Richard White discusses Confederate Records and how to use them for researching.
The date is uncertain, but an organization meeting was held in 1898 in Reynolds for Camp Reynolds No 1096. The Butler Herald on Feb 1, 1898 listed 65 names of veterans living in Taylor County in 1898 as the first membership.
This photo taken in Butler front of the Courthouse was published in The Taylor Tracer in the November 1997 issue along with newspaper accounts of the membership and other newspaper articles about the meetings.
Some names I recognized and their ages in 1860 Taylor Census:
B. F. Bairfield (Benjamin F. Barefield) 26 J.W. Daniel (James Warren Daniel) 30 J.H. Holsey (Julius H) 24 Attorney R. Monfort (Richard) 1832-1898 merchant W.A.H. Royal (William) 38
COMPANY "G", 6th Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry, "Butler Van Guards".Organized: Macon, GA April, 1861.
COMPANY "F", 27th Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry "Taylor Guards".
Organized: Camp Stevens, GA, summer 1861. Muster Rolls
COMPANY "E", 45th Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry, "Taylor Volunteers". .
Organized: Colonel Thomas Hardeman, Jr., winter 1861-62. Men recruited from Greene, Dooly, Taylor, Gray, and Berrien Counties. Under Generals J.R. Anderson and E.L. Thomas (VA).
Photograph of FlagRegimental Flag from the 45th. This flag was not surrendered until Appomattox, where the regiment consisted of slightly more than 100 men.
The 45th Regiment's original 10 companies were:
George W. Marshburn, Company C and Ens. Nathan W. Bodie, Company H, were color bearers for the 45th. (There were probably others) Interested in more information on the Flags of the Confederacy? Visit Confederate Flag Histories and pictures for story of the development of the Confederate flag. If you thought there was just ONE Confederate flag, you'll learn of the development of this most famous one...and all the other others along the way!
Resource: Red Dirt and Isinglass Regimental History of this regiment available. More than just the history of the WAR, it gives vivid descriptions of every day life back in Georgia.
Formed from Jackson, Whitfield, Crawford, Worth and Turner counties on June 16, 1862.
Microfilm: Georgia Archives)59th Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry -- Thomas W. Shine Letters. 91/64.
(Appendix C "Times of Confederacy", Bethel Primitive Baptist Church, Taylor County, by John R. and Janice B. Adams. Chronicles of Southern Heritage, Inc. P.O. Box 5059, Warner Robins, GA 31099) Gives histories of families of the church in Confederacy.
The STATE GUARD was one of Gov. Joe Brown's attempts to maintain a military force under state control, and it was organized in the summer of 1863 for 6 months service in case of emergency (i.e., invasion of GA). It comprised about 12 numbered regiments (8 inf, 4 cav); 2 "Legions"; 20 numbered battalions (inf, cav., mounted inf-battalions varied in size from 2-9 companies) , enlisted to serve in defense of specified regions of the state. They were numbered in the same way as normal Volunteer regiments, with the exception of the addition of (STATE GUARD) to their title.
This distinguishes them from Volunteer regiments, as well as Militia, Reserve, State Line, and Regular regiments, many of which bear the same numerical designation. Thus there were about six regts. which bore the title "1st Georgia," but they differed in the details!! For example, the 5th Georgia Volunteer Infantry was distinctly a different outfit than the 5th Georgia (State Guard).
The State Guard units spent quite a bit of time in camps in late 1863, as Federal troops under Rosecrans were pushing into Georgia in September, until their disastrous defeat at Chickamauga. The northwest GA State Guard outfits were called to duty in the army's rear as that was shaping up, but by the time they got there in any strength, Rosecrans's army was hot-footing it back to Chattanooga. From that point until they mustered out on or about 4 February 1864, the State Guard outfits helped garrison Savannah and other places.
The term "Guards" had several uses. The two formal usages were the Georgia State Bridge Guard, raised to guard the W&A Railroad, about which Gov. Brown had a great controversy with the CS Gov't. The CS said the men were subject to conscription; Brown disagreed. Some of these men went to the PACS, but others became part of the Georgia State Line, (see below) likewise formed to guard the railroad. The Line was resisted by the PACS, but continued to serve until Georgia's capitulation.
