantic Ocean (at Darien) per second. Its name is a combination of Spanish, Creek, and Timicuan words, and may have been taken from the ancient Native village of Tama. The river is mentioned in Oliver Goldsmith's 1770 poem "The Deserted Village." The Ocmulgee and the Oconee Rivers join at Lumber City to form the Altamaha. Today's nuclear Plant Hatch, at Baxley, is on the Altamaha.

 Amicalola Falls - Amicolola Falls State Park contains the highest waterfall in Georgia (929 feet). The Cherokee words for Amicalola's seven falls are ama - water, and kalola - tumbling. The park in Dawson County.

Angelica Creek - Historic names for Angelica Creek are Muckaloochee and Notocahatchie. It is named for the Angelica plant that Muskegean peoples used for medicine.

Angleica Creek is in Sumter County.

Anneewakee Creek - Douglas County's Anneewakee Creek joins the Chattahoochee. Its name is from a Cherokee family name, Anakwanki meaning "Cattle People." Ani means clan, and waca means cow.

Apalachee - Apalachee may be the oldest recorded Native American name in Georgia. It was once the name of an Oconee County community named for the Apalachee River. Apalachee in Morgan County was settled before 1820. Krakow, in Georgia Place Names says, "The name is derived from the Apalachee (or Apalachi) Indian tribe of the Creek Confederation. The meaning may be from the Hitchiti Indian word apalachchi, "those on the other side" (as opposed to allies), "those who lived beyond the mountains," or possibly from the Choctaw, apelachi, "helpers" or "allies." Derivation can also be traced from the former Indian town of Apalachee (or Apalachen), which was in the vicinity of today's Tallahassee, Florida."

Apalachicola - This was a former Native American village on the west side of the Chattahoochee River. Krakow says, "The name comes either from the tribal name Apalachicolas, and Indian confederacy called Lower Creeks by the English, or from the Choctaw Indian word Apelach-okla, "The helping people" or "Allies." The Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers join to form the Apalachicola River, and the Apalachicola flows through Flordia into the Gulf of Mexico.

Arch - The former community of Arch was in Forsyth County. It was named for Cherokee scribe, John Arch (or A'tsi).

Atlanta - Atlanta is the capital of Georgia and the countyseat of Fulton County. It is located on the site of an ancient Indian village called Standing Peach Tree.

 Augusta Arsenal - Also called United States Arsenal. According to Roberts, "For a period of 128 years until its abandonment in 1955, a United States Arsenal was located on a tract comprising approximately 70 acres lying just north and west of the city of Augusta. An 'arsenal at Augusta' to aide the State in 'resisting invasion' was originally provided for by President George Washington in 1793. In 1816 a U.S. Arsenal was established on the Savannah River where the King Mill is now [1978] located, but the garrison having been wiped out in 1819 by 'black fever, was removed to the present site in 1827 and consisted of two sets of officers' quarters, an enlisted men's barracks, and a storehouse connected by a loopholed wall. This arsenal was late used in the War Between the States and was located between Katerine Street and monte Sano Avenue in Augusta.

Billy's Island and Billy's Lake - Krakow writes, "This 60-acre lake is the largest in the Okefenokee Swamp, in which the island is also located. There were named for the famous Seminole Indian chief, Billy Bowlegs, who lived in the swamp as late as 1840. His Indian name was Olactomico, and he is said to have been born in Wiregrass, Georgia about 1804."

Blackshear - Blackshear is in Pierce County. Krakow writes that this county seat was "Named in honr of General Davis Blackshear (1764-1837), who commanded the troops who constructed Blackshear Road (or Blackshear Trail) in 1814 between Hartford and the Flint River. Fort Early was then built at this latter terminal of the road, and many years later a dam was constructed here on the Flint River to create the 8,000-acre Lake Blackshear of Lee and Sumter Counties.

Blackshear's Ferry in Laurens County was located four and one-half miles north of Dublin on the Oconee River. It was previously called Tramble and Batey Ferry for the prior owners. The name was changed after General Davis Blackshear took over the ferry while he was assigned to drive out the Indians and survey the lands. General Blackshear later built his home, "Springfield Plantation," one half mile eastward from the site of the ferry."

Blair Line - James Blair was surveyor for the boundary between Georgia and the Cherokee Nation. Blair Line was surveyed in the early 1800's and Habersham County has a marker errected in its honor.

Bloody Branch - Located in Charlton County, Blood Branch was the site of a 1794 Indian massacre. Twenty Indians killed James Keene and one of his children near Burntfort.

Bluff Trail - Once known as the Upper Uchee Path, in 1807 surveyor William Dowsing, Sr. named it Bluff Trail, "after the bluff opposite the mouth of Crooked Creek where this stream enters the Ocmulgee River in Twiggs County.

Bond's Trail - Bond's Trail was probably named after an Indian trader named Bond. The trail is more commonly known as Jackson's Trail.

Buffington or Fort Buffington (Cherokee County) -Krakow says, Buffington was "Established in the 1830s as a stockade or fort for use in rounding up Cherokee Indians for removal to the west in 1838. This community is thought to have been named for a mixed blood Cherokee, Joshua Buffington.

Burnt Village, Troup County - Krakow writes, Burnt Village "was located on the west bank of the Chattahoochee River at the mouth of Wehadka Creek, due west of LaGrange. Prior to 1793 this was the great central point of the Muskogee tribe of the Creek Nation. In that year, a Major Adams led an attack of white men who killed the Indians and burned their town as revenge after Indian attacks on frontier settlements."

Butts County - Butts County was created in 1825 and named for Captain Samuel Butts (1777-1814) who was killed January 14, 1814 in a battle against Upper Creeks. The county seat is Jackson.

Calhoun - Calhoun, in Gordon County, is called "The Cherokee Capital." It was named for Senator John Calhoun in 1850. Calhoun's older name is Dawsonville for Mr. Dawson, who owned a general store here. Before Dawsonville, the area was known to the Natives as Oothcaloga, Ustanali, and New Echota.

Camp Benjamin Hawkins - The Boy Scouts of America established Camp Benjamin Hawkins in Peach County near Byron. The camp is named for Indian Agent, Benjamin Hawkins and members of the Central Georgia Council of Boy Scouts wear an arm patch showing Fort Hawkins on their right shoulders.

Camp Crawford - Also known as Fort Scott - Roberts writes about this site, "In the spring of 1816, in compliance with orders of Major General Andrew Jackson, Brigadier General Edmund P. Gaines directed Lieutenant Colonel Duncan L. Clinch to erect a fort on the lower Flint River in order to restrain the hostile Creeks, the "Red Sticks." In June Clinch arrived with a detachment of the 4th Infantry and establish a camp on the west or right bank of the Flint River, just above its confluence with the Chattahoochee, about a mile west of S.R. 310, south of present-day Bainbridge in Decatur County, calling the post Camp Crawford. Construction of a fort was begun in September. The defense was designated Fort Scott, possibly in honor of Lieutenant R.W. Scott, killed at the site before the fort's completion. Temporarily evacuated in December, the fort was almost at once plundered by the watchful hostiles. In the spring of 1817, Fort Scott was occupied by Captain S. Donoho and a company of artillerymen, reinforced later in the same year. Fort Scott was abandoned in September 1812, after the cession of Florida to the United States and a sembalnce of peace had been established on the frontier."

 Camp Hope - In September 1813, Camp Hope was a temporary meeting point for 3,600 Georgia volunteers. These troops later fought hostile Creek-Seminoles during the War of 1812. Camp Hope was in what is now Macon, Georgia.

Camp Pinckney - Named for Captain Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina, Camp Pinckney was a trading post on the St. Mary's River in Charlton County. It was important during the Second Seminole War. Krakow says than Camp Pickney was possibly named for Thomas Pickney, son of Governor Thomas Pickney of South Carolina.

Campbell County - According to Krakow, Campbell County was "Created December 20, 1828 from Carrol, Coweta, DeKalb, and Fayette Counties. The county seat was Campbellton and then Fairburn. Campbell County was merged into Fulton County January 1, 1932. It was named in honor of Colonel Duncan G. Campbell (1787-1828), a noted Georgia lawyer, who was a member of the legislature, a commissioner to the Indians, and a strong advocate of the higher education of women."

Camp Recovery - Roberts writes, "Established for the accomodation of soldiers convalescing from fevers to which Fort Scott's garrison was subject, Camp Recovery was a temporary, seasonal encampment on the elevated area about tow and a half miles southeast of the fort. The site, in present Decatur County, cannot be identified with precision. The following inscription is incised on the base of the granite monument erected in commemoration of the camp: 'Erected on the site of Camp Recovery near which are buried officers and soldiers of the United State Army who died during the Indian Wars in the Indian Wars in the Flint and Chattahoochee river country, 1817 to 1821.'"

Camp Townsend - This was a temorpary post for the Creek War in 1836 in Lowndes County.

 Camp Ware - Camp Ware was a temporary defense for the Second Seminole War of 1838. It was northwest of the Okefenokee Swamp at Waresborough in Ware County.

Camp Wilde - Camp Wilde was near Fort Floyd at the northeast corner of the Okefenokee Swamp during the Second Seminole War of 1838.

Campbell County - According to Krakow, Campbell County was "Created December 20, 1828 from Carrol, Coweta, DeKalb, and Fayette Counties. The county seat was Campbellton and then Fairburn. Campbell County was merged into Fulton County January 1, 1932. It was named in honor of Colonel Duncan G. Campbell (1787-1828), a noted Georgia lawyer, who was a member of the legislature, a commissioner to the Indians, and a strong advocate of the higher education of women."

Charlies Creek - Charlie's Creek was named for Charles Hicks, a Cherokee chief. The creek is in Towns County.

 Chattahoochee River - The Yuchis called this river Tiah. It is 560 miles long and begins in the counties of Habersham, Towns and Union. There are several ideas of what the word Chattahoochee means, but most meanings contain the word rock. Benjamin Hawkins gives numerous references to the Chattahoochee.

Chattooga River - The Chattooga River begins in Walker County and flows to Alabama to join the Coosa.

Chehaw - Located in Lee County, Chehaw was the home of the Chehaw Nation. The Chehaw Path extended from Putnam County at Tom's Path to Jones County.

Chickasaw Indian Trail - This road is also called Chicken Road and extended from the Oconee River at Dublin to Hartford on the Ocmulgee River. At one time it was part of the Uchee Path.

Chief McIntosh Lake - Now a part of the Indian Springs State Park in Butts County, Chief McIntosh Lake is named for General William McIntosh. McIntosh was the half-Scot, half-Creek chief who signed the last treaty giving ancient Muskegean lands to the state of Georgia in 1825. The treaty was signed in the McIntosh House, a hotel owned by McIntosh at Indian Springs. Natives opposing this treaty murdered McIntosh at his home in Coweta County shortly after the treaty was signed. McIntosh, a veteran of the American Revoltuion and the War of 1812, is remembered by some as a man who saved numerous lives in an inevitable military conflict with the state of Georgia; others remember McIntosh as a traitor to his people.

 Chieftains -*correction below* John Ridge, a prosperous Cherokee Chief, trader, and ferry owner, built Chieftans on the Oostanaula River. When the treaty, which moved the Cherokees to Oklahoma, was signed, and the United States government seized his home and property. Chieftains is a Georgian style mansion in Rome, Georgia (Floyd County) which is now a museum.
Corrected by Donna Byas SWatie@aol.com
The father was Major Ridge, who built Chieftains (now in Rome, Ga). Major Ridge owned a ferry, owned (with a white man) a trading store and had long been a great Cherokee orator and warrior, very active in the Cherokee government and headed up the Cherokee lighthorse (policing company).
The son, John Ridge, lived at Running Waters plantation, also in the Rome, GA, area, was also a great Cherokee orator, also traded, also had a ferry, also very active in the Cherokee government.
The 2 are often times confused, and sometimes incorrectly melded into 1 person

Chopped Oak - Krakow says Chopped Oak (Habersham County) is "an early Indian rendezvous where many Indian trails crossed, which was on a hill between [the communities of] Cornelia and Baldwin. This was where the Indians recorded trophies of battle by taking a gash in a great oak tree here, for every scalp taken. The Cherokee name of the site was Diagliyatunyi, "Where it is chopped (or gashed)."

Chupee Creek - This is an early name for Tobesofkee Creek. The name comes from the Muskogee word chapa meaning halfway. Tobesofkee Creek is in Bibb County and is between Fort Hawkins and Benjamin Hawkins' Creek Indian Agency on the Old Federal Road. Hawkins carved his name in a tree beside Tobesofkee Creek in 1797.

Clark County - Krakow says Clark County was, "created December 5, 1801 from a portion of Jackson County. This is the smallest county in the state, comprising 125 square miles. It was named for Elijah Clark (1733-1799) of North Carolina, a distinguished soldier of the Revolution, and the 'Hero of the Hornet's Nest.' He later served in the U.S. House of Representatives from Wilkes County." What Krakow does not say is that later in Clark's life, the general rose against the state of Georgia and the United States to form his own "Trans-Oconee Republic." It was organized and defeated in the same year.

Clinch County - Clinch County was not created until 1850, but it was named for General Duncan Lamont Clinch (1784-1849). Originally from North Carolina, Clinch was a veteran of the War of 1812 and the Creek-Seminole Wars of 1836-1838. Clinch later became a U.S. Congressman.

Coffee County - Coffee County is named for General John E. Coffee (1782-1836), a veteran of the War of 1812 and the Creek-Seminole Wars.

Coleraine - James Armstrong and James Seagrove established Colerain on Decemeber 1, 1786 in Camden County. It became the site of Fort Pickering.

Colonel Hawkins Bridge - Named for Benjamin Hawkins, Indian Agent, this bridge spans the Flint River.

Coosa Old Town - This was a Native village in Floyd County destroyed in 1793 by General John Sevier, an early governor of Tennessee.

Coweta Town - Coweta was a Native village at the site of present-day Columbus. General William McIntosh was a Chief of the Cowetas.

Creek Indian Agency Cabin - This English style log cabin was built in the 1820s in Monroe County on the Oconee River. The Creeks left this area between 1823 and 1830, so the Agency Cabin became a weaver's dwelling. It is made of hewn logs.

Cusseta - Cusseta was a Native word meaning "Trading Place." It was a village in Chattahoochee County.

Dames Ferry - George and John Dame ran the ferry that crossed from the Monroe County side of the Ocmulgee River to what is now Bibb County. Their house was fortified against hostile Indian attacks.

 Dead Man's Branch (Walton County) - Elijah Clark defeated Native Americans here in 1787.

Durst House - This two-room log cabin (with a loft) was built near Roberta, Georgia on the Oakfuskee Indian Trail, probably near Hawkins Creek Indian Agency. It was restored and relocated by Mr.and Mrs. William Durst, and is presently behind their home in Atlanta. The Durst House is made of hewn timber with rifle ports for frontier protection.

Echeconnee Creek - This creek runs through Crawford, Bibb and Houston Counties to the Ocmulgee River. Its name means "Deer Trap Creek."

Ellicott's Rock Wilderness - This is a National Wildlife Refuge in Raburn County named for Major Andrew Ellicott, surveyor for the line between Georgia and the Cherokee Nation.

Federal Town - This was the name of an early Baldwin County settlement, established about 1792 on the Oconee River. Its name was later changed to Fort Fidius when a stockade was erected.

Five Mile Creek - This is a name General Blackshear coined when establishing the Blackshear Trail. The creek is in Coffee County, but on one knows why it is called Five Mile Creek.

 Flint River - The Flint River is 350 miles long and joins the Chattahoochee which evidentually flows through Florida into the Gulf of Mexico.

Fort Advance - Elijah Clark established his own republicbecause he felt the United States was not pro-active in removing Native Americans from land that he believed white settlers should have. In 1794 he established at least six forts along the Oconee River. Fort Advance was established in early 1794 on the west side of the Oconee at Town Creek. Clark defied state, national and native governments for most of 1794, but was defeated late in the year.

Fort Alert - Also called Traders' Hill Post was established in November 1812, four miles southwest of Folkston (Charlton, County) during the Indian Wars. The fort was also used during the Creek War of 1835-36.

Fort A.S. Miller - John Floyd established twenty fortsaround the Okefenokee Swamp during the late 1830's because Creek-Seminoles, who refused to be removed to Oklahoma reservations, had escaped to the swamps of south Georgia and Florida. Fort A.S. Miller was on the northwest side of the Okefenokee (Ware County) at Suwannee Creek. It was a temporary post shown on an 1839 map.

Fort Barnum - A militia fort on the northwestern part of the Okefenokee Swamp. It was during the Second Seminole War in 1840.

Fort Buffington - According to Roberts,"one of the so-called 'Cherokee Removal Forts' established between 1830 and 1838, Fort Buffington was a stockade located near the village of Buffington in eastern Cherokee County. The stockade was probably named for Joshua Buffington, a prominent mixed-blood Cherokee who lived on the Etowah River in presennt Forsyth County."

Fort Campbell - A Cherokee Removal Fort in Forsyth Country during the 1830-1838 "Trail of Tears" era.

Fort Cedartown - A Cherokee Removal Fort in Forsyth County around 1838.

Fort Chastain - A Cherokee Removal Fort at Cedartown in Polk County.

Fort Clarke - According to Roberts, "During the spring of 1793, Governor Edward Telfair ordered a number of forts built along the Oconee River for the protection of the frontier against Creek Indian incursions. One of the forts was located at Sculll Shoals in northern Greene County and was named in honor of Georgia's Revolutionary War leader, General Elijah Clarke. The fort consisted of a two-story blockhouse equipped with a door five inches thick. The blockhouse was surrounded by a rectangular, 11-foot-high palisade, 29 yards long and 19 yards wide. The fort was completed on April 29, 1793, and first garrisoned by a detachment of the Greene County Militia. No records exist of Fort Clarke after 1794. The sire later became the home of Governor Peter Early, Scull Shoals is now part of the Oconee National Forest, protected and maintained by the National Park Service."

Fort Coleraine - Established in 1793 to guard the frontier between Georgia and Spanish Florida, Fort Coleraine was garrisoned in 1796 on the border of Camden and Charlton Counties. The fort was on the north side of the St. Mary's River.

Fort Cumming(s) - Also known as Old Indian Stockade, was a Cherokee Removal Fort established between 1835 and 1836 in Walker County. Fort Cummings had a stockade with a rifle tower at each angle. Georgia volunteers manned it.

Fort Dahlonega - Also known as Fort Lumpkin, was a Cherokee Removal Fort established between 1835 and 1838 in Dahlonega.

Fort Daniel - Roberts says, "At Fort Daniel on Hog Mountain about 12 miles northeast of Dultuth, Gwinette County, began the orginal Peachtree Road to the village of Standing Peachtree on the Chattahoochee River. This old route was opened to haul military supplies to the river and floated downriver to General Andrew Jackson's and General John Floyd's troops, converging on the Indians during the Creek War of 1813-1814. Built in late 1813 or early 1814, Fort Daniel was a stocakde probably established to guarantee the safety of the supply line and to seve as a staging area for the troops. All the land west and northwest of the Chattahooche was Indian country."

Fort Deposit - Andrew Jackson's men built this fort in 1818 on Thompson Creek in Dawson County. It was used to store supplies.

Fort Early - Fort Early was a War of 1812 defense in Crisp County. It was named for Governor Peter Early.

Fort Edwards - Fort Edwards was built in Oconee County in 1789 as a blockhouse defense against hostile Indians.

Fort Erwin - Governor Jared Erwin (Also spelled Irwin) and his three brothers built a stockade in Washington County to protect settlers against possible Indian attack.

Fort Fidius - Fort Fidius was built on the Georgia side of the Oconee River in 1793. Fort Wilkinson replaced it.

 Fort Floyd - Fort Floyd was one of the Okefenokee perimeter forts of the Seminole War in 1838. It was named for General Charles Floyd.

Fort Frogtown - This fort was a White County Cherokee Removal Fort built 1838.

Fort Gaines - The first Fort Gaines was built in Clay County by the 4th Infantry beginning April 2, 1816. It was a small fortification with two blockhouses at diagonal corners of a stockade on the east side of the Chattohoochee River. General Edmund P. Gaines garrisoned the fort until 1819. A second Fort Gaines was built during the Creek War in May 1836. It was a refuge for people escaping the Roanoake Massacre. A third Fort Gaines was built during the War Between the States. It was no action in this war.

Fort Gilmer - Roberts says, "Named in honor of Governor George Gilmer, this post was established in 1838 on the western edge of the Okefenokee Swamp on the west side of the Suwanne River, just below the mouth of Suwanoochee Creek, in present Echols County, a short distance above the Florida line. During the spring of 1838, Governor Gilmer began receiving reports from the states's southern counties of Indian attacks and depredations. He wrote to both General Zachary Taylor, then commander of Florida's forces, and Secretary of War Joel R. Poinsett, requesting aid. General Taylor responded by arranging for Federal troops - two companies of infantry and two companies of Dragoons - to be sent from Florida. He posted one company of each at Fort Gilmer. The general, in the meantime, sent Major Henry Dearborn to the frontier to establish a ring of forts around the Okefenokee accompanied by instructions to have their troops make regular patrols of the area. Fort Gilmer was probably garrisoned unitil sometime in 1841.

Fort Green - In 1813, four forts were built on the western border of Pulaski County by order of the governor. General Davis Blackshear supervised the building of these forts, established 10 miles apart, to protect the frontier.

Fort Greene - Fort Greene was built in 1794-1795 on Cockspur Island at the mouth of the Savannah River. It was named for General Nathaniel Greene. In 1804, the fort was completely destroyed by a gale.

Fort Grierson - Fort Grierson was located at Augusta and was named for British Lieutenant Colonel James Grierson. It was built while the British occupied Augusta during the Revolutionary War in 1780 and 1781. Fort Hawkins and The Georgia Frontier does not attempt to list Revolutionary War forts; however, several of the people mentioned in Fort Grierson's history do become important to the frontier history. They are James Grierson, Elijah Clark, and Andrew Pickens. According to Roberts, Grierson "was captured and, while a prisoner, was shot by an unknown Georgia rifleman."

Fort Grierson - Fort Grierson was in Augusta and named for Lieutenant Colonel James Grierson. It was a Revolutionary Era fort.

Fort Gunn - Also known as Fort St. Tammany, Fort Gunn was built about 1787 and exsisted until the War of 1812. It was on the St. Mary's River.

Fort Halifax - This fort also known as Fort Wayne, Fort Savannah and Fort Prevost this fort was at the "present-day northeast corner of East Bay and East Broad Streets in Savannah . . ." Roberts writes, "Fort Halifax, also known as Fort Savannah, was built on the same site, or very near it, in 1750-1760. Its planked double walls were filled with earth and featured a caponier (a cross-wise built work in the ditch to sweep it with flanking fire) on each of its four corners. By 1773 the fort was in such disrepair that it was considered of little use. When the British took Savannah in 1779, they rebuilt the fort and renamed to Fort Prevost in honor of General Augustine Prevost. During the War of 1812, when British Admirald George Cockburn's fleet was raiding up and down the southern coastline, the Americans completely rebuilt the fort with buttressed brick walls encircling a high bluff overlooking what was once a marshy plain and renamed the defense in honor of General Anthony Wayne. The fort was reportedly contructed on the original site of the ten-acre Trustee's Garden."

Fort Hammond - This fort is listed in the Adjutant General's Journal of 1794 as located in Liberty County. Nothing else is known.

Fort Hartford - Roberts writes, "The Blackshear Trail was opened by General Davis Blackshear in 1814, from Fort Hartford at Hawkinsville in present Pulaski County to Fort Early, for the purpose of fighting more effectively against the rebelious Creek Indians."

Fort Hawkins - Robert's entry in Encyclopedia of Historic Forts: The Military, Pioneer, and Trading Posts of the United States" reads, "Today's city of Macon had its origin with the establishment of important Fort Hawkins in 1806 on the east side of the Ocmulgee River, 35 miles southest of Milledgeville. A westward outpost, trading center, station for negotiating with the Indians, and assembly point for the troops engaged in the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812, Fort Hawkins was named for Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, federal commissioner to the Indians, who and selected the site on a commanding elevation near the [Ocmulgee] river. Roberts says that Fort Hawkins enclosed 14 acres. This is an old and incorrect statement. The fort enclosed 1.4 acres, had two blockhouses, four longhouses and a building for officers' quarters. The stockade was built of hewn lumber 14 inches squared, 14 feet in height and buried 4 feet into the ground. Fort Hawkins was decommissioned in 1828.

 Fort Henderson - Located two and a half miles west of Coleraine in Charlton County, Fort Henderson was a Second Seminole War fortification. The fort was abandoned in 1842. It was named for Brevet Brigadier General Archibald Henderson.

