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Lucullus McWhorter

McClain Printing Company, Parsons, West Virginia, will be reprinting BORDER SETTLERS OF NORTHWESTERN VIRGINIA written by Lucullus McWhorter and later annotated by Thwaites. McWhorter explored the lives and times of several families who lived along the western frontier during the last half of the seventeenth century with special emphasis on the French & Indian War, the Revolution, and border warfare. This book is a definite "must have" for anyone interested in pioneer life in northwestern Virginia (now West Virginia), Ohio, and Kentucky and should take its place alongside Wither's CHRONICLES OF BORDER WARFARE, and Doddridge's NOTES ON THE SETTLEMENT AND INDIAN WARS.

For a better understanding of the subject matter of this book, see the Table of Contents and our complete list of surnames in the book. Then to order your copy visit John Sleeth's Trading Post.

Hacker's Creek Pioneer Descendants, Inc.
23 Abbotts Run Road
Horner, WV 26372
Phone: (304) 269-7091


Chapter I

First Permanent Settlement in the Trans-Allegheny. Pringle Brothers of the Sycamore – Their History – Fugitives and Hunters – Employed by Simpson the Trapper – Brings Settlers to the Buckhannon Valley. Jesse Hughes the Indian Fighter – Nationality – Personal Appearance – Dress and Habits. Other Settlers, Hunters and Explorers – What Became of Them? – Military Records.

NOTES – South Branch of the Potomac. – Indian Names: - Delaware, – Shawnee, - Iroquois. Monongahela, Meaning of. The Pringle Sycamore. The Hunting Shirt.

Chapter II

Dearth of the Written Record. Withers’ Recognized Authority. Fragmentary Narrative. Who Wrote Border Warfare? – Authorship Disputed. Claim of William Hacker and William Powers – Were They Wronged of Title? Powers Commander of Scouts – His Ability of Chronicler – Achievements of Hacker – His Education. Partisan Writers Unjust to the Indian. Incidents in Modern Border Wars – Suppressing Facts.

NOTES – The Hacker Family. Captivity of Mrs. Cunningham. Simon Girty. The Bonnetts as Indian Spies. Other Scouts. Military Records. Fraudulent Pension Claims.

Chapter III

Printed Record of Jesse Hughes – Sagacity of Scout – Fatal Ambuscade – Determining a Coward – Alone in the Wilderness – Kills an Indian – The Turkey Decoy – Is the Hughes Turkey Story a Myth?

NOTE – Tragedies – Capt. Shaylor at Fort Jefferson.

Chapter IV

The Hughes Family – Birth Place – Traditions of Jesse – Father Killed – A Deadly Vow. Thomas Hughes Lieut. Of Scouts – Bravery of – His Pathetic Death – A Country’s Ingratitude. Other Hughes. Dogs in Indian Warfare. Marriage of Jesse – A Noble Wife – Settles on Hacker’s Creek – Cabin in the Wilderness – A Dangerous Bed-fellow – Poisonous Reptiles – Jesse Shoots an Indian Hunter.

NOTES – Woodson’s Memoranda of the Hughes Family in Powhatan Co., Virginia. French Hugenots. Lowther Killed. The Washburn Family. Tragedies. Romance. Lewis Wetzel. McClellan the Ranger. Military Records. Singleton, Pension Agent – Unjust Ruling – Wages of Scouts – Land Laws – Tomahawk Claims – Unreliable Data of Settlements. Rattlesnakes.

Chapter V

Indian Settlements on Hacker’s Creek. Discovery of Prehistoric Interest. Mysterious Finds: - Village Sites – Unusual Remains – Burial Grounds – Mounds – Ancient Art – Indian Fields – Ash Circles.

NOTES – Superstitions – Buried Treasure – Ghost Stories.

Chapter VI

Shawnee Towns on Hacker’s Creek- Wi-ya-ni-pe, Birth Place of Tecumseh; Old Chillicothe. Shawnee Cist Burial. Tecumseh’s Pipe – Wi-ya-ni-pe, the Indian’s Paradise. Wild Fruits – Game – Fish. Alexander West, Scout and Hunter – Bear Fight in the Dark. Wild Boars. Hunting Stories – Dangerous Joke – A Fearful Tragedy. John Hacker First Settler – Chases Buffaloes – Exploration. Dearth of Bread – Pathetic Incident. Deadly Cold of the Mountains. Death of a Guide. – A Mountain Tragedy.

NOTES – Traditions of Mines. The Shawnees – Summary of History. Statesmen and Warriors. Descendants of Tecumseh.