The second formal usage was for State troops not subject to CS conscription raised for the defense of Georgia as the US began to threaten invasion (see State Line below) These men were typically too old or young to serve in the PACS, but some were also from otherwise exempted occupations. This unit was short lived and Brown dissolved it after the fall of Atlanta. This permutation of the Guards was very informal and records are spotty where they exist at all.
The State Guard dissolved in Feb. '64, and its men reverted to their normal occupations. Their service was viewed as strictly emergency/volunteer, as they were all exempt from conscription at the time the State Guard was organized. As conscription laws changed during 1864, and individuals changed occupations, etc., many became eligible for conscription during the Atlanta Campaign (April-September), or during Sherman's March to the Sea.
In the latter event, Georgians were called out "en masse," and many boys and old men served in militia units from September until mid- November, when they were sent home.
The emergency allowed little in the way of formal record-keeping,
unfortunately. Thus many who may have fought in
militia/Home Guard units, remain unrecognized for their services. The only
way to find out about such service, typically, is through family lore, county
histories, obituaries, etc. Some 5000 of these
militiamen fought in the trenches around Atlanta for a couple of months, then
saw extended field service against Sherman's March. In fact, they saw much
more service in this role than had the State Guard some months before.
GEORGIA STATE LINE
"Joe Brown's Army--The Georgia State Line 1862-1865" by William Harris Bragg focuses on the two regiments of the
"Georgia State Line," which was a wholly separate force established to guard
Georgia's State railroads (although they wound up fighting with the Army of
Tennessee throughout the Atlanta Campaign). They had the nickname of "Joe Brown's Pets" (Governor of GA at the time) and were only two regiments---1st and 2nd.
Georgia State Line Pageby Ricky Ray. This will help you completely understand the differences between the State Line and other regiments.
When the Georgia militia was reorganized in late 1863/early 1864, enrolling officers in every county made up fresh rosters of boys age 16 (but under 17--draft age), and men between 50 and 60. Eligible men were duly recorded (by name, age in yrs and months, whether they owned a rifle/shotgun; whether they owned a horse/tack. These are arranged by Georgia Military District (GMD) and can be found on Microfilm Series 245 reel - alphabetical by county) in the Georgia State Archives.
The "Joe Brown Census" (as it is called) is a great resource, but do not prove (a) whether that specific company was ever activated as such, or (b) whether any individual listed thereon reported for service, if the unit was indeed called up. That being said, those 5000 militiamen mentioned above came from somewhere, and these enrolled companies were doubtless the basic document used by local officials to answer the call. NOTE: those eligible for conscription were NOT listed on these muster rolls, so don't expect to see able-bodied men of military age on the rolls. itia was reorganized (late'63/early '64)
GEORGIA RESERVE REGIMENTS
Reserve regiments were a different category than the State Guard.
The Reserve term designates a force that was raised under a specific call of
the governor for 6-months' troops for Aug. 63 to Feb 64. They were full-time soldiers
for the duration (from enlistment), but were limited by age (young or old)
and/or infirmity to performing limited tasks: prison camp guards, local
security forces, hunting deserters/draft dodgers, combatting cavalry raids,
supplementing CSA regiments in their home states, etc.