Fort Hetzel - a Cherokee Removal Fort built in Fannin County between 1835 and 1838.

Fort Hoskins - A Cherokee Removal Fort in Murray County established between 1803 and 1838.

Fort Hinar - Also known as Fort Sixes, Fort Hinar was a Cherokee Removal Fort established between 1830 and 1838 in Cherokee County.

Fort Hughes- Located in Bainbridge, Fort Hughes was a"dependency" of Fort Scott. It was named for Aaron Hughes who was killed in an attack on a large Indian village, Fowlstown, in 1817. Hughes was with the 7th Infantry.

Fort Irwin - Revolutionary War veterans Jared, John, William and Alexander Irvin, built this fort near Union Hill in Washington County. Jared Irwin died in 1818. The fort was built to protect settlers from Indian attack.

Fort Jackson - Fort Jackson was in construction from 1808-1812. It is a masonry fort that was used from 1812 until 1905. Fort Jackson is three miles south of Savannah and it open for tours. Andrew Jackson also established a Fort Jackson in Alabama.

 Fort James - This Fort James was built in 1797, 50 miles above Dairen, on the Altamaha River. Located in what is now Wayne County, and built to protect settlers from Indian attack, Fort James was abandoned in 1802.

Fort Jones - Built in 1836 for the Creek War, Fort Jones was a log stockade fort in Stewart County. Major H.W. Jernigan supervised the fort's construction, and Stewart County volunteers garrisoned the completed fort.

Fort La Motte - This was a Second Seminole War fort built on the perimeter ofthe Okefenoke Swamp.

Fort Lawrence - Roberts writes, "The government's old Indian reservation occupying a tract of land about five miles square spanning the Flint River in present Crawford and Taylor counties was protected by Fort Lawrence, which was built by United States Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins, who took charge of the agency there about the year 1800. The fort, often garrisoned by U.S. troops, was described as 180 feet square palisaded, with two blockhouses, two hospitals, two storehouses, barracks, and other auxiliary structures. Several important treaties with the Indians were concluded at the agency. On November 15, 1827, a treaty was signed [at Indian Springs in Butts County] giving the state full title to the remaining Creek lands between the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers. Two earlier treaties were concluded . . . in November 1804 and April 1817."

Fort Lumpkin - Also known as Fort Dahlonega was near Dahlonega, Georgia and was established between 1835 and 1838 as a Cherokee Removal Fort.

Fort McCranie - McCranie was one of three Schley County forts built around 1836. It was built on Bushy Creek. The Battle of Bushy Creek, June 19, 1836 ended with the slaught of Native American men, women and children.

Fort McCreary - Georgia Volunteers manned Fort McCreary in Stewart County. The fort was used in the Creek War of 1836.

Fort McLane - McLane was one the Okefenoke forts built during the first Seminole War. It was probably in Ware County.

 Fort Mathews - Fort Mathews was built in 1793. Named for Governor George Mathews, this fort was at the fork of the Oconee and Apalachee Rivers. Fort Mathews was used to observe and ultimately defeat Elijah Clark's "Trans-Oconee Republic."

Fort Means - Built sometime between 1830-1838, Fort Means was a "Cherokee Removal Fort in Floyd County.

Fort Mitchell - General David Mitchell erected forts on a trail between Fort Hartford at Hawkinsville to Fort Early on the Flint River. Fort Mitchell was erected in 1813, along the Blackshear Trail, on the western border of Pulaski County.

Fort Montpelier - The community of Montpelier is across the Oconee River from Milledgeville. Fort Montpelier was built to protect this community's citizens from Creek upsrisings in 1794.

Fort Mudge - General John Floyd and General Davis Blackshear erected Fort Mudge as one in a series of forts surrounding the Okefenokee Swamp in 1813.

Fort New Echota - New Echota was capital of the Cherokee Nation. Fort New Echota was a Cherokee Removal Fort established between 1830 and 1838 in Gordon County. Fort Newnan - Several Cherokee Removal Forts were built between 1830 and 1838.

Fort Newnan was one of these and was located in Cherokee County.

Fort Peachtree - Located in Fulton County, Fort Peachtree was a communications and supply fort between 1814 and 1821. It was located in what is now Atlanta.

Fort Perry - Fort Perry was on the Old Federal Road in Marion County. It was a stockaded fort with blockhouse, built in 1813. General John Floyd led 400 Georgia volunteers from here to fight the Red Sticks in Alabama. Fort Perry was named for War of 1812 veteran Oliver Hazard Perry.

Fort Petersen - The stockade at Fort Petersen enclosed two to three acres of land near the home of John Petersen in Coffee County. It is one of Georgia's earliest Indian defense forts.

Fort Pickering - The Treaty of Colerain was signed in 1796 at Fort Pickering. The fort was named for Secretary of State Timothy Pickering and was built on the St. Mary's River.

Fort Pike - Forts were built in regular intervals along the Blackshear Trail in 1814. Fort Pike was one of these forts located between Hartford and the Flint River. It was built on Pulaski County's western border.

 Fort Pond - Fort Pond was in Pulaski County, six miles south of Hartford.

Fort Prevost - This fort also known as Fort Wayne, Fort Savannah and Fort Halifax this fort was at the "present-day northeast corner of East Bay and East Broad Streets in Savannah . . ." Roberts writes, "Fort Halifax, also known as Fort Savannah, was built on the same site, or very near it, in 1750-1760. Its planked double walls were filled with earth and featured a caponier (a cross-wise built work in the ditch to sweep it with flanking fire) on each of its four corners. By 1773 the fort was in such disrepair that it was considered of little use. When thee British took Savannah in 1779, they rebuilt the fort and renamed to Fort Prevost in honor of General Augustine Prevost. During the War of 1812, when British Admirald George Cockburn's fleett was raiding up and down the southern coastline, the Americanns completely rebuilt the fort with buttressed brick walls encircling a high bluff overlooking what was once a marshy plain and renamed the defense in honor of General Anthony Wayne. The fort was reportedly contructed on the original site of the ten-acre Trustee's Garden."

 Fort Red Clay - Fort Red Clay was a Cherokee Removal Fort somewhere in Northern Georgia.

Fort Rome - Fort Rome was a Cherokee Removal Fort in Floyd County.

Fort Savannah - This fort also known as Fort Wayne, Fort Halifax and Fort Prevost this fort was at the "present-day northeast corner of East Bay and East Broad Streets in Savannah . . ." Roberts writes, "Fort Halifax, also known as Fort Savannah, was built on the same site, or very near it, in 1750-1760. Its planked double walls were filled with earth and featured a caponier (a cross-wise built work in the ditch to sweep it with flanking fire) on each of its four corners. By 1773 the fort was in such disrepair that it was considered of little use. When thee British took Savannah in 1779, they rebuilt the fort and renamed to Fort Prevost in honor of General Augustine Prevost. During the War of 1812, when British Admiral George Cockburn's fleett was raiding up and down the southern coastline, the Americans completely rebuilt the fort with buttressed brick walls encircling a high bluff overlooking what was once a marshy plain and renamed the defense in honor of General Anthony Wayne. The fort was reportedly contructed on the original site of the ten-acre Trustee's Garden."

Fort St. Tammany - Also known as Fort Gunn, was built about 1787 and exsisted until the War of 1812. It was on the St. Mary's River.

Fort Scott - Also known as Camp Crawford, Roberts writes about Fort Scott, "In the spring of 1816, in compliance with orders of Major General Andrew Jackson, Brigadier General Edmund P. Gaines directed Lieutenant Colonel Duncan L. Clinch to erect a fort on the lower Flint River in order to restrain the hostile Creeks, the "Red Sticks." In June Clinch arrived with a detachment of the 4th Infantry and establish a camp on the west or right bank of the Flint River, just above its confluence with the Chattahoochee, about a mile west of S.R. 310, south of present-day Bainbridge in Decatur County, calling the post Camp Crawford. Construction of a fort was begun in September. The defense was designated Fort Scott, possibly in honor of Lieutenant R.W. Scott, killed at the site before the fort's completition. Temporarily evacuated in December, the fort was almost at once plundered by the watchful hostiles. In the spring of 1817, Fort Scott was occupied by Captain S. Donoho and a company of artillerymen, reinforced later in the same year. Fort Scott was abandoned in September 1812, after the cession of Florida to the United States and a semblance of peace had been established on the frontier."

Fort Sixes - Also known as Fort Hinar, Fort Sixes was a Cherokee Removal Fort established between 1830 and 1838 in Cherokee County.

Fort Tatnall - General John Floyd and his men built Fort Tatnall as one of the Okefenokee perimeter forts in 1838. It was on the midwestern side of the swamp.

Fort Telfair - Roberts writes, "A palisaded defense with a pair of diagonally placed blockhouses, named for Governor Edward Telfair, Fort Telfair was built in 1790 during the protracted was against the Creek Indians. It was situated on strategic Beard's Bluff on the east side of the Altamaha River immediately below the mouth of Beard's Creek in present-day Long County. In 1793, when a large-scale Creek invasion was anticipated, Fort Telfair was heavily reinforced with additional state militia. A number of early records stressed the importance of Beard's Bluff; between 1776 and 1814, many posts and garrisons were established at the site in response to Indian attacks or threatened military action from the Anglo-Spanish occupants of Florida. Fort Telfair was abandoned about 1795 but was regarrisoned in 1814 by state militia during the final confrontations with the recalicitrant Creeks. With the advent of peace on the frontierr, maintenance of the fort could not be justified and it ultimately fell into ruin."

Fort Twiggs - This Fort Twiggs was built in 1793 and abandoned in 1796. It was located at Shoulderbone Creek on the Oconee River to combat hostile Creeks.

Fort Twiggs - In 1813, another Fort Twiggs was built at Taversville in Twiggs County. The stockade was 100 feet square, eight feet tall and the fort had two blockhouses. Fort Twiggs' commander was Ezekial Wimberly.

Fort Walker - Fort Walker was built as one of the perimeter forts of the Okefenokee Swamp during the Second Seminole War. Fort Walker was on Cheoucky Island northeast of Fort Tatnall. Fort Wayne - This Fort Wayne also known as Fort Savannah, Fort Halifax and Fort Prevost this fort was at the "present-day northeast corner of East Bay and East Broad Streets in Savannah . . ." Roberts writes, "Fort Halifax, also known as Fort Savannah, was built on the same site, or very near it, in 1750-1760. Its planked double walls were filled with earth and featured a caponier (a cross-wise built work in the ditch to sweep it with flanking fire) on each of its four corners. By 1773 the fort was in such disrepair that it was considered of little use. When thee British took Savannah in 1779, they rebuilt the fort and renamed to Fort Prevost in honor of General Augustine Prevost. During the War of 1812, when British Admirald George Cockburn's fleett was raiding up and down the southern coastline, the Americanns completely rebuilt the fort with buttressed brick walls encircling a high bluff overlooking what was once a marshy plain and renamed the defense in honor of General Anthony Wayne. The fort was reportedly contructed on the original site of the ten-acre Trustee's Garden."

Fort Wayne - Brunswick's Fort Wayne was built in 1821 and anbandoned in 1823. It was in Glynn County.

Fort Wilkins - Fort Wilkins was an Indian defense fort established on the Oconee River in the early 1800s. Fort Wilkinson - Roberts writes, "The site of Fort Wilkinson, probably named for General James Wilkinson, lies atop a bluff overlooking the Oconee River, three miles south of Milledgeville, Baldwin County, and a few miles north of Fort Fidius. Established in 1797, the fort was an important reguarlary garrisoned frontier post until it was replaced by Fort Hawkins in 1806. On June 16, 1802, a treaty was signed here with the Creek Indians by which Georgia acquired all the territory between the Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers plus a tract south of the Altamaha River."

Fort Winston - According to Krakow. Fort Winston was one of Elijah Clarke's "Trans-Oconee Republic" forts and was built in Baldwin County at the present site of Milledgeville in 1794.

Fort Yargo - The Humphries brothers built Fort Yargo in 1792-1793 to protect settlers from the Indians. It was loacted in Barrow County, and its site is now a state park. The stockade was removed, but the hewn log house with rifle ports and dove tailed construction remains.

Francisville - Located in Crawford County, Francisville was named for Francis Bacon who married Benjamin Hawkins' daughter, Jeffersonia. It was near the site of Hawkins' Creek Indian Agency.

Greensboro - Greensboro was chartered in 1786 in Greene County. Both are named for Nathaniel Greene (1742-1786).

Greensboro Fort - Roberts reports - "one of the first forts erected in Greene County, the Indians burned this fort in 1787. During the early years of its settlement, Greenboro (Greenborough) and Greene County suffered many hardships because of the many depredations commited by the Indians who occupied the country west of the Oconee River, about eight miles from the town. Most tragic was the destruction of Greensboro and the massacre of its inhabitants in 1787, when the town consisted of 20 log cabins, a log-built courthouse, and a fort."

Harris County - Founded in 1827, Harris County is named for Savannah lawyer Charles Harris (1772-1827).

Hartford - Hartford is in Pulaski County, "and in 1804 came within one vote of becoming the capital of Georgia" (Krakaow). It is located across the Ocmulgee River from present-day Hawkinsville. Hartford was named for Nancy Hart, the famous "War Woman" of the Revolution. The Cherokees gave Hart the name "War Woman" because she spied for the Americans, and she captured a group of Tories. Hart County is also named for Nancy Hart.

 Hartford Road - General Davis Blackshear established a series of forts to protect Pulaski County settlers during the Creek-Seminole Wars and the War of 1812. The road he established in this process is called The Hartford Road and is a part of the Blackshear Trail. It connected Milledgeville and Hartford, and ran through Baldwin, Wilkinson, Twiggs and Pulaski Counties.

Hawkinsville - Hawkinsville is the county seat of Pulaski County. It is called the "Hub City" and "City of Thirteen Highways. "Hawkinsville, and Hawkinsville Road (Bibb County) are named for Indian Agent, Benjamin Hawkins (1754-1816). Hawkins was a Revolutionary War translator for George Washington, a Senator from North Carolins, and Superintendent of all Indian Tribes South of the Ohio River. Krawkow says, "Hawkins kept detailed records which preserved many old Indian place-names in Georgia. He lived among the Creek Indians during his last twenty years, and he showed sympathy for and understanding of their problems. Ben Hawkins Monument - Benjamin Hawkins' Monument is a granite obleisk in the center of Roberta, Georgia main street. It was placed here by the United States government to honor Benjamin Hawkins, whose Creek Indian Agency and final resting place are located in Crawford County.

Hawkins Branch - This is a stream that flows into the Flint River and is named for Benjamin Hawkins. Hawkins Crossroads - Named for Benjamin Hawkins, this crossroads is in Talbot County. Hawkins Line - Benjamin Hawkins was a surveyor and Indian Agent in Georgia. Hawkins line is the present line between Habersham and Banks Counties. From 1804 -1818 it was the surveyed boundary between Georgia and the Cherokee Nation, surveyed and negotiated by Hawkins and other Georgia commissioners.

Hitchiti - This is the name of a Cusseta village once located in Chattahoochee County. It was on the right side of Thlucco Creek, five miles from Cusseta.

Hlonotiskahachi River - This is an old Native name for the Flint River. Natives also called the Flint - Throonotteeska River.

Hunger and Hardship Creek - A group of tried surveyors gave this Laurens County creek its name in 1804 or 1805.

Indian Springs (Butts County) - Krawkow says, "Thisspring was first discovered by white men when Douglas Watson, an Indian scout, came upon the place in 1792. The place was first called Gunpowder Springs, because of the taste of the water. The official name was adopted in 1825 when the treaty with the Creek Indians was ratified, in which agreement the Indians were to give up all their lands in Georgia."

Irwin County - Irwin County was created in 1818 from Creek cessions of 1814. The county is named for Georgia Governor Jared Irwin (1751-1818). Irwin was orignally from North Carolina. He is famous for opposing the Yazoo Land Frauds of the 1790s.

Isaac Hill House - In The Log Cabin: Homes of the North American Wilderness , Alex W. Bealer and John O. Ellis write, "This story-and-a-half house was built by or for Isaac Hill around 1800 in Troup County, Georgia. Troup County was named for General Troup, who was the first Indian agent for the 'Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast.' At the time, Georgia [claimed lands] to the Mississippi River and included what are now the states of Alabama and Mississippi. Hill must have been either a trader or in the employ of General Troup because there was no other legal white settlement in that area in 1800." The Isaac Hill House "was occupied continually from 1800 to 1936. It was moved from its original site in 1959 to Callaway Gardens, a twenty-five hundred acre recreational resort, just a few miles from where the Hill House stood for a hundred and fifty-nine years."

Jackson - Jackson is the county seat of Butts County. It was established in 1826 and named for Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) "who stopped here for two weeks in 1818 when en route to Florida to fight the Seminoles" (Krakow). Other places in Georgia named for Andrew Jackson are: Lake Jackson, Jackson Springs (Bibb County), Jackson Springs (Jasper County), and Jacksonville.

Jackson County - Established in 1796, Jackson County is named for General James Jackson (1757-1806). Jackson was a Revolutionary War hero and opposer of the Yazoo Land Sales.

Jackson Monument - Located in Terrell County, this monument honors Andrew Jackson, Indian Fighter and seventh President of the United States.

Jackson's Trail - Arthur P. Hayne of Tennessee supervised the construction of this road through Marion, Chattahoochee, Steward and Randolf Counties for Andrew Jackson. Constructed in 1818, Jackson's Trail is also called Seminole War Path.

Jefferson - Jefferson was established in 1806 in Jackson County. It is named for Thomas Jefferson.

Jefferson County - Named for Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, Jefferson County was established in 1796. Its county seat, Louisville, was the (third, after Savannah and Augusta) capital of Georgia from 1796 to 1806. In 1806, the capital was moved to Milledgeville.

John Ross House - John Ross, son of a Scotsman, and Chief of the Cherokees lived at Ross's Landing (now Rossville). His home was built in 1790 and restored by the Daughters of the American Revolution in the 1930's. It has cut-stone chimney and is made of hewn logs. It is a two-crib, two story, and dog trot home with an enclosed hallway on the second floor.

Joseph Vann Highway - Georgia Highway 225 is called the Joseph Vann Highway. It is named for Cherokee Chief Joseph Vann and runs through is Spring Place plantation. Spring Place was confiscated by the Georgia government just before the Cherokees were removed to Oklahoma. It is a state historic site.

 Kennard's Settlement - Jack and William Kennard were Lower Creek Chiefs who settled on Kinchafoonee Creek in Lee County.

Kennard's Trail and Kennard's Settlement were named for the chiefs.

 King's Town - King's Town was the home of the Uchee chiefs.

Knox's Fort - Know's Fort was built to defend against Indian attack in 1786. It was built by and named for Samuel Knox when he settled in Wilkes County.

Knoxville - Knoxville is the county seat of Crawford County. The settlement was established in 1823 on the Federal Road.

Lake Tobesofkee - Lake Tobesofkee was begun in 1963 and opened in 1969 in Bibb County. The $2 million dam on Tobesofkee Creek created a 1,750 recreational lake. [Compiler's note: I have always lived in Bibb County. When Lake Tobesofkee was openning, I was eight or nine year old. It was great entertainment to listen as the people of Macon tried to learn to pronounce the name of the lake. For further confusion on the word Tobesofkee, see the entry on Tobesofkee Creek - DW].

Lesters District - John Lester, Sr.'s family came to Georgia from South Carolina in 1806. Originally from Virginia, they settled in Jones County.

Library Cabin - The public library at Lumpkin, Georgia is a restored, hewn log, dog trot cabin built around 1825.

Lockachau Talofau - This was the site of William McIntosh's large plantation in Carroll County. Natives who opposed the treaty executed McIntosh, who signed a treaty giving all remaining Creek lands in Georgia to the state of Georgia, here in 1825.

Louisville - Louisville, in Jefferson County, was the third capital of Georgia from 1796-1806. The Yazoo Land papers were burned here in 1796.

 Lumpkin Blockhouse - According to Roberts, "The first courthouse in Lumpkin, in present-day Stewart County, was built of logs in August 1830 and used as a blockhouse during the Creek Indian War of 1836."

Macon (Bibb County) - Macon "was established in the vicinity of Fort Hawkins, which had been erected by order of President Jefferson in 1806, at the site of Ocmulgee Old Fields. The settlement around the fort was first called Fort Hawkins, and in 1821 it became known as Newtown. Another small community located here by the Ocmulgee River called itself Troy. On the opposite shore of the river was established, reffered to as Tiger Town. Then in 1822, the early settlers who were mostly from North Carolina, chose to name this place "Macon" after Senator Nathaniel Macon (1757-1837), the patriot and statesman from their home state." It is interesting that Nathaniel Macon and Benjamin Hawkins were both from Warrenton, North Carolina and the Macon and Hawkins families shared a private schoolmaster for their sons. Krakow also says, "Thomas Tatum built a cabin oppposite the fort in 1822 and lots were sold the following year. The streets were laid out in 1823 by surveyor, James Webb, with the assistance of Simri Rose and others." Simri Rose was a botanist and journalist who came to Fort Hawkins in 1818. He began Macon's first newspaper, The Bulldog, at the fort, and he planned Macon's Rose Hill Cemetery.

Meigs (Thomas County) - Meigs was named for Josiah Meigs (1757-1822) the first president of Franklin College which became the University of Georgia.

Mercer University - Mercer University is in Macon and is named for Jesse Mercer (1769-1841) organizer of the Georgia Baptist Convention.

Meriwether County - Created in 1827, Meriwether County is named for General David Meriwether (1755-1822).

McIntosh (Butts County) - McIntosh was near Indian Springs and was named for William McIntosh. It was incorporated as a town from 1866 to 1900.

McIntosh County - McIntosh County was created in 1793. Its county seat is Darien. The McIntosh family was already distinguished in Georgia by 1793, so there is some question as for which McIntosh the county was named. Krakow says "Captain John Mohr McIntosh was the leader of the Scots who in 1736, settled at Darien, the county seat. His son, General Lachlan McIntosh (1727-1806), was a hero of the Revolution. There are some who claim the county was named for Chief William McIntosh." Most historians believe that McIntosh County was named for the McIntosh Family as a whole.

McIntosh Old Place (Carroll County) - According to Krakow, McIntosh Old Place was "located in the west side of the Chattahoochee River about four miles southwest of Whitesburg. This place was also called Lockachautalofau, and was the home of Chief William McIntosh (1775-1825). He was born in the vicinity of Wetumpka, Georgia (now Alabama), the son of an Indian woman married to William McIntosh (d. 1794), and was the grandson of Captain John Mohr McIntosh, founder of Darien in McIntosh County. Chief McIntosh was one of the chiefs of the Cowetas, one of the leading subtribal groups within the Creek Nations, and was called by the Creek Indians, Tustunnugee Hutke, or "White Warrior." McIntosh achieved the rank of Brigadier General in the U.S. Army, and fought in the War of 1812. The Chief McIntosh Monument is located here where he lived, died, and was buried. Another McIntosh Monuement stands at the entrance of West Georgia College in Carrolton.

McKay's Trading Post - Thomas Reed built a trading house about a mile and a half a mile south of Augusta in 1758. Robert McKay operated this trading post on the Savannah River from around 1765 until well after the Revolutionary War. The site was used for important Native American and United States negotiations. In September 1780, Elijah Clark attacked the British here. The Americans had to retreat leaving 29 men behind. Thirteen were hund in the stairwell of the trading house and the rest were given to Native Americans, sympathetic to the British, who tortured and killed the remaining patriots.

 Milledgeville - Located in Baldwin County, Milledgeville was built to be capital of Georgia. The Georgia Legislature voted in 1804 to establish Milledgeville as the fourth capital of Georgia (after Savannah, Augusta and Louisville). The city was laid out in 1803 and the state offices were here from 1807 - 1867. Milledgeville was named for Governor John Milledge (1757-1818). Milledge donated 633 acres in Athens to what would become the University of Georgia.

 Mount Vernon - Mount Vernon was established as the county seat of Montgomery County in 1813. Some assume Mount Vernon was named for the home of George Washington; however, Krakow quotes James E. Callaway who explains another devivation. Mary Muskgrove (1739) ". . . with her husband and twenty rangers [went] 60 miles up the Altamaha where they placed a trading post known as Mount Vernon as a outguard against the Lower Creeks. The colonely had been founded as the southern outpost of English civilization . . . As a military colony it was a success. But as a settlement for ambitious and worldly settlers there were definite drawbacks."

Nancy Hart State Park - This is a four acre park, in Elbert County, named for Revolutionary heroine Nancy Hart.

New Echota Restoration - The Capital of the Cherokee Nation has been restored at Calhoun, Georgia. Settled in 1819 and formally established in 1825, New Echota still displays several hewn log cabins of exception quality. Echota was a prosperous town until the Cherokees were forced from Georgia in the late 1830s. Vann's Tavern at New Echota combines log and clapboard construction.