Chapter VII

The Stroud Family Murdered by Shawnees. Delaware settlement on Little Kanawha. Captain Bull friend of the Whites – His Village and People Destroyed – Treachery of the Settlers – Names of the Murderers – Pathetic Story of Capt. Bull.

NOTES – Gaulouise the Trapper. The Delawares – Their Home – Tribal Status – Story of the "Woman." Renegade White Kills Indians – Shawnees not the Aggressors.

Chapter VIII

Terrible Culmination to the Bulltown Massacre – Unrestrained Fierceness of the Borderers – Jesse Hughes and Capt. William White Leaders – Indians Discovered at Indian Camp on the Buckhannon – The Surprise and Butchery – A Wound Indian’s Greeting – The Leaden Reply – Were the Victims Buried? An Aged Nimrod’s Gruesome Find. Interesting Tradition. Abundance of Game – A Bear Shambles.

Chapter IX

John Cutright, Scout of the Buckhannon – An Indian Moccasin Maker – Confusion of Names – Indian Incursions – Shoots Indian Horse Thief – Wounded by an Indian – Primitive Surgery – Revolutionary Soldier – Branded an Imposter – Honesty Proven – Ability as a Warrior – Errors Corrected – Personal Appearance of Cutright – Hatred for the Red Race – Attempts to Kill Indian in Time of Peace.

NOTES – Virginia Hard Pressed for Troops – Loss in Battle of Germantown – Appalling Destitution Among the State Soldiery. Disputed Boundary Between Virginia and Pennsylvania – Hauteur of the Virginia Minute Man – Efficiency in Indian Warfare – Unreliability in Open Battle – British Estimate of the "Shirt Man."

Chapter X

Requisites of a Scout Leader – Capt. White, Chief of Buckhannon Spies – Ancestry – Associate of Col. Crawford – Kills Indians in Glades – Imprisonment – Liberated by Mob – Status of Border Society – A Romance of the Wilderness – An Indian Runner – Cunning Ruse – Mysterious Captive – Insatiate Venom – Indian Camp Surprised – Desperate Chase – Sickening Scene – An Indian’s Revenge – Death of Capt. White. John Fink Killed. Timothy Dorman, Renegade. Buckhannon Fort Abandoned. Jacob Bush, Scout and Soldier – In Clark’s Campaign 1781. Incidents – Drink of Whiskey for Brain of a Deer. Descendants – Lieut. Jacob Westfall – Military Record – With Gen. Clark – Lochry’s Defeat – Failure of Expedition. "Flight of 1770" – Doubtful Narrative – Shaver the Spy – Kaskaskie Campaign – Wounded in Battle – Suffered Injustice.

NOTES – Lieut. John White Killed. – Deserters or Indians? Outrages by Settlers Laid to Indians. Col. John Sevier. Capture of Capt. White and Petro – Escape of White – Fate of Petro – Mrs. White Witnesses Killing of Husband. Monument to White and Fink. Treaty of Fort Stanwix. Indian Claim to the Trans-Allegheny. – Twenty Years War.

Chapter XI

Cause of Dunmore’s War. Storm Brewing – Facts Perverted. Boone in Kentucky – Long Hunters – Indians Killed – Connolly’s Warning. – Creasap’s Declaration of War – Massacre of Logan’s Family. Death of Bald Eagle – Killing of Cat Eye – Number of Friendly Indians Murdered – Indian Law of Reprisal. Storm Bursts on Virginia Border – Bloody Sequel – Murder of Cornstalk – Vengeful Shawnees. Jesse Hughes Defender of the Border – Hacker’s Creek Invaded by Indians – West’s Fort Besieged – Fort Abandoned. Beech Fort – Hughes Memorable Night Run – Signal Cry from the Hill – Dangers of the Night Trail – Panthers – Wolves – A Daring Feat – Hughes Chased by Three Indians – Remarkable Endurance.

NOTES – Character of the Kentucky Settlers. Franklin on War 1774 – Indians Murdered East of Mountains – Sympathy for Logan. David Sleeth the Scout – Accusation of Singleton. Jackson’s Block House.

Chapter XII

Indian Raid in Tygart’s Valley – Six Families Destroyed – Col. Lowther in Pursuit – Indians Surprised – A Deadly Volley – Capt. Bull Mortally Wounded. Jesse Hughes – Fiendish Deed – A Ghastly Joke. West and the "Yellow Boy" - Indian Horse Thieves – Two are Shot – Indian Idea of Justice – Retaliatory Vengeance – Martha Hughes Captured. Attack on the West Families. Leonard Schoolcraft, Renegade – Heartrending Scene. West in Clark’s Expedition 1781 – Declaration for Bounty Lands – Personal Appearance.

