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CREEK INDIAN WARS

War of 1812 - same as Early Indian Wars in Georgia

Seminole and Oconee Wars
Creek Wars 1811-1814
Rosters on-line for 1812 War

Additional Information about Researching this War

Creek Indians who served in the "Indian Wars", c.1817-1840s Lance Hall's marvelous page includes rosters of the Creek Indians. The information includes the name of the Indian, their rank upon entering service, their rank upon exiting service, and a reference to the name the service record is originally filed under

Forts Along the Federal Road

BOUNTY LAND WARRANTS

MILITARY SERVICE RECORDS - Sending for Records

Published Books

Creek War 1836
Rosters on-line for 1836 War
Newspaper Accounts - 1836
Listing of Individuals who applied for Pensions

Forts Along the Federal Road

The location of the Forts along the Federal Road played a significant role in the location of communities we know today.
Fort Wilkinson - Milledgeville
Fort Hawkins - Macon
Fort Lawrence - Flint River
Fort Perry -
Fort Mitchell - Columbus

Creek Wars 1811-1814

Selected Creek Letters 1825-1829

Legal case describes various treaties and boundaries of settlers and Indian hunting grounds.

Damages Filed with Federal Govt against the Creek Indians

Creek Letters during 1828 disturbances

Carol Middleton's pages provide insight into the early 1800's and these conflicts. Includes a Journal of Benjamin Hawkins.
The Deposition of Samuel Moniac, of lawful age, a Warrior of the Creek nation Samuel Takkes-Hadjo Moniac to Judge Harry Toulmin and how he came to realize a war against the whites was impending, (August 2, 1813)

The Battle of BURNT CORN in Monroe Co 1813-1814.

The Massacre of FORT MIMS
It is August 30, 1813. There are at Ft. Mims, a total of 553 people -- whites, Indians, military officers and soldiers, and slaves -- all crowded into the enclosure. The fort is really just a stockade built around a cluster of houses on the Mims plantation. The people have been warned that attack is imminent.
Roster of Captain Thomas H. Boyles' company.

The KIMBELL-JAMES Massacre near Fort Sinquefield.

The War of 1812 in Alabama and the Creek War, 1813-1814

Phillip Mullins' page on George & Hazel Mullins and The Creek War 1811-1815 .

Creek War Commemoration The annual commemoration of the Creek War of 1813-14 is held the last weekend of March at Horseshoe Bend National Military Park. This involves several living history events, musket and cannon firings, cultural demonstrations, and interpretive programs. The commemoration honors the battle on March 27, 1814 when General Andrew Jackson with troops from the 39th US Infantry and the Tennessee Militia, aided by Lower Creek and Cherokee Indian allies defeated Chief Menawa and the Upper or Red Stick Creeks.
Horseshoe Bend National Park

The Treaty of Fort Jackson, Aug 14, 1814, although controversial in its fairness, encouraged more settler expansion.

The "Indian problem" remained an issue in the Georgia and the election of President Andrew Jackson in 1828, gave firm support to Georgia's removal policy of the Cherokee and Creek .

Old Agency Lands - Crawford and Taylor County

A five square mile area located on both sides of the Flint River was set apart as an Indian Reserve and government Indian Agents were assigned.

Indian Agents and Factors:

May 26, 1830 Indian Removal Bill "right as well as wise to require the Indians to migrate from their eastern homes to new homes in the far west. Indians were now subject to State law with no protection from the Federal government. Not only their land, but the recently discovered Cherokee gold field near (Dahlonega-North Georgia border) came to be divided by lottery to the white man.

One of the sensational trials of the area was Sept 15, 1831, when 11 missionaries to the Cherokees were arrested for violating a Georgia law forbidding whites to dwell among the Indians without state licenses. They were imprisoned and sentenced to 4 years of hard labor in the penitentary in Milledgeville. Two of the group fought the case through to the Supreme Court Justice where John Marshall reversed the decision (Feb. 28, 1832), President Andrew Jackson refused to enforce it, and the state of Georgia ignored it. Jan 14, 1833 they were finally pardoned and released. Their case didn't help the Cherokees, but dramatized Georgia's defiance of the Supreme Court.