Nicolls' Outpost - In the summer of 1814, Colonel Edward Nicolls established Nicolls' Outpost near the fork of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. The outpost was probably in Seminole County.

 Ochee Finnau - This is the Lower Creek name for Tom's Ford on the Ocmulgee River.

Ocmulgee River - The words for Ocmulgee mean "Boiling or Bubbling Water." The Ocmulgee begins at Lake Jackson and joins the Oconee at Lumber City to form the Altamaha. In 1805, the Ocmulgee River was the boundary between Georgia and Native lands.

Ocmulgee Old Fields - This is a Native site inhabited between 8000 B.C. and 1717 A.D. It is sacred to the Muskogee people and is now the Ocmulgee National Monument. Fort Hawkins was built to oversee this site, and the Federal Road and Ocmulgee River in 1806.

Oconee Old Town - Oconee Old Town was a Native settlement in Baldwin County. Native Americans lived here until the 17th century and the arrival of white traders and settlers. Oconee Old Town was four miles south of present-day Milledgeville near Rock Landing.

Oconee River - The Oconee River was a 1790 treaty boundary. It is a 250 mile river which flows from Hall County and joins the Ocmulgee River to form the Altamaha.

Ogeechee River - Translated, Ogeechee means "River of the Uchees." It begins in Union County and drains to the Atlantic Ocean in Chatham County.

Ogeechee Road - This road followed the Ogeechee River and connected Savannah to Louisville. Also called the Louisville Road, it was used as a post road by the United States before 1800. Georgia Highway 17 follows this route.

 Ohoopee River - The Ohoopee is a tributary of the Altamaha. It is named for a Creek-Seminole chief named Hopoy Hapo.

Old Agency - Krakow locates the Old Creek Agency in Crawford and Taylor Counties. He says, "The site is located six miles southwest of Roberta on the banks of the Flint River. Indian agent Colonel Benjamin Hawkins in 1804 established the locality for transaction of his duties. It also included a plantation, mills, work shops, store houses, etc. After Hawkins died, the community declined and was replaced by Francisville, which survived a little longer. Hawkins' grave is in a cow pasture on a beautiful knoll overlooking the river at the site of his home at Old Agency. He had established Fort Lawrence on the opposite (west) bank.

Otaulgauene - This is a Creek name for Islands Ford, a crossing of the Flint River near the Old Agency.

Otaulgauene was on the Taylor - Crawford County line.

Peachtree Fort - Roberts writes, "Since the majority of the Creek Indians were Allied to the British and the Cherokees loyal to the United States during the War of 1812, it was decided to locate a fort beyond the Georgia frontier at the Indian village of Standing Peach Tree on the Chattahoochee River, the boundary line, in present Fulton County. Lieutenant George R. Gilmer (later twice governor of Georgia) was sent to the village with a small force in 1814 to erect a fort there. It was built on an elevation north of and at the mouth of Peachtree Creek and garrisoned for several months. The Creek village spanned both sides of the river at the mouth of the creek. Because of its strategic position at a ferry on the river and where several Indian trails converged, Standing Peach Tree evolved as an important trading center between 1830 and 1840.

Peachtree Road - This was the first road in Gwinett County, built to connect Fort Daniel to Fort Standing Peachtree.

Peachtree Trail - Peachtree Trail was an early Native road through the Cherokee Nation to the Creek village of Standing Peach Tree.

Perryman - This community was in Decatur County. It was named for George Perryman, caretaker of Fort Scott or Theophilus Perryman, a 17th century trader.

Petersburg - According to Krawkow, Petersburg in Elbert County, was "incorporated as a town December 1, 1802. In 1786 Dionysius Oliver erected a warehouse at Fort James about two miles below the earlier settlement of Dartmouth. This was located at a fork between the Broad and Savannah Rivers, and he named the place Petersburg after Petersburg, Viriginia where he was born. The post office was established here January 1, 1795." The site of Petersburg now lies beneath Clark Hill Reservoir.

Pickens County - This county was created in 1853 and named for General Andrew Pickens (1739-1817). Pickens was originally from South Carolina and was a veteran of The Battle of Kettle Creek during the Revolution.

Popes Ferry - Popes Ferry crossed the Ocmulgee River in Monroe County. Cullen Pope began operating the ferry in 1819, twelve miles upriver from present-day Macon.

 Powder Mill Branch - This mill in Hart County produced gunpowder for use in the War of 1812.

Pulaski County -This county was created in 1808. Hartford, Fort Hartford and Hawkinsville are in Pulaski County on the Ocmulgee River.

Red Clay - Red Clay was a Native council ground (1832-1838) in Whitfield County.

Red House Ford - Red House Ford was a crossing of West Chickamauga Creek along the Old Federal Road in Catoosa County.

River Road - The River Road was a Native trail that followed the Ocmulgee and the Altamaha to the sea. It was one of the first pioneer roads.

Roanoke - On Friday, May 13, 1836, Creek Indians attacked the settlement of Roanoke in Stewart County murdering most of the settlers. This triggered the Second Creek-Seminole War and the building of numerous forts in Georgia to protect settlers.

Roberts Districit - This Jones County District was named for early settlers The Reuben Roberts (1752-1845) family who came to Jones County in 1807.

Rocky Creek - There are many Rocky Creeks in Georgia. Benjamin Hawkins called Bibb County's Rock Creek "Stoney Creek." It flows into the Ocmulgee River.

Saint Marys - Located in Camdem County on the Saint Marys River, This town was incorporated in 1802. James Findlley laid out the town plans in 1788 on 1,672 acres which he purchased form Jacob Weed. Saint Marys River - The Saint Mary's River begins in the Okefenokee Swamp and forms the state line between Georgia and Florida. Jean Ribault wrote an early European record of the river in 1562. In frontier days, a great deal of smuggling activity centered around Saint Marys.

Santa Maria State Park - This Camdem County state park includes a 65 acre sugar mill site that was owned by John Houstoun McIntosh (1773-1836).

 Sautee - Located in White County, The Old Sautee Store stands at the site of the old Creeokee town of Itsa Ti. In 1796, Benjamin Hawkins called this place Santa.

Scull Shoals - This was the site of Zachariah Sims early Greene County paper mill. He established the mill in 1810 and operated a toll bridge here. Its name is from an Indian burial ground in the area.

Seminole County - Seminole County was not established until 1920, but it is named for the Seminole Nation. Krakow says the Seminoles were, "an important Muskhogean (sic) tribe that lived primarily in what is now Florida and in the Okefenokee Swamp. They are a mixed people, combining aborigines of the area, migratory Creeks and Negro Slaves. The name is a Creek Indian word meaning, 'separatists,' 'runaways,' or 'wanderers.'" Another meaning for Seminole is "Those Who Have Gone Away." These people refused to leave Georgia (and then Florida) to go to the Oklahoma reservations. They were never fully conquered. When runaway slaves of African descent reached Seminole settlements, the Seminoles took them in and allowed them to become part of the tribe. Both groups of people had "Gone Away" from captivity in Georgia and they respected and supported each other in their separation from "civilization."

 Seminole War Path - Arthur P. Hayne of Tennessee supervised the construction of this road through Marion, Chattahoochee, Steward and Randolf Counties for Andrew Jackson. Constructed in 1818, the Seminole War Path is also called Jackson's Trail.

Seven Island Road - This road crossed the Ocmulgee River at Seven Islands. It ran through Jasper and Morgan Counties and connected Anglo and Native settlements.

Seventeen Mile Creek - General Davis Blackshear named this creek while he was establishing the Blackshear Trail and a series of frontier defense forts in 1812- 1815.

Shawnee - This community was named for Tecumseh (1768?-1813) and his Shawnees who came to Georgia to lead Creeks against the United States. Some Creeks followed Tecumseh; some fought against him. Tecumseh's southern defeat was at the hands of Andrew Jackson at Horseshoe Bend.

Spring Place Mission - This was a Moravian Mission to the Cherokees in Murray County. It was founded in 1801.

Standing Peach Tree - Standing Peach Tree was the name of a Creek village at present day Atlanta.

Stewart County - Stewart County was founded in 1830 and named for General Daniel Stewart (1759-1829), Revolutionary War and War of 1812 veteran.

Talasee Colony - Richard Easley and a group of Effingham County settlers migrated to Jackson County in 1786 to start this settlement.

Talasee Shoals - This was the site of Richard Easley's Talasee Colony. It was named for Talasee King who lived on the road from the shoals to Athens.

Tallapoosa River - This 268 mile river begins in Paulding County, flows through Haralson County and into Alabama to join the Coosa River.

Traders' Hill Post - Also called Fort Alert was established in November 1812, four miles southwest of Folkston (Charlton, County) during the Indian Wars. The fort was also used during the Creek War of 1835-36.

Tama - Tama was once used as a name for all of Georgia. More specifically, Tama refers to a Native village where the Ocmulgee and Oconee meet to form the Altamaha River.

Telfair County - Telfair County was created in 1807 and named for Scottish-born Edward Telfair (1735-1807). Telfair was a Revoltionary War veteran, U.S. Congressman and the second governor of Georgia.

Tensawattee - This was an early Cherokee village whose name meant "Tenessee Old Town." It was a meeting place that is now in Dawson County. Wattee is also a Cherokee family name.

Thomas County - Created in 1825, Thomas County is named for General Jett Thomas (1776-1817). Thomas fought in the Revolution and the War of 1812. He built the first building at the University of Georgia and was a major builder of the statehouse at Milledgeville, now owned by Georgia Military College.

Three Chop Road - General Winfield Scott's men laid out this road through Cherokee Country and marked it by blazing trees with "Three Chops." The road was established in 1803 with the permission of the Cherokees. In the late 1830s, the Cherokees were marched along this road at gunpoint to begin the infamous "Trail Where They Cried."

Thronateeska River - This is supposed to be a Native name for the Flint River; It is not, however, Muskegean. The Muskegean word for flint is ronoto.

Tiah River - This is an early name for the Chattahoochee River.

 Tiger Town - Tiger Town was a settlement at the present site of Macon. Tiger Jenkins and his followers settled it in 1822-1823 on the west side of the Ocmulgee.

Tinsley's Trail - A pioneer named Tinsley and his family were murdered here in Dougherty County. The trail crosses the Flint River near Albany.

 Tobesofkee Creek - Krakow says that Tobesofkee Creek, "heads at Barnesville in Lamar County and flows through Monroe and Bibb Counties and empties into the Ocmulgee River below Macon. The Purcell Map of about 1770 calls this creek, Tobasaughkee. The Henry Popple's Chart of 1773 labels it Togosohatchee. The naturalist William Bartum in 1776 mentions the stream as Tobosochte and William DeBrahm a little later as Tobosophskee. Benjamin Hawkins spelled it (c. 1790s) variously as Tobosaufkee, Tobosaufeke, and Tobesauke. On H.S. Tanner's map, we find it call Chupee Creek. Tobe in Creek means "I have lost" and saufke is a hominy dish served to visitors. An early Muskegean may have lost his supplies in this creek, thus Tobesofkee.

 Uchee Creek - This creek flows from Columbia County into the Savannah River. It is named for the Uchee, a member group of the Creek Confederation.

Uchee Path - The Uchee Path Began in Bleckley County and passed through the present areas of Dublin, Cochran, Hawkinsville, and Montezuma to Uchee Town on the Chattahoochee River. Travel on this path began around 1729.

Ulcohachee Creek - This creek is a tributary of the Flint River.

Unicoi Turnpike - The Unicoi Turnpike was built in White County from 1812 to 1813. The road began on the Tugaloo River at Toccoa Creek and went through Clarksville, Nocoochee Valley through Hiawassee and out of Georgia.

United States Arsenal - Also called Augusta Arsenal. According to Roberts, "For a period of 128 years until its abandonment in 1955, a United States Arsenal was located on a tract comprising approximately 70 acres lying just north and west of the city of Augusta. An 'arsenal at Augusta' to aide the State in 'resisting invasion' was originally provided for by President George Washington in 1793. In 1816 a U.S. Arsenal was established on the Savannah River where the King Mill is now [1978] located, but the garrison having been wiped out in 1819 by 'black fever, was removed to the present site in 1827 and consisted of two sets of officers' quarters, an enlisted men's barracks, and a storehouse connected by a loopholed wall. This arsenal was late used in the War Between the States and was located between Katerine Street and Monte Sano Avenue in Augusta.

Upper Uchee Path - This path began at Uchee Town on the west side of the Chattahoochee River and ran through present-day Montezuma, east across the Ocmulgee River, to Tarversville, Jeffersonville, Rock Landing and Fort Wilkinson. William Dowsing, Sr. called the Upper Uchee Path the Bluff Trail.

 Ustanali - One of several older names for Calhoun, the Cherokee capital. Another name was Oostanaula.

Vann (Murray County) - Vann was the name of a trading station north of Spring Place. It was sometimes called Vann's Old Town. Vann was the home of James Vann, son of Clement Vann and Wawli. James Vann's son, Joseph, built the Georgian style Spring Place mansion around 1790.

Vann Cabin - Chief Vann's Cabin is in Chatsworth, Georgia. It is hewn logs with gun ports. Vann was a Cherokee Chief who, in 1801, invited Moravian missionaries to built school and educate the children at Spring Place. This cabin has a dove-tailed construction.

Vann's Creek - Vann's Creek was named for David Vann, a Cherokee Chief who lived at Cave Spring.

Vann's Ferry (Forsyth County) - James Vann operated a ferry about 1805 on the Chattahoochee. The site of Vann's Ferry is now under Lake Lanier.

Walnut Creek - Walnut Creek begins in Jones County and enters the Ocmulgee River in Bibb County. Native names for this creek are: Okechulga, Ochuncoolga, Okechulgee, Okechulgo and Oakchuncoolga.

Warrenton - Benjamin Hawkins wrote of riding astagecoach with Aaron Burr in Warrenton. Warrenton was founded in 1810 in Warren County.

Watkinsville - Watkinsville is in Clark County and was incorporated in 1815.

Wayne County - Created in 1803, Wayne County is named for General Anthony "Mad Anthony" Wayne (1745-1796), a Revolutionary War veteran who became a Georgia Indian Fighter.

Whitesburg (Carroll County) - Chief William McIntosh's estate was in Whitesburg. He was murdered here after signing an 1825 treaty giving all remaining Creek lands to the state of Georgia.

Winfield Scott Lake (Lumpkin County) - This lake isnamed for General Winfield Scott (1786-1866), War of 1812 veteran, Seminole War veteran, Mexican War veteran and presidential canidate in 1852.

Winn's Ferry - Winn's Ferry is a newer name of Vann's Ferry in Forsyth County. Richard Winn took over the ferry business when James Vann died. The ferry operated for almost 100 years.

Westville Restoration - In The Log Cabin: Homes of the North American Wilderness Alex W. Bealer and John O. Ellis write, "The Wells House [is], a commodious two-story frame house_ at Westville, a restoration village outside Lumpkin, Georgia. The original building, a one-room log cabin built by a Creek Indian prior to 1817, was virtually absorbed by the frame structure of the house built around 1825. The Welles family is said to have lived in the Indian cabin after the Creek Removal in 1825, while the frame addition was being constructed. Now a ground-floor room with its own dooe and two added windows . . . to the left of the main entrance, the cabin is built of split tweleve-inch logs of logleaf pine, which were hewn into planks about four inches thick. Archaeologists have deduced from the notches cut into the upper wall logs that the original Indian inhabitants installed a sleeping platform . . . several feet off the floor in front of the fireplace. Sleeping platforms were common in the prehistoric housing of most of the eastern Woodlands tribes, from New England to Florida."

Wood's Fort - Roberts writes "Some years after the Revolution had ended, General Solomon Wood, veteran of the war, built his home on a high hill over-looking a wide expanse of country east of Bartow in Jefferson County. Near his hilltop home General Wood built a blockhouse for the protection of his family and neighbors. It was reported that when there was a threat of Indian attack, a large bell, loud enough when rung to be heard for a distance of two miles, would summon all within hearing distance to find shelter within the blockhouse."

A Fort Hawkins Research Bibliography

Fort Hawkins and Frontier Georgia by Dianne Dent Wilcox

Author's Note: Most sources listed below are available through Washington Memorial Library's Genealogy Room in Macon, Georgia. Some sources are exclusive to Dianne Wilcox's private files at Georgia Military College's Robins Air Force Base Campus (dwilcox@gmc.cc.ga.us).

A Sketch of the Creek Country and Letters of Benjamin Hawkins. The Reprint Company Publishers: Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1982.

Amason, Craig. "Milledgeville Chronology." Mary Vinson Memorial Library: Milledgeville, Georgia, 1998. http://www.cmil.com/mvml/chronolo.htm

Baker, John William. "The John McCurry Family History." History of Hart County. 1933.

Biographical History of North Carolina. Charles Van Noppen, Publisher: Greensboro, North Carolina.

Carillo, Richard F. "Exploratory Excavations at Fort Hawkins, Macon, Georgia: An Early Nineteenth Century Military Outpost." Institute of Archeology and Anthropology. University of South Carolina, 1971.

Chappell, Absalom H. Miscellanies of Georgia, 1874. DeVorsey, Louis and John C. Waters. "The Fort Hawkins Study." 1973.

Elton, Ben. "The Reconstruction of Fort Hawkins." Paper for English Class. March 27, 1996.

Ford, William C. "Units and Commanders Stationed at Ft. Hawkins." Letter to Sylvia Flowers, February 14, 1993.

"Fort Hawkins: Wilderness Stronghold." "Georgia History Series: No. 17 - Fort Hawkins." Vol. VI. The Kilowatt News. Georgia Power Company. May, 1946.

Georgia: Marriages and Deaths. 1763-1820. Available at Washington Memorial Library Genealogy Room, Macon, Georgia

Goff, John H. "Excursion Along an Old Way to the West." Georgia Review, 6 Summer 1952): 189- 202.

Halbert, H.S. and T.H. Ball. The Creek War of 1813 and 1814. Ed. Frank L. Owsley, Jr. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1969.

Hankins, Lydia B. "Thomas Green at Fort Hawkins in 1813." Letter and documents to Dianne Dent Wilcox, May 9, 1996.

Hawkins, Benjamin. Letters, Journals and Writings of Benjamin Hawkins, Vol. I 1796-1801. Ed. C.L. Grant. Savannah: The Beehive Press, 1980.

Hawkins, Benjamin. Letters, Journals and Writings of Benjamin Hawkins, Vol. II 1802-1816. Ed. C.L. Grant. Savannah: The Beehive Press, 1980.

Hawkins, Benjamin. Sketch of the Creek Country 1789-1799 and Letters of Benjamin Hawkins 1796-1806: Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Volume III. Part I. Spartanburg, South Carolina: The Reprint Company, 1974.

Hill, William B. "Alexander Boyd of Mecklenburg County and His Family." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography Vol. L - No. 2 (April 1942): 119-128.

 Holland, F. Ross. Fort Hawkins: Frontier Fort.

Hotlzclaw, Mary M. "Benjamin Hawkins" Beloved Man of Four Nations."

Hortman, Tina. "Benjamin Hawkins and the Creek Agency." Personal Interview with her niece, Jenni Leigh Clark. 1996.

Karlovich, Audrey C. "John Curry: Private, War of 1812." Letter and documents to Dianne Dent Wilcox, February 1, 1996.

Klingelhofer, Eric, J.Thomas Scott, and Douglas Steeples. "Priliminary Findings Toward a Civic Dialog Concerning the Restoration of Fort Hawkins. Written to Macon, Georgia's city government by Professors of History: Mercer University, November 29, 1996.

Landry, George. "It Has Been Forgotten at Times: Grave of Col. Hawkins is Well Cared Fort Today." (This article probably appeared in The Crawford County News.)

Mauselshagen, Carl and Gerald H. Davis, eds. Partners in the Lord's Work: The Diary of Two Moravian Missionaries in the Creek Indian Country, 1807-1813. "Research Paper Number 21: February, 1969, for Georgia State College," Atlanta, Georgia.

Mattison, Ray H. "The Creek Trading House: From Colerain to Fort Hawkins." Georgia Historical Quarterly XXX, No. 3 (September 1949): 169-176.

McCullar, Bernice. "Georgia Notebook: Benjamin Hawkins Came to Georgia to Help Indians."

McKay, John J. "Needed: More Information about Historic Fort Hawkins." Preservation Monthy (?). April 1950.

Middle Georgia Historical Society. Historic Fort Hawkins: Macon, Georgia.

Newberry, John M. "Fort Hawkins: The Trading House and the Old Federal Road."

Owsley, Frank l., Jr. Struggles for the Gulf Borderlands. Gainesville: Univeristy Presses of Florida, 1981.

 Pound, Merrit B. "Round Table: Thinks Hawkins Would Prefer Staying in Crawford County." (Pound was professor of history at the University of Georgia. This article was probably printed in The Crawford County News.)

Pound, Merrit B. Benjamin Hawkins: Indian Agent. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1951.

Price, Eugenia. Don Juan McQueen. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1974.

 Rutherford, Marjory. "History is Human: Indians Loved Hawkins." (Available through Washington Memorial Library: Genealogy).

"The War of 1812: Indian Troubles." History of Georgia. The American Book Company. Wallace, Lance. "Fort's Future: Teacher Leading Drive to Turn Fort into Museum." The Macon Telegraph. August 26, 1996.

Wallace, Lance. "Fort Not Getting Support Because of Location, Backer Contends." The Macon Telegraph. August 26, 1996.

Wallace, Lance. "Fort Puts History in Student's Hands." The Macon Telegraph. August 26, 1996.

 Wallace, Lance. "Macon First Settled Around Fort Hawkins." The Macon Telegraph. August 26, 1996.

Wallace, Lance. "Students Enjoy Involvement of Guiding Tours at Fort." The Macon Telegraph. August 26, 1996.

Weeks, Stephen B. "A Bibliography of Benjamin Hawkins" in Sketch of the Creek Country by Benjamin Hawkins.

Wilcox, Dianne D. "Along the Garrison Road." The Jones County News. December 26, 1991.

Wilcox, Dianne D. "Along the Garrison Road." The Jones County News. April 2, 1992.

 Wilcox, Dianne Dent and Samuel Jordan Lawson, III. "Fort Hawkins: Macon, Georgia." 1995.

"Will Remove Remains of Colonel Hawkins." The Crawford County News. Roberta, Georgia. August 17, 1923.

Woods, Wilt, "Jim Hawkins: Black Descendents of Benjamin." Letter to Robert Paterson (student) c/o Dianne Wilcox. March 5, 1995.

Woodward, Thomas S. Woodwards's Reminiscences of the Creek of Muscogee Indians. Montgomery: Harnett & Wimbust, 1859.

Zengo, Suzy. "True Women by Janice Woods Windles." (Press Packet) News: G. P. Putnam's Sons. New York, 1995. 



Dianne Dent Wilcox
Academic Dean for GMC Robins and
Fort Hawkins Project Director
Georgia Military College
78 MSS/DPEE 620 Ninth Street, Suite 113
Robins AFB, GA 31098-2232
478-327-7375 FAX 478-328-3824
 
 

Fort Hawkins’ Annotated Chronology


* Note: all entries involving Johann Christian Burckhard and Karsten Petersen, and referenced as Diary, happened at Benjamin Hawkins’ Creek Indian Agency on the Flint River near present day Roberta, Georgia unless otherwise noted. The Diary gives insight into frontier lifestyles, climate, illnesses, and the locations of people prominent to the Fort Hawkins’ history on specific dates. Entries
referenced as Amason come from “Milledgeville Chronology” and give insight into state and national politics, frontier settlement, and Native American history. C. L. Grant's editing of Letters, Journals and Writing of Benjamin Hawkins add more of Hawkins' insights on
Georgian and national issues.

1754 - Benjamin Hawkins was born in what is now Warren County, North Carolina to Philemon and Delia (Martin) Hawkins
on August 15.

1773 -  On June 1, Sir James Wright and John Stewart signed the Treaty at Augusta with the Cherokees and Creeks.

1775 - 1779 Hawkins served as an interpreter (having learned French at Princeton) for General George Washington.
He participated in the Battle of Monmouth.

1778 - 1779 Benjamin Hawkins served in the North Carolina Assembly.

1781- Benjamin Hawkins’ name first appeared in the journals of the Continental Congress on October 4. He served until 1784.

1783 -Creek Indian chiefs ceded approximately three million acres between the Ogeechee and Oconee Rivers to the United States - Amason “Milledgeville Chronology”.

1784- Hawkins served in the North Carolina Assembly.

