THE STORY OF THE
Natural Riches, Industrial Resources, Statistics Of Productions,
THE ELDORADO OF THE ORIENT
Personal Character Sketches of and Interviews with Admiral Dewey,
HISTORY AND ROMANCE, TRAGEDIES AND
Events of the War in the West with Spain, and the Conquest of Cuba and Porto Rico.
By MURAT HALSTEAD,
War Correspondent in America and Europe, Historian of the Philippine Expedition.
Splendidly and Picturesquely Illustrated with Half-Tone Engravings from
from Special Drawings, and the Military Maps of the Philippines, Prepared
by the War Department of the United States.
OUR POSSESSIONS PUBLISHING CO.
Copyrighted, 1898, by
The engravings in this volume were
made from original photographs, and
are specially protected by copyright; and
notice is hereby given, that any person
or persons guilty of reproducing or
infringing upon the copyright in any way
will be dealt with according to law.
TO THE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS
THE ARMY AND NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES,
With Admiration for Their Achievements
In the War With Spain;
Gratitude for the Glory They Have Gained for the American Nation,
And Congratulations That All the People of All the
Country Rejoice in the Cloudless Splendor of Their Fame
That is the Common and Everlasting
Inheritance of Americans.
The purpose of the writer of the pages herewith presented has been to offer, in popular form, the truth touching the Philippine Islands. I made the journey from New York to Manila, to have the benefit of personal observations in preparing a history for the people. Detention at Honolulu shortened my stay in Manila, but there was much in studies at the former place that was a help at the latter. The original programme was for me to accompany General Merritt, Commander-in-Chief of the Philippine Expedition, but illness prevented its full realization, and when I arrived in Manila Bay the city had already been "occupied and possessed" by the American army; and the declaration of peace between the United States and Spain was made, the terms fully agreed upon with the exception of the settlement of the affairs of the Philippines. While thus prevented from witnessing stirring military movements other than those attending the transfer of our troops across the Pacific Ocean, an event in itself of the profoundest significance, the reference of the determination of the fate of the Philippine Islands to the Paris Conference, and thereby to the public opinion of our country, in extraordinary measure increased the general sensibility as to the situation of the southern Oriental seas affecting ourselves, and enhanced the value of the testimony taken on the spot of observers of experience, with the training of journalism in distinguishing the relative pertinence and potency of facts noted. Work for more than forty years, in the discussion from day to day of current history, has qualified me for the efficient exercise of my faculties in the labor undertaken. It has been my undertaking to state that which appeared to me, so that the reader may find pictures of the scenes that tell the Story that concerns the country, that the public may with enlightenment solve the naval, military, political, commercial and religious problems we are called upon by the peremptory pressure of the conditions local, and international, to solve immediately. This we have to do, facing the highest obligations of citizenship in the great American Republic, and conscious of the incomparably influential character of the principles that shall prevail through the far-reaching sweep of the policies that will be evolved. I have had such advantages in the assurance of the authenticity of the information set forth in the chapters following, that I may be permitted to name those it was my good fortune to consult with instructive results; and in making the acknowledgments due. I may be privileged to support the claim of diligence and success in the investigations made, and that I am warranted in the issue of this Story of the Philippines by the assiduous improvement of an uncommon opportunity to fit myself to serve the country.
Indebtedness for kind consideration in this work is gratefully acknowledged to Major-General Merritt, commanding the Philippine Expedition; Major-General Otis, who succeeds to the duties of military and civil administration in the conquered capital of the islands; Admiral George Dewey, who improved, with statesmanship, his unparalleled victory in the first week of the war with Spain, and raised the immense questions before us; General F.V. Greene, the historian of the Russo-Turkish war, called by the President to Washington, and for whose contributions to the public intelligence he receives the hearty approval and confidence of the people; Major Bell, the vigilant and efficient head of the Bureau of Information at the headquarters of the American occupation in the Philippines; General Aguinaldo, the leader of the insurgents of his race in Luzon, and His Grace the Archbishop of Manila, who gave me a message for the United States, expressing his appreciation of the excellence of the behavior of the American army in the enforcement of order, giving peace of mind to the residents in the distracted city of all persuasions and conditions, and of the service that was done civilization in the prevention, by our arms, of threatened barbarities that had caused sore apprehension; and, I may add, the Commissioner of the Organized People of the Philippines, dispatched to Washington accompanying General Greene; and of the citizens of Manila of high character, and conductors of business enterprises with plants in the community whose destiny is in the hands of strangers.