NOTES – Moccasin Making. Vision of the Red Doe. Story of a Forty Niner. – Poison for Indian Cattle Thieves. Gen. Clark – Difficulties Encountered in Procuring Troops – Contemplated Foray Against Moravian Indians. John Gibson.

Chapter XIII

The Schoolcraft Family – Its Fate – Five Brothers Swept into Captivity – Three Turn Indian – Career as Warriors – Two Unaccounted For – Mystery Solved – Schoolcraft the Hunter – The Phantom Deer. – Schoolcraft the Scout. - Services along the Ohio. Indian Ambuscade Near Wheeling. – Mason and Ogal Companies Wiped Out. Simon Girty. Wheeling Threatened – Village Burned. Col. Broadhead’s Allegheny Expedition – Scouting in Monongahela County. Wheeling in the Revolution – Besieged by Indians and British – Col. Zane’s Defense of His Cabin – Choice or Surprise? – Testimony of Jacob Scott – Swiftness of Indian Descent – Length of Siege. Scouting in Kentucky – Campaigning with Gen. Clark.

NOTES – Superstitions of the Wilderness – The Silent Trailing Dog – Singular Song from the Darkness. Pigeon Roosts – Slaughter of Birds. Last Great Flight. Col. Broadhead’s Coshocton Expedition – Lawlessness of the Borderers – Executing Prisoners – Village Destroyed – Lewis Wetzel Tomahawks a Chief – Massacre of the Unarmed.

Chapter XIV

Jesse Hughes – Trapped by Two Indians – Cunning Ruse and Escape – Search for Lost Child – Kills Wounded Indian – Remarkable Fleetness of Indian Athlete – His Tragic Death. Indian Motives. Lone Indian Shot by West – His Miserable Death. – Indian Rock – Indian Spring. Flat-boating on the Monongahela – Hughes Attempts to Kill Indian Child – Barbarity of Combatants.

NOTES – Conquest of Primitive Races – Similar Throughout World – Exterminating Australian Blacks.

Chapter XV

Buckhannon River – Name a Mystery – Conjecture of Writers. Indian Habitations – Village Near the Pringle Camp. Stream Named for Buckongahelas, Delaware War Chief – Name Corrupted – Indian Ghost Story – Character of Buckongahelas – Washington of His Tribe.

NOTES – Buckhannon River – Earliest Mention – John Buchannon Missionary. Ancient Remains – Mounds – Effigy Pipe. Indian Plurality of Names.

Chapter XVI

Frontier Posts – Construction – No Adequate Description. Buckhannon Fort – Size and Character – Ruins – Mill – Traces of Dam and Race – Burned by Indians. Invasion by Indians – Battle of the Narrows. – Hughes Kills Indian Leader. Cutright – New Shotpouch. The Regers as Scouts. John Bush Builder of Buckhannon Fort – Thrilling Adventures with Indians. Other Bushes – Confusion of Names – Desperate Encounter – Heroic Woman – Conflict with a Bear – Death of Bush.

NOTES – Intended Forays Revealed by Indians. The Reger Flint-Lock Rifle. Virginia Militia Regiments Revolutionary War – Field of Action. Size of Frontier Rifles. Bush Land Claims.

Chapter XVII

Capt. George Jackson – First Military Company of Buckhannon. Col. Wm. Darke’s Emergency Regiment – British in Virginia – Siege of Yorktown – Jackson in Gen. Clark’s Expedition – Col. of Militia – Memorable Night Run – Col. Lowther’s Rangers – Thomas and Elias Hughes Officers – Jesse Hughes Subaltern – Indian War Paths – Canoe Travel – Portage – Hughes and West – Scouting Tour – Bear in "Town" – A Great Hunt – The Spoils. Memorial Names – Joseph Hall. – In Dunmore’s War – Old Camp Unearthed. Henry Jackson Surveyor – A Surveying Party – Camp Alarmed – Hughes Discovers Indians – Camp Abandoned – War Party Raids on Cheat River – Intercepted by Lowther’s Rangers – Uncompleted Survey – Notable Land Suit – Settlements on West Fork River – The Halls. Wm. Strange – Lost in Mountains – Fruitless Quest – Gun and Skeleton Found – Traditions – Mrs. Strange – Twice Widowed by Tragedy – Marries Joseph Hall – Descendants. Mollohan Lost – Unsolved Mystery.