1784 -“William Marshall a young man 17 years of age, a native of Ireland, was murdered at a Coweta village about 10 miles above the town, by an Indian of the Cowetas; Thomas Marshall his brother applied to the chief of the town for satisfaction . . . . The chiefs after
consultation in the square, determined that the murderer should suffer death.” Two natives shot the murderer with the rifle of the deceased. Hawkins reported in 1796 that “The family of Mr. Marshall have been so unfortunate, most of them, as to meet an untimely end: during the late war a party of Indians said to be Chehaws attacked the house of Mrs. Marshall the mother, and of her son-in-law
Capt. David Stewart about one mile above Old Town on Ogeechee and killed Mrs. Marshall, Capt. Stewart, his wife and two children, the two brothers William and Henry were in the house with their mother, and defended themselves with their guns until their mother was killed, and then they retreated; Henry was afterwards killed at Sappalo; a lad at school by Capt. Baker and his company, after he had surrendered himself wounded a prisoner. This action is mentioned as having been done in a manner shocking to humanity.”

1785 - Hawkins was appointed “a commissioner on March 21 . . . to treat with the Cherokees and ‘all other Indians southward of them’ in accord with the act of Congress of March 15, 1785” (Weeks).

On November 28, Hawkins signed the “Treaty of Hopewell” with the Cherokees. Zacariah Cox “and several other speculators had formed the Tennessee Company . . . and later purchased some 3,000,000 acres in the vicinity of Muscle Shoals. The purchase was part of the first Yazoo Land sale and was in territory belonging to the Chickasaws. Despite a proclamation by Washington forbidding settlement” (Grant).

1786 - On January 3, Hawkins signed treaties with the Choctaws.

On January 10, Hawkins signed treaties with the Chickasaws.

1788 -Hawkins, Hugh Williamson and Abishai Thomas served to settle the accounts of North Carolina with the United States.

1789 - General Benjamin Lincoln met with Chief AlexanderMcGillivray at Rock Landing (on the east bank of the Oconee River, three or four miles south of the old Georgia State Capitol Building in present day Milledgeville) to  settle the Georgia-Creek controversy
over cession of the trans Ogeechee lands - Amason.

The first federal fort was built at the Rock Landing site at the head of navigation on the Oconee River. Federaltown grew around the fort, but proved to be an unhealthy site, so the garrison was moved to Fort Fidius in 1793 - Amason.

1790 -Treaty was signed in New York (capital of the U.S.) between the U.S. and Chief Alexander McGillivray and twenty-three Indian Chiefs of the Creek nation to release prisoners held captive by Creeks and establish new boundaries- Amason.

Hawkins again served the North Carolina Assembly.

On August 7, the Treaty at New York was signed. This included the return of U.S. citizens captured by Indians to Rock Landing
on the Oconee River.

1791 -James Seagrove, residing at Rock Landing, was appointed first U.S. Indian Agent to the Creeks in September - Amason.

1791- Zacariah Cox and the Tennessee Company “attempted a settlement” in Indian territory, but the Indians repulsed
the attempt (Grant).

1793 - The largest garrison of Federal Troops south of Ohio was established near the site of Fort Fidius on the Oconee River.

Fort Fidius was built on the west bank of the Oconee River approximately six miles south of Milledgeville. Within a short time, a town called Mount Pelier or Montpelier was developed a half-mile above the fort and would remain a thriving community until Milledgeville
became the state capital. Montpelier Church is still in existence.

1794 -Elijah Clark, “Indian Fighter”, established the Trans-Oconee Republic along the western banks of the Oconee River in the
early part of this year - Amason.

Fort Advance was established by General Elijah Clark . .. on the west side of the Oconee River, opposite the mouth of Town Creek,
in what is now Wilkinson County - Amason.

Congress authorized the establishment of Indian trading houses at military outposts along the Oconee River - Amason.

On November 22 Hawkins wrote from Hopewell on Keowee.

General Elijah Clark established Fort Defiance in May. This fort was most likely located on the Oconee River is present-day Morgan County. There have been disputes as to whether this fort was confused with Fort Winston in historical records - Amason.

Elijah Clark established Fort Winston on the banks of the Oconee River near Fort Wilkinson, just within the outer [1794] limits of what was to become Milledgeville. There is some dispute as to whether this fort and Fort Defiance have been confused in historical records - Amason.

General Elijah Clark abandoned his Trans-Oconee Republic in September, and by order of the state government, all of his forts
were destroyed- Amason.

1795 -Hawkins’ term in the North Carolina Assembly expired. George Washington discussed the dangerous situation of U. S. relations with Native Americans (Georgia, Tennessee, Carolina, Florida, and Alabama) in Congress.

President George Washington appointed Benjamin Hawkins, then a United States Senator from North Carolina, as one of three commissioners to treat with the Creek nation.

1796 - George Washington appointed Hawkins agent of the United States among the Creeks and general superintendent
of all the tribes south of the Ohio River.

On June 29, Hawkins signed The Treaty of Colerain with the Creeks.

On November 19, Hawkins arrived at Hopewell “on the Koowee, the seat of General Andrew Pickens, on [his] way to the Creeks as principal temporary agent for Indian affairs south of the Ohio”

(Hawkins). The letter’s dateline indicates that Hopewell is in South Carolina.

On November 25, Hawkins crossed Warwoman Creek near the Chattuga River.

On December 1, Hawkins wrote from Etowah.

[1796] On December 12, Hawkins wrote from “Hillabees in the Creeks.”

1797- January 1 - February 2, Hawkins wrote from Coweta.

From February 9 - 20 Hawkins wrote from Timothy Barnard’s on the Flint River.

On February 28, Hawkins wrote from Fort Fidius.

Zacariah Cox attempted to settle Indian territory “as a result of the second Yazoo Land sales.” He “built a large boat armed with cannon, and planned to settle the town of Elk. However . . . he abandoned his efforts largely because of a warning from Hawkins and the threat of U.S. troops commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Butler” (Grant). Cox went to Natchez.

February 9-21, Hawkins wrote from Timothy Barnard’s “on the Flint.”

On February 21, Hawkins, Barnard and Barnard’s son, Homanhidge, left the Flint River for Fort Fidius.

On March 1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, Hawkins wrote from Fort Fidius.

On March 19, Hawkins wrote from Keowee.

On March 31, Hawkins wrote from Cragfront.

On April 3, 6, Hawkins wrote from Tellico Blockhouse.

On April 8, Hawkins wrote from an encampment near Mr. Wallace’s.

On April 11, Hawkins wrote from an encampment on Iron Hill on the dividing ridge between Little River and Tennessee.

[1797] On April 11, 14, 15, 16, 19, 22, 24, 25, Hawkins wrote from Tellico Blockhouse.

On April 13, Hawkins wrote from Knoxville.

On May 4, Hawkins wrote from Knoxville.

On May 21, Hawkins wrote from an encampment near Nashville.

On June 4, Hawkins wrote from the dividing ridge between the waters of the Duck and Cumberland Rivers.

On June 10, 14, Hawkins wrote from the woods near the Cherokee line.

On June 28, Hawkins wrote from S.W. point.

On July 5, 6, 11, Hawkins wrote from Knoxville.

On July 13, 14, 16 Hawkins wrote from Holston in Tennessee.

On July 25, Hawkins wrote at a camp 42 miles from Knoxville.

On July 28, Hawkins wrote from Mr. Hunt’s on the Kentucky road from the Big Spring.

On August 6, Hawkins wrote from Knoxville.

On August 12, Hawkins wrote from an encampment near Holston.

In August, Zacaraih Cox was arrested in Natchez, but escaped to New Orleans “where he died soon thereafter” (Grant).

[1797] On August 12, Hawkins wrote from a camp near Chilhowe Mountain.

On August 28, Hawkins wrote from near Big Pigeon.

On September 20, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On October 20, 23, 31, Hawkins wrote from Cussetuh.

On November 6, 9, 15, 16, 19, 25, 27, 28 Hawkins wrote from Cussetuh.

On November 25, Benjamin Hawkins, Indian Agent in Georgia since 1795, wrote a letter from Cussetuh [Hawkins describes Cussetuh’s location in a letter to William Faulkner, Esq. also on November 25, 1797: on the Chattahoochee, among the lower Creek towns, an hundred and sixty miles from Fort Wilkinson, the residence of Colonel Gaither on the Oconee] Hawkins wrote “A few days ago, whilst I was sorely afflicted with rheumatism, so as not to be able to turn in my blanket, the arrival of the Queen of Tuckabatchee was announced to me. That town is sixty miles distant. I invited herself and her friends, to spend two or three days with me, which they did. Early one morning, she came to my bedside and sat down. I awoke and she accosted me thus: My visit is to you; I am a widow; I have a son so high; (holding her hand three feet from the ground;) I have a fine stock of cattle, and I wish them secured for my use and for my son. I know you are the Iste-chate-lige-osetat-te-chaugo, (the beloved man of the Four Nations,) and my relations are not careful of my interests. If you will take the direction of my affairs, the chiefs have told me you may settle my stock where you please, and it will be safe. When you go to Tuckabatchee, you will have a home. Perhaps I am too old for you, but I’ll do anything I can for you. I shall
be proud of you if you will take me. If you take a young girl into the house I shall not like it, but I will not say one word; may be I [1797] can’t love her, but I won’t use her ill. I have brought some aus-ce (cassine yupon) for you. I want some clothes for my boy and for myself. You can give them to me, and make the traders take cattle for pay. If you direct them they won’t cheat me. I was taken prisoner by the Chickasaws, with my boy, when he  was so high (about two feet) I ran off from them, and seventeen days in the woods, getting to my nation. I had no provisions when I set out, and was like to perish. When you were in the upper towns last year, I went twice to see you, and dressed myself. You took me by the hand and asked me to sit down. I wanted to speak to you then, but I could not. I said then I would never have an Iste- chate (red man). I [Hawkins] replied to her, you shall be gratified; you may return home. I will have your cattle put out at a proper place, and I will take care of them and of your son. If you have any desire to call me cha-e-
he, (my husband,) do so! But you must not forget, I have not yet determined to set up in that capacity in either of the Four Nations. But you are at liberty, as you already have one child, and know the trade, to carry it on under my name, and to choose any assistant you may
deem suitable. The children will be mine and I will take care of them and of you. It is not customary among the Creeks to associate with the women; and it is a curious fact, that there are white men in the nation who have been here five years, without ever entering an Indian house. I visit them, take them by the hand, talk kindly to them, and eat frequently with them. One thing I have noticed, in all I have conversed with, they have a great propensity to call every thing by its name. And, if the concurrent testimony of the white husbands may be relied on, the women have much the temper of the mule, except, when they are amorous, and then they exhibit all the
amiable and gentle qualities of the cat.”

On November 25, Benjamin Hawkins wrote to William Faulkner, Esq. from Cussetuh and described Timothy Barnard. “I have one faithful assistant in Mr. Barnard, one of the interpreters. The white and red men are much indebted [1797] to his constant, persevering and honest exertions to do justice to all applicants. It sometimes falls to the lot of one man, though apparently in the humble walks of life, to render more effectual service to his fellow creatures, than thousands of his neighbors. This has been the case with Mr. Barnard. He was a trader in this nation before the war [Revolutionary] with the Americans, and urged their being neutral. He repeatedly
risked his life and fortune in the cause of humanity, and he remains to witness that the purity of his actions has given him a standing among the red people, which could not be purchased with money.” Hawkins gave some Muskogee names for whites in this letter, also, which told much of the Natives feelings towards white leaders. E-cun-nau-nux-ulgee means, “people greedily grasping after all their lands.” To this appellation Hawkins added “against the voice of the United States.” Tucke-mico means “The Dirt King” and was applied to Governor Blount of Tennessee. “The Cherokee name of this gentleman is ‘Dirt Captain’; and in both nations it arose from the opinion
of his insatiate avidity to acquire Indian lands.” Chesse-cup-pe-tun-ne means “The Pumpkin Captain” and was “a name given to Captain Chisholm.” E-cun-nau-au-po-po-hau means “Always asking for land.” It was “the name given to Governor Clark of Georgia.” Iste-chate means red man, Iste-hut-ke means white man, and Iste-semole means wild man or Seminole.

On November 27, Hawkins wrote a scathing rebuke to James Burgess a Creek Interpreter and told Burgess to “visit me about the 25th of next month, at the store on Oconee, there to explain your conduct, and receive your salary.” Burgess had overstepped his job as interpreter to try to influence negotiations between the Natives and the United States’ leaders. Hawkins wrote from Cussetuh.

Federal garrison abandoned Fort Fidius and moved into Fort Wilkinson on the west side of the Oconee River.

[1797] On December 6, Hawkins wrote from Cussetuh.  On December 19, 20, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

"On December 22 the Commissioners appointed by the Creeks to assist in marking the boundary were fired upon, one was killed and two wounded. Hawkins pursued the assailants with a military detachment but was unable to capture them" (Grant).

1798 - In A Sketch of the Creek Country, In the Years 1798 and 1799 Hawkins writes, “The Creeks came from the West. They have a tradition among them, that there is, in the fork of Red River, west of the Mississippi, two mounds of earth; that at this place, the Cussetuhs, Conetuhs and Chickasaws, found themselves; that being distressed by wars with red people, they crossed the Mississippi, and directing their course eastwardly, they crossed the falls of Tal-lapoo-sa. above Took-au-bat-che, settled below the falls of Chat-to-ho-che, and spread out from thence to Oc-mul-gee, O-co-nee, Savannah, and down on the seacoast, towards Charleston. Here, they first saw white people, and from hence they have been compelled to retire back again, to their present settlements.”Hawkins
listed the Native American towns on the Chattohoochee, Coosa and Tallapoosa and towns of the Seminole in South Georgia and Florida. Towns on the Chattohoochee were Cow-e-tuh, Cow-e-tuh-tal-lau-has-see, Cus-se-tuh, U-chee, Os-se-oo-che, Che-au-hau, Hitch-e-tee, Pa-la-chooc-la, O-co-nee, Sau-woog-e-lo, Sau-woog-e-loo-che, and Eu-fau-lau. Towns on the Coosa and Tallapoosa Tal-e-see, Took-au-bat-che, Aut-tos-see, Hoith-le Waulee, Foosce-hat-che, Coo-loome, E-cun-hut-kee, Sau-va-no-gee, Mook-lau-sau, Coo-
sau-dee, Hook-choie, Hook-choie-oo-che, Tus-ke-gee, O-che-au-po-fau, We-wo-cau, Puc-cun-tal-lau-has-see, Coo-sau, Au-be-coo-chee, Nau-chee, Eu-fau-lau-hat-che, Woc-co-coie, Hill-au-bee, Oc-fus-kee, Eu-fau-lau, Ki-a-li-jee. The towns of the Seminoles were Sim-e-no-le-tal-lau-haf-see, Mic-co sooc-e, [1798] We-cho-took-me, Au-lot-che-wau, Oc-le-wau-hau thluc-co, Tal-lau-gue chapco pop-
cau, Cull-oo-sau Hat-che. Hawkins describes each of these towns in A Sketch of the Creek Country.

On January 4, 16, 18, 23, 25, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On March 8, Hawkins from Fort Wilkinson.

On April 22, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On May 12, 20, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On May 29, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

"On the third [June 3, 1798] the most influencial man of the Upper Creeks called on me. In the evening, an old chief called at my lodgings to inform me a large body of Indians armed with hostile views were comings up the river to me, he was soon followed by others who corroborated what the old Chief said and added they were within five miles. The Chiefs immediately ordered my horses to be brought from the woods and saddled. They sent runners to the neighboring towns and called on the Chiefs and warriors to assemble at my lodging without delay. They then advised me to set out immediately to a place of safety which they named. I replied to the
Chiefs, that if the Indians were comings here to find an enemy they would be mistaken, I was their friend." Hawkins did make known that he could call in U.S. forces. He continued, "In the morning I found I had been guarded by some of the principal Chiefs of the Land."

On June 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 22, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

[1798] On June 22, 24, Hawkins wrote from Coweta on the Chattahoochee.

Hostile Indians again made a threat towards Hawkins while he was in Coweta.

Later in June 1798, Hawkins reported "The belt of peace from the northern nations has passed thro' the four nations [Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Chickasaw] and Seminoles, they have all taken fast hold of it."

On July 10, 11, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On August 2, 10, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On August 16, Hawkins wrote from “Creek Land.”

On August 25, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On September 4, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On October 5, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On November 4, Hawkins wrote from Tellico. On November 22, Hawkins wrote from Mr. Grierson’s in Hillaubee.

On December 7, 22, 23, 30, 31, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

1799 - On January 2, 6, 9, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On January 9, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Nation.

On January 14, 21, 28, February 27, March 5, 17, April 5, 15, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

[1799] On May 2, 8, Hawkins wrote from John Miller’s on Connecuh.

On May 23, Hawkins wrote from a Camp of the Comissioner on Connecuh, 40 miles north of Pensacola.

On June 11, 14, Hawkins wrote from Pensacola.

On July 11, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Nation.

On July 16, Hawkins wrote from Coweta on the Chattahochee.

On July 16, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On August 6, 9, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On September 10, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Nation.

On September 21, Hawkins wrote from a camp at Burgess’.

On October 1, Hawkins wrote from Jack Kinnard’s.

On October 5, 9, 20, 26, 30, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahasee.

On November 3, 5, 6, 10, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On November 13, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On November 17, Hawkins wrote from Coweta.

On November 29, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On December 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 21, 22, 25, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

[1799] Elijah Clark, who established the Trans-Oconee Republic and built several forts along the Oconee River, died on
15 December- Amason.

Hawkins described 1799 as a dry season saying “all the creeks were dry” and “not a spring of water was to be found.”

1800 - On January 23, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On February 3, 9, 12, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On March 1, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On March 12, Hawkins wrote from Tallahassee Thlucco.

On March 20, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On April 14, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On May 14, 21, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On June 7, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On June 11, 12, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On July 10, Hawkins wrote from “the neighborhood of Fort Wilkinson.”

On July 12, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On July 18, 26, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On July 28, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On August 14, 20, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

[1800] On August 26, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On September 11, Hawkins wrote from Coweta Tallahassee.

On November 6, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

1801 - Thomas Jefferson renewed George Washington’s appointment of Benjamin Hawkins as principal agent of
Indian affairs south of the Ohio River.

Hawkins helped negotiate treaties with the Creeks, Chickasaws and Choctaws.

On February 7, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On March 1, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On March 18, Hawkins wrote from Tookabaubatche.

On April 1, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On April 3, Hawkins wrote from Tookabaubatche.

On June 1, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On July 18, Hawkins wrote from Tookabaubatche.

On August 7, 15, 18, 25, Hawkins wrote from South WestPoint.

On August 19, Hawkins wrote from Oostanulah.

On September 1, 6, Hawkins wrote from South West Point.

On September 15, Hawkins wrote from Chattonogee Creek.

[1801] On September 26, Hawkins wrote from Occochappo or Bear Creek.

On October 7, Hawkins wrote from Wilkinsonville.

On October 25, 26, 28, Hawkins wrote from Chickasaw Bluffs.

On November 13, 14, Hawkins wrote from Natchez.

On December 11, 18, 21, Hawkins wrote from Fort Adams.

1802 -  On January 23, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On January 26, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

1803 -  Hawkins was heavily involved in establishing a mail road between Washington and New Orleans. This was needed because of the Louisianna Purchase.

On January 3-13, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

The treaty of Fort Wilkinson was ratified 11 January.

On February 1-12, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On February 13, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency [Location is believed to be Hawkins' Spring, now Memory Hill Cemetery, in present day Milledgeville]. See June 8, 1803.

On March 21-29, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On April 14, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On April 21, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

[1803] On April 30, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On May 2-30, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

Legislation passed on May 11 created the counties of Baldwin, Wilkinson, and Wayne.

Legistlation passed on May 11 provided the location and survey of Milledgeville.

The Land Lottery Act of the Georgia Legislature was passed on May 11 to distribute land in the state.

On May 30, Hawkins wrote from Ocheubofau on Coosa.

The Treaty at Fort Wilkinson was signed in June with the Creek Indians by which Georgia acquired all the territory between the Oconee and Ocmulgee Rivers plus a tract south of the Altamaha River - Amason. Hawkins was involved in this negotiation.

On June 8, Hawkins wrote a letter to John Milledge, Governor of Georgia. The source for this letter is Grant, C.L. Letters, Journals and Writings of Benjamin Hawkins: Volume II 1802-1816. The Beehive Press: Savannah, 1980. Available at Washington Memorial Library, Macon, Georgia. Hawkins wrote, "I heard a few days past that my leaving some property near Fort Wilkinson has been a subject of animadversion on the part of some members of your Legislature. The place where there (Hawkins's Spring) was
assigned me by the Chiefs of this agency [1793-1803. Hawkins had actually set up an Indian Agency on what is now Memory Hill Cemetery in Milledgeville] for my accomodation as agent six years past, and has been occupied generally by the military or myself, for public purposes. As soon as the lines are run [between U.S. and Indian lands], and the military are removed my property will accompany them, and whether they remove or not, as soon [1803] as you can take possession of that country I intend my claim to cease, and my property to leave it. The Indians will be ready to run the line as soon as orders can be given for that purpose and communicated to
the Speaker of the Nation." Footnote: "In the spring of 1803 Hawkins moved the agency to the Flint River where it would remain until after his death" (Grant).

In the spring, Hawkins chose the Crawford County, Georgia, Flint River site for his Indian Agency. He located Fort Lawrence across the Flint from the Agency.

On June 17, Hawkins wrote from Commissioners' Camp west of the Oconee [Commissioners' Creek, Jones County].

On July 11, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency [on the to James Madison saying, "Tell Mrs. Madison we are all Quakers in the Indian Agency."

On July 15, Hawkins wrote from Commissioners' Camp.

On August 16, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On September 6, Hawkins wrote a letter to John Milledge from the Creek Agency which said, "The Indians complain of encroachments by actual settlement on the south side of Oconee in the fork of that and Ocmulgee, to cutting cedar on Ocmulgee and its waters particularly on a fork of Yellow Creek, to which there is a road way, and of fishing in large parties in the waters of Ocmulgee."

On September 30, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On October 12-13, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

Hawkins helped negotiate treaties with the Creeks, Chickasaws and Choctaws.

1804 - On February 1, Hawkins wrote from Hawkins Spring.

On March 14, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On April 16, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On May 30, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On June 25, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

From July 4 until November 3, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On November 9, Hawkins wrote from Fort Wilkinson.

On November 12, Hawkins wrote from Milledgeville.

Milldegeville was established as the capital of Georgia by the state legislature on December 12.

The first building in Milledgeville, constructed of logs, was erected on the corner of Franklin and Elbert Streets.

1805 -  From January 1 - April 1, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On June 12, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

From June 26 - September 6, Hawkins wrote from the Creek
Agency.

Hawkins wrote to Governor Milledge on August 4; "Finding that intrusions had commenced on the Creek Lands and were increasing between Oconee and Ocmulgee, orders have been given to remove them with a military force, and which will be carried into effect in the course of this month." Grant states that "Hawkins was authorized to use, if [1805] [1805] necessary, military force to remove white settlers from Creek Lands."

On August 29, Hawkins reported, "a murder has been recently attempted in this agency which has greatly distrubed the Chiefs of the upper towns. The post rider with two mails going from Coweta towards New Orleans was fired on and wounded near Kettoma about 26 miles S.W. from the agency at Tookaubatche." The post rider, Webb, survived.

From November 17 - December 7, Hawkins wrote from Washington.

The 2nd Infantry (Old) of Fort Wilkinson began construction of Fort Hawkins under the command of Captain William R. Boote.

The Georgia Legislature contracted with Captain Jett Thomas and General William Scott in December for the construction of a statehouse,   which was to be completed by October, 1807, with a cost not to exceed $60,000-Amason.

A lottery to distribute land in Baldwin County was held in Louisville, Georgia (State capital before Milledgeville).

A road was opened from Montpelier Ferry to Statehouse Square.

The first frame two-story house was erected in Milledgeville on the corner of Franklin and Elbert Streets.

The Lower Creek Trading Path was declared a Federal Road.

Hawkins was instrumental in the Treaty of Washington (DC).

[1805] Hawkins helped negotiate treaties with the Creek, Chickasaws and Choctaws.

1806 -  Fort Hawkins was commissioned and named for Colonel Benjamin Hawkins of North Carolina.

Captain William R. Boote commanded the 2nd Infantry (Old) at Fort Hawkins until November 1806.

BG Bissel commanded 2nd Infantry Regiment 1806-1809. Bissel commanded 3rd Infantry 1809-1812.

Jonathan Halstead, who became factor of Fort Wilkinson on 26 March, was moved to be the first factor at Fort Hawkins. His salary was $1000 annually with an expense account of $365 (or a dollar a day). A letter dated 12 September to Secretary of War Henry Dearborn said that construction of the trading post at Fort Hawkins began.

