A History of the Horseneck Riots

Thesis by Max K. Vorwerk, 1948
Published by the Caldwell Bicentennial Committee, Caldwell, NJ

CHAPTER I

The Indian Bill of Sale for the Settlement of Newark is Obtained and
the Newark Settlers Procure an Indian Deed to Settle the Horseneck Tract

A group of Puritans from the New Haven Colony settled Newark, New Jersey, in 1666. Philip Carteret, Governor of Nova Caesarea, or New Jersey, had given these Puritans clear title to the land on which they were to settle, but it later developed that the Hackensack Indians, the original owners, did not consider this title sufficient proof of ownership. So, one year later, in 1667, the Indians sold a forty thousand acre tract directly to the Newark settlers for "fifty double-hands of powder, one hundred barrs of lead, twenty axes, twenty coates, ten Guns, Twenty Pistolls, ten kettles, ten Swords, four blankets, four barrels of beere, ten paire of breeches, fifty knives, twenty howes, eight hundred and fifty fathom of wampum, two Ankers of Liquers, or something Equivalent, and three troopers Coates." (1)

Twelve years later the inhabitants of Newark, who were anxious to expand their land holdings, bought more land from the Indians. The deed which confirmed this sale stated that:

"Whereas the original deed of sale made by the Indians to the inhabitants of the towne of Newark, bearing date the eleventh day of July, 1667, it is said to the foot of the Great Mountaine, called Watchung, alias Atchunck, Wee Winocksop and Shenoctos, Indians So, one year later, in 1667, the Indians sold a forty thousand acre tract directly to the Newark settlers for "fifty double-hands of powder, one hundred barrs of lead, twenty axes, twenty coates, ten Guns, Twenty Pistolls, ten kettles, ten Swords, four blankets, four barrells of beere, ten paire of breeches, fifty knives, twenty howes, eight hundred and fifty fathom of wampum, two Ankers of Liquers, or something Equivalent, and three troopers Coates."-1

Twelve years later the inhabitants of Newark, who were anxious to expand their land holdings, bought more land from the Indians. The deed which confirmed this sale stated that:

"Whereas the original deed of sale made by the Indians to the inhabitants of the towne of Newark, bearing date the eleventh day of July, 1667, it is said to the foot of the Great Mountaine, called Watchung, alias Atchunck, Wee Winocksop and Shenoctos, Indians and owners of the said Great Mountaine, for and in consideration of two Gunss, three Coats, and thirteen hans of rum, to us in hand paid the receipt Whereof wee doe hereby acknowledge, doe Covenant and declare to and with Mr. John Ward and Mr. Thomas Johnson, Justices of the peace of the said towne of Newark, before the Right Hon'ble Philip Carteret, Esq., Governor of the Province of New Jersey, and the other witnesses here under written, that it is meant, agreed, and intended that their bounds shall reach or goe to the top of the said Great Mountaine, and that Wee the said Indians will marke out the same to remaine to them the said inhabitants of Newark, their heirs or Assignes for Ever. In Witness hereof Wee the s'd Indians have hereunto sett our hands and Seales the 13th of March, 1677-8.

      Winocksop, his marke (SIGIL)
      Shenoctos, his marke (SIGIL)

      Signed, sealed and Dilivered in the presence of James Bollen, Secretary,

      HENDRICK DROGESTRADT,
      SAMUEL HARRISON.

      This acknowledged before me the day and yeare above written.

      Phi. Carteret." (1)

Thirty three years after the founding of Newark, we learn that the townspeople desired to purchase another tract of land, lying on the other side of the first Watchung Mountain and extending to the Passaick River. This Section was known as Horseneck and today would include: Caldwell, West Caldwell, North Caldwell, Verona, Essex Fells, Roseland, Caldwell Township, Cedar Grove and Livingston. From the town records of Newark we have the following information concerning this contemplated purchase:

"At a Town Meeting in Newark, October 2, 1699 -- First -- it was agreed by the generality of the Town, that they would endeavor to make a Purchase of a Tract of Land lying Westward of our Bounds, to the South Branch of the Passaick River; and such of the Town as do contribute to the purchasing of the s'd Land, shall have their Proportion according to their contribution. 2ndly, that Mr. Pierson and Ensign Johnson are chosen, to go and treat with the Proprietors about the same, to obtain a Grant. 3rdly, there was a Committee chosen (viz) Samuel Harrison, Thomas Davis, Robert Young, Daniel Dod, Nathaniel Ward and John Cooper, to consider, agree and put forward and Design abovesaid." (1)