NOTES – The Jacksons – Streams Named by Scouts – Kanawha and Monongahela Portage – Indian Remains. Col. Duvall – Commander of Scouts – Available Military Force. Simon Girty in Settlements – Two Children Killed – Mythical Indian Town. Incident of Seneca Trail.

Chapter XVIII

Forts on the Ohio. Cattle Drover’s Camp Attacked by Tecumseh. – Account by Withers – By Hildreth. Death of Carpenter – Others Killed. Jesse Hughes’ Narrow Escape – Rapid Flight – Indian Respect for Dead – Escape of Negro Captive – Hughes in Foot Race – Charging Gun while Speeding. Traditional Account of Carpenter Tragedy – Expedition of Revenge. – Shawnee Attacked on Shade River – Hughes Saves Indian Baby – Doubtful Narrative. Hunters Attacked – Death of Coleman.

NOTES – Red Stone and Marietta Road – Tecumseh – First War Path – Abstinence from Food. Peter Waggoner Captive. Indian Dress Adopted by Bordermen.

Chapter XIX

Waggoner Massacre – Hughes Gives Alarm – Tecumseh – Prisoners Object of Raid – Indian Parental Love – Escape of Marauders – Eighty Miles without Food. Peter Waggoner – Captive Twenty Years – Found in Ohio – His Indian Family – Persuaded Home – Promised Return – Detained – Grows Restive – Despondent , Attempts Violence – More Strictly Guarded – Marries White Woman – Stories of Captivity – Traits – His Indian Wife Visits Settlements – Her Fate – Death of Peter – Captive Sisters.

NOTES – Waggoner Family in Virginia. Chillicothe Destroyed by Kentuckians.

Chapter XX

Hughes Last Defense of Border. Carpenter Tragedy on Elk River. Folly of Adam O’Brien – The Big and Little Indian. – Superior Skill as Warriors – Cunning Ruse – Outwitted by Hughes and Killed – John Carpenter – Soldier of Revolution – In Battle of Guilford Court House – Border Scout – House Burned by Indians. Virginia Militia at Frontier Forts. Desertion. The Carpenters’ in Dunmore’s War.

NOTES – Adam O’Brien – Type Virginia Bordermen – Love of Wilderness – Adventure – Companion Killed. Jeremiah Carpenter Captive of Shawnee. Pleasing Episode in Indian Life. Traditions – Omen of the Red Deer. Jesse Hughes Avenger. Carpenter’s Gun. Bell Decoy. – Settlers Killed.

Chapter XXI

Wayne’s Defeat of Indians. – Receding of the Border. – Jesse Hughes Grows Restive – Follows Indians to the Wabash – Adventure at Vincennes – Chills and Fever – Moves to Kentucky – Wanders Back to the Ohio – Settles in Jackson County (West) Virginia – Game and Fish – Was Hughes a Long Hunter? – Tradition of Morgan – Dead Indian Flayed – Hughes Kills Friendly Indians. War Paths – Haynes Cave – Concealed Rifles – Fate of Drunken Indians.

NOTES – Remarkable Pioneer House – Defensive Features – One Hughes a Long Hunter – Character and Achievements of Long Hunters – Prominence of Hughes Family. David Morgan – Atrocious Deed – Morgan’s Descendants in Oregon War – Hereditary Depravity – Mutilating Dead Body of Indian Chief – Facts Suppressed. – Debauchery of Northwestern Tribes. Description of Haynes’ Cave – Indian Sagacity.

Chapter XXII

Closing Scenes in Life of Jesse Hughes – Review of Eventful Career – Judge Brown’s Eulogy – Country’s Ingratitude – Loss of Home – Dotage of Old Age – Hunts Imaginary Indians – Dies Alone in the Woods – Where is the Old Scout’s Grave? – Irony of Fate – Jesse Hanshaw – Death of Mrs. Hughes – Relics of the Hughes.

NOTES – Boone – Hughes – Kenton – Lives Compared. Drouillard, French Trader.

Chapter XXIII

Genealogy of Hughes Family – Thomas, Sr. – Jesse – Thomas, Jr. – Elias – No Peers as Scouts on Virginia Border – Sudna – Marriage to Col. Lowther. Job – Bibbee’s – Descendants of Jesse. – James Gandee – Descendants of Elias.

NOTES – Hughes’ Race of Warriors. Transformation of Names.

Chapter XXIV

(Biographical )

Elias Alias Ellis Hughes – In Battle of Point Pleasant – Who Was the Last Survivor? – Samuel Bonifield – Incidents of the Battle – Hughes Defender of Border – Career as Told in Declaration of Pension – Rare Unpublished History – Captain of Spies – No Equal Leader – Captured Indian Ornaments – Gen. Wilson’s Tribute – Marauding Indians Killed – Remarkable Elk Chase.