Captain Thomas A. Smith commanded Fort Hawkins until 1810.

Baldwin County held its first election in July at the house of Georgia Hill (also called Hillsborough, the first county seat from 1806-1807) - Amason.

An act was passed by the legislature in Louisville, Georgia on December 8 appointing the following persons as commissioners of the town of Milledgeville: David Fluker, Jett Thomas, Uriah Thweat, John W. Devereaux, and Thomas Bird - Amason.

On May 29, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On June 9, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

[1806] The Second Lottery of Georgia, Act of Legislature was passed June 26.

Five new counties were made out of parts of Baldwin and Wilkinson: Morgan, Randolf (later to become Jasper County), Jones, Putnam, and Telfair. Baldwin County’s boundary was moved southward a few miles into Wilkinson County - Amason.

On July 29, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On August 30, Hawkins wrote from Ulcofauhatchee.

On September 13, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

1806 -1809 Brigadier General Bissel commanded the 2nd Infantry (Old). After the War of 1812 he commanded the
1st Infantry (New).

The Creek Factory was moved from Fort Wilkinson to the Ocmulgee Old Fields.

[1806-1809] Fort Hawkins was built on a high hill overlooking Ocmulgee Old Fields, the Lower Creek Trading Path (also called the Garrison or Federal Road) and the Ocmulgee River.

1807 -  From January 22 - August 8, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On February 18, Hawkins, in a letter to Henry Dearborn, wrote "after I left the City of Washington I was joined at Warrenton
in the stage [1805-1806?] by Col. Burr and we traveled to Georgetown . . . we were old accquaintances in public like in the Senate
of the U. S. . . ."

On September 16, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

[1807] From October 1 - December 2, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

The state Legislature held its first session in Milledgeville on November 2.

The Fort Hawkins was garrisoned by troops from Milledgeville’s Fort Wilkinson.

Aaron Burr passed by the fort under guard and may have been held over night in the garrison. Burr was under arrest for treason.

In early March, Aaron Burr was in the custody of William R. Boote. Boote was a commander at Fort Wilkinson, but was also
prominent in the building of Fort Hawkins.

Aaron Burr was brought to Baldwin County from Mississippi under arrest on a charge of treason and spent the night at Fort
Wilkinson - Amason.

The counties of Greene, Morgan, Baldwin, Wilkinson, Laurens, and Telfair were established as a judicial circuit to be called the Ocmulgee circuit.

The Georgia Statehouse was designed and completed in Milledgeville by architect Joseph Lane. Wings and porticos were added in 1828 and 1837. Georgia Military College began a major restoration of the Statehouse in 1998.

Treasury and public records of the State of Georgia were transported from Louisville to Milledgeville in October - Amason.

During the December session of the Georgia Legislature, four new counties were cut out of Baldwin County from the [1807] north and west, and more land was added to Baldwin County from Wilkinson County at the south - Amason.

An act of legislature established Milledgeville as the seat of Baldwin County.

The Moravian Church (The Unity of Brethren or Unitas Fratrum) from Salem (Now Winston-Salem), North Carolina, sent two missionaries, Johann Christian Burckard and Karsten Petersen, to evangelize the Creek Nations in what is now Georgia and Alabama. They made their headquarters at Benjamin Hawkins’ United States Indian Agency on the Flint River near what is now Roberta, Georgia. Burckard and Petersen kept a diary collectively for six years “before bad health, apathetic clients, and frontier warfare rendered their enterprise a failure” - Mauelshagen and Davis. The Moravians first established themselves in Wachovia, their name for North Carolina, in 1766. “The land were Burckhard and Petersen took up their work was sparsely settled and far from the centers of
civilization. But it was isolated only in a relative sense. The rich variety of peoples in the vicinity included Indians of the Muskogee, Chotaw, Alabama. Hitchiti, Yuchi and Cherokee groups. There were half-breed Indians with European names and Negro slaves owned
by Indians and whites alike. Spaniards lived to the south in Florida and Frenchmen to the west in Louisiana, and English traders connected with the firm of Panton, Leslie, and Forbes were seen from time to time. Travelers of many descriptions journeyed through on the east-west route between Georgia and the Mississippi country and on the north-south route between the Gulf of Mexico and the
mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina. The Creek Agency was located at the ferry where one of the best known Indian trails of the southeast, the Lower Creek Trading Path, crossed the Flint River. Already in 1805 this path had been made a federal road and was becoming a major route for the passage of the white man into Indian country” -Mauelshagen and Davis, Diary.

[1807] “Colonel Hawkins also thought of himself as a missionary, although his regard for formal religion was scant. As protector of the Indians, he was frequently at odds with the authorities of the state of Georgia and often hard put to justify the demands of his own
superiors in Washington. He desired to bring civilization to the Indians, but not the whole fabric of civilization, being a graduate of Princeton and owner of one of the finest personal libraries in the frontier country, but this scheme for the Indians ran more on the practical side. In 1807 he wrote to one of the Moravian missionary directors,”The plan I pursue is to lead the Indian from hunting to the pastoral like, to agriculture, house hold manufactures, a knowledge of weights and measures, money and figures, to be honest and true to themselves as well as to their neighbors, to protect innocence, to punish guilt, to fit them to be useful members of the planet
they inhabit and lastly, letters. I set the example in all thinks myself, and compel every assistant in the department to cooperate. The Moravians never found reason to complain of a lack of hospitality at the Agency, but Hawkins’ mission was different from that of the Brethren Burckhard and Petersen” Diary.

Burckhard and Petersen spent May 1 to October 30 with the Gambolds and Byhans of Spring Place (located near present day Chatsworth in northwest Georgia. Spring Place was another Moravian mission.) On October 30, Burckhard and Petersen began their journey to the Flint River. Gambold traveled with the missionaries. On October 1, they hired a man for $4 a day (round trip) to “take or things to the Flint River - Diary.

On November 7 at 4 p.m., Burckhard, Gambold and Petersen arrived at Fort Hawkins and were received by Benjamin
Hawkins. Halstead was the factor - Diary.

[1807] On November 8, Burckhard, Peterson, Gambold, and Hawkins left the fort at sundown and camped on the West
Side of the Ocmulgee River - Diary.

On November 9, Burckhard, Peterson, Gambold and Hawkins traveled about twenty miles and camped beside a creek. Colonel Hawkins, on horseback, said that this was twelve miles from his residence, so he rode home. The missionaries followed the next day. - Diary.

On November 10, the Moravian missionaries arrived at the Indian Agency on the Flint River - Diary.

On November 13, Burckhard, Petersen and Hawkins made the following agreement:

(1) We were to settle here with him and set ourselves to plying our trades, for which he would soon help us to build a house and shop, which would afford us the best opportunity to acquaint ourselves with the Indians and their language.

(2) He thought it advisable to set up our own household, but until we had moved to our new home and had  stored the necessary supplies, we were to board with   him free of cost and were to have all the milk we needed for our own household without cost as long as he had no shortage.

(3) Beside woodwork, which he suggested that we take  up, he thought the making of tinware would be a  profitable business.

(4) We could have our laundry done at one dollar per month.

(5) As often as necessary he would furnish us the necessary cash and would accept as reimbursement a [1807] draft drawn on the Bank of the United States at Philadelphia.

(6) He promised to render a quarterly account of everything he received of us and we of him.

(7) As often as needed he would furnish the necessary tansportation; in return he would expect our help when needed - Diary.

*It is believed that Gambold was present at the negotiations between Burckhard, Petersen and Hawkins, possibly as a negotiator trained by the Moravian Church - Wilcox.

On November 17, Gambold left for his home at Spring Place -Diary.

On December 11, Colonel Hawkins began “felling trees for” Burckhard and Petersen’s house.

On December 22, Petersen had an attack of fever that lasted only for one day - Diary.

On December 25, “The Negroes celebrated Christmas, alas, by drinking to excess. . . . Here they know nothing of New Year” - Diary.

1807-1868 Milledgeville served as the seat of Georgia state government.

1808 -  The Creek Factory (Trading Post) was moved from the Ocmulgee Old Fields to Fort Hawkins.

The great influenza epidemic struck Milledgeville - Amason.

On January 12, four Native Americans delivered two hogs to Burckhard and Petersen from Hawkins. The missionaries
paid $4 per hundred live weight for the pork - Diary.

[1808] On January 23, Burckhard and Petersen took their horse to the Agency because there was a “lack of pasturage” - Diary.

On January 22, Hawkins wrote from Milledgeville.

On January 26, Hawkins gave the missionaries nine augurs (wood working tools) “the largest of which was two and a half inches - Diary.

On February 3, the missionaries two houses were “brought under one roof” -Diary. *This created a “dog-trot” cabin. It is an achitectural style common on the frontier - Wilcox.

On February 4, Colonel Hawkins sold an ox (for slaughtering) to the missionaries for “only” $10 because it was so thin.

On February 6, Burckhard and Petersen “started sowing peas, yellow beets, lettuce, etc. “ in their garden - Diary.

On February 11 and 12, the missionaries built a 10’ X 10’ smokehouse - Diary.

From February 16 - July 3, Hawkins wrote from the Indian Agency.

On February 20, Burckhard and Petersen started sawing floorboards for their cabin - Diary.

In August, the Moravian missionaries at the Creek Indian Agency reported “This year the supply of peaches far exceeds the demand. We were told by the Colonel that they make excellent vinegar and proposed that we gather some for that purpose. We obtained 40 gallons of juice” - Diary.

[1808] On September 4, a “Negro”, mentioned several times earlier in the Diary as someone owned by and special to Benjamin Hawkins attended and brought “another” to hear Burckhard and Petersen read the Bible. The listeners promised to come again “but evidently forgot” Diary.

On September 4, Petersen completed the stone chimney of Hawkins’ kitchen. The outside part of this chimney was finished on October 28. This job took one month to complete.

On September 25, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On October 1, Burckhard and Petersen ground their “first planting of corn and two weeks later started keeping house” for themselves. They had boarded with the Colonel for eleven months. Diary.

On October 16, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On October 28, Colonel Hawkins advised the Moravian missionaries to gather in the crops most likely to be stolen: pumpkins, sweet potatoes, and most particularly. . . corn” because “many Indians [were] coming this as enroute to the garrison [Fort Hawkins] to collect their Federal annuities” They harvested “a goodly pumpkin crop and fifty bushels of corn in one day” with the help of
Colonel Hawkins’ “Negro” - Diary.

On November 4, Hawkins wrote from Ocmulgee.

On November 9, Burckhard and Petersen finished their “new corn crib and horse stall” - Diary.

On November 11, Colonel Hawkins had “the fodder for [the missionaries] house hauled” - Diary.

[1808] On November 13, Burckhard suffered a “severe attack of fever, which lasted but a day” - Diary.

On November 14 and 15, Burckhard and Petersen stored a “large crop of sweet potatoes” - Diary.

On November 20, Burckhard left the Indian Agency for Milledgeville “for the purchase of necessities” and returned to the Creek Agency four days later - Diary.

From November 20 - December 10, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On December 14, Burckhard and Petersen began the stone chimney for Hawkins’ office. “inclement weather” had
delayed this construction - Diary.

On December 24, the “Negroes” at the Creek Agency brought Burckhard and Petersen “Christmas Greetings”. The missionaries recorded that “Their sole purpose was to have us serve them a drink, which we disapproved. . .with the same objective in mind some came the next day and asked whether they do not serve liquor on such occasions where we came from. Br. Burckhard informed them
that Christmas was not for that purpose and told what it commemorated” - Diary.

1809 - Captain McDougall died and, legend says, was buried in an Indian mound. One of the mounds at Ocmulgee National Monument is named for McDougall although archeology reveals no human remains buried in this mound.

David Mitchell defeated Jared Irwin in November to become the next governor of Georgia.

The first church (Methodist) was established in Milledgeville. located at the site of Memory Hill Cemetery near Hawkins Spring, on the square reserved for public uses.

[1809] LT Luckett possibly commanded Fort Hawkins after Captain Thomas A. Smith was promoted to Major.

On January 6, Burckhard and Petersen reported that “It was so cold . . .       that our Fahrenheit thermometer
registered 17 degrees below freezing” [15 degrees] - Diary.

On January 19, “Br. Burckhard set out to cross the Ocmulgee [the United States boundary] on his way to Savannah to pick up the things which had arrived for us from Philadelphia” - Diary. There were several travel difficulties (an interesting narrative) listed in the January 19 entry - Wilcox.

On January 21, Burckhard arrived home at the Creek Agency from his incomplete Savannah trip - Diary.

On January 28 and 29, Burckhard and Petersen reported “we had the first rain in weeks” - Diary.

“From February to the middle of March we [Burckhard and Petersen]  enjoyed warm weather but the rest of the month
[March] was very cold” - Diary.

On March 24, at the Creek Agency, “ice had frozen outdoors. The thermometer [Fahrenheit] stood at 26 degrees and 29 degrees on the 28th and 29th of March respectively, causing much damage to garden crops” - Diary.

On April 14, there was ice at the Creek Agency. Hawkins had a piece a land plowed on which the Moravian missionaries plant corn - Diary.

On April 21, “Br. Burckhard was seized by several fainting spells. Two days later [Burckhard and Petersen] suffered [1809] similar attacks, but on the following day . . . recovered” - Diary.

On May 2, there was rain at the Flint River after a drought of four weeks - Diary.

May was “so dry that [Burckhard and Petersen’s] corn for meal began to wither” -Diary.

On June 1, Burckhard and Petersen “threshed three bustles of wheat which, at the suggestion of the Colonel, Br.
Petersen had threshed along with that of the Colonel” - Diary.

From June 1 to June 6, Burckhard and Petersen “hoe” [ed] corn. This was done again on June 19 and 20 after a rain
on the 17th- Diary.

On June 23, Burckhard and Petersen “started laying the floor, for which [they] had sawed the lumber more than a year” before.” Petersen finished the floor on July 15, as Burckhard suffered from hemorrhoids July 3-8. Finishing the floor allows Burckhard and Petersen to occupy their bedroom - Diary.

On July 11 there was “a terrific thunder shower which flattened almost all of [the Moravian missionaries’] corn
and necessitated [their] spending two days in straightening it” - Diary.

From July 20 until 26, Burckhard and Petersen gathered their corn. Petersen suffered an eye infection he believed was caused by wiping “his face with a cloth that had gotten poison from a weed on it”. - Diary. Poison ivy and poison oak are prevalent in Middle Georgia and can be contracted through contact with fabric - Wilcox.

[1809] From July 30 until August 6 Petersen suffered “with a severe fever which returned every other day” - Diary.

From September 9 until September 22 Petersen suffered “an attack of a cold fever”. He was able to walk around the
cabin on September 22. The Colonel served as Petersen’s doctor - Diary.

On September 23, Colonel Hawkins made a plan to go to Tucabatchie. Burckhard became ill with fever, and he and Petersen
returned to bed -  Diary.

On October 3, Colonel Hawkins returned to the Indian Agency and Burckhard suffered from jaundice. “ As soon as the Colonel
heard that our wine and other items had been received from Salem and were unloaded at an Indian’s place, he sent a Negro to fetch them”. -Diary.

On October 20, Burckhard and Petersen harvested peas and Burckhard “suffered a severe attack of fever.” On the following days Burckhard continued to suffer, but the missionaries were able to harvest potatoes - Diary.

On November 9 and 10, Burckhard’s fever “caused him to jump up from his bed and on different occasions to chase
about in the room” - Diary.

On November 11, Burckhard fell asleep and “did not awaken until the evening of the 14th” - Diary.

On December 4, Burckhard was able to leave his bed - Diary.

On December 16, Burckhard and Petersen were able to “go to the Colonel’s for dinner” - Diary.

On December 18, Burckhard and Petersen received “letters from our dear Brs. Reichel and Benzien” (Christian Ludwig [1809] Benzien was administrator of the Moravians in Wachovia) containing “ a certificate for each of us to a deaconate of the Church” - Diary.

December 19 was Burckhard’s birthday.

On December 26, Burckhard suffered an attack of fever which lasted until December 30 when “it left both of us” - Diary.

1810-   The first census of Milledgeville recorded the population at 1,256, making it the third largest town in Georgia after Savannah and Augusta- Amason.

The U.S. Census recorded Baldwin County’s population at 6,059. Of this number, there were 3,809 whites and 2,250 Negroes- Amason.

Milledgeville commissioners passed an ordinance prohibiting free Negroes from remaining either in the town or in the commons.

On January 1, Burckhard was “well enough to begin his tin work. The supply of tin items had long ago been sold and
Indian asked every day that more be made for them” - Diary.

On January 7, “Dr. Schumann and Holland from Salem” arrived at the Indian Agency. From footnote: “Dr. Friedrich Heinrich Schumann was a physician of the Salem congregation who was sent to the Flint River to bring medication for the ailing Brethren Burckhard and
Petersen. It was he who drew the ‘Plan of the Creek Agency’ which is reproduced in [Partners in the Lord’s Work: The Diary of Two Moravian Missionaries in the Creek Country, 1807-1813] Johann Friedrich Holland went along with Schumann to look after the missionaries until they should recover” - Diary.

[1810] On January 8, Burckhard and Petersen received the Loosung [a manual of ‘Watchwords and Doctrinal Texts’
published annually by the Moravians since 1731]. Dr. Schumann’s visit was called “blessed service” - Diary.

From January 14 - April 10, Hawkins wrote from the Indian Agency.

On January 21, Burckhard accompanied Dr. Schumann to Milledgeville. Schumann returned to Salem, and Burckhard
purchased needed supplies for the missionaries. - Diary.

On January 25, Burckhard returned to the Agency with Holland. Holland had visited at Fort Hawkins while
Schumann and Burckhard went on to Milledgeville - Diary.

February and March, both missionaries at the Agency suffered with fever - Diary.

On March 27, Burckhard and Petersen planted sweet potatoes. It stormed all night- Diary.

On March 28, Burckhard and Petersen “were awakened by a terrible tornado accompanied by severe rain. The roof of
our house, shop, and stable [were] almost completely blown away and the great part of the garden fence was
wrecked. Most of the Colonel’s field was covered with dead trees” - Diary.

April 9 - 15, Petersen suffered with fever - Diary.

April 29, Burckhard and Petersen reported “this was a day of bad luck for us. We bought a Negro and fourteen days
later he ran away and took with him Mr. Limbaugh’s horse, which was later found. Four weeks later the Negro was
captured in Georgia and hanged” - Diary.

[1810] In May, the Agency missionaries harvested twenty bushels of wheat. Attacks of fever were still a problem - Diary.

On June 4, Burckhard and Petersen completed wheat threshing - Diary.

On June 21, the Moravian missionaries began digging a well “at the side of our shop and struck a goodly supply
of waster at a depth of ten feet” - Diary.

On June 21, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

On June 23, there was a good rain at the Indian Agency which broke “ a drought of five weeks” - Diary.

From June 30 - October 7, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On July 14, Burckhard suffered with fever. - Diary.

On July 17, “At the suggestion of the Colonel, Br. Burckhard went to Georgia . . . to see whether the man from whom we bought the Negro would be willing to return the money we paid him, since he had failed to tell us the real reason for the sale of the Negro, and had on his honor failed to tell the Colonel. Br. Burckhard failed to find the man at home and returned on the 21st” - Diary.

On July 18, Hawkins wrote to Hopoithle Micco; "The troops at Fort Hawkins have been on the frontiers of Georgia and destroyed several houses and cowpens and fields of corn made by the white people on the Indian lands."

On July 29, Burckhard again went to Georgia on the slave issue. The seller of the slave “declared he would not give [Burckhard] one cent except on a court order. On the advice of many good and sympathetic friends [Burckhard] [1810] [1810] immediately went to Milledgeville to see about the matter. There a lawyer advised him first to go to Putnam County, Georgia where the Negro was captured
and hanged for the theft committed before his sale to the missionaries. There [Burckhard] was to obtain an affidavit of the execution from the local magistrate. To receive all of the necessary papers he was detained for three days and returned [to the Indian Agency] in good health on August 7 - Diary.

On July 30, Holland suffered with a fever that lasted until he left the Indian Agency on September 1. Holland left the Agency “contrary to [the missionaries’] advice [and] four weeks later [they] learned . . . that he lay ill in Milledgeville- Diary.

September - “Toward the middle of the month fever raged and spread, sparing neither white nor black [on the Indian Agency]” - Diary.

On September 15, “Mrs. Hawkins and children left for the woods and set up camp [to avoid fever]. The Carrs and the Limbaughs went with them and a large number of others followed.” Burckhard joined the evacuees on the 17th. - Diary.

On September 21, Burckhard returned to the Indian Agency. “The local tanner, Mr. Bell, and his entire family [were] taken by Br. Petersen to the camp in our cart and [were] brought back by Br. Petersen [and Burckhard] on the 21st because of lack of conveniences.” Fever raged among the Indians also. The missionaries heard a report that eighty Indians died from the fever.

From footnotes: Frequent illness was a common factor of frontier life and professional medical treatment was indeed rare. The flight to a camp in the woods to escape the fever in September 1810, was not an unusual occurrence. The [1810] family referred to as “the Carrs” was probably that of William Carr, husband of Col. Hawkins’ daughter, Virginia” - Diary.

On October 2-8, Burckhard and Petersen harvested an “abundant” corn and garden crop and an “ordinary” potato crop - Diary.

On October 21, Burckhard had a severe stomach attack, which plagues him until November 1 when Petersen became
ill. Petersen complained of chest pains, pains in the lower bowels and coughed up blood. Both missionaries then became ill - Diary.

On October 25, Hawkins wrote from Chattucchufaulee.

From November 5 - December 24, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On November 9, Mr. Limbaugh planned to leave the Indian Agency and travel to Washington [This could indicate Washington, Georgia because what is now Washington, D.C. is usually called “Washington City” in older manuscripts.] Burckhard and Petersen planned to send
letters to Salem by Limbaugh - Diary.

On November 12, Mrs. Hawkins became “quite ill” and sent for the Colonel who is at Fort Hawkins - Diary.

On November 13, Colonel Hawkins arrived at the Indian Agency. He visited the missionaries at 11 p.m. - Diary.

On November 14, Colonel Hawkins had “a Negro . . . gather the seed of an oil plant and boil out the oil . . . . on the same evening the Colonel brought more than a half pint and gave Br. Petersen a dose of it. He [Petersen] got relief on the afternoon of the 15th and the pain began to ease” Diary.

[1810] On November 20, “the Colonel [told Burckhard and Petersen that] his Negro was going to the fort and would be able to bring the things Mr. Halsted [Factor at Fort Hawkins] bought for us in Savannah. Mr. Burckhard planned to go along on this trip “to get our things and look after our account at Mr. Jerrison’s store owing since last summer when we last purchased minor things and got
medicine at Milledgeville.” The men began their trip on November 21. Burckhard “arrived at Fort Hawkins fairly early the same evening.” He wrote “ I was very tired when I arrived, as I had not yet regained my strength. Mr. Halsted was happy as a child when he spied me. He said that the Colonel had reported in his last letter that Br.Petersen and I were very weak. More and more this man
proves to be our friend and helps us in any way he can without serving any interest of his own. As I had a day’s business to look after on the following day I did not leave for Milledgeville until the 23rd - Diary.

On November 24, Burckhard arrived in Milledgeville “after a day’s delay by inclement weather” - Diary.

On November 25, Burckhard stopped for the night “with a man named McLanden” whose home was halfway between
Milledgeville and the fort - Burckhard was still experiencing weather delays - Diary.

On November 26, Burckhard left McLanden and arrived at Fort Hawkins - Diary.

On November 27, Burckhard left Fort Hawkins “with the hope that [he] might find Br. Petersen in good health
that evening” - Diary.

On November 28, Petersen improved as a result of hot baths administered by Colonel Hawkins and two “Negroes.”
[1810] The “hatter”, Mr. McRee took care of Petersen while Burckhard was traveling.

Petersen had “a weakened condition in his left foot, which obliges him to drag it in walking. It shows no sign of improvement” - Diary.

In December, Burckhard “had a throat congestion making it difficult for him to talk” - Diary.

“During the holidays [around December 25, 1810] “over 100 Indians were here at the plantation to celebrate “Nitto Chaugo Thlucke (Great Beloved Day). The Colonel supplied them with meat and meal” - Diary. When Burckhard and Petersen discuss Christmases previous to this one in 1810, they comment that the people at the Agency have no knowledge of Christmas and New Year’s Day. “Great Beloved Day” may be a Christmas celebration since the missionaries have been teaching Christ for four years now; it could be a Native American celebration, or it could be a celebration in honor of Hawkins, “The Beloved Man of Four Nations” - Wilcox.

1811- The original wing of the Georgia Statehouse was completed.