These gentlemen I may not name, for there are uncertainties that demand of them and command me to respect the prudence of their inconspicuity. This volume seems to me to be justified, and I have no further claim to offer that it is meritorious than that it is faithful to facts and true to the country in advocacy of the continued expansion of the Republic, whose field is the world.
Steamship China, Pacific Ocean, September 20, 1898.
The Origin of this Story of the Philippines.
The letter following is the full expression by the author of this volume of his purposes and principles in making the journey to the East Indies.
Going to the Philippines
Washington City, D.C., July 18.
With the authorization of the Military Authorities, I shall go to the Philippine Islands with General Merritt, the Military Governor, and propose to make the American people better acquainted with that remarkable and most important and interesting country. The presence of an American army in the Philippines is an event that will change broad and mighty currents in the world's history. It has far more significance than anything transpiring in the process of the conquest of the West India possessions of Spain, for the only question there, ever since the Continental colonies of the Spanish crown won their independence, has been the extent of the sacrifices the Spaniards, in their haughty and vindictive pride, would make in fighting for a lost Empire and an impossible cause with an irresistible adversary. That the time was approaching when, with the irretrievable steps of the growth of a living Nation of free people, we would reach the point where it should be our duty to accept the responsibility of the dominant American power, and accomplish manifest Destiny by adding Cuba and Porto Rico to our dominion, has for half a century been the familiar understanding of American citizens. Spain, by her abhorrent system, personified in Weyler, and illustrated in the murderous blowing up of the Maine with a mine, has forced this duty upon us; and though we made war unprepared, the good work is going on, and the finish of the fight will be the relegation of Spain, whose colonial governments have been, without exception, disgraceful and disastrous to herself, and curses to the colonists, to her own peninsula. This will be for her own good, as well as the redemption of mankind from her unwholesome foreign influences, typified as they are in the beautiful city of Havana, which has become the center of political plagues and pestilential fevers, whose contagion has at frequent intervals reached our own shores.
In the Philippine Islands the situation is for us absolutely novel. It cannot be said to be out of the scope of reasonable American expansion and is in the right line of enlarging the area of enlightenment and stimulating the progress of civilization. The unexpected has happened, but it is not illogical. It must have been written long ago on the scroll of the boundless blue and the stars. The incident of war was the "rush" order of the President of the United States to Admiral Dewey to destroy the Spanish fleet at Manila, for the protection of our commerce. The deed was done with a flash of lightning, and lo! we hold the golden key of a splendid Asiatic archipelago of a thousand beautiful and richly endowed islands in our grip. This is the most brilliant and startling achievement in the annals of navies. Never before had the sweep of sea power, ordered through the wires that make the world's continents, oceans and islands one huge whispering gallery, such striking exemplification. There was glory and fame in it, and immeasurable material for the making of history. We may paraphrase Dr. Johnson's celebrated advertisement of the widow's brewery by saying: Admiral Dewey's victory was not merely the capture of a harbor commanding a great city, one of the superb places of the earth, and the security of a base of operations to wait for reinforcements commensurate with the resources of the United States of America--the victorious hero fixed his iron hand upon a wonderful opportunity it was the privilege of our Government to secure at large, according to the rights of a victorious Nation for the people thereof--a chance for the youth of America, like that of the youth of Great Britain, to realize upon the magnificence of India; and this is as Dr. Johnson said of the vats and barrels of the Thrale estate--"the potentiality of wealth beyond the dreams of avarice." It is a new departure, but not a matter for the panic or apprehension of conservatism, that the Stars and Stripes float as the symbol of sovereignty over a group of islands in the waters of Asia, that are equal to all the West Indies. If we are strangers there now we shall not be so long. We have a front on the Pacific Ocean, of three great States--Washington, equal to England; Oregon, whose grandeur rolls in the sound of her famous name, and incomparable California, whose title will be the synonym of golden good times forever. The Philippines are southwest from our western front doors. They have been the islands of our sunsets in the winter. Now they look to us for the rosy dawn out of which will come the clear brightness of the white light of mornings and the fullness of the ripening noons, all the year around. With our bulk of the North American continent bulging into both the great oceans, it was foreordained since the beginning when God created the earth, that we, the possessors of this imperial American zone, should be a great Asiatic Power. We have it now in evidence, written in islands among the most gorgeous of those that shine in the Southern seas--islands that are east from the Atlantic and west from the Pacific shores of the One Great Republic--that we may personify hereafter, sitting at the head of the table when the empires of the earth consult themselves as to the courses of empire. Our Course of Empire is both east and west.