Creek War of 1836

Indian Lands and Removal

As the Native American Indian was gradually relocated westward, and their lands of Georgia were being distributed by the Lottery System, most tribes settled west of the Chattahoochee River in Alabama on a Reserve there.

The Indians from the Alabama side were not allowed to stay over night in Georgia, but frequently came into Columbus during the day seeking food, especially in years when their own harvest was bad. They were also afflicted with an outbreak of smallpox. Generally their behavior was friendly and harmless, but when they visited private homes, some families were frightened.

In 1829, the Georgia Legislature passed an act requiring the Alabama Indians to have permits to cross the river and enter Georgia. In July of that year, the U.S. President Andrew Jackson stationed 1,000 men at Fort Mitchell (AL) for the protection of frontier settlers.

Especially contributing to the unrest at this time period was some land "scams" perpetrated on the Indians.

"According to the treaty, every chief of a town was entitled to a section (640 acres) of land, and every head of a family, married or unmarried, waa half section (320 acres). The first duty of the Government was to send a "Locating Agent" through the country, whose duty it was to "locate" the Indains, beginning with the chiefs, and afterwards all his people, on their respective lots. These locations were made as much to suit the convenience of the natives as possible....Each received a certificate from the Government Agent, which certificate alone was necessary to authorize him to sell his land lawfully, so that the purchaser could secure a patent for the same from the office at Washington".

"After all the Indains were located, there still remained a large surplus of lands, for which the Government paid the stiuplated amount of money in cash to the Indian, according to the treaty. This surplus land became what is known as "public land", property of the Government, and was put into the market at $1.25 per acre."

The concept of certificates was totally foreign to the Native American, and in many cases were lost or forgotten. Swindlers (white men working with renegade Indians) took advantage of the situation by posing as the Indian, persuading the Agent to take their word and ratify a sale. (This is spelled out in detail in the Resource book below)

The Native Americans who were thus swindled out of their land became hostile and determined to obtain justice in their own way....the seed for the Wars of 1836.

http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/benning-book/ch11.htm
Chapter 11 of book: Fort Benning: The Land and the People. Creek Indians; Lafayette's visit to Fort Mitchell

History of Opelika and Her Agricultural Tributary Territory. Rev. Francis LaFayette Cherry (Oct 1883-Apr 1885). Printed by GDAH. Available through Gen Soc of Eastern Al POBox 2892,Opelika,Al,36803-2892 (Contains many stories of settlers of this area)

All counties at this period of Georgia history had regular Militia which met monthly and were made up of all men between the ages of 15 and 60.

More and more White settlers moved into the area. Some Indian factions resisted the westward relocation, and friction escalated during the period of 1832-1836. Much of the military operation centered on Columbus (Muscogee County) being right across the Chattahoochee river from the Creek Indian reservation.

Newspaper accounts give us insights.
Citizens of Columbus - April 26, 1835 Ltr Stewart County Dec 1835

Macon Messenger - Feb 4, 1836 Newspapers provide glimpses of life during this period.

Letter from Abram Martin to Edmund Shackleford 18 May 1836 Muscogee Co, GA )first hand account)

Florida Wars

May 15, 1836, Governor Schley (GA) arrived in Columbus to muster the Georgia militia into service under the command of John W.A. Sanford

May 19,1836 It was rumored that there would be an uprising among the Indians and Secretary Lewis Cass ordered Brigadier General Thomas I. Jesup, with his federal army to suppress them. Gen Winfield Scott was preoccupied with the Seminole War in Florida, but when it ended May 21, he too came to Georgia. A force of nearly 12,000 men (including friendly Indians) were assembled. Their goals were to prevent Creeks from escaping to join the Seminoles in the Florida swamps and to begin the removal of the Creeks.

By May 26, Scott was meeting with Gen Jesup and Gov Schley in Milledgeville preparing to bring the military supplies from Augusta to Columbus. The date was moved to June 15 due to heavy rain and the enormity of assembling all the forces. The arms actually didn't arrive until June 20.

Meanwhile Gen Jesup in Alabama moved ahead with the plan and on June 17th captured one of the leading Indian villages under Neamathala.