From January 6 - April 11, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On January 19, the missionaries reported working to install a pump in their well. “Captain Smith of Fort Hawkins furnished us the borer for it” - Diary.

On January 28, Burckhard and Petersen “received word from Mr. Halstead, United States factor at Ft. Hawkins, that three crates of tin had arrived for us from Philadelphia. Since the previous shipment had got wet enroute and rusted during the long stay at the fort, we decided to pick it up in [1811] our cart as soon as possible. To that end, Br. Burckhard and Mr. Conklin, whom we hired to
go with him, left early on the morning of the 28th. We had hired him because the two of us could not be away from the house at the same time and we did not believe it wise for one to go alone in the rainy weather when the creeks had flooded their shores and large trees obstructed the fords. To clear the passage over one of the creeks a large log had to be cut into to enable them to cross. At midnight of the 30th we arrived back home and to our satisfaction we found the tin in good condition, for which the Colonel was happy because he had been responsible for the delay in the delivery of the previous shipment from the fort” - Diary.

On February 2, the missionaries had “the first decent snow . . . It started in the night and continued through the day though it was not accompanied by freezing weather and by night it was two inches deep. The following night there was frost but the day after the snow melted” - Diary.

On February 6, “a certain gentleman named Wintson, whowanted to travel through Salem, stopped at Colonel Hawkins’”. Winston delivered a section of the Diary to Moravian headquarters in North Carolina - Diary.

On February 12, Hawkins wrote to William Eustis; "I have heard also that the troops at Fort Hawkins are to go to St. Mary's. I suppose to aid in protecting our revenue against smugglers. I have been informed smuggling is carried on extensively at Amelia Island and by people who call themselves Timber Cutters on the Spanish side of St. Mary's.

Burckhard and Petersen listed February 16 and 17 as “the coldest weather we yet have experienced here. Early on  the 18th the thermometer stood at twenty-three degrees, in bright sunshine. On the 19th the weather was even worse. In the morning it was fifteen degrees, at noon twenty-three [1811] degrees, and at eight in the evening thirty degrees. Early the next day it was twenty-six
degrees and in the afternoon at two o’clock it was fifty-two degrees” - Diary.

On February 22, Burckhard “went to Georgia on business and on his trip back he encountered Br. Sam Wohlfarth of Salem and also Mr. Limbaugh, who was on his way from Pennsylvania to Fort Hawkins. Wohlfarth was able to borrow a horse from Mr. Halstead, which enabled the three to arrive [at the Indian Agency] on the evening of the 25th . . .” From footnotes: “Samuel Jacob Wohlfarth had
formerly been a bellows blower in Salem who came to work with a [black]smith in Milledgeville, Georgia. Later he was to travel to Pennsylvania to complete his training as a coppersmith” - Diary.

On March 13, Wohlfarth visited the Indian Agency again. He did not “receive the treatment he had been promised”
in Milledgeville - Diary.

On March 30, the missionaries delayed a religious service so that Phil, “one of Colonel Hawkins’ Negroes” could attend - Diary.

Attendance at the Moravian missionary meetings was fourteen on April 6, seventeen on April 7 “including Mrs. Hawkins’ father,
Mr. Downs”, one on April 8, twenty-nine on April 9, and twelve to fourteen on April 10 and 11. From footnotes: “There is some
doubt as to Mr. Down’s first name. Louise Frederick Hays, in the introduction to her typescript edition of the “Unpublished Letter
of Benjamin Hawkins, 1797-1815” (Atlanta Georgia Department of Archives and History, 1939) asserts that his name was Isaac and that Silas Downs, who settled in Crawford County after Hawkins came to the Agency, was the brother of Col. Hawkins’ wife, Lavinia.
A Crawford Downs, who performed some services for the estate of Hawkins after the death of the Colonel, was probably a close relative as well” - Diary.

[1811] On April 11, Hawkins wrote to George Mathews; "Our little family go tomorrow for Milledgeville to attend dancing school."

On April 14, Easter Sunday, twelve blacks attended the Moravian missionaries’ 8 a.m. Easter service. Later in the day, Petersen set out on a trip “down the Flint River. It so happened, that the elderly Br. Barnard, who had been at Col. Hawkins’ wanted to leave today . . . and we were anxious for Br. Petersen to take advantage of his company.” From footnotes: “Timothy Barnard was one of the best known traders in the Creek country. An interpreter and assistant to the agent, Barnard had come to live among the Indians before Hawkins arrived in the 1790’s. [Barnard] married a Yuchi woman and raised eleven children on a farm about twenty miles south of the Indian
Agency” - Diary. Many sources list Barnard as “half-Creek” - Wilcox.

On April 14, Petersen began a separate section of the Diary describing his trip to the Chattahoochee. From footnotes: “This is one of the more significant sections of the diary. It must be used with caution, however, since it contains some mistaken ideas about the geography of the area and its spelling of names is sometimes difficult to interpret.” Petersen begins “As requested by the Brethren of the H. C. F. G. (Helfer Confernz furs Ganze), I set out on my visit to the Creeks by taking advantage of the opportunity to travel along with Mr. Barnard, the Creek interpreter, who had stopped [at the Agency] with Col. Hawkins for several days . . . . At ten in the morning we left by horse and about noon we crossed the creek called “Pacelike.” from footnotes: “This probably refers to Padjaliga Creek.” Petersen continues “the water was so high that we were obliged to carry our things over an Indian bridge and have our horses swim over. Toward evening we arrived in good health at Mr. Barnard’s plantation, 20 miles down the other side of the Flint River. It was set on a lovely wooded hill. He remarked [1811] that it was a healthful place, for he had not been sick since he had lived there until last year when he was stricken by a fever, which had spread throughout the entire Indian territory” - Diary.

On April 18, Petersen left Timothy Barnard’s. Petersen wrote “The river [Flint] was so high that it was impassable and there was no canoe available for crossing. Mr. Barnard sent down the river for one, thus enabling me to set out early on the 18th. Because of his concern for me, he had his son Cosene and a white man, a blacksmith named Lewis act as my guide . . . Toward evening we
reached Cosene’s plantation where four sons of Mr. Barnard reside on a fairly high hill.” From footnotes: Four of Timothy Barnard’s sons were mentioned by name in the treaty of Indian Springs (1821), which granted them land reserves on the Flint River. They were Michee, Phelogo, Coseene, and Buck. The most famous of Timothy’s sons was Timpoocheem who fought as a major under Andrew
Jackson against the hostile Red Sticks in 1812 and 1813. Thomas Woodward also mentions them [Barnard’s sons] in Woodward’s Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians (Montgomery, 1859 p. 109).” - Diary.

On April 19, Petersen returned to Timothy Barnard’s “accompanied by Mr. Barnard’s son-in-law.” Barnard’s son-in-law was described as “a white man from Georgia. His wife was half-Indian. All of his children were of Indian mothers.” Petersen stayed with Barnard’s son-in-law because they found no food or supplies at Barnard’s sons’ homes. They stopped by “Michee’s beautiful homestead but
found no one at home.” After Petersen arrived at Timothy Barnard’s, Petersen held a religious service for Timothy Barnard, “his son, Phelogo, and a white man, one of Barnard’s relatives from South Carolina. . . . Mr. Barnard’s son, Phelogo, then asked whether I had once
told him that I was surprised and inspired when in the Cherokee country to see the Cherokee children learning to read and write in [1811] English. . . On the way home, I encountered a severe thundershower, which soaked me to the skin. In spite of it I arrived home the same evening safe and in good health” - Diary.

On April 20, Petersen returned to the Indian Agency - Diary.

On May 4, “Br. Petersen left [the Indian Agency] for the Chattahoochee River with Col. Hawkins, Mr. Limbaugh, and Mr. Barnard. It was proposed when the Colonel heard that Br. Petersen wanted to visit that part of the country and the Colonel wanted to attend ‘talks’ about thirty to forty miles up on the other side of the Chattahoochee. “ Petersen wrote “I resumed my trip among the Creeks in the
company of Col. Hawkins, Mr. Limbaugh, Mr. Barnard, Mr. Lewis, the blacksmith, and a certain Mr. A. Handling, an Irishman, who claimed to be a British Commissioner for East India.” From footnotes: The identity of Mr. A. Handling is not quite clear. It is unlikely that he was a Commissioner for the East Indies, or for that matter, of the West Indies. Even Petersen seems to have suspected
something unusual, saying that Handling ‘claimed to be’ a British Commissioner. It is entirely possible that an agent of the British company of Panton, Leslie, and Forbes, which had a center in the West Indies as well as at Pensacola, had sent an agent into the Indian country at this particular time. It is known, for example, that John Innerarity of the Panton, Leslie and Forbes was actively engaged in the collection of Indian debts about this time and it is suspected that Hawkins aided him even though their general interests clashed. The name Handling is written clearly in the diary, but it could be a corruption of William Hambly, who also worked for the Panton, Leslie, and Forbes Company.” Petersen continued “ I was quite relieved to hear [that the talks were] not to be held at Tucabatchie, but at the Chattahoochee River in the Indian Town of Chattuckchufaula.” From footnotes: “The meeting to which Petersen and the others traveled appears on contemporary maps as Chattuckchufaula and was located on one of the [1811] creeks of the Tallapoosa, not on the Chattahoochee River, as Petersen supposed. The town burned in August, 1813.” Petersen concluded this day’s entry saying that they “traveled about thirty-six miles the first day and spent the night in a wooded area along a creek”- Diary.

On May 5, Petersen reported “Toward noon of the 5th, we reached the Indian town of Cusseta. That afternoon when crossing the Chattahoochee on a poorly built Indian ferry, I was miraculously rescued.” From footnotes: “The man who ran the ferry is William McIntosh, the famous chief who was killed by Creek warriors for selling Indian lands to the United States in 1825.” Petersen continued “Three of us, Mr. Limbaugh, Mr. Lewis, and I, along with our horses, went with the ferry. When about at the center
of the river my horse shied, was backed up by Mr.Limbaugh and then lunged forward and pulled me backward into the river where it jumped on my right led, injuring it with its iron shoe. Never having learned to swim, when I camp up I struggled to swim and managed to stay afloat while the swift current carried me down stream. The Negro, who was rowing across with the ferry, left it to rescue me. He got close enough so that he could have rescued me within two minutes, but to my consternation, Mr. Limbaugh was so frightened that he called to the Negro and insisted upon being rescued first . . . . My mare, a dumb animal . . . suddenly turned towards me. When at the verge of drowning I seized her mane with one hand and swam with the other. The heavy load of provisions on the mare’s back made progress slow. Amid the chorus of shouts a young Indian rushed from the McIntosh house, and raced about 100 paces toward me.
Without giving it a thought he plunged into the river and buoyed up the sinking mare. A Negro, who had been looking on but was afraid to swim toward me, approached when my feet were touching solid ground and I was out of danger. I felt obliged to reward the Indian by giving him two dollars, which seemed to satisfy him and met with the approval of the Colonel . . . . I rushed to the McIntosh
house, where I was horrified to find [1811] him and an acquaintance, a half-Indian, on the floor drunk and speechless . . . when sober, Mr. McIntosh is a friendly person. . . The previous night the Indians had a dance at Mr. Marshall’s two miles from here and stole and battered everything in the house.” From footnotes: “Joseph Marshall was a half-breed trader who also kept a ferry on the Chattahoochee at Coweta, two miles south of McIntosh.” Petersen said, “Marshall, whom they pretended to want to kill, fled to Pensacola with one of his two squaws . . . . The Colonel thought it advisable not to put on dry clothes, but to strip off the wet clothing,
put on my overcoat, and leave immediately and not stay here with the Indians . . . Everything was enacted with the greatest of speed. We mounted our horses and traveled seven miles up the river to the home of Mr. Loved, where I pulled off my wet topcoat and quickly dressed in the clothes loaned me. Mr. Loved, an Englishman, was married to a half-Indian, who had bought tin from Mr. Burckhard
and myself, started a blazing fire to dry my clothing and provisions.” From footnotes: “George Loved, orLovett was not English, but a half-Indian who spoke English. He was listed as a witness and public interpreter on the Treaty of Fort Jackson which Andrew Jackson forced upon the Indians in 1814.”

Petersen continued “On the trip of forty-five miles up the river to the town where the talk was to be held, I was able to get acquainted with nearly all residents along the Chattahoochee River. At Crane Creek, Messrs, Limbaugh and Lewis and their horses got stuck in the mud . . .without damage.” From footnotes: Crane Creek is known today as Watoolee Creek and is located in Lee County, Alabama. Hawkins had written about the difficulty of crossing this creek in 1796 . . .” Petersen said, “In the afternoon we passed along many hills and mountains, through old abandoned Indian towns, where we found plum trees heavily laden with fruit and branches touching the
ground . . . . In the evening we camped at the foot of so-called  [1811] Thunder Mountain . . . . A thunder shower with lightning all around the mountain drenched our clothes” - Diary.

On May 6, but probably May 7, Petersen wrote, “At noon we reached the town of Chattuckchufaula for the talk [because of a shortage of food] the Colonel decided to travel seven miles farther and stop with Chief McQueen, a half-Indian whom he knew.” From footnotes: Peter McQueen was chief of Tallassee, the parent town of Chattuck - chufaula. He was to become one of the leaders among the
rebel Creek chiefs in the uprising” - Diary.

On May 8, Petersen wrote “In the evening I visited a white man from Georgia, who was married to a half-Indian and lived about a quarter mile from Chief McQueen’s. He was very friendly” - Diary.

On May 9 . . . Petersen’s group “traveled six mile up the river to the home of Chief Alec [Alexander] Cornells . .. half-Indian, interpreter, and a man of considerable intelligence . . . . He was so busy on this occasion translating for the Colonel and conducting many conferences with the chiefs from early in the morning till late at night that he had no time for me” -Diary. Petersen had hoped that someone would could speak both Native American tongues [1811] and English would translate for him to preach Christ to the natives -Wilcox.
 

On May 10, Petersen “rode six and a half miles with Mr. Barnard to visit his son, who knows English, but it too proud to speak it with his father or anyone else. That is like Indians, and only when enraged do they speak and curse in English” - Diary. David Nichols, Okmulgee District Representative to the Muscogee (Creek) National Council, told me (on September 19, 1998 at Ocmulgee National Monument’s Indian Festival) that it is impossible to curse in [1811] the Muscogee language. David, and this was confirmed by “Mr. Bill” a tribal elder, says that there are no words in most Native American languages that will accommodate cursing. To curse, one must use English. Note: David and Mr. Billgave me the name “Tohopke Oniyv” on this day. Its interpretation is “Fort Orator” - Wilcox.

Also on May 10, Petersen reported “because of a threat of famine here, white corn, which sells for three dollars per bushel here, will not be sold for animals until the new corn has ripened” - Diary.

On May 11, Petersen wrote, “ It was too bad that I was not able to tell them the real purpose of our [the missionaries] being here [at Alec Cornell’s specifically  and the frontier in general] was to teach the Word of God. Too many whites were present who would make light of the Word of God and we did not want to get involved in an argument with them. Most of them are escaped criminals     from Georgia and elsewhere who are hiding with the Indians” - Diary.

On May 12, the talks at Chattuckchufaula began. Petersen reported, “About 150 assembled Indians welcomed us by serving us cleansing tea [The Black Drink]. . . . Toward noon more than forty chiefs from Tucabatchie marched in gravely saying, ‘Apogatska,’ meaning ‘Are you here?’ The response of those at the town house was, ‘Hapoigi,’ ‘We are here?’ . . . The Colonel called the meeting to order
and delivered a message from the President of the United States.” From footnotes: “The talk at Chattuckchufaula concerned a request by President Madison for the Creeks to permit a road to be struck through the Indian country. The Indians refused in no uncertain terms. ‘I hope it will never be mentioned to us again,’ said Hoboheithlee Micco, the Creek chief who presided at the talk. His
reply was directed to the president and was dated May 15, 1811. It was now filed in the United States National Archives under the designation, ‘Letters Received by the Office of the Secretary of War [1811] Relating to Indian Affairs, 1800-1823.’ It is available on National Archives Microcopy No. 271, Roll 1” - Diary.

On May 12, Hawkins wrote from Mr. Cornells'.

On May 14, Petersen wrote, “The Colonel left, together with the Spanish interpreter Mr. Darowzeaux.” From footnotes: “James Darowzeaux was an interpreter of the Spanish language. Himself a Creek chief and a long time resident of the territory, he had accompanied Hawkins on     a tour of the Creek towns in 1796.” Petersen “left for the Indian town of Coweta on the Chattahoochee . . .
Everything was in a state of confusion here [at Chattuckchufaula], the vermin were pestiferous, much of my food was moldy and there was a shortage of food. We made good time in covering the forty-five miles back to the home of the interpreter, where we spent the night and were able to obtain something to eat. He is eight-nine years old, speaks good English and Creek . . . . In return for a pipe he translated sixteen words for me” -Diary.

On May 15, Petersen “left on the 15th for Coweta, where I visited the old king and several families at their homes . . . . We went back two miles to cross on the McIntosh ferry and visited more than twenty families in the next Indian town. They all knew me and called me something in Creek, meaning ‘the beloved men’s wheel maker. . . . The same evening I reached the home of a couple I knew who
were returning from a hunt. They had a deer’s hide filled with honey. The man immediately gave me some of it to eat but the woman was very sullen . . . Neither knew English, but finally she told the reason for her attitude, saying they were unable to get a spinning wheel without having to pay for it. When I told her I wanted nothing without pay, she was satisfied and brought me turkey soup, bread,
and salt. She also brought me corn for my horse. Upon receiving payment she vigorously shook my hand” - Diary.

[1811] On May 17 (or June - The Diary stated that Burckhard received the news of Petersen falling into a river on the 3rd following their departure. If Hawkins, Barnard, Limbaugh and Petersen left the Agency on May 4th and news about their trip arrived on “the 3rd” it seems that the news must arrive on June 3 - Wilcox) Petersen returned to the Indian Agency - Diary.

From May 22 - August 26, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On May 23, Petersen, Burckhard and Wohlfarth arrived atFort Hawkins to pick up a shipment for them from Philadelphia. They spent the night with Mr. Halsted, and covering “ten miles by evening . . . arrived home on the evening of the 25th” -Diary.

On June 1, Burckhard and Petersen wrote, “An acquaintance and friend of ours on the Ocmulgee, Mr. Sabastian Harry,
an employee of Mr. Halsted [Fort Hawkins Factor] visited us” - Diary.

On June 2, “Br. Wohlfarth, who had been [at the Indian Agency] since March 13, set out on his return trip to Salem . . . . Br. Burckhard accompanies Wohlfarth to Watkinsville and then travels to Spring Place [a Moravian mission in the Cherokee
Country]” - Diary.

On June 3, Sabastian Harry left the Indian Agency to return to Fort Hawkins. - Diary.

On June 4, Alec Cornells, “ a chief and half-Indian from one of the upper towns” visited the Indian Agency. Petersen remembered an incident [that took place on Petersen’s Chattahoochee trip] involving the Cornell family and reported it on June 4: “They [Indians] have
only the faintest idea about the rearing of children . .  . Three Indian children sneaked under the peach trees and knocked green peaches [1811] down with a stick. Unexpectedly their mother, Aelk’s [Alec’s] wife, also a half-breed Indian, picked up one by its head and then another and called for an Indian to help. He picked up four or five pine sticks and placed them between the fingers of one hand. With the other hand he picked up the child by the foot and scratched him with the sticks from the stomach down to the sole of his feet until he [the child] was covered with blood. Similar treatment was administered to the rest. In response to my inquiry, I was told they have so much bad blood in them, and if that is gotten out of them they will no longer be bad. Afterhaving bled for a while the blood was washed off with cold water. This seems to be the usual way Indian women punish their children” - Diary.

On June 7, “The Negro Phil” came to the Moravian missionaries’ services. Phil, after attending several services, decides that he will evangelize the Indian Agency. Of Phil’s history, the missionaries wrote [in June 1811]: “In one of his last preachings of the year,
December 16, 1807, in spite of Mr. Burckhard and [Petersen], [Phil] damned all of the Negroes to hell. One of them, Claster, who attended his preachings, went crazy because Phil did not know how to point the way of a sinner to Christ. Claster got so vicious that Colonel Hawkins had to put him in chains.” Phil was awkward and offended several people, including Mrs. Hawkins, who had him beaten. From footnotes: The Negro slave, Phil, was literate, at least to some degree. It is perhaps significant that Mrs. Hawkins, who had him whipped, was not. Phil had run away to Georgia in 1805 only to be returned to the Agency. His influence over his fellow slaves and his arrogant dealings with Burckhard and Petersen reveal an odd but independent mind. Colonel Hawkins owned 75 slaves at the time of his death in 1816. Many Indians also owned Negro slaves and there were some Indian slaves. The Moravian Brethren accepted the institution of slavery and Burckhard and Petersen even owned a slave until he ran away” - Diary.

[1811] On June 8, the missionaries reported, “Mr. Darnel [now visiting at the Agency] is a Methodist, who lives in Milledgeville and was recently appointed Post [Mail Service] Contractor. He was on his journey to regulate the post through the Indian country. When he heard there was no corn to be had in the Indian country, he gave up the trip to spend Saturday with us and returned [to
Milledgeville] on Sunday. . . . He was not satisfied with the Colonel because, as he said, he was a religiously lost person but still not as bad as Paul [of the New Testament] had been [before converting to Christianity]” - Diary.

On June 9, Burckhard and Petersen held religious services that were attended by “three of Col. Hawkins’ daughters” who “would not have come had not Alec Cornell’s daughter asked them to come with her. . . . Alec Cornells “sat beside [one of the missionaries] and smoked his pipe.” Later in the evening, “The Colonel came and invited both of us to dinner” - Diary.

On June 10, Phil told the missionaries that “the Negro Peter told him that he would be damned to hell before he would go to the [Moravian] meeting” - Diary.

On June 13, “Two Indian families living on the Flint spent the night in [the missionaries] middle house . . .They are honest Indians, who do not want to lodge in houses with other Indians for fear they might have things stolen. They were, however, robbed here the following
morning, when a strange Indian sneaked into their clothes and stole a knife from one of the women” -      Diary.

On June 14, “The half-Indian, Wenner, gave [The missionaries]  $ 22 for safekeeping for him until next month. . . but at this time we wish they would spare us of saving the like for them, as our neighbors, the hatmakers, are being accused of being robbers. The
blacksmith Lewis, who recently built [a house] here, was robbed of $10. After that [1811] he gave us the rest of his money for safekeeping, and Conklin brought his and yesterday Mr. Kelly brought his clothing. None of them have locks on their doors” - Diary.

On June 16 “Fourteen Negroes and two whites came [to the Moravians’ home at the Indian Agency] for the liturgy and in the afternoon fourteen attended the service. . . . The Negro Claster said, ‘I am glad to have attended the service . . . our old master (meaning Mrs. Hawkins’ father) attempted to keep me from going. . . if only the whites would not come.’ The latter referred to our neighbors the hatmakers, who came out of curiosity and to make adverse comments” - Diary.

On June 19, Mr. Darnell “of Milledgeville” and “another Methodist minister” arrived at the Indian Agency - Diary.

On June 20, Mr. Darnell left the Indian Agency - Diary.

On June 23, Burckhard and Petersen reported, “Last night all the residents on the plantation were disturbed in    their sleep by drunken Indians who, at dawn, surrounded the Negro houses with partially blackened and reddened faces and naked bodies. They shrieked terribly. . .Their insolence reached the point at which one of them smashed Col. Hawkins’ window, thereby bringing considerable trouble upon himself. One of his hands [the Indian’s] was  terribly cut by the glass. Enraged, the Colonel seized
the nearest one to him [Indian], then took the one covered with blood and had him bound with rope. The others tried to defend themselves, but when they saw what happened to the first of them, they fled into the woods. . . . Later I [the missionary] heard at Col. Hawkins’ that they were out to kill the son of the old chief   Toshege, whom they accused if having killed another Indian chief.” From footnotes: “The chief called “Toshege” is probably Tussekia Micco, who was mentioned by Hawkins in his Sketch of the Creek Country. Tussekia Micco lived at Cusseta village of Auputtaue, took [1811] up farming under Hawkins’ instruction, and was one of the
signers of the treaty of Fort Wilkinson in 1802.” The missionary continues, “ The accused came to the Colonel  while I was there and told his plight. ‘I was drunk,’ he said, ‘I must die today for this accusation,’ and then cried bitterly. The Colonel said, ‘I know that you are innocent.’ The Indian said, ‘That is not why I am crying. I do not fear death, for I am drunk to numb my feeling if they kill me.’ He had painted his face black. The Colonel gave him milk and then the other Indians took him to the woods. . . . By Twelve o’clock the disturbance had subsided” - Diary.