NOTES – A Ghastly Tradition – Camp Site of Gen. Lewis Army – Historic Tree – Boy Homesteader.

Chapter XXV



Elias Hughes Moves to Ohio – Career in Western Country – Printed Records – John Ratliff, Indian Fighter – Companion Hunters – Kills Two Indians – Builds Blockhouse – A Night of Peril – Interesting Unpublished History – "Last of Border Warrriors" – Sketches – Thrilling Adventure – Lieut. War 1812 – Character – Personal Appearance – Traditions – Death – Burial Under Honors of War.

NOTES – By Canoe to the Muskingum – On Foot to Licking River – Forty Mile Walk at Eighty – Record War 1812 – Death of Sons in War – Siege of Fort Meigs – Capt. Samuel Brady – Monument to Hughes.

Chapter XXVI


Col. William Lowther of Nutter’s Fork – Commander of Militia and Scouts – Residence – Descendant from Ancient Family – Nationality – Prowess in Days of Knighthood – Family Coat of Arms – Skill as Leader – Old Cabin – Exploration of Little Kanawha – Hardships of Wilderness Life – Touching Incident – A Mother’s Tears – The "Starving Year" – "God Has Sent This" – Lowther in Clark’s Expedition 1781 – Host Record no in Annals – Interesting Testimony – Companions in Arms. The Bonnetts. Jacob Bush. Sotha Hickman, Noted Scout and Hunter. Nutter Family – Builder of Nutter’s Fort – It’s Location.

NOTES – Col. Lowther’s Slaves – An Interesting Story – Wild Life of the Pioneer. – Education. Richards’ Fort – Disputed Location – Stockades – The Richards as Settlers. Scarcity of Bread – Indian Pemmican.

Chapter XXVII


Printed Record of Col. Lowther – Distribution of Scouts – Commissioned Captain of Militia – Charged with Misconduct – Senior Officers – Merits of the Scouts. Capt. Bogart. Capt. McCullock. Indians at Neal’s Station. Arrest of Lieut. Biggs. Indians Kill Whites. Dearth of Ammunition – Scarcity of Rations. Scouts Unpaid – Pay Roll of Scouts. Descendants of Col. Lowther – Records War 1812 – Genealogy.

NOTES – Charges Against Capt. McCullock. Alexander Lowther – Soldier War 1812.


Chapter XXVIII


Henry McWhorter – Pioneer Millwright of West’s Fork – Nationality and Clan Affinity – Three Noted Brothers – Remarkable Strength – Battle with Keel Boatsmen – Henry a Minute Man Revolutionary War – Battle of White Plains – Building the Chevaux-de-frise Across the Hudson – Contractor Turns Tory – Barracks Burned. McWhorter Moves to Pennsylvania – Enlists Against Indians – Marries – Moves to Hampshire County, Virginia – To Hacker’s Creek – The Old Cabin – Packing Salt Across Mountains – Comrade Freezing – Warmed with Beech Limb – Builds Mill – Capacity of a Mountain "Corn Cracker" – Act of Charity. Waggoner Tragedy. Death of Henry. John McWhorter – Boy Life in Wilderness – Eccentricity of Character – Hunting Deer with Bucket – Capt. War 1812 – Public Career – Amusing Anecdotes – A Scathing Rebuke. Other McWhorters – Incidents – Genealogy – Soldiers Civil War.

NOTES – McWhorter – Modes of Spelling Name – The Family in New York – Minute Men – Obstructing the Hudson – Family in Pennsylvania – Soldiers Revolutionary War. Joseph Kester – Revolutionary Soldier.


Chapter XXIX


The Regers – Early Pioneers – Nationality – Founder of Family in Virginia – Soldiers in Revolution – Wonderful Hunters – Terrible Conflict with a Bear – Scouting on the Monongahela – Bitten by Rattlesnake – Thrilling Combats with Bears – Carrying Eight Bushels Salt – Tossing Man in Air – The Hercules of the Border – Cowing a Bully – "Wallowing" Two Men at 80 – Descendants of War 1812-1861 – Battle with Indians – Entering Bear’s Den – Notice of Bozarth Tragedy – Adventure with Wolves – Mysterious Quarry – Chasing the Devil – Susperstitions – Occult Healing . Genealogy.