May 20, 1836
The Columbus Sentinel published the following list of Georgia Militia Companies that had arrived:

[Note: Also included in this list are other "known" companies". These are marked with **
Indian War Rosters On-Line]

County		Drafted/Volunteers	Captain	#

Baldwin		Cavalry		Gaither	54

**Bibb

Bibb		Volunteers(cavalry)	McCall		41


Butts		Drafted		Hendricks	73

**Carroll                 

Clarke		Volunteers		Ligon		100

Covington	Blues			Floyd		84
(Covington is in Newton County)

Coweta	Volunteers		Anderson	87

**Fayette   

Fayette		Cavalry		Stinson	53

Greene		Volunteers		Dawson		102


Gwinnett	Cavalry		James Garmany	76

Harris		Drafted		Vardeman	62

Heard		Infantry		Dent		44

Henry		Cavalry		Love		66
Henry		Infantry		Dobson		71

Houston		Drafted		Smith		101
Houston		Volunteers		Dennard	54

Jasper		Drafted		Roe, Zachariah		54
Jasper		Drafted		Lane, David		48

Jones		Drafted		Hardeman	80

Laurens		Volunteers		Troup		56

Macon

Marion		Drafted		Berry		50

Meriwether	Drafted		Richard Sloan		84

Monroe		Drafted		Stewart	80
Monroe		Volunteers		Flewellen	74
Monroe		Infantry		Russell	48

Morgan		Volunteers		Porter		61


Muscogee 	Columbus Guards		Urquhart	62
Muscogee	Drafted		Coleman	67
Muscogee 	Cadet Riflemen	T.C.	Evans		70
Muscogee	Artillery		Hoxey		52
**Muscogee   Muscogee Blues       P.T. Schley  n/a

Newton		Greys		(Loyal)	Loyd		100

Oglethorpe	Volunteers		Hill		102

Pike		Volunteers(cavalry)	Lynch		39
Pulaski		Drafted		Hodges		32


Taliafarro	Volunteers		Sanford	78

Talbot		Drafted		Miller		50
Talbot		Volunteers		Rush		99

Troup		Drafted		Hardin		95
Troup		Cavalry		Kendrick	73
Twiggs		Volunteers		Pearson	88

Upson		Drafted		Beall		67
Upson		Drafted		Crate		76

Wilkes		Volunteers		Toombs		60


Wilkinson	Greys			Barney		65
		
Resource:
Martin, John. Columbus, Georgia (1827-1846) pg 65

Gov. Clay worked at the same time to prepare the militia in Alabama, and on May 28 wrote to Gov Schley explaining his operations and suggesting a combination of militia in a joint operation on June 5, 1836.


The Creek War of 1836 on the Chattahoochee River (part I of II, of the 2nd Creek War) by Christopher Kimball
Excellent history of events of 1836. Timeline of battles. Also visit his Part II http://www.tfn.net/SeminoleWar/2crekwar2.htm which contains the bibliography!

Alabama troops in Creek Indian Wars 1836-1837

The Destruction of Muskogee Autonomy Before the Creek War by Adam Oliver .

Published Books

White, Virgil D. 1994. Index to Volunteer Soldiers in Indian Wars and Disturbances 1815-1858. National Historical Publishing Company, Waynesboro, TN.
This book was transcribed from microfilm series M629 at the National Archives- 42 reels.

History of the Georgia Militia
Purchase from Boyd Publishing     http://www.boydpublishing.com/geomili.htm

Smith, Gordon Burns. History of the Georgia Militia, 1783-1861

Volume 1, Campaigns and Generals. Milledgeville, GA: Boyd, 2000. ISBN: 1-890307-32-7.
Volume 2, Counties and Commanders, Part One. Milledgeville, GA: Boyd, 2000. ISBN: 1-890307-33-5.
Volume 3, Counties and Commanders, Part Two. Milledgeville, GA: Boyd, 2000. ISBN: 1-890307-34-3.
Volume 4, The Companies. Milledgeville, GA: Boyd, 2000. ISBN: 1-890307-35-1.

Georgia Pensioners, Volume Two, compiled by Dorothy E. Payne

Thaxton, Donna B ed. Georgia Indian Depredation Claims Americus: The Thaxton Compnay N.d.