The contact of American and Asiatic civilization in the Philippines, with the American army there, superseding the Spaniards, will be memorable as one of the matters of chief moment in the closing days of the nineteenth century, and remembered to date from for a thousand years. It is my purpose to write of this current history while it is a fresh, sparkling stream, and attempt something more than the recitation of the news of the day, as it is condensed and restrained in telegrams; to give it according to the extent of my ability and the advantages of my opportunity, the local coloring, the characteristic scenery; the pen pictures of the people and their pursuits; sketches of the men who are doers of deeds that make history; studies of the ways and means of the islanders; essays to indicate the features of the picturesque of the strange mixture of races; the revolutionary evolutions of politics; the forces that pertain to the mingling of the religions of the Occident and the Orient, in a chemistry untried through the recorded ages. It is a tremendous canvas upon which I am to labor, and I know full well how inadequate the production must be, and beg that this index may not be remembered against me. It is meant in all modesty, and I promise only that there will be put into the task the expertness of experience and the endeavor of industry.
THE ORIGIN OF THIS STORY OF THE PHILIPPINES
ADMIRAL DEWEY ON HIS FLAGSHIP.
A Stormy Day on Manila Bay--Call on Admiral Dewey--The Man in White--He Sticks to His Ship--How He Surprised the Spaniards--Every Man Did His Duty on May-Day--How Dewey Looks and Talks--What He Said About War With Germany in Five Minutes--Feeds His Men on "Delicious" Fresh Meat from Australia--Photography Unjust to Him
LIFE IN MANILA.
Character of the Filipinos--Drivers Lashing Laboring Men in the Streets--What Americans Get in Their Native Air--The Logic of Destiny--Manila as She Fell Into Our Hands--The Beds in the Tropics--A Spanish Hotel--Profane Yells for Ice--Sad Scenes in the Dining Room--Major-General Calls for "Francisco"--A Broken-Hearted Pantry Woman
FROM LONG ISLAND TO LUZON.
Across the Continent--An American Governor-General Steams Through the Golden Gate--He is a Minute-Man--Honolulu as a Health Resort--The Lonesome Pacific--The Skies of Asia--Dreaming Under the Stars of the Scorpion--The Southern Cross
INTERVIEW WITH GENERAL AGUINALDO.
The Insurgent Leader's Surroundings and Personal Appearance--His Reserves and Ways of Talking--The Fierce Animosity of the Filipinos Toward Spanish Priests--A Probability of Many Martyrs in the Isle of Luzon
THE PHILIPPINE MISSION.
Correspondence with Aguinaldo About It--Notes by Senor Felipe Agoncillo--Relations Between Admiral Dewey and Senor Aguinaldo--Terms of Peace Made by Spanish Governor-General with Insurgents, December, 1897--Law Suit Between Aguinaldo and Arlacho--Aguinaldo's Proclamation of May 21, 1898
THE PROCLAMATIONS OF GENERAL AGUINALDO.
June 16th, 1898, Establishing Dictatorial Government--June 20th, 1898, Instructions for Elections--June 23d, 1898, Establishing Revolutionary Government--June 23d, 1898, Message to Foreign Powers--June 27th, 1898, Instructions Concerning Details--July 23d, 1898, Letter from Senor Aguinaldo to General Anderson--August 1st, 1898, Resolution of Revolutionary Chiefs Asking Recognition--August 6th, 1898, Message to Foreign Powers Asking Recognition
INTERVIEW WITH ARCHBISHOP OF MANILA.
Insurgents' Deadly Hostility to Spanish Priests--The Position of the Archbishop as He Defined It--His Expression of Gratitude to the American Army--His Characterization of the Insurgents--A Work of Philippine Art--The Sincerity of the Archbishop's Good Words
WHY WE HOLD THE PHILIPPINES.
The Responsibility of Admiral Dewey--We Owe It to Ourselves to Hold the Philippines--Prosperity Assured by Our Permanent Possession--The Aguinaldo Question--Character Study of the Insurgent Leader--How Affairs Would Adjust Themselves for Us--Congress Must Be Trusted to Represent the People and Firmly Establish International Policy
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AS THEY ARE.