On June 26, Burckhard left Spring Place to return to the Indian Agency - Diary.

On June 28 Petersen reported, “we had a severe thunder shower [at the Indian Agency]. But the ground is so hard from the steady heat of the sun that everything within range of its rays burned. Most of the garden crops, particularly that of the Colonel, have been killed. Ours, which is on low land, has fared rather well. Our garden fence of new posts was finished today” -Diary. Note: On the Georgia frontier, domesticated animals like cattle and hogs were frequently given open range. The gardens and fields were fenced to prevent damage by these animals. In some parts of Georgia, this practice continued until the mid 1940’s - Wilcox.

On June 30, Petersen held a religious service that was attended by “seventeen blacks and Colonel Hawkins’ gardener Kelly and four Yuchi Indians.” Petersen also says that, “The Colonel and his lady were so kind as to invite me to dine with them until Mr. Burckhard was again home. I responded that God had abundantly blessed my garden. They responded, that I should not be troubled by
having to cook for myself, as I was one of the family” - Diary.

[1811] On July 2 Burckhard returned to the Indian Agency from Spring Place - Diary.

On July 6, Burckhard and Petersen reported a “frightful rain after a drought of five weeks” - Diary.

On July 8, Burckhard and Petersen wrote “another thunder shower. Water poured through the roof and through the entire house.” Books and clothing got wet, and they “feared the roof of our shop might collapse at any moment because all of the wood was rotted” - Diary.

On July 10, the missionaries repaired their roof with the help of the Agency cobbler, Mr. Conklin - Diary.

On July 26, Burckhard went to Georgia on business - Diary.

On July 27, Mr. Lewis, “the smith who has been living with the Colonel for some time, begged to spend the night
with us, when four male guests from Georgia stopped at the Colonel’s. He suspected them of wanting to arrest him
for a murder, which he committed four years ago at a game of cards. Though I hated to permit it . . . Mrs. Hawkins
advised it. . . . Phil made the best of this opportunity to incite the other Negroes and prejudice them against
[the missionaries] . . . because [they] had harbored . .  a murder [who] merited death” - Diary.

On July 29, “Mr. Limbaugh [at the Indian Agency] heard of [Phil’s urging the Agency blacks against the Moravian missionaries] and he and Mr. Down’s [Mrs. Hawkins’ father] came to make inquiry.” They were “greatly
excited” and told Mrs. Hawkins. “She was even more wrought up, had the instigator [Phil] tied to a tree and given 50 lashes with a cowhide [whip]. Phil’s closest collaborator, the Negro Sam, was next tied but he escaped more lightly. I told Mrs. Hawkins that it was useless to force them to attend the [religious] meetings. To this she responded very reasonably, [1811] saying that was not
her reason for having them whipped, but rather because they took it upon themselves to judge us [the missionaries] and other whites and that she had already cautioned Phil. She remarked, ‘You do not know this hypocrite. Even before the Colonel’s departure, he had
secretly gone and attracted all of the Negroes to himself. He is haughty and wants to be a preacher and preach in his house where he is able to take the women to his lap, which he is not able to do at your house. So he seeks secretly to tear them away from you. If he does not want to come to you he is not to prevent others from coming to your meetings, nor is he to forbid it. There are not to mess into the affairs of white people. This hypocrite was ordered by his master not to preach, but no sooner had he gone, than he begins to preach.’ Last week Mr. Lewis went to Savannah with Colonel Hawkins. Nothing more happened regarding Mr. Lewis. It was a scare, as the
ones who were thought to want to arrest him were escaped horse thieves” - Diary.

On July 30, The Petersen began building an oven for Mrs. Hawkins to dry peaches. Frequent rain “almost every day”
prevented sun drying of fruit. Petersen reports that he was “able to dry a bushel and a half . . . in twenty-four hours” - Diary.

On August 7, Burckhard returned to the Indian Agency - Diary.

On August 11, the Moravian’s “meeting was interrupted by a Negro from South Carolina who was traveling by with his master, and who claimed to be a Baptist. By an arrangement with Mr. Downs, in the absence of Mr. and Mrs. Hawkins, who were then in Milledgeville, he preached to the Negroes for three nights in succession. His sermons were like chaff and he howled like a wolf, which prevented the whites on the plantation from sleeping. Mr. Limbaugh therefore prohibited him from preaching anymore because [1811] he acted crazy. Mr. Downs, who told him to preach, is as foolish as the Negroes” - Diary.

On August 17, Burckhard went to court in Randolf County, Georgia about the Moravian’s slave - Diary.

On August 23, Burckhard returned to the Agency. The trial in Randolf County was not complete - Diary.

On August 25, the missionaries reported that an old black woman, named Nannie, and twelve other came to their
meeting. “Apparently . . . they want nothing more to do with Phil” - Diary.

On September 3, Burckhard and Petersen “took advantage of the dry spell to visit Creeks in the low land. Br. Petersen set out on September 3, and in the forenoon visited seven families in their homes, amongst them the family of the Big King [Big Chief].” From footnotes: “Big King, or Micco Thlucco was also known as ‘the bird tail king’ to the white people. He also had learned agriculture from Hawkins and had a sizable plantation on the Hitchitee Creek. He had visited New York and was well aquatinted with people outside the Creek nation.” Big King was not at home, so Petersen “rode two miles up the river to the first Indian town where I found Big King and
twenty chiefs, who had gathered in the town house for a ‘Little Talk.’” Big King stood up at Petersen’s arrival and shook his hand. Other chiefs did likewise and “when this process was concluded Big Chief got up and handed me some of his tobacco; in return, I gave him some of mine. The other chiefs followed suit. It is understood that, once the different kinds of tobacco have been blended, the smoking begins. The ‘Black Drink’ or cleansing tea was served.” From footnotes: “The Black Drink ceremony was a well-known practice at council meetings. Whenever a ‘talk’ began, the participants received a drink of a special concoction, which was immediately vomited back,
thus purifying the participants [1811] and clearing the was for honorable discussion.” Petersen continues, “One of the Indians went from man to man more than twenty times, singing, while all were drinking. The Indians immediately ejected it, but it did not affect me that
way. Then the Big King had a bundle of 451 small sticks of wood, the size of matches, delivered to him,corresponding to the total number of warriors living up the river who belonged to the town house.” Note: The 451 sticks here resemble what happened with Tecumseh and the “Red Sticks’ before the battle of Horseshoe Bend - Wilcox. Petersen was then given a gift of melons, saffke
(or sofki which is boiled and crushed hominy) and baked pumpkins by Big Chief. Petersen then “had the honor to lie down to eat with him and Chief Toshege . . . . At sundown they brought wood for a fire at which they danced into the night. I set out by moonlight, traveled up the river with a  white man and camped in the wood for the night” - Diary.

On September 4, Petersen “continued the trip and visited a number of [Native American] families in their homes. All were friendly and offered [Petersen] saffkee.Unfortunately [he] found hardly a house where several were not ill with fever and some were in bed. Toward evening [Petersen] reached the home of a half-Indian called ‘God Day,’ “ where he spent the night. God Day told Petersen that families up river would be hard to find because many had left their homes to escape the fever. Petersen decided to end the trip and returned to the home of Big King for the following night - Diary.

On September 6, Petersen returned to the Indian Agency - Diary.

On September 21, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On September 22, several blacks came by the missionaries’ cabin to say that they could not attend services because they had fever - Diary.

[1811] From September 30 - December 2, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On October 2, the Moravian missionaries received a letter instructing Burckhard to return to Salem - Diary.

From October 3 - December 2, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On October 7, Burckhard left the Indian Agency to return to the Moravian community of Salem, North Carolina - Diary.

On October 9, Petersen reported “A certain preacher named Lorenzo Dow came and demanded to preach here at the plantation [Indian Agency], which the Colonel refused. .
. . One came to me recently and said that Dow, according to his biography, had a rifle in his mouth for shooting then and wanted to know whether he could do that. I advised him [the Negro] neither to read the book nor listen to it being read.” From footnotes: “Lorenzo Dow
was one of the best known and most eccentric traveling preachers of his day. His wife’s journal, published with Dow’s writings under the title History of the Cosmopolite . . . (Cincinnati, 1855) tells of stopping at Hawkins’ place in the fall of 1811. The reference to a rifle in his mouth was perhaps garbled by the slave who told it but such flamboyant language was not unusual for Dow” - Diary.

On October 13, Petersen wrote that none of the blacks are attending his meetings, and he credited Dow with the drop in attendance.
He also reported that he “came down with a fever . . . most of the residents on the plantation suffered immensely from the ailment” - Diary.

On October 17, Petersen received a letter saying that Burckhard “lay ill in Sparta”. Petersen commented on Hawkins’ family saying, “By the faithful care and nursing given me by the dear Col. Hawkins, who with his entire [1811] family was ill, I was sufficiently improved on the 17th to enable me to conduct the October 27 meeting” - Diary.

On November 7, "General William Henry Harrison, Governor of Indiana Territory, defeated the Indians at Tippecanoe" (Grant).

On November 17, Petersen wrote, “The fever which has not yet left me is often accompanied by a headache and dizziness. I discovered that the headache and dizziness is due to the unhealthful location of the shop where a visible vapor arose from the floor and proved poisonous. When I remained in the shop more than half and hour, I grew dizzy and faint. As soon as I got out and worked in
the garden in the fresh air it subsided. I set out to investigate, opened the floor, and found the other side of the planks damp. They emitted fumes that were so oppressive that I had to hurry to get fresh air. To further assure myself in the matter I ignited a light in
the shop and immediately went out. Then I opened doors and windows, and lit a roaring fire in the fire place and threw sulfur and vinegar into it. Before doing this I took a good drink of vinegar and tied a cloth soaked in it and wrapped it around my head. It served me well as neither headache, dizziness, nor fever attacked and I recovered in a few days and was again able to work in the
shop. This vapor is most persistent in the fall of the year and is most prevalent in the low places.” Petersen ends with hope that he may soon relocate the shop - Diary. Compiler’s note: I asked Dr. Norman Worsley, Sr. of Warner Robins, Georgia, about this passage. He and I came to similar conclusions. We believe the “vapor” Petersen describes was a cloud of mold spores, and that he suffered a severe allergy reaction. Petersen spoke of dampness, and darkeness where the vapors were produced, and he said that the vapor’s occurrence was seasonal. Vinegar and sulgur would have no effect on mold spores, but a damp rag over Petersen’s face filtered his exposure
to the spores. The fire, Petersen [1811] described, created a draft and pulled the “cloud” of allergens out of the building - Wilcox.

On November 27, Petersen received a letter stating that Burckhard arrived safely in Salem - Diary.

On December 6, Burckhard returned to the Indian Agency -Diary.

On December 7, the missionaries had dinner in Hawkins’ home - Diary.

On December 15, Burckhard suffered “a severe throat cold” - Diary.

On December 24, the only attendees at the missionaries’ meeting were slaves Moses, Bob, Simon and Jim. Burckhard and Petersen reported that attendance was down and that no one attended on Christmas morning because the “Negroes . . . [consumed] too much spirituous drink.” Ten people did attend the afternoon meeting.

Tecumseh visited the southeastern tribes.

1812 - Fort Hawkins was called the strongest fort in Georgia. Secretary of War, William Eustis, wrote a letter to Speaker of the House, Henry Clay in which Fort Hawkins was described as the “Number 1” of twelve United States Factories.

Captain Phillip Cook, 8th United States Infantry was commanding officer. His daughter, Martha P. Cook (later Martha Cook Winship), was the first Euro-American born in the Ocmulgee / Middle Georgia area. Cook was promoted toMajor on 15 August 1813.

The Creek-Seminole Wars began in Georgia, Major General Floyd, with soldiers from Fort Hawkins, fought Native [1812] [1812] Americans at Singer’s Hill (near Macon’s Museum of Arts and Sciences) during the summer of 1812. The distance from Fort Hawkins to Singer’s Hill was approximately ten miles.

“Hawkins became ill on New Year’s Day and by the 9th all believed him to be dying. He made his will and, at his request, was married to Lavinia Downs, his common-law wife who had borne him six children” (Grant).

On January 2, the Moravian missionaries reported that Burckhard “went to Georgia to fetch our box which had been sent to Greene County” - Diary.

On January 5, Petersen reported that “Colonel Hawkins took severely ill on New Year’s Day. He was so weak today that his recovery was doubted. They sent for a doctor at Fort Hawkins, who arrived at two o’clock in the night. [Hawkins] showed improvement on the
7th . . .” -Diary.

On January 9, the Moravian missionaries wrote, “the Colonel sent Mr. Limbaugh to urge [Petersen] to come hurriedly to him. [Petersen] rushed and again found him dangerously ill. [Hawkins’] last will was made and he took leave of the whites and Negroes on his plantation
shook their hand and said, ‘I am going.’ At ten in the night he again sent for [Petersen] and asked that I marry him and his wife . . . . [Petersen] was not permitted to leave [Hawkins’] bed [side] for two nights. . . . On the following night a foot of snow fell and the thermometer hovered at 6 above zero.” From footnotes: “Mrs. Hawkins had been the common-law wife of Colonel Hawkins for
years, and she had already borne him five daughters. Their names were Georgia, Muscogee, Cherokee, Carolina, and Virginia. A sixth daughter, Jeffersonia, was born after the will was made. The Colonel had no love for ceremony, nor did he exhibit much fear for his soul. In the letters of Burckhard and Petersen, it is clear that on the hour he expected to die, his [1812] chief interest was in preventing legal difficulties for his wife and  daughters in the inheritance of his estate. Hence the ‘deathbed wedding’ of a married man who did not die for another four years” - Diary. Janice Windle (author of True Women and descendant of Hawkins) learned that
Hawkins had a son named Madison. Madison never had a formal marriage but had children- Martha Bennie and Jim - with a slave woman he loved. Martha Bennie and Jim were willed to Georgia Lawshe on the death of her uncle, so that they could remain under the rotection of the family. Jeffersonia, born after the legal marriage of Hawkins and Downs, later sued the rest of her siblings for her father’s estate. Jeffersonia’s grounds for this suit was that her siblings were illegitimate because they
were born before her parents were married - Wilcox.

Benjamin Hawkins married Lavinia Downs. Downs, also known as “The Queen of Tuckabatchee” had her marriage listed in
the Marriage Records of the Muskogee Nation. She and Hawkins already had four children.

Hawkins was sole Indian commissioner in Georgia.

On January 12, Petersen recorded the temperature at 20 degrees. Mr. Halsted’s son, from Fort Hawkins visited
Petersen for a week - Diary.

From January 13 - March 9, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On January 16, Burckhard returned to the Indian Agency. He reported that “his rented cart got stuck in the snow
[on January 10], which was a foot deep in Georgia as was the case here” - Diary.

On January 23, Burckhard and Petersen wrote, “at nine in the morning we again felt a severe earthquake, which was confined to a single thud.” From footnotes: “The [1812] earthquakes were recorded widely in the southeastern states and did considerable damage in some places. Tradition has it that they coincided with the return of the Shawnee chief Tecumseh to his homeland where he prepared to go to war. At a talk with the Creek chiefs in October 1811, he was rumored to have said that he would return home and stamp his foot and then the earth would shake” - Diary.

On January 9, the missionaries recorded being visited by a German soldier and state “during these days much rain fell here causing the river [the Flint River] to reach an unusual height, causing the complete destruction of Col. Hawkins’ sawmill” - Diary.

On February 2, Burckhard and Petersen wrote that “six Negroes and two Indians . . . . one named Alligator (Halboda in Indian ) attended the       meeting . . . [Halboda ] has a good understanding of English . . . .Toward evening four Methodist preachers arrived at Col. Hawkins’. . . . One of them preached quite nicely but another screamed, stomped with his feet, and clapped his hands as though he were insane” - Diary.

On February 7, the missionaries reported “this morning early at three-thirty o’clock we again felt a severe quake. Br. Petersen was awakened by the rattling and shaking of his bed, but was not sufficiently conscious to awaken Br. Burckhard . . . . It lasted only about a minute . . . no damage was done. IN the evening we experienced a strong wind accompanied by thunder claps. .. . No damage was done. . . we heard the following day that twelve miles from here a violent storm or hurricane had blown back and forth across the Ocmulgee [River] and uprooted trees. In the night at ten-thirty another quake occurred which, praise the Lord, did no damage. For the last days we have had much rain, which prevented the post [mail] from traveling. . . . This week Br. [1812] Burckhard went with Col. Hawkins to Georgia on business pertaining to the Negro” - Diary.

In February the Flint River flooded and destroyed the Creek Agency’s sawmill.

On February 16, Petersen wrote, “eight blacks attended our meeting. The service was interrupted by a scream. The ferry on the river [Flint River] with four Negroes and one white on it had sunk. We rushed to the river and found that an Indian in a canoe saved all of them” - Diary.

On February 21, Colonel Hawkins and Burckhard returned to the Indian Agency - Diary.

On February 27, the missionaries wrote, “three white men came to offer to build us a new shop. They were from Georgia. We reached an agreement with time to block up a cabin twenty-two by twenty-four feet and cover it for fifty dollars.” This was a major event for the missionaries who had determined that the old shop was in an unhealthy location - Diary.

On February 28, “Petersen had an attack of fever, which laid him up for several days. A certain Dr. Baldwin, who was at the Colonel’s, was called and his medication with God’s blessing proved effective.” From footnotes: “Dr. William Baldwin was a prominent physician in
Milledgeville, Georgia. He published an account of an earlier visit to the Agency in the Milledgeville Georgia Journal. See Merritt Pound, Benjamin Hawkins, Indian Agent (Athens, Georgia, 1951) p. 145 - Diary.

On March 15, Petersen and Burckhard decided that their annual visitation trip would again be to the home of Alexander Cornells - Diary.

[1812] “For the period of October 16, 1811, through March 16, 1812, Hawkins reported that over 3,700 people had passed through the Agency. Some 120 wagons, 80 carts, 30 chairs, and 3 four-wheel vehicles used the road” (Grant from Georgia Journal, March 25, 1812).

On March 21 the missionaries’ entry was sad as if they felt discouraged in their work at the Agency. They reported that many of the Negroes on the plantation attend meetings only for absolution “because the Negroes had horribly stolen of their master and the articles were found in the homes of some of them.” Claster was mentioned by name, “others rob and steal and think if they only attend Sunday meetings, they may do as they like” - Diary.

On March 24, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

From March 30 - December 1, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On April 13, “Petersen went to Milledgeville to deliver items for which we had orders: looms, spinning wheels, etc., and returned
in good health” - Diary.

On April 20, Petersen “became dangerously ill. [Under] the good care of Br. Burckhard and Dr. Baldwin . . . he has recovered from the ailment which has plagued him for the past two years. He was able to leave his bed April 26. In the meantime Br. Burckhard was afforded the opportunity to speak to Negroes at Milldegeville and tell them of the salvation in Christ” - Diary.

On April 29, Timothy Barnard’s son “a half-Indian” visited the missionaries. Burckhard “suffered a sever attack of fever. . . . Dr. Baldwin and a doctor from Milledgeville then at Col. Hawkins’ on a visit were helpful . . . Mr. Limbaugh . . . notified [the
missionaries] that he no longer would be able to serve [their] meals. . . . Mr. Hall, a saddler [was] willing to [1812] accommodate” Petersen and Burckhard by taking Limbaugh’s place - Diary.

From May 8 -19 Burckhard and Petersen laid the floor of their new shop - Diary.

On May 17, the Moravian missionaries reported “the Yuchi Indians have taken liberties these days and have shot four of the Colonel’s cows not far from his house. On the 18th of May, the Colonel sent forty-three Creek Indians in pursuit of them with orders to cut off their noses and ears, which is in accord with Creek law for theft. The Creeks failed to apprehend them” - Diary.

On May 18, Petersen and Burckhard wrote” Today we were busy threshing wheat. We sowed several quarts of seed in our garden this spring, which served us well for feeding our horse. Now we are threshing from the same planting and using the flour for making zweiback for Br. Burckhard to have on his trip to visit the Creeks. Corn costs $2 a bushel and is not to be had at any price. Br. Burckhard will leave here on the 21st of May to visit the Upper Creeks. This trip had been planned for an earlier date
but flooding prevented it” - Diary.

On May 21, Burckhard sent out on his first trip to Alexander Cornells’ “near Tucabatchie” - Diary.

On May 22, Burckhard planned to spend the night and hold meetings at Mrs. Randall’s. Burckhard described Randall as “a mulatto and . . . married to a half-Indian, by whom she has five daughters, all of whom understand English but do not speak it. Four of them are single and live with her.” From footnotes: “Mrs. Randall may have been the wife of one of the Randall brothers (David, Peter,
and John) who are referred to as ‘Indians of the Half Blood’ in an affidavit of 1835 accusing them of having carried off Negroes to the Creek nation in 1804 and 1805. Indeed, she may have been [1812] one of the people abducted. See the unpublished typescript in the Georgia Department of Archives and History entitled ‘Indian Depredation 1787-1825,’ Vol. II, Part 2, p. 654 - Diary.

On May 23, Burckhard “arrived at the home of a half-Indian named George Loved [Lovett] who speaks good English and is acquainted with both [missionaries]. . . . Nine miles further on [Burckhard] arrived at the home of another half-Indian, who was named Brown. . . .
[Burckhard] still had twenty-four miles to reach the home of Alexander Cornells without seeing a house. When [he] was about fourteen miles from Alexander Cornells’ I met five travelers who said they had some news. . . . they told [Burckhard] that an Indian had shot a white man.“ Burckhard believed that he was hearing “old news,” but found out that this murder had just occurred. “When
arriving at the residence of Mr. Cornells, [he] encountered the son of [Arthur] Lott, the murdered man who was buried there. The assassin had fired three shots. One which missed was attended for another elderly man traveling with that party, all of whom were from
Georgia.” From footnotes: “The murder of Arthur Lott was a celebrated event of local history. Woodward (p. 95) believed it may have been the main immediate event of the Indian War of 1812-1813.” - Diary.

On May 26, Burckhard left Alexander Cornells’ and went to the home of Cornells’ oldest son. The son was not at home and Burckhard met a daughter. From footnotes: “Alexander Cornells’ eldest son was Charles Cornells. According to Woodward (p. 62) his wife was Peggy McGillivray, daughter of the famous rebel Chief Alexander McGillivray. . . .Alexander Cornells’ daughter mentioned here might havebeen Sukey, who married a first cousin named Dick Cornells (Woodward, p. 112) - Diary.

On May 29, Burckhard arrived at the Indian Agency - Diary.

[1812] From footnotes: “This is the last section of the diary [although there is a small amount of information from letters in 1813] in the files of the Moravian Archives. Nothing indicates that Burckhard and Petersen intended to stop keeping the diary or that they were aware of the storm brewing among the Indians, which would shortly result in full-scale war. This struggle was tied in with the endeavors of the British and Spanish in Florida, the followers of Tecumseh in the north, and the demands of Georgians and Tennesseans for more land. After two years of desultory fighting, the Creek Indians, including those friendly to the United States were forced
to make widespread concessions in the treaty of Fort Jackson” - Diary.

On June 6, the 3rd Infantry had 73 men stationed at the fort.

On August 24, Hawkins wrote, “The Chiefs have had six murderers put to death from their crimes on the post road and to the Northwest and seven cropped and whipped for thefts. Those charged with the murder on Duck River were not yet come at. The party after them returned on the 20th having heard of them. We have not had any complaints recently from travelers or post riders and the Indians appear very friendly.”

In December, “General John Cocke introduced a resolution, which was adopted by the Tennesseee legistlature, critical of Hawkins. The State’s Congressional delegation was ‘instructed and requested’ to seek the Agent’s removal” (Grant). Hawkins was often criticized for being too favorable to the Indians. He was not removed from his post.

1812 - 1815 Fort Hawkins was the principal depository of supplies for Benjamin Hawkins’ 1,000 Creek army at Fort
Mitchell on the Chattahoochee.

Colonel McDonald commanded the 8th Infantry (Old).

1812 -1816 Thomas Green, Revolutionary war veteran, transported guns between Milledgeville and Fort Hawkins

1813 - 1814 “Reports of continued Indian hostility appeared periodically in the newspapers. Joseph Phillips, who had apparently sent in the report on the three    wounded Indians in December, had disputed Hawkins’s interpretation of the situation. He reported to Governor Mitchell that ‘Col. Hawkins has always been so adverse to the truth, he could not avoid a falsehood in
communicating my report relative to the Indians’” (Grant from Georgia Journal, January 6, 1813).