Mrs. J.E. Hays, comp. (State Historian 1940)Georgia Military Record Book, 1779-1839 (typescript) 8 vols. W.P.A. Project No 5993.

Anne Kendrick Walker, Russell County in Retrospect: An Epic of the Far Southeast) (Richmond: Dietz Prss, 1950)

Ga Indian Deprivation Claims, Thaxton Publishing Co.
I'm not sure what dates this book covers

Military Service Records - NARA Microfilm

The Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldier Who Served During Indian Wars and Disturbances 1815-58. M629 42 rolls, contains a card for each person who served during the period for whom a compiled military service record was prepared.
Card shows rank, regiment, and war.

Georgia Index - Cherokee Disturbances and Removal 1836-1838 M907 1 roll
Alabama Index - Creek War 1836-37 M244 2 rolls

In the decades after the War of 1812, volunteer units often served
during Indian hostilities. The men who served (or their heirs)
received bounty land and sometimes pensions.

To obtain their records, it is not necessary to know the specific Indian war.
National Archives Application asks for "Indian War for 1816-1850.
See claims abstracted in "Some Georgia Bounty Land Grantees 1854-1856",
National Genealogical Society Quarterly 73 (1985): 297-303.

Obtain records from National Archives

Obtain FORM 80 available via e-mail. Be sure to state: 1) Quantity needed 2) Correct Form # 3) your postal mailing address
Or if you prefer, postal inquiry:

 National Archives Form NATF Form 80
Military Services Branch
National Archives and Records Administration
8th & Pennsylvania Ave NW
Washington DC 20408

When you return the form, they will search certain records for that individual. If you use your credit card, they will proceed to copy and send to you the information they found. The cost is outlined on the site.

BOUNTY LAND

The bounty land was NOT in Georgia, and most recipients probably did not actually move to the states of Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas, but instead sold their warrants. I'm sure there were professional firms who just dealt with processing these warrants for those unable to do it for themselves. Federal Law September 28, 1850 included a provision of land for those who had served in various Indian conflicts.
Number of acres in ratio to months served:
  • 9 months service = 160 acres
  • 4 months service = 80 acres
  • 1 month service = 40 acres
These warrants could be used for any public land (Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas). The warrants themselves might be sold.

Federal Law March 3, 1855 reduced required service to only 14 days. All those who had previously received warrants for less than 160 acres were now permitted to receive additional warrants for the difference. Many filed a second application.
Seven groups of records: 10, 40,60, 80, 100, 120, 160 acre warrants. (most records only available at the National Archives and have not been microfilmed)

In 1858, issuing bounty-land warrants ended, and the right to use them in 1863. In 1872, Congress gave the remaining lands to the State of Ohio.

The application process began in the local county Inferior Court. Early County Court minutes should reflect this. These were then forwarded to the Pension Bureau in Washington City. All federal military bounty land records are in the National Archives, in Washington D.C.

The warrants were not actually given to the veteran, but remained in the General Land Office, and notification was sent to the veteran. These warrants were kept in bound volumes, usually 160 acre warrants and 320 acre warrants.

The warrant contained the information about the veteran's service--his company, regiment; date the warrant was issued; date the land was located and the page on which th elocation is recorded in the abstracts.

These abstracts were kept by the General Land Office. They are chronological lists of locations of sites for which PATENTS (the actual paper conveying the title)

There are indexes to patentees in Missouri, Arkansas and Illinois. Warrants may also be identified through the bounty land warrant application files. These files are by date of the act, then by number of acres awarded, and then by number of warrant.

The alphabetically arranged bounty land warrant application files provide the information if the warrant was surrendered. Most warrants were sold shortly after they were acquired. The patentee is identified by name.

Creek Indian Wars 1836

Newspaper Accounts

Burial of some Soldiers from Creek Indian Battle - June 9, 1836

Re-enactment of Shepherd's Plantation at Westville (south of Lumpkin in Stewart County) May 26-27, 2001.
Re-enactors in period clothing will demonstrate an encampment of soldiers who have been dispatched to protect local citizens against Indian attack. An Indian camp will be demonstrated.
On Friday, June 3, 1836 Capt. William CARR (Ft. Twiggs); Capt McCrary and Lieutenant Bradford (Crawford Co) Major Brown and their military men were involved in an Indian skirmish near Boykin's Plantation (25 miles below Columbus on the Chattahoochee River) It was apparently a rather "minor" skirmish...but excited controversy (probably for political reasons) as two of the Captains went to great lengths to clarify their actions on that day.