NOTES – Col. Wm. Russel in Revolution – On the Border. Col. Silas Zane – Revolutionary Record. Siege of Fort Henry. Bozarth Children Captives – A "Brave Boy" – "Forenash Plantation." Ludicrous Incident – Kentucky "Col." Hunting Trouble – Hurled Over Rail Fence – Hunter’s Attachment for His Dog – A Touching Scene. Entering Den of Panthers – Gen. Putnam’s Achievement Eclipsed. Bloody Run – Origin of Name.

Chapter XXX


Jacob Brake Indian Captive – Life Among Northwestern Tribes – Pontiac’s War – Return from Captivity – Knows of Copper Mines in Michigan – Company Formed to Develop Ore – Brake Pilots Party Through Wilderness – Arrives Near the Mine – Angered – Refuses to Reveal Location – Brake of Noble Birth – Father a German Baron. Tory Uprising on Wappatomaka – John Claypole Leader – Brake’s Mill Rendezvous – Militia Overawed – Tories Scattered by Morgan’s Riflemen – The Baron’s Estate Destroyed – Returns to Germany. Genealogy.

NOTES – Mary Harris Indian Captive. Brake Family. First Census of Virginia. Augusta County Militia on Border. Col. Paston’s Appeal for Aid in Suppressing Tory Element.

Chapter XXXI


Cozads – Settlers on Cheat River – Nationality – Different Forms of Name – Jacob Cozad, S., Moves to Hacker’s Creek – Indian Incursion – Jacob, Jr., and Three Brothers Captured – Youngest Killed – Cozad Tree – Bark Inscription – Flight and Escape of Indians – Jacob’s Alarm Halloo – Knocked Senseless with Rifle – Saved by Squaw – Brothers Freed at Treaty of Greenville – Jacob Remains a Prisoner – Found by Brother. Incidents in Indian Life – Indian Superstition. – Jacob Rescues Child – A Mother’s Gratitude . Battle of Fallen Timbers – Rage of Indians – Jacob Condemned to the Stake – Preparation for Death – Secreted by Strange Squaw – Spirited Away. Indian Nursery Song. Huntercraft. Hardships. Spartan Training of Boys. Jacob’s After Life – Marriage – Settles on Hacker’s Creek – Baptist Minister – Sweat Doctor. Comments. Indian Veneration for Rattlesnake – Serpent Worship – Pictographs – Petroglphs.

NOTES – Indian Women Taking War Path – Modern Instances Cited. The Wahk-puch of the Yakimas.

Chapter XXXII

The Hursts’ – Revolutionary Soldier Head of Family – Dies on Cheat River – Widow Moves to West Fork – Life in the Woods – John Hurst Soldier War 1812 – Antipathy for Reptiles – Den of Rattlesnakes – Narrow Escape – Panthers – Hair Whitened by Fright – Adventures – Price of Two Charges of Powder – Wolves – Dangerous Night Prowler – A Close Call. Daniel Hurst – Soldier 1812. Stock Driving Across Mountains – Slave Whipping – Taming a Slave Overseer.

NOTES – Poisonous Snakes – Fabulous Size of Rattler – Death from Bite – The Copperhead – Extermination.

Chapter XXXIII


James Belt – Typical Mountaineer – Eccentricity of Character – Born Orator – Stickler for Truth – Midnight Lecture in Down-pour. Recreant Jack Condemned to Hang – Funeral Oration on Mountain – Timely Reprieve. Tanglefoot and Stump Speaking. Land of Milk and Honey. Soldier War 1812 – A Martinet – Traits of a Napoleon – Cat vs. Batrachian. Sam – War-horse of the Valley – "Pards" in the Fray – Charging the Enemy – An Army on the "Knob" – Peace to the "Pards."

Chapter XXXIV


Witchcraft and Black Art – Superstitions of Early Settlers – Witch Spells – Gun and Shotpouch Effected – Witch Doctors – Status with Bordermen – Modern Belief in Occult – Human Steed – Strenuous Night Journey – Sumptuous Repast – Malicious Persecution – Destroying the Witch – Bewitched Sugar Orchard – Achievements of Elkany Roby – Potency of the Silver Bullet and Muttered "Spell."

Chapter XXXV


Carnivora of West Virginia – Present Range of Black Bear. The Timber Wolf – Early Practical Extinction – Former Packs Swarming the Great Woods – Cunning Ferocity. A Narrow Escape. Woman Pursued. Hunter Lost. The Panther – Sly Fierceness. Bozarth Stalked – Rescued by Dogs. Sleeping Baby Saved by Fire. Unarmed Settler Attacked – Decisive Combat in the Dark. Heroic Woman. Mail Carrier’s Thrilling Adventure – An Eye Dual – Lonely Ride – A Scream from the Darkness. The Masked Camp Fire – A Surprised Panther. A Scared Darkey – Lucky Knife Thrust. Hunter Pursued – Saved by Random Shot. A Startled Irishman. A Gamboling Panther Killed. The Last Bear. A Daring Woman. Humorous Bear Story. The First Buck. A Modern Nimrod.