This tract of land was never obtained from the Proprietors by Mr. Pierson and Ensign Johnson. Whatever the difficulties may have been in negotiating this grant we do not know. However, we do know that the townspeople were not deterred by the set-back, but determined to buy the land lying at Horseneck directly from the Indians. In 1701 they drew up Articles of Agreement which would govern the proposed purchase. The Agreement read as follows:

"This third Day of September one Thousand Seven Hundred and sd Committe to Lay down So much money or moneys upon the Demand of ye Committe aforesd to Defray and pay for the aforesd Land and Premises and all Such Charges as shall Necessarily Accrue thereunto according to our proportion by our Subscription &c:

41y. We the aforesd Subscribers Do Covenant and agre with Each other and the aforesd Committee that the aforesd Land Shall be purchased and paid for by us the Subscribers and So Shall be held and continued as our Just Rights Either in General or perticular allotments as the major part Shall agre from time to time and that none of ye sd purchasers their heirs or assigns Shall at any time appropriate any of ye sd Lands or premises by any manner of way or means but by allotments fairly and Legally Drawn as the part of the Subscribers Shall agre, and if any Subscribees for one Lott his Right Shall be according Such as Subscribe for two Lotts or for three Lotts their Rights Shall be according and when the major part of ye Subscribers Shall agre to come to alottments that then he or they that have more than one Lott Shall Draw Severally according to ye number of their Lotts Subscribed for and Shall have their Land as it falls to them by alotment &c.

"And for the Confirmation of Each and Every article thing or things aforesd the Subscribers for our Selves our heirs Executors administrators and assigns Do by these presents bind and Oblige our Selves unto Each other to Stand to Ratifie and Confirm Each Article and thing aforesaidd.

"in Confirmation hereof we the Subscribers have Voluntarily and unanimously Set to our hands the Day and Year above Written &c.