An proposed election "next year" for Capt Carr as a seat in the Legislature is alluded to while trying to clear his name of the accusations of cowardice leveled by Major Brown. (Incidentally, Capt William A. Carr married Virginia, the daughter of Col Benjamin Hawkins)

All of these accounts are from the newspapers of the time. Their importance to Taylor County researchers are the names of the military personnel, some of whom settled on land that later became Taylor county.

MAJOR HOWARD'S REPORT
Steamboat, Metamora June 13th, 1836
Maj. Gen. Sanford:

(Describes action at Shepherd's Plantation a few miles above Roanoke.)
Fort McCreary was six miles below Boykin's Plantation.

While upon the subject of these border difficulties, it is proper I should communicate to you the best information which I have been able to obtain of the little affair at Boykin's Plantation, only a few days before. I had ordered Capt. Carr of Crawford County, from Ft. Twiggs to Boykin's. Upon his way down, he was informed by negroes that the Indians were building canoes on the western bank. He sent to Fort McCrary with the information, Sergeant Major Brown and Capt. ~cCrary, with a small portion of Capt. McCrary's and Capt. Parham's company joined Capt. Carr that evening at Boykin's. The next morning the whole took their stations opposite the place where they heard the Indians at work. Not long thereafter, something like a dozen Indians approached the river apparently for the purpose of launching a canoe. They were jn an open place and

Sergeant Major Brown ordered a fire, Three Indians were seen to fall; they were taken up by their fellows and carried away.

A spirited action of more than an hour was kept up, in which a large portion of the officers and men behaved with much gallantry. It is believed that the enemy lost six killed, and it is now known that two of their principal men were wounded, one of them badly. We lost one killed, as you have been informed, none wounded. In this affair many privates whose names I do not now recollect, distinguished themselves for their coolness and bravery, and I believe, all concur in the statement that Sergeant Major Brown, Lieut. Bradford and Saunders from Crawford, Lieut. Robertson from Sumter, and Sergeant Files from Crawford, without disparagement to other officers, were particularly distinguished for their usefulness.
I am very respectfully, Yours, John H. Howard

Burial of some Soldiers from Creek Indian Battle - June 9, 1836

Are you trying to locate your Ancestor who served during the Indian War campaign around 1836 for Georgia or Florida? If so you may wish to check the following names listed below. First of all my Ancestorial Grandfather was named (Pvt.) Tapley B. Tolbert (alias: Talbert/TALBOT). Note: The surname changes in various documents. he was born 1800c and died the 28, August, 1836 at Fort McCreary in Stewart County, Georgia. I have an approximately 60 page widow's pension file of Sarah (wife of) Tapley that she drew after his death. He died from rebellious fever. A friend of his contested on his pension that he helped to bury him there on the origional Fort. Finally, after I recieved his grave headstone marker, I decided to place it where he actually died and was buried. There are 3 unknown Soldiers buried there and one of them is him.

Sometimes afterwards, I received a reply back from Stewart County, Georgia stating that his remains had been moved and were placed on the Courthouse lawn in Gwinnett County, Ga. After more researching, I discovered that he was NOT one of the named Soldiers who was actually placed there. So he is still *unmarked buried in Stewart County. To share with all of you researchers who maybe possibly going through the same situation as I am, I would love to share the following names of Military Soldiers who has been transferred to Gwinnett County, Ga. They were Gwinnett Co. Soldiers who died at Sheperd's Plantation in Stewart County in the "battle of the Creek Indians" on 9, June, 1836.