State Guard and Reserve Information Contributed by Major Dana Mangham
Author of "2nd GA Battalion Sharpshooters"(Civil War Regiments:A Journal of the American Civil War;1998)
"Letters of Prvt Willoughby H. Mangham" (Atlanta History: A Journal of Georgia and the South. Appearing soon)
"Dismissed by General Order 82" When an officer was dismissed from the service, it meant that he had been stripped of his commission and forced to leave. The same thing happened to one of my Mangham cousins, who was dismissed for excessive absences from his command. He was a printer and editor in civilian life, so he was exempt from the draft, but in the summer of 1864 Federal raiders overran his hometown and confiscated his printing press. Not long after they left the area, he volunteered as a private in a different regiment and served until his capture two days before Lee's surrender at Appomattox. To find out more about this subject: 1. Obtain a copy of General Order #82. (General orders were issued by a headquarters at brigade, division, corps, army, or department level, since units of this size were commanded by general officers.) General Orders #82 may be available at the National Archives; he should provide everything he knows about the date, place, unit, and identify the higher level command [e.g. brigade, division, corps, and army], if possible. I've searched through portions of the general and special orders on file at the Natl. Archives, and some are filed neatly in order, whereas others are somewhat jumbled. It's worth a try, if he's willing to pay. Additionally, the researcher may find additional data on this case in the unit files, to include muster rolls, from which his info was extracted. Often the muster rolls are filed with other unit reports which may shed light on the matter. 2. See if his ancestor served in a different unit after his dismissal, like mine did. The Georgia Dept. of Archives & History will do a good job of finding this out for him, for a modest fee (about $15). Unless he was judged to be medically unfit, or pursued a trade/profession that exempted him from service, or was overage to begin with, or evaded conscription on purpose after his dismissal, he would have been conscripted for further service. (Of course, many individual records don't survive--I've got one cousin who served for sure, as I own a copy of some correspondence between two of his brothers that says "James is in the service", but I cannot find ANY military documentation of his service! And believe me, I've tried!) Major Dana Mangham
Ken Jones continually updates this very helpful directory of Confederate Regiments
The above links are part of the "General Information on Georgia" site. There is lots of information there on subjects other than the War, so take time to explore their other information.
This link is so well done! Descriptions by campaign/year they took place/maps to show location.
History of Flags
Flags played an important role in identifying companies as well as being a source of pride and morale. In the midst of the smoke and confusion of battle, the flag borne high above the men, was the one thing that conveyed who was the "enemy" and where they lay.
One of the reasons for creating a "distinctive" Confederate Flag was that early flags (with red and white stripes) were confusing to the men in battle. Therefore uniformity and contrast was very important!
Individual companies were often given unique flags created just for them by hometown ladies. However, because of the importance of being able to identify the enemy/friendly companies, the uniform Confederate Flag using the St. Andrew's cross pattern with stars was developed. These flags usually had the state and number of the Regiment in the center of the blue cross and also had battle names painted on them to indicate that the unit had participated in a particular engagement.
Quite literally "capturing the flag" held great significance and the color bearer was always in imminent danger. Often stories are told as how other men jumped to carry the standard when the color sergeant was hit.
After the War, in 1887 President Cleveland approved an order to return these Confederate flags to their home states. However, this was so opposed by the G.A.R. (Union veteran's groups)that it was not until 1905 (Theodore Roosevelt's administration) that these were identified and returned. Since that time many others have been found and donated to Southern Museums.
Georgia's surviving flags are in the State Capitol Collection. One of the 45th Georgia Regiments flags is in this collection...Taylor County Volunteers made up Company E.
References: Emblems of Southern Valor by Joseph H. Crute
The Battle Flags of the Confederate Army of TN Howard M. Madaus
Abstract of story of "Confederate Reminiscences" by Mrs. Maggie Glover Beall, The History of Reynolds, GA (1976)
About the time of Sherman's March, they had word that the Union Soldiers were on their way from Columbus, and quickly sent any Confederate soldiers who might be at home on furlough, any sons under 16, with a trusted male slave carrying their valuables to hide them in the swamps of the Flint River and Patsilaga Creek.
The Yankees destroyed the wagon factory and cannon/transport vehicle supply shop of the Confederate government on Oglethorpe road about 1/4 mile south of Reynolds. They returned to the town of Reynolds, but did little damage and raced on to catch up with Sherman's Army.
The Home Guard (men over military age and young boys) were active in protecting the county.
PHILMON Family Story from Barbara Philmon Parsons
When General Sherman and his troops marched through Reynolds, GA, Grandpa (James Lee Philmon)remembered the very striking uniforms of the Union soldiers who came through his Daddy's land. He was too young at the time to be afraid of them. He did not really know there was a difference between the blue and the gray. He was hard at work with his brothers who were also young and were trying to keep things going on the farm while their Dad was away with "War Business". (Their father, James A. was 41 and too old for the War,but was a courier and carried messages behind the enemy lines. Co C, 8th Reg GA).
This one particular day, James Lee was swinging on the gate,waiting on the cows to come from one pasture to another, when several soldiers asked him where his Daddy was. Our grandpas says he looked the man eye to eye and said, "Well, Sir, my Daddy (James A. Philmon) is up north kicking the hell out of them Yankees". They laughed heartily at this little tow haired boy hanging on the fence. Afterwards, his brothers told him what danger he had put them in! And he never forgot the difference between the two colors of uniforms.