1813 - From January 18 - March 1, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On March 25, Hawkins wrote a letter to the Upper Creek Chiefs saying, “I have received a communication from General Robertson of the Chickasaws of the 5th of this month from which I send you the following. ‘Seven families have been murdered near the mouth of Ohio and must cruelly mangled showing all the savage barbarity that could be invented. One woman cut open, a child taken
out and stuck on a stake, the Chickasaws were charged with the murder. But it has since so happened that the Creeks were seen passing near Bear Creek settlement on   their way home and acknowledged they had commited the murder, that they had been with the Shawnee Prophet and had hairs and beads with talks from the Prophet and the northern tribes to these four southern nations to take up
the hatchet against the United States. Two [of] the principal men of the Creek nation were along, leaders of the party. One named Tustunnuggeeooche of Wewocau who lives at the Black Warrior, the other Oostanaulah Keoh Tustkey living in Tuskegee. These are the people who brought the invitation to the Chickasaws to attend the grand council at Tookaubatche after the Creeks had reported they had killed the party who murdered the people at the mouth of Duck River. . . . You must get together one and alll, turn out your [1813] warriors, apprehend the two Chiefs and their associates and deliverthem to me, or some officer of the United States
commanding on the frontiers, to be punished according to the Laws of the United States.”

On April 6, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

On April 26, Hawkins wrote to David B. Mitchell, Governor of Georgia, saying, “By a report from the Chiefs of the  21st the Warriors sent after the murdering war party, have succeeded in puting some of them to death. They were in two parties one at the Hickory Ground and the other at Hoithlewauchee, they both made a battle and fought desparately. At the 1st four murderers were killed, one
of them Tuskegee warrior, a leader. The warriors had one badly wounded; a nephew of Mr. McIntosh, a ball broke his left arm, and is lodged in his body, supposed to be a  dangerous wound. At the 2nd three were killed and one  warrior, a nephew of the speaker, wounded in two places. The murder on the post road was by two men of Ocfuskee for property and connected with war. Both of them are executed. A woman who has concealed and harboured out her nephew, one of the murderers of the families at Duck River, was put to death by order of the Chiefs for doing so. Mr. Doyell as assistant agent accompanyed the armed party at the request to bear testimony to their proceedings.” Grant states that Doyell’s party contained 150 warriors.

From April 26 - June 7, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

In May, “Big Warrior told Hawkins of the execution of Little Warrior which brought to eight the number punished for the murders on the Ohio. In order to avoid trouble the Chiefs objected to white use of the Coosa and warned that Shawnees were expected to arrive fro the North” (Grant).

[1813] On June 22, Hawkins wrote from Captain Carr’s house near Fort Hawkins.

A city ordinance was passed in Milledgeville requiring all slaves to live on the premises with their masters.

On June 28, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency to John Armstrong  saying, “Some of the Shawness are soon to arrive from the Lakes. The Autosseees lately converted have driven off their Chiefs. They lately said to a halfbreed - you think the white people are strong and numerous. We shall soon try their strength. Two sons of the late speaker of the nation apprehended an Alabama lad
and were taking him to Tookabauche, who told them he had seen some of the Shawnees lately coming on. A party of phanatics saw them, fired on them, killed one and rescued the lad. Such is the degree of Frenzy to which some of these people have arrived that the brother, brother in marriage & son of Sam Macnac actually burnt his houses and destroyed much of his property. I keep the Govr. Of
Georgia correctly informed of occurences here as it may probably be prudent to aid the well disposed to punish the phanatics without delay, and before their plans are matured as we know them.”

On June 28, Petersen wrote [in a letter] “Amid the almost daily disturbances among the Indians, which are a constant threat to us, we commended ourselves in prayer to the Lord. Almost every day the past weeks, runners of the peace party arrived here [at the Agency] and a relief messenger followed them from here to Fort Hawkins where Col. Hawkins is located. Again yesterday he was back here. Most of the women and children from here have fled to Georgia and many of the whites living among the Indians have come here. The first attack of hostile Indians is to be made on the town of Tucabachie, where the peaceable Indians have fortified themselves and
nearly all living here on the Flint River have gone there as re-enforcements. Both of us [the missionaries] are busy in making spinning wheels. [1813] Amid the dangers facing us we commend ourselves to the directive and guidance of our Lord and the prayers of our dear Brn., Sisters, and friends in and around Salem, who have a part in our mission. P.S. This evening Col. Hawkins told us confidentially that the re-enforcements requested of the Government of the United States by the peace-loving party are on the march here” - Diary.

On July 2, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On July 4, 1813, Burckhard wrote [in a letter] “On lastMonday Br. Petersen informed you of the critical situation in which we find ourselves. According to all indications the fire of war, should it actually erupt, would probably menace the surrounding country. At present each party of the Indians seems to be adding fuel to the fire. We therefore find ourselves obliged to assume that matters here indicate a flight, though at present it is not particularly evident. Until now, Col. Hawkins, in response to our inquiries, has given us assurances of safety at this place; nevertheless, we are able to see from the numerous precautions he is taking that he anticipates trouble. We therefore decided to find out what he really thinks. When we heard of his plan to ride to Georgia today we decided to go see him. I went early this morning and urged him to be frank and tell me what he thinks as I plan to write to Salem today and that we
owe it to them truthfully to tell what our status is. He must be able to understand that we cannot pull up stakes quickly if we wish to take our things with us. We will have to go 60 miles for wagons, which at a critical time, we would be unable to get at any price. Though there is no immediate danger he must know as well as we that it might be expected later. Being aware of our present plight he should not keep us in the dark because I am obliged to report to you. At our o’clock Br. Petersen came to tell me that a messenger had arrived from Tucabachie with a request from the peaceable Indians that troops need to come to their assistance as soon as possible as they were no longer able to old out against the [1813] hostile Indians. Tension is mounting; murderous acts and burnings are increasing. In the past agitators have been cautious not to harm he whites, but as soon as re-enforcements come to the assistance of the peaceloving Indians, the enemy will avenge itself. Space is lacking to give you any further news, but I did want you to know our thoughts. Should you decide to recall us it would be necessary for you to rent two wagons to transport us and our goods. It would be very expensive
and practically prohibitive for us to rent the necessary transportation from here to Carolina. We might be able to secure the needed wagons at Milledgeville. It that were not possible we might travel 36 miles farther to Fort Hawkins where Mr. Gerrison [Jerrison?] or Mr. Halsted might furnish the needed information” - Diary.

On July 9, Hawkins wrote from Milledgeville.

On July 11, Hawkins wrote from the Ocmulgee Ferry.

On July 13, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On July 19, James T. Dent is Judge Advocate General, Division of the South.

On July 22, Hawkins wrote from Captain Carr’s house near Fort Hawkins.

On July 26, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On August 2, Hawkins wrote from Captain Carr’s house near Fort Hawkins.

On August 9, Hawkins wrote from the Ocmulgee Ferry.

On August 10, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

[1813] On August 19, Hawkins wrote from Captain Carr’s house near Fort Hawkins.

On August 23, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On August 28, Hawkins wrote from the Ocmulgee Ferry, to David B. Mitchell, Governor of Georgia: “The party who went with McIntosh to take and destroy the town of Peter McQueen were 375. They burnt the town, destroyed the corn, took 14 head of cattle and a considerable quantity of property. Salt, kettles, pots, deer skins, cow hides, etc. The Tallassees had retreated westwardly towards the Alabamas. A Coweta from Pensacola informed Mr. Doyell,‘McQueen rec’d from the Spaniards nine boxes of powder
and four of lead. He returned by Tallassee where he was told to inform the Indianns at Chattahochee they did not want to fight the red people, it was the white people they were fixing for. In four head men were killed, Isaacs, Big Warrior, Carr & the Mad Dog’s son, who had taken the white people’s talk, peace would be made. It is said a party of hostile Indians is to go towards Georgia, and other towards Tennessee and a third towards Tombigbee under their prophets.’ I have sent off Mr. Cornells to Coweta, and a detachment of Regular infantry will move from here as soon as supplies can be had, as far as the Creek agency, with some supplies for the Indians to wait there for further orders.”

On September 6, Col. Benjamin Hawkins wrote a letter from the Creek Agency to Governor Mitchell in Milledgeville. Hawkins wrote, “I have a runner from Cowetau. Our chiefs are still under the influences of fear. Four towns have fortified Talahafsee, Cowetau, Tookaubatchee and Cufsetau. The Chiefs are apprehensive that the people of Fowltown / Kinnard’s settlement / are preparing to join
the “red club men.” The Chiefs meet today at Ooseoochee to ascertain the fact as well as whether any of the settlements low down on Flint and Chattahoochee will join the prophets. Peter McQueen’s people have joined the aultosus; they are [1813] dancing “the dance of the Indians of the Lakes”. The Chiefs are in great need of powder, flints, lead and guns; and very desirous some troops would march for Chattahoochee to build some blockhouses there to ‘keep the ground and have all clear in front and behind them.’ To the first of this month they have taken for the war party 200 cattle and some horses, and several parties are still out. Mr. Barnard informs me he has communicated to you an outrage committed by some people of Hartford on two sons of Perrimans. I wish it could be examined into that justice may be done. I am informed some scout parties or horse, said to be from Jones [County?], have been out above me and reported their orders were to kill every Indian they saw who had not something white about their heads. I do not know who could have given such an order. The Chiefs among the hostile party are exerting themselves to get the government of the prophets but hitherto with little
success. I hope by this you have something definitive from Government. I have nothing” (http://members.surfsouth.com/ ~nifa/benhawk.html).

In September, General Floyd assembled 3,600 troops at Fort Hawkins.

On September 13, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On September 21, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

“Prompted by the Fort Mims massacre military preparations were stepped up in the Southeast. Brigadier General John B. Floyd was to move west with 1,000 Georgia militia, Brigadier General Ferdinand L. Claiborne in command of Mississippi volunteers and some regualr troops to march eastward, while Andrew Jackson would lead a large force from Tennessee” (Grant).

[1813] A few months after these military actions, Floyd accused Cornells of supplying information to hostile
Indians. See Georgia Journal, February 2, 1814).

From September 26 - October 4, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

Philip Cook, Commander at Fort Hawkins, was prompted to major in August.

On October 18, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

From October 23 - November 8, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

In late November, Major General Thomas Pickney arrived at Fort Hawkins to command the 6th military district army
against warring Creeks.

On December 15, Hawkins wrote from Milledgeville.

1814 - On February 16, Hawkins wrote from a camp near Fort Mitchell.

On April 25, Hawkins wrote from Fort Toulouse.

Major Phillip Cook mustered in 2,500 militia at the fort. Major General John McIntosh and Brigadier General Davis
Blackshear were placed in charge of the troops.

Andrew Jackson gathered troops at Fort Hawkins on 1 May. “The uprising of the Creeks was crushed in fire and blood
by Jackson early in 1814; by the treaty of Fort Jackson their [Native Americans’] limits were greatly reduced and
their strength broken forever” (Weeks).

[1814] On May 10, “Captian Hugh Pigot reached the mouth of the Apalachicola [from Havvanah]. His ship carried 2,000 stands of arms and 3,000 ball cartidges” (Grant).

From May 17 - June 7, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

In July, “Jackson, in Nashville, informed Hawkins of his [Jackson’s] appointment as brevet Major General and that he would make Fort Jackson his headquarters. Hawkins’s continued service as agent was ‘important and necessary’” (Grant).

On July 3, Hawkins wrote from Coweta.

On July 5, Hawkins wrote from a camp near Fort Mitchell.

On July 13, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

On July 19, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

Jonathan Bell was Assistant Deputy Paymaster General, Division of the South, 1 August 1814 (date of appointment ?) - Ford.

On August 6, Hawkins wrote from Fort Jackson.

In August, “General Jackson told Hawkins that the militia were to be removed from Forts Hull and Bainbridge and that it would be some time before regular troops could replace them. In the meantime Hawkins was to enroll 200 of the best Creek warriors to defend the forts” (Grant).

On September 5, Hawkins wrote from Milledgeville.

On October 2, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

[1814] On October 12, Hawkins wrote from the District of Fort Hawkins.

On October 26, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

On October 3, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

In October, Governor Peter Early ordered 100 cavalry to partol Hartford [across the Ocmulgee River from present day Hawkinsville, Georgia] and downstream on the Ocmulgee from Hartford for 50 miles. This was due to a report that hostile Indians were in that area.

On November 1, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

From November 3 -7. Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

In November, Major Cook had 210 men stationed at FortHawkins.

On November 11, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On November 26, Hawkins wrote from the District of Fort Hawkins.

Jonathan Halstead, first factor of Fort Hawkins died in December.

From December 13 - 21, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

John Jerrison was storekeeper and postmaster at Fort Hawkins.

On December 27, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

In late 1814, “Secretary [James] Monroe directed Christian Limbaugh to assume the duties of the agent on December 12 until a successor could be appointed . . . No further [1814] mention of the matter was found; probably the Agent changed his mind [Hawkins had asked to resign] since war certainly came to the South as the British moved toward New Orleans” (Grant).

1814-1815 Major General Winfield Scott passed through Fort Hawkins.

1815 - “Blackshear was ordered to join General McIntosh instead of operating with Hawkins in the destruction of
Seminole settlements west of Flint.

Governor Early then asked Hawkins what he would do with the Indians troops. In his opinion they should be used as
protection against the Red Sticks” (Grant).

A nineteen-gun salute at Fort Hawkins celebrated General Andrew Jackson’s victory over the British at New Orleans. The Battle of New Orleans actually occurred after the signing of the treaty ending The War of 1812. Jackson, on a different continent than the signing, and far into the American frontier, did not learn of the treaty until after he defeated the British.

On January 1, Hawkins wrote from a camp 17 miles east of Coweta.

On January 11, Hawkins wrote from Fort Mitchell.

On January 22, Hawkins wrote from Headquarters near Coweta.

On February 15, Hawkins wrote from 115 Mile Camp.

“Governor Early had sent Hawkins word that peace had been made on February 22. Hawkins had not received the latter
by March 6” (Grant).

[1815] On February 27, Hawkins wrote from a camp near theconfluence of Flint and Chattahochee.

BVT. Major S. Champlain was Deputy Quarter Master General, Division of the South, 1 March.

BVT. Major Colonel Robert Butler was Adjunct General, Division of the South, 5 March.

On March 6, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

Ambrose Whitlock was Deputy Paymaster General, Division of the South, 19 March.

On April 21, Hawkins wrote from the District of Fort Hawkins to Governor Early; “I find the hostile Indians in small parties continue their plundering and murdering on the road. They have made four attacks since they rec’d the news of peace. The Chiefs have been convened on the subject and ordered out some parties to put an end to it by putting to death the guilty. I believe they must be
aided by some of our troops. I shall probably know by the mail of tomorrow what sucess their first efforts have had.”

Nicholls wrote to Hawkins from the British post, Apalachicola.

On May 5 - 26, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

“The commission appointed to determine the eastern boundary called for in the Treaty of Fort Jackson consisted of John Kershaw of South Carolina, William Barnett of Georgia, and John Sevier [of Tennessee]. Soon after the Commissioners met in June, Kershaw resigned and was replaced by Hawkins. Sevier died in October and Barnett resigned because of illness. It was finally left to General Gaines to finish the line in December. Hawkins would not live to see the remainder of the line surveyed” (Grant).

[1815] Colonel King commanded the 4th Infantry at Fort Hawkins 27 May 1815 through 1816 and possibly into 1817.

Colonel McDonald commanded the 7th Infantry at Fort Hawkins, 27 May, 1815 - 1816 and possibly into 1817.

On June 2, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

From June 14 - 27, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

Private John McCurry served at Fort Hawkins.

From July 8 - August 1, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

From August 19 - 29, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

On August 31, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

From August 19 - 22, Hawkins wrote from Tookaubatche.

On September 18, Hawkins wrote from a camp near Tookaubatche.

“While acting on the Commission appointed to carry out the Treaty of Fort Jackson, Hawkins joined the Cherokee agent, Return J. Meigs, in an unsuccessful attempt to assist the Creeks and Cherokees in reconciling their differences on the location of their common boundary” (Grant).

John Sevier died on September 22.

On October 17, Hawkins wrote from Mr. Cornell’s on the post road 14 miles east of Decatur.

On October 29, Hawkins wrote from a camp near Eufaula on Chattahoochee.

[1815] On December 1, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

1816 - From January 6 - February 3, Hawkins wrote from
the Creek Agency.

On Febraury 9, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

From Febraury 16 - March 8, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

On March 21, Hawkins wrote from Fort Hawkins.

On April 1, Hawkins wrote from Coweta.

On April 2, Hawkins wrote from a camp near Chattahoochee.

On April 16, Hawkins wrote from Ofuckshee (Line Creek).

On April 21, Hawkins wrote from Fort Jackson.

On April 23, Hawkins wrote from a camp on Tallapoosa near Fort Jackson.

From May 3 - 24, Hawkins wrote from the Creek Agency.

Colonel Benjamin Hawkins died on June 6 at his Flint River Indian Agency near the present day town of Roberta, Georgia. He was buried on the banks of the river with “a faithful servant and a favorite dog.”

Major Daniel Hughes was factor at Fort Hawkins from March 1816 until August 1816 when the Creek factory was moved to Fort Mitchell on the Chattahoochee River.

[1816] “A few weeks after [Benjamin Hawkins’] death in 1816, [his] residence at the Creek Agency was destroyed by fire and several members of the family barely escaped” (Grant). Many of Hawkins’ papers burned. What information exisits today was gathered from reports and letters Hawkins mailed to others.

The Creek Factory moved from Fort Hawkins to Fort Mitchell, on the Chattahoochee River began operation.

The State Legislature established a school fund for operating academies in Georgia.

David Mitchell resigned the governorship to take the post of Indian Agent- Amason.

An epidemic of typhoid pneumonia struck Milledgeville - Amason.

1818 - Andrew Jackson and 1,000 Tennessee volunteers arrived at Fort Hawkins to join Georgia militia. These combined troops added more soldiers at Fort Early and went to the Seminole Wars in South Georgia and North Florida.

The first civilian settlers arrived at Fort Hawkins under the leadership of Roger McCall and Harrison Smith. The settlement they began was first called Fort Hawkins, Georgia and then New Town.

Major General Edmund P. Gaines, commander of military departments 6, 7, and 8 (Norfolk to Pensacola) made his headquarters at Fort Hawkins. Gaines was also Commander, Headquarters Eastern Section, Division of the South, and was at the fort during the Indian Removals of 1818.

[1818] Miss Georgia Anna, eldest daughter of the late Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, died at the residence of Mrs. Lavina Hawkins in Jones County, Georgia February 12. From Marriages and Deaths 1763-1820. Bibb County was not created until 1822, and Lavina is said to be buried in an unmarked grave in Fort Hill Cemetery. It may be that Georgia Anna’s home was in today’s Bibb County or very near the line of Bibb and Jones.

1818-1819- Lieutenant Colonel Keiser was acting Assistant Deputy Quarter Master General from
11 January 1818 through August 1819,

1819 - General David Brydie Mitchell, former governor of Georgia and Indian Agent succeeding Benjamin Hawkins, met with 1,400 Native Americans at Fort Hawkins to distribute treaty annuity payments. General (Chief) William McIntosh and Little Prince were present. During the assembly, a chief’s son, while drinking, killed another Native American. The Indians held council and executed the
chief’s son before sundown. United States troops did not interfere because they were dealing with a people who were citizens of their own nations.

Miss Cherokee, daughter of Benjamin Hawkins Captain Lewis Lawshe, U.S. Army, were married at Fort Hawkins on August 17. From Marriages and Deaths (Georgia) 1763-1820.

1820 - Adam Hogson traveled from Fort Hawkins to the Flint River.

The first bridge to cross the Oconee River at Milledgeville was built - Amason.

1821 - James Frierson was appointed by Governor Troup to examine and manage the Fort Hawkins and trading post site on 12 May. Another source says this happened in 1826.

1822 - Bibb County was chartered December 9.

1823 -The City of Macon was chartered December 8.

1827 - A mail route was established from Milledgeville to Tallahassee - Amason. This route used the Garrison Road -Wilcox.

1828 - Fort Hawkins was decommissioned.

Thomas Woolfork purchased the Fort Hawkins properties.

Mrs. Anne Royal wrote a journal entry stating that “The fort is going to decay, being abandoned some time ago. I was much astonished to find the settlement around it inhabited by a few straggling women and children.”

1870 - The Northwest blockhouse blew down during a
windstorm.

1882-1883 Mr. Ed D. Ervine tried to get The City Council of Macon to save the Southeastern blockhouse and move it to Central City Park as a historic landmark. Council refused, but Ervine painted an accurate picture of the blockhouse, which survives.

Henry Jones, owner of the fort property after Woolfork, took the top floor of the southeast blockhouse to Main Street to use as a barn. The blockhouse floor was removed from Fort Hill using block and tackle and then “rolled” down the hill to Jones’ Main Street home on logs using white, black, horse and mule labor. The barn burned in the early 1900’s.

1914 - The Nathaniel Macon Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution unveiled a marble tablet on the site of Fort Hawkins (February 18). The current location of this tablet is unknown.

1929 - The Nathaniel Macon Chapter D. A. R. published a postcard of Ervine’s  painting and celebrating the rebuilding of the southeastern blockhouse. It can be assumed that the stock market crash and The Great Depression stalled construction plans.

1937 - The Nathaniel Macon Chapter D. A. R. began construction of a replica of the Southeastern blockhouse.

1939- The Southeastern blockhouse replica was completed with Works Progress Administration assistance. Dedication
ceremonies were March 19.

1966 - The Nathaniel Macon Chapter D. A. R. opened the blockhouse museum for appointment tours. The blockhouse had a new roof, electric lights and a protecting fence.

1970’s - The Central Georgia Council of Boys Scouts of America opened the blockhouse for tours on Sunday afternoons. The scouts also acted as caretakers for the gravesite of Benjamin Hawkins in Roberta.

1980’s - The Fort Hawkins Neighborhood Association opened the fort for tours during Macon’s Cherry Blossom Festival. Teacher, Dianne Wilcox and the students of Cross Keys Christian Academy joined this effort in 1989.

1990’s - Central Fellowship Christian Academy took over tours after Cross Keys Christian dropped the project. (Cross Keys Christian Academy ceased operation as a school in 1997). The Fort Hawkins Neighborhood Association continued their participation until
disbanding in 1997.

1993 - Putnam and Sons (New York) published True Women by Janice Woods Windle. True Women is about three is Mrs. Windle’s ancestor’s, one of which (Georgia) is the granddaughter of Benjamin Hawkins.

1995 - True Women premiered on CBS in May as a Hallmark Presentation Miniseries.

1997 - Georgia Military College adopted the Fort Hawkins Project. Georgia Military established a main campus in Milledgeville in 1869 on the grounds of the old Georgia state capitol. In 1997, the college had seven satellite campuses. The Robins Air Force Base Campus headed the Fort Hawkins Project. All other GMC campuses were invited to participate with Robins.

1998 - True Women became available for purchase on video.

Mayor Jim Marshall re-established the Fort Hawkins Commission.

1999 - Georgia Military College at Robins AFB hosted the 1st Annual Fort Festival on April 17. GMC students, faculty and  graduates hosted tours and gave demonstrations, and Dianne Dent Wilcox’s Fort Hawkins and Frontier Georgia was offered to the public
for the first time at the festvial. Also Mary Lee Hicks, offered her book Ghosts of Macon; Thomaston Road Baptist Church, interpreted stories of nineteenth century Moravian missionaries at the fort; the MASAAB Temple, hosted a health fair; the Macon Police Department provided a D.A.R.E. team to speak to the children; and Amy Alderman, a teacher from    Jones County’s Mattie Wells Elemetary School, helped children make their own pottery.

Jack C. Ellis was elected Mayor of the City of Macon.

Plan of Fort Hawkins
 

Northwest Blockhouse

Officers’ Quarters

Longhouses for Soldiers’ Quarters

Southeast Blockhouse

The plans above are approximate at best.  Written descriptions of the fort call it “rectangular” with two blockhouses, officers’ quarters and four longhouses. Four oak trees shaded the officers’ quarters.  Plans for Fort Hawkins did exist and were once in the possession of the Middle Georgia Historical Society.  Years ago, those plans were borrowed and not returned.  Archeology placed
the southeastern blockhouse replica exactly on its previous location.  Partial stockade walls and brick  floors were located, but an extensive survey is yet to be completed.  The orginal stockade of hewn timber with rifle portals was twelve feet high and enclosed 1.4
acres.


Copyright: Diane Dent Wilcox

Sketch of Fort Hawkins submitted by Eileen McAdams. Source: Historical Record of Macon and Central Georgia, Containing Many Interesting and Valuable Reminiscences Connected With The Whole State, Including Numerous Incidents and Facts Never Before Published and Of Great Historic Value. By John C. Butler, Macon, Georgia: J. W. Burke & Co., Printers and Binders. 1879. 

Web Master: Virginia Crilley 2000
Eileen B. McAdams 2009
 
 

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