1-Issac Lacy
2-James C. Martin
3-William M. Sims
4-John a. V. Tate
5-Robert T. Holland
6-James H. Holland
7-Henry W. Paden
8-James M. Allen
If anyone has any added information they would like to share, it would be greatly appreciated. Also would love to have information on the origional Fort. Thanks, Marie mpjx@nbank.net

Capt. Carr's Account

BATTLE AT BOYKIN'S FERRY
MACON GEORGIA TELEGRAPH, Thur. June 16, 1836

TO THE EDITOR OF THE GEORGIA TELEGRAPH:
Crawford County June 9th, 1836
Enclosed you will receive a letter written by Capt. William A. Carr, of the Crawford Volunteers, to his family, giving an account of the skirmish with the Indians on Friday morning .3rd June, at Boykin's Ferry, 25 miles below Columbus, on the Chattahoochee River. As it is attempted to deprive Capt.Carr of the credit of being in this battle, I am anxious a true account should be published. Please publish that part of the letter relating to the Battle and oblige.

Fort Crossland June 4, 1836
"Dear -----: Since I wrote you before, I have been in a fight with the Indians. Yesterday about 11 o'clock we fired on a large party across the river; a fight ensued which lasted about one hour and 15 or 20 minutes. We killed from six to ten Indians; several were seen to fall and were dragged off; some were seen lying for several minutes before they were taken away. We were so unfortunate as to lose one of the best men in my company, W.J.K. Crossland. He was shot dowm and spoke but once or twice after.

" I have thrown up a breast-work in order to defend ourselves and have called it "Fort Crossland", in honor of the brave young man who fell in the defence of his country. A part of the Crawford Troop (Cavalry) is here with us and the remainder will be here tonight.

"I have wrote to the commanding officer at Columbus for a reinforcement; if he does not send it, it is likely we shall have to guit our post. We are stationed at the most dangerous post on the river, and expect an attack every night; but if we are attacked we will give a good account of ourselves. I have been well ever since I left home, except a camp diarrhea which has made almost every man sick. I think we shall be at home in four or five weeks, as the Indians have already petitioned for peace."


MACON GEORGIA TELEGRAPH, Sept. 1836
TO THE PUBLIC
At the request of many of the citizens of the county of Crawford, I have been induced to publish the following certificates In complying with this request I wish to be distinctly understood that the principal object I have in view is the vindication of my conduct as an officer and my character as an individual, from the unjust aspersions that are attempted to he cast on both. This contraversy was not of my own seeking, and if the evidence produced shall convict Captain Brown before the public of being the author of a report, which, through the instrumentality of himself and friends, has obtained general circulation in the country, reflecting on my conduct as an officer during hte late Creek campaign, and calculated to inflict serious and lasting injury on my conduct as an individual, he must not blame any other person than himself. The certificates will speak for themselves; without any further explanation from me.
William A. Carr Francisville, Crawford Co. 14th Sept. 1836

Georgia Crawford County
I do hereby certify to the best of my recollection, that I heard Wm. M. Brown say that he had the command of the officers and men in the engagement with the Indians at Boykin's on the Chattahoochy, and that he was solicited by officers and men to do so, and that the men said they would not go to the river unless he did take the command, and that he ordered Capt. Carr and McCrary to flank to the right and left, and not let the Indians out-flank them; that he, Brown, did not pretend to say that Capt. Carr ordered a retreat, but that when he, Brown went to the house, that Captain Carr was there, and that some of his men had their knapsacks on their backs and some in their hands, with their guns, apparently ready or had started to leave the place; that Capt. Carr was standing among his men and asked Brown what must he do, that the Indians were crossing above and below; and that he, Brown, said to Capt. Carr, send out above and below to ascertain if it was a fact, and that the signal for the fire was to be the fire of his gun, andthat he did fire, and at Brown that Capt. Carr wanted to see him, and that he answered that It was damned pretty time to send for a man engaged as he was, but he told him he would be there presently and that his (Brown's) impression was that Capt. Carr was wounded by his by his sending for him, and when he went to the house he found he was not wounded, but standing in the yard as before stated; when he went up in the yard he found the men with their knapsackn on, and that he cursed them for a set of d----d cowards, and threatened to blow their brains out. EPHRAIM BEARD