In April, 1865, the central military records of the Confederate Army were transferred to a Union officer, taken to Washington, and preserved. In 1903, the Secretary of War also copied from the Southern State those records still in their possession.
Obtain FORM 80 available via e-mail. Be sure to state: 1) Quantity needed 2) Correct Form # 3) your postal mailing address
Or if you prefer, postal inquiry: National Archives Form NATF Form 80
Military Services Branch
National Archives and Records Administration
8th & Pennsylvania Ave NW
Washington DC 20408
When you return the form, they will search certain records for that individual. If you use your credit card, they will proceed to copy and send to you the information they found. If they are unable to find any information you will be notified, and there is NO CHARGE. The cost for a successful search if $10 and depending on the amount of copying, some extra charges.
GEORGIA CONFEDERATE SOLDIER AND WIDOW PENSION APPLICATIONS
Scroll down to Confederate Pensions. These are mainly "transfers" but do give important family information.
Pensions on-line for Taylor County. If you have one to submit, please add to this.
Pension records are filed in the Georgia State Archives as they were originally created, beginning September 20, 1879 when the first law for providing for pensions of Georgia Confederate soldiers was passed. This authorized the state to pay for artificial limbs for Confederate Veterans. Later the law was expanded the disability benefits, (1886-loss of eyes and hearing); and (1894-age and poverty).
In December 1890, Georgia made pensions available to widows of soldiers who died during the war or after the war from wounds received in the war. In December 1899, the state extended coverage to Confederate widows who could not support themselves because of poverty, age, infirmity, or blindness.There are separate county files with pensioner's name listed alphabetically. One must know the county in Georgia in which the pensioner made the application; there is no general index.
The Georgia pensions were available to eligible state residents regardless of the state from which the soldier served, as long as the service had been in the Confederate army or navy. Thus, if South Carolina soldier and his family settled after the war in Georgia he and/or his widow might have been eligible for a pension.
Other, but not all former, Confederate states paid pensions to Confederate soldiers and their widows. Union soldiers and their widows were paid pensions by the federal government. Southern states extended pensions--which originally paid only to soldiers maimed in the war--in part because the federal government refused to provide pensions for former Confederate soldiers and their widows.
Contributed by:Christopher Stokes, Ph.D.,Staff Historian Washington Memorial Library, Genealogical and Historical Room, Macon, Georgia 31201-1790
Georgia Confederate soldier and widow pension applications (microfilm)
In 1898 Georgia had its counties establish Soldier Roster Commissions for the purpose of making rolls of those who served in companies from the respective counties. These rolls were then used to establish veterans' and widows' pension qualifications. The Roster Commissions were comprised of veterans of the units, who were still resident in the county at the end of the century. These often give details of wounds, death, or even individual soldiers' participation in various battles.
Willard Rocker, Director of Genealogy Washington Memorial Libary Genealogy & Archives 1180 Washington Ave Macon, Georgia 31201 Ph.: (912) 744-0820 The library has graciously agreed to provide this service. Please follow the guidelines. Submit ONLY 2 Soldier's names at one time. (Can reorder after receipt of research) 40 cent per page, plus postage, to be paid upon receiving material. GEORGIA RECORDS ONLY! LOOK-UP Georgia Confederate Pensions, by Virgil D. White, book form. Contact Robert N. Hale, Sr. email@example.com
Check your County Courthouse as they may have a box of CSA pension applications probably from the 1917-1920. They contain witness information to verify their service which will often be more than is even on their official military record.
There is a mistaken belief that you had to serve in the state unit form the state you were applying, which was incorrect. The states that gave pensions based them on service to the CSA not the individual states. Even several "border" states granted pensions, Missouri being one.
For this reason, there has been noted that some of these pension records might have been "adapted" for the widow's purposes.
Pension applications generally give the soldier's unit, date of enlistment and discharge, any disabling wounds received, length of Georgia (or whatever state giving the pension) residence and place of residence at the time of his application, his health at the time of application, and the value of personal property. Widows' pension applications include the husband's name, name of his unit, date of their marriage, husband's death date, and her means of support. Some applications include a copy of their marriage certificate.