NOTES – Ruse of Wolf Securing Prey – Deer Herded by Wolves.



Appendix 1

Draper Correspondence – Rare Collection of Letters on Border History of Upper Monongahela – Light on Disputed Points – Contribution by Col. Westfall – By David Smith – Authorship of Border Warfare – Hacker and Powers Letters – Jacksons as Pioneers.

NOTES – Stroud Tragedy – Battle of Point Pleasant – First Shot – Lieut. Frogg – Withers Account of Killing Capt. White – Other Incidents – John Hacker – Hezekiah Hess – Soldier Revolution – Descendants – Henry Hinzman – Record Revolutionary War – Genealogy – Rev. Wm. G. Hacker.

Appendix 2

Buffalo in Western Virginia – Bibliography of Draper – Additional Data – Distribution Throughout Trans-Allegheny – Last Buffalo and Elk in West Virginia – Gazetteer.

Appendix 3

Archaeological Examination of Indian Camp – Relics – Human Remains – Fire Hearths – Flint Implements – Ash Camp – Why Named – Legend of the Lost Mine – Ruins – Strange Rock Inscriptions – What are They? – Old Map – Mysterious Cave – Buried Treasure – The Swift Mines – Where Located? – Swift’s Journal – The Judge Apperson Copy – Connelley’s Letter.

NOTES – Tragedy of Powell’s Mountain. Civil War.

Appendix 4

Concerning Tory Uprising on Wappatomaka – Petitions for Executive Clemency for John Claypole – Jacob Brake and Others – Brake’s Mill – Baron John Brake.





Abbot, Acre, Adams, Adkinson, Albach, Algrie, Alkire, Allen, Allison, Allman, Anderson, Antes, Appelton, Apperson, Arbogast, Armstrong, Arnold, Ashby, Astre, Averil, Bailey, Baker, Bald Eagle, Bargerhoof, Barker, Barnet, Barrick, Baton, Beach, Beall, Beebee, Beeman, Bell, Belt, Belvins, Bennett, Berry, Bibbee, Biddell, Big Foot, Biggs, Bilderbock, Bird, Black, Blackburn, Blair, Bland, Bledsoe, Blue, Blue Jacket, Bogard, Boggs, Bond, Bonnet, Bonnett, Bonnifield, Booher, Boone, Booth, Boram, Borrer, Boswell, Botetourt, Bouquet, Bowles, Bowman, Boyd, Bozarth, Braddock, Brady, Brake, Brandt, Bready, Break, Breene, Brevard, Brice, Broadhead, Brown, Bruen, Buchan, Buchannon, Buckinjehillish, Buckongahelas, Buffington, Bull, Bullet, Burden, Burnet, Burns, Burt, Bush, Butcher, Butler, Butterfield, Caffer, Cameron, Camp, Campbell, Canaan, Captain Bull, Captain Jack, Captain Peter, Carleton, Carney, Carpenter, Carper, Carr, Casner, Cassellmam, Cat Eye, Catlin, Chadwick, Chain, Chaplin, Chaplain, Chapman, Charles II, Cheeseckau, Chenry, Chenverout, Chevay, Childers, Christian, Christy, Clark, Clarke, Claypole, Clinton, Cnaneu, Coburn, Cocad, Coff, Coghill, Coleman, Colerider, Colier, Collet, Collins, Conkie, Conly, Connell, Connelley, Conley, Connolly, Coon, Cooper, Copelan, Copelaw, Copley, Cornstalk, Cornwallis, Cossart, Cottrell, Coues, Coutler, Cox, Cozad, Cracroft, Crawford, Creasap, Crislip, Crites, Crocket, Crockett, Croghan, Cromwell, Crosbay, Crouche, Cumming, Cunningham, Cupp, Curtis, Custer, Cutright, Daripon, Darke, Darr, Daugherty, Davidson, Davis, Davison, Davisson, Dawson, Decker, DeHass, Delapane, Dennis Denton, DeSmet, Dewee (Col. 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Loudin, Lourey, Lourie, Loveberry, Low, Lowther, Lynch, Lynn, MacLean, MacWhorter, McAvoy, McCan, McCleery, McClellan, McClintock, McColloch, McCollogh, McCollock, McCormick, McCoy, McCullough, McDaniel, McDonnald, McDougal, McIntosh, McKee, McKenny, McKinney, McKnight, McLane, McMachan, McNeamor, McVany, McWhorter, Mace, Mackletess, Macky, Mac Whorter, Madison, Mahtotohpa, Malone, Mamate, Manear, Marlin, Marple, Martin, Matin, Mason, Matthews, Maughen, Maxson, Maxwell, May, Meetheetashe, Merrill, Methoatask, Millenburgh, Mitchel, Mitchell, Mock, Mofford, Mollohan, Mooney, Moorhead, More, Morgan, Moore, Morris, Morrison, Morton, Mosby, Muhlenberg, Mullenix, Munday, Nalls, Neal, Nealy, Neel, Neely, Nelson, Netherland, Nevill, Nichols, Norris, Norton, Nowlan, Nutler, Nutter, O’Brien, O’Flannigan, Ogal, Ogilvie, Ogle, Osborn, Osborne, Osburn, Owens, Oyer, Pachgantischihilas, Pacverz, Padocia, Parks, Parsons, Paston, Paul, Paxnous, Paxton, Payne, Paynter, Peck, Pekillon, Pen, Penn, Peopeomoxmox, Petchnonalas, Peters, Petro, Peyton, Phillips, Phouts, Pickle, Pierce, Pifer, Pixley, Poe, Pogue, Polk, Post, Posy, Powel, Powers, Pratt, Price, Prichard, Pringle, Proctor, Provance, Pufenglory, Pugeshashenwa, Pukeesheno, Putnam, Queen, Radcliff, Rains, Ralston, Ramsey, Randall, Ratcliff, Reager, Red Hawk, Reeder, Rees, Reger, Reichel, Renick, Rennick, Richards., Rider, Riffle, Riley, Robinson, Roberts, Roby, Rodebaugh, Rolif, Romine, Roney, Rony, Rooks, Roosevelt, Rosencrans, Ross, Roy, Rubels, Ruddell, Rule, Runner, Runnion, Runyon, Russell, Ruthaford, Ryan, Saffell, Salling, Sauwashehau, Syre, Scaggs, Scarf, Schoolcraft, Scott, Semple, Sevier, Shall, Shanklin, Shaver, Shaw, Shaylor, Shelby, Shepherd, Shinn, Shook, Shreves, Shuttomonen, Sigler, Sills, Simmerel,