GEORGIA Crawford County
I, James Beasley, do certify that I heard William M. Brown in a conversation make the following statements, viz: that he, Brown had the command in the action at Boykin's and that he fired the signal gun; and the agreement between him and the man that fired with him was that he, Brown, would touch him on the foot when ha got ready to shoot, and then they were to fire, and at the fire two Indians fell and that he killed one of them, and killed one afterwards. He said Carter Cleveland called to him (Brown) and told him to come there; Cleveland came to him the second tim~ and said Capt. Carr wanted him He, Brown, went and thought Carr was wounded, but found him at the house; and some of Carr's men had their knapsacks, and others were getting theirs, and he, Brown asked them what they meant; he cursed them, and told them to put down their knapsacks, and go back and fight, or he would shoot their Damned brains out, or something like that. He then asked Capt. Carr what he wanted with him. Capt. Carr told him that tht Indians were crossing above and below, and that his ammunition had given out, and that they had better get away from there he told Carr he had sent for ammunition and re-enforcement, and tha it would be there in ten or fifteen minutes. He then wanted Car: and his men to go back and fight, hut Carr and his men would not go Sack, but he went back where he left the men a fighting and fired two or three rounds at the Indians before they give way; and he also ordered a picket guard, one above and below, but did not impeach Carr of being a coward. And while he, Brown, was at the house a part of Carr's men continued fighting until he returned to the river, and fought bravely. This conversation took place in Upson County, at Blount's Store , a few days after his return from out of the service. JAMES BEASLEY (Sept 10, 18936)

Georgia, Crawford County
I, WILLIAM C. WALLIS of the County of Crawford and state aforesaid, do hereby certify that sometime during the month of June, after William M. Brown's return from the Chattahooche, the came to my house, and in conversation relative to the fight at Boykin's Plantation he said there were thirteen of Capt. Parham's company, and a few of Capt. McCrary's company together tiwh Capt. Carr's Company at the place, and that he was solicited by all the officers and men to take the command, for the men said they would not march down to the river unless he had the command. I asked Brown if Capt. Carr asked him to take the cormnand; he said he was not positive that Capt. Carr did ask him to take the command, but was present within six or eight feet, and he, Brown, concluded that silence gave consent, and he Brown, did take command and marched them to the river, and placed Capt. Carr on the right and McCrary on the left, and he, Brown, took place in the center, and gave the signal when to fire on the Indians by firing himself; and he also ordered Carr and McCrary to flank to the right and left, so the Indians should not out-flank the, and then the Indians out-flanked then, and after fighting sometime the firing ceased on the right, and he, Brown, did not know the caus of it until Carter Cleveland came within 100 or 50 yards of him and called him, that Carr wanted him to come there, he told Cleveland it was a damned pretty time to send for a man engaged as he was; Cleveland called to him, Browm, the second time, and he then went, thinking Capt. Carr was wounded. He went to the house where the company was first stationed and found twenty of thirty of Capt. Carr's men coming out of the gate with their knapsacks on and he, Brown, cursed them, and told them that, damn their cowardly souls, he was a good mind to blow their brains but. Capt. Carr had not his knapsack on, but was in the passage of the house Where the others were getting their knapsacks. He asked Capt. Carr what he wanted with him, Capt. Carr told him the Indians were crossing the river above and below and asked him if they had not better go away from the place, as the Indians would surround them. He told Carr that he, Brown, would lose the last drop of blood before it should be said the Indians should whip him, when the Indians were on one side of the river and they on the other; Capt. Carr also stated that he was nearly out of ammunition, and he, Brown, ordered Carr to place a picket guard above and below on the river. During his, Brown's, absence to the house there was a remnant of Carr's Company that continued fighting with Capt. Parham's and Capt. McCrary's men, and he returned back to the scene, but Carr and his men did not return to the river with him, Brown, and the men remaining at the river had two or three rounds, after he returned, firing at the Indians. But he, Brown, said he did not accuse Capt. Carr of cowardice, but I,Wallis, remarked, that if Carr acted as he, Brown, stated, I impeach him with cowardice. July 26, 1836 WM C. WALLIS GEORGIA Crawford Co. I do certify that the comments contained in the certificate of Wm. C. Wallis is just and true to the best of my recollection. ENOCH B. WALLIS