Laura Devant (Mrs. James E.) was the daughter of William Posey Edwards and Shady McLendon Edwards, and was only 14 months old when her father enlisted in Co. F., 27th Georgia Infantry in Oct 1861. Laura started the chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1901 naming it after her father and Col William Sharp Wallace--Wallace-Edwards Chapter.
Laura served as an officer for twenty years, and during that time, the Confederate Monument was purchased and placed on the courthouse square in Butler. It was through her efforts that many soldier's graves were marked with headstones and every year a Confederate Memorial Day was held.
MuseumsMuseum of Confederacy, Richmond
A private, nonprofit institution that maintains the
world's largest and most comprehensive collection of military, political and domestic artifacts and art
associated with the period of the Confederacy, 1861-1865. The Museum complex consists of a modern
museum building and the restored historic White House of the Confederacy.
Georgia Men wounded or killed in World War I. Arranged by cause of death.
The State Archives has on microfilm many county copies of service records for World War I.
The National Archives-Southeast Branch has World War I draft registration records.
For Request form for photocopy of records, write to:
National Personnel Records Center (Military Records) NARA
9700 Page Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63132
Also at the archives in the county microfilm are Discharge papers found in the county courthouses.
See Georgia Memorial Book by Bert E. Boss, Service records and photographs of Georgians who died in W.W.I (Publisher: Georgia Memorial Association, Macon, GA 1921)
(Taken from the Butler Herald, Thursday, August 2, 1917) Notice of Call to Appear For Physical Examination The following is form No. 1, a copy of which properly filled out was mailed yesterday to 158 registrants for the selective draft: To _________________________________________________________ (Name) ___________________________________________________________ (Address on registration card) You are hereby notified that pursuant to the act of Congress approved May 18, 1917, you are called for military service of the United States by this Local Board from among those persons whose registration cards are within the jurisdiction of this board. Your Serial Number is ______ ________, and your order Number is ______ ______.. You will report at the office of this Local Board for physical examination on the _______day of August, 1917, at 10 o'clock A.M. Any claim for exemption or discharge must be made on forms which may be procured at the office of this Local Board, and must be filed at the office of this Local Board on or before the SEVENTH day after the date of mailing this notice. Your attention is called to penalties for violation or evasion of the Selective Service Law approved May 18, 1917, and of the Rules and Regulations made pursuant thereto, which penalties are printed on the back hereof. LOCAL BOARD TAYLOR COUNTY By J. R. Beeland, Chairman O. T. Monfort, Clerk Date of mailing notice, August 1, 1917
In practice, only three draft lotteries were held. Those registrants whose numbers were drawn were then subject to induction unless they could show good cause why they should not be inducted. The three registration days for these lotteries were held:
a) June 5, 1917 for persons born 1886-1896. About 10 million men registered on this date. Those who completed this registration card listed birth date, birth location and other information. Because of specific opposition from Congress, 18-20 year olds were initially exempt.
b) June 5, 1918 for persons born 1896-97. This group of about one million men who had recently become old enough to be drafted during the preceding year registered on this date. Those who completed this registration card listed birth date, birth location and other information. They also listed their father's birth location. About half of these men had only vague information about their father's birth location.
c) September 12, 1918 for persons born 1873-1886 and 1897-1900. Almost 14 million men registered on this date. Those who completed this registration card listed birth date, but not birth location. A detailed listing of the address of next of kin on this card, however, can provide valuable information, especially in cases of recent immigrants.
In addition, a tiny number of men who turned 21 in August, 1918, registered in that month.
When these original cards (from ALL the States) were transferred to the East Pointe NARA branch the LDS spent about 3 years microfilming these cards. There are hundreds and hundreds of boxes and the LDS opened one box at a time and filmed them - in state order. However, within each state the cards were filed by draft board, not by county or by draftee. This makes the searching of the microfilm difficult to say the least.
The good news is that the Friends of the National Archives took each box after it was filmed (and checked) and sorted all of these thousands and thousands of cards into - state and then COUNTY order and then in alphabetical order by surname and put then in new boxes. The Friends deserve all the kudos we can give them for this monstrous task.