    • John Treat, 1 Lot
    • Hugh Roberts, 1 Lot
    • Daniel Crane, 1 Lot
    • Robert Young, 2 Lots
    • Joseph Harrison, 1 Lot
    • Sam'll Dod, 2 Lots
    • Daniel Dod, 1 Lot
    • Joseph Brown, 1 Lot
    • Eliphelet Johnson, 1 Lot
    • Paul Day, 1 Lot
    • Nath. Whelar jun, 2 Lots
    • John Medlis, 1 Lot
    • Thomas Brown, 1 Lot
    • Sam'll Ward, 1 Lot
    • Atonie Olive, 1 Lot
    • Wm. Muir, 1 Lot
    • Peter Cundict, 1 Lot
    • John Daviss, 2 Lots
    • Sam'll Baldwin, 1 Lot
    • John Baldwin, Sr., 2 Lots
    • Joseph Linsley, 1 lot
    • Tunis Johnson, 1 Lot
    • Tho. Ludington, 1 Lot
    • Amos Williams, 1 Lot
    • Sam'll Camp, 1 Lot
    • Jonathan Sayers, 1 Lot
    • Daniel Dod, Jun, 1 Lot
    • John Johnson, 1 Lot
    • Sam'll Cooper, 1 Lot
    • Matthew Canfirld, 1 Lot
    • Joseph Crane, 1 Lot
    • John Plumb, 1 Lot
    • Jonathan Sargint, 1 Lot
    • John Broadberry, 1 Lot
    • John Cooper, 1 Lot
    • Azariah Crane, 3 Lots
    • Daniel Baldwin, 1 Lot
    • Jasper Crane, jun, 1 Lot
    • Robert Cambel, 1 Lot
    • Thomas Hays, 1 Lot
    • John Clark, 3 Lots
    • John Lee, 1 Lot
    • Joseph Canfield, 2 Lots
    • George Harrison, 1 Lot
    • James Clizbee, 1 Lot
    • John Cundict, 1 Lot
    • Jose. Plumb, 1 Lot
    • Daniel Brown, 1 Lot
    • William Wilson, 1 Lot
    • Sam'll Harrison, 1 Lot
    • Judah Penington, 1 Lot
    • Benjamin Harrison, 1 Lot
    • Seth Tomkins, 1 Lot
    • Sam'll Roberts, 1 Lot
    • Sam'll Freeman, 1 Lot
    • Joseph Ball, 1 Lot
    • Cobus Provost, 1 Lot
    • Matthew Williams, 1 Lot
    • James Smith, 1 Lot
    • Elezar Tomkins, 1 Lot
    • Joseph Johnson, 1 Lot
    • Mr. Wakeman, 1 Lot
    • Sam'll Alling, 1 Lot
    • Caleb Ball, 1 Lot
    • John Crane, 1 Lot
    • Elizabeth Ogden, 1 Lot
    • Anthony Hand, 1 Lot
    • David Ogden, 1 Lot
    • Daniel Harrison, 1 Lot
    • Ebenezer Lindsley, 1 Lot
    • Jasper Crane, 3 Lot
    • Ben. Baldwin, 1 Lot
    • Nathaniel Ward, Sen, 1 Lot
    • John Linsley, 1 Lot
    • John Gardner, 1 Lot
    • John Ogden, 1 Lot
    • John Delgish, 1 Lot
    • Thomas Brown, Jun, 1 Lot
    • John Morris, 2 Lots
    • John Burwell, 1 Lot
    • John Rogers, 1 Lot
    • Jonathan Linsley, 1 Lot
    • William Brant, 3 Lots
    • Mr. Pierson, 1 Lot
    • Crispin Squire, 1 Lot
    • Ele. Bruen, 1 Lot
    • Edward Ball, 1 Lot
    • Mr. John Pruden, 2 Lots
    • Sam'll Lyon, 1 Lot
    • Stephen Brown, 1 Lot
    • Joseph Peck, 1 Lot
    • Zophar Bech, 1 Lot
    • James Rogers, 1 Lot
    • Josiah Ogden, 1 Lot
    • Sam'll Kitchel, 1 Lot
    • Abraham Kitchel, 1 Lot
    • Elezer Lamson, 1 Lot
    • Daniel Tikenor, 1 Lot
    • Daniel Sargent, 1 Lot
    • Bostegon Vangeson, 1 Lot
    • Joseph Wood, 1 Lot

And so on the third day of September in the year 1701, this agreement was executed by 101 persons; one hundred men and one woman, Elizabeth Ogden, who divided the land they planned to purchase into 117 lots. Negotiations were now started with the Indians of the Horseneck section and a deed was actually signed with the Indians on March 6, 1702. (1) This deed does not exist today since it was lost in a fire in Jonathan Pierson's home in Newark on March 7, 1744-5 (2). However, we do know what the contents of the deed were which the Indians of Horseneck gave to the Newark Men. The members of the Newark Committee, John Treat, Jasper Crane, Joseph Harrison, George Harrison and others "did Make Seal and Execute a Good Lawful Deed or Instrument Conveyance of and for A Certain Tract of Land Scituate in the County of Essex between the Top of the First Mountain So Called and Pasaick River Beginning at the mouth of Pine Brook So Called and thence running up the Said River Unto Menusen path so called Excepting a Small Tract Lying by said River." (3) The amount paid for the tract of land was 130 pounds and the deed was signed by the following Indians: Loantique, Tophow, Manshum and other Indians. (4)


(1) In David Pierson's "History of the Oranges to 1921" Volume I, page 50, it is stated that the deed was executed in March 1701. In Rev. Berry's "Historical Survey of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell" the date is March A.D. 1701-2 (Page 6). The date in Mr. Berry's book is correct if reckoned according to the old calendar and incorrect in Mr. Pierson's book. By an Act of the English Parliament in 1751, it was provided that the year 1752 should begin on January 1 instead of March 25 which date had long been counted the beginning of the fiscal year in England and Ireland.

March 6, 1701-2, if corrected to adhere to the new calendar would actually be March 6, 1702. Therefore, the Indian to the Horseneck section was executed in the year 1702.

(2) The corrected date is 1745.

(3) Berry, Rev. C.T. op. cit., page 45.

(4) ibid.

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