GEORGIA, Crawford County
I do hereby certify that I was on guard at the camp when the company went to the river and that I was not present when the action commenced but after the firing did commence I left and went to the firing at the river, and there I found Capt. Carr engaged among his men; and after the firing ceased I went to the house with the men who carried Crossland to the house, and I saw Capt. Carr in company with the men. I saw Capt. Carr when he met Charles McCullers at the gate and heard Capt. Carr say to McCullers to stay there, for he was not going to quit the place as Capt. Carr made this remark, Sat. Rrown came up to the yard in company with several others of the company. I saw nothing in the conduct of Capt. Carr that induces me to believe he had the least intention of quitting his station or to dishonor his command, but saw him busily engaged in making preparations to maintain his station. his Aug. 25, 1836 DANIEL, G.x HICKS mark

Columhus, Georgia August 13th, 1836
Dear Sir: Yours of the 10th inst. was received yesterday. I was not less surprised than mortified to learn that there are those who are disposed to depreciate the services of Capt. Carr in the late Creek Campaign. Nothing could he more unjust or ungenerous, as that gentleman was amongst the earliest on the field; and up to the time of his discharge, displayed a zeal, fidelity, and a courage in the performance of his duty, not surpassed by any officer in the Army. From what I have learned of the skirmish at Roykin's had the entire company been with Capt. Carr, that affair would ahve been one of the most brilliant feats of the war.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant
Henry Crowell, Esq. J.W.A. SANFORD

Harris County Aug. 14th, 1836
I received yours of the 10th inst informing me that reports prejudicial to Capt. Carr as an officer had reached your county. Why such reports whould be circulated I am entirely at a loss to conjecture. Be assured that they are without foundation. Capt. Carr was immediately under my command the most of the time that he was in the service, and I take great pleasure in stating to you that his conduct wa such as became an officer, a soldier and a gentleman. He was much esteemed by the officers generally, and well did he merit it. You are at liberty to use the above as you may think proper. Yours truly, H.H. Dowe


Certificates in Macon GA Telegraph in defense of Capt. Carr (similar in nature to the above) were given by:
  • Ephraim Heard
  • James Beasley
  • William C. Wallis
  • Enoch B. Wallis
  • John Causey
  • Alfred Cook
  • Wm. T. Long
  • Wm B. Snelling
  • Willis Hobbs
  • Thomas J. Grant
  • P.B. Wade 2nd Corpl
  • Joseph J. Bradford 1st Lieut
  • Charles McCullars
  • Searborn C. Christopher
  • James Hampton
  • George L. Pace
  • Augustus Potter
  • Lewis Tanner
  • Isom McClendon
  • Everett Watkins
  • James Gray
  • Thos Woods
  • Levin Tanner
  • Jeremiah Dukes
  • H. Jackson Patterson 2nd Sergt
  • William McGee
  • Allen W. Hobbs
  • James Duncan ?
  • Thomas Thompson
  • Elijah Twilley
  • Michael Welch
  • Daniel G. Hicks
  • Hugh Ross
  • Jacob Duckworth
  • Drury Dukes
  • Peter W. Gray
    Contributed by Desmond Harp

    Listing of Individuals Applying for Pension

    We NEED yours!

    Elijah LINDSEY. He was born in Jackson Co. GA, June 22, 1813. He shows up in Muscogee Co. GA in 1836 to join the Army (GA militia / US Army ? ). He then moves to Stewart Co. GA ( 1841 ). Dies in Texas 1899. Researcher:Ron Lindsey Lindsey033@aol.com

    James J. RUFFIN served as a Sergeant in Capt. Alexander Russell's company. Regiment commanded by Robert V. Hardeman. June 15, 1836 - July 1, 1836 (end of war) Received two land warrants and a pension. Researcher: Virginia Crilley varcsix@hot.rr.com

    James Turner HARMON served as a Private in Capt. Dearing's Co., Lauderdale Battalion, Tennessee Mounted Infantry, during the Cherokee War. He enrolled on 1 Nov. 1837 and mustered out on 10 May 1838.


    Published Resources

    Specific Works Relating to the Forts of Georgia

    The Federal Road Through Georgia, the Creek Nation,and Alabama 1806-1836. Henry DeLeon Southerland, Jr. and Jerry Elijah Brown. (Univ of Alabama Press 1989)



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