Simmons, Simms-Allman, Simpson, Sims, Singleton, Sitting Bull, Skaggs, Skidmore, Skinner, Slagele, Slaughter, Sleath, Sleeth, Slegthes, Sleith, Smith, Smucker, Snath, Somerville, Sommerville, Sparks, Spencer, Sprouse, Staats, Stacey, Staley, Stalnaker, Stanley, Starcher, Stateler, Statts, Steele, Steeth, Stephanson, Stephenson, Stewart, Stilwell, Stoph, Stout, Strader, Straley, Strange, Stroud, Stuart, Stuffield, Stump, Stumps, Sullivan, Summerfield, Sutton, Swan, Swatswih, Swearingen, Swigt, Swisher, Switzer, Talbot, Talbott, Tannehill, Tanner, Taylor, Tecumsapeas, Tecumseh, Tecumseh Yakatowit, Templin, Tenny, Terminer, Teter, Thatcher, Thayer, Thomas, Thompkins, Thompson, Thwaites, Tigert, Tipton, Totliff, Totommo, Trader, Truby, Turner, Two Moons, Tygart, Umbels, Vanbuskirk, Van Burskirk, Vandeventer, Vanhorne, Vanmeter VanMeter, Van Schaick , Vanseoy, Vause, Veech, Wabeleganequa, Waddell, Waggoner, Wagner, Waldeck, Wales, Walker, Walsie, Wamsley, Wapameepto, Ward, Warden, Warfield, Warner, Warrick, Wasegoboah, Washburn, Washington, Watkins, Wayne, Wease, Wedsday, Weedman, Weedon, Wells, West, Westfall, Wetherholt, Wetzel, Whaley, Whetsel, White, White-jacket, Whitman, Whitzel, Wilcox, Wiley, Wilkins, Wilkinson, Williams, Williamson, Willis, Wilmoth, Wilson, Winans, Winters, Wire, Wisner, Withers, Witherspoon, Wolf, Wolfe, Wood, Woodrow, Woodson, Woodward, Woolf, Workman, Wright, Wykoff, Wymer, Yager, Yakatowit, Yeazle, Yellow Serpent, Young, Zane, Zeisberger.