WWI DRAFT REGISTRATION CARDS AT NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION, SOUTHEAST REGION (Date Issued: August 23, 1999)
The following information is provided by the National Archives and Records Administration, Southeast Region, in response to recent postings on several list serves concerning World War One (WWI) Draft Registration cards maintained at our facility. Unfortunately, the original posting, and subsequent, altered postings provided incorrect information about these holdings and related reference procedures. To better serve the public and the research community, we provide the following information and guidance concerning the WWI Draft Registration cards:
1. The original cards, in excess of 24 million, were received at our facility a number of years ago. Upon their receipt, they were boxed and arranged by NARA employees. The original arrangement was by state, thereunder by county or draft board, and thereunder alphabetically by the registrant's last name. The cause for arrangement by draft board instead of county is due to the size of certain cities. For example, New York City had in excess of 180 boards, Chicago had over 80. As a result, we require a street address when searching for cards in most large cities.
2. The cards were later microfilmed by representatives of the Genealogical Society of Utah in the exact order they were originally arranged; each NARA regional facility has a copy of the microfilm for the states in the region that it serves. Any patron wishing to use microfilm will find the cards arranged exactly as they are in the box. The arrangement of the cards has never been changed.
3. NARA, Southeast Region, has provided a request form for these records for a number of years. The forms can be ordered via e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org), telephone (404-763-7383), or in writing (NARA, Southeast Region, 1557 St. Joseph Avenue, East Point, GA 30344).
4. At a minimum, the following information is required from the requestor for NARA staff to conduct a search for draft registration cards:
o Full name of registrant o Complete home address at the time of registration (to include county) o Name of nearest relative 5. Additional information, if known, which can improve the thoroughness of a search includes: o Birth date o Birthplace o Occupation of registrant6. In July, 1997 NARA established an updated fee schedule for services provided to the public. The minimum mail-order fee for photocopies for each WWI Draft card was increased from $6.00 to $10.00, a fee which includes both sides of the card. Patrons need not request that both sides of the card be copied, and patrons need not submit a self-addressed stamped envelope (SASE) with their request.
Walk-in customers can make self-service photocopies of the original records for $0.10 per side. Please contact individual regions for their policies regarding microfilm copies. These fees are copying fees only; there is no charge for searches when a record is not located.
The staff of the NARA, Southeast Region, remains committed to assisting our patrons in anyway possible, including the timely and accurate dissemination of information concerning our holdings and services. The WWI Draft Registration cards represent only one of many significant collections of historical records maintained by the Region that are invaluable for genealogical research. For additional information regarding our holdings and services, visit our home page at
Clayton McCrary, Robert Revier, Eli Brooks, Robert Stallings, Will Riley. Lester Russeau, Napoleon Turner. Feston Trice, Henry Wright, Van Durham, Lewis Bullier.
Feston Trice, one of the number was put in command of the party and
performed the services expected of him faithfully and well, while none of the
men gave him the least trouble, they too doing well their part. The train on this
road being late they failed to make connection at Macon, where they spent the
Saturday night; accordingly arrangements were made for their lodging and
meals at Macon after conferring by wire with the military officials in Butler.
Contributed by John R. Adams
There is so little on-line about the veterans of this war. Here is an exciting new web site which will help you with researching this War.
Be sure to visit their site!
You'll find a history of the war, the rosters by States. Take a look and you may discover someone you didn't know had served there.
They are working to obtain burial sites for all these veterans. A special page helps you with starting your research!
Another helpful site for your Spanish American War Research.
If you have information about Taylor County residents who fought in this war: Contact: Virginia Crilley email@example.com for look-up.
MEMORIAL PAGE We welcome your stories and photos of WW II veterans.
Roster of WWII enlisted men from Taylor County was published in The Butler Herald.
Contact: Virginia Crilley firstname.lastname@example.org if you have information about any of these men.
ARMY, NAVY, MARINES, COAST GUARD CASUALTIES are listed separately by NARA and is an alphabetical list of casualties by State but not broken down by County.
From main ARC index.... select genealogy (left of page), then select Army casualties, select Georgia, select County. From there you can select whichever county you want.
Direct link to GA Casualty Listing