Area and Population--Climate--Mineral Wealth--Agriculture--Commerce and Transportation--Revenue and Expenses--Spanish Troops--Spanish Navy--Spanish Civil Administration--Insurgent Troops--Insurgent Civil Administration--United States Troops--United States Navy--United States Civil Administration--The Future of the Islands
OFFICIAL HISTORY OF THE CONQUEST OF MANILA.
The Pith of the Official Reports of the Capture of Manila, by Major-General Wesley Merritt, Commanding the Philippine Expedition; General Frank V. Greene, General Arthur McArthur, and General Thomas Anderson, with the Articles of Capitulation, Showing How 8,000 Americans Carried an Intrenched City with a Garrison of 13,000 Spaniards, and Kept Out 14,000 Insurgents--The Difficulties of American Generals with Philippine Troops
THE ADMINISTRATION OF GENERAL MERRITT.
The Official Gazette Issued at Manila--Orders and Proclamation of Major-General Wesley Merritt, Who, as Commander of the Philippine Expedition, Became, Under the Circumstances of the Capture of Manila, the Governor of That City
THE AMERICAN ARMY IN MANILA.
Why the Boys Had a Spell of Homesickness--Disadvantages of the Tropics--Admiral Dewey and His Happy Men--How Our Soldiers Passed the Time on the Ships--General Merritt's Headquarters--What Is Public Property--The Manila Water Supply--England Our Friend--Major-General Otis, General Meritt's Successor
THE WHITE UNIFORMS OF OUR HEROES IN THE TROPICS.
The Mother Hubbard Street Fashion in Honolulu, and That of Riding Astride--Spoiling Summer Clothes in Manila Mud--The White Raiment of High Officers--Drawing the Line on Nightshirts--Ashamed of Big Toes--Dewey and Merritt as Figures of Show--The Boys in White
A MARTYR TO THE LIBERTY OF SPEECH.
Dr. Jose Rizal, the Most Distinguished Literary Man of the Philippines, Writer of History, Poetry, Political Pamphlets, and Novels, Shot on the Luneta of Manila--A Likeness of the Martyr--The Scene of His Execution, from a Photograph--His Wife Married the Day Before His Death--Poem Giving His Farewell Thoughts, Written in His Last Hours--The Works That Cost Him His Life--The Vision of Friar Rodriguez
EVENTS OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR.
No Mystery About the Cause of the War--The Expected and the Inevitable Has Happened--The Tragedy of the Maine--Vigilant Wisdom of President McKinley--Dewey's Prompt Triumph--The Battles at Manila and Santiago Compared--General Shafter Tells of the Battle of Santiago--Report of Wainwright Board on Movements of Sampson's Fleet in the Destruction of Cervera's Squadron--Stars and Stripes Raised Over Porto Rico--American and Spanish Fleets at Manila Compared--Text of Peace Protocol
THE PEACE JUBILEE.
The Lessons of War in the Joy Over Peace in the Celebrations at Chicago and Philadelphia--Orations by Archbishop Ireland and Judge Emory Speer--The President's Few Words of Thrilling Significance--The Parade of the Loyal League, and the Clover Club Banquet at Philadelphia--Address by the President--The Hero Hobson Makes a Speech--Fighting Bob Evans' Startling Battle Picture--The Destruction of Cervera's Fleet--The Proclamation of Thanksgiving
EARLY HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
The Abolishment of the 31st of December, 1844, in Manila--The Mystery of the Meridian 180 Degrees West--What Is East and West?--Gaining and Losing Days--The Tribes of Native Filipinos--They Had an Alphabet and Songs of Their Own--The Massacre of Magellan--His Fate Like That of Captain Cook--Stories of Long-Ago Wars--An Account by a Devoted Spanish Writer of the Beneficent Rule of Spain in the Philippines--Aguinaldo a Man Not of a Nation, But of a Tribe--Typhoons and Earthquakes--The Degeneracy of the Government of the Philippines After It Was Taken from Mexico--"New Spain"--The Perquisites of Captain-Generals--The Splendor of Manila a Century Ago
THE SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES.
Important Facts About the Lesser Islands of the Philippine Archipelago--Location, Size and Population--Capitals and Principal Cities--Rivers and Harbors--Surface and Soil--People and Products--Leading Industries--Their Commerce and Business Affairs--The Monsoons and Typhoons--The Terrors of the Tempests and How to Avoid Them
SPECIFICATIONS OF GRIEVANCES OF THE FILIPINOS.
An Official Copy of the Manifesto of the Junta Showing the Bad Faith of Spain in the Making and Evasion of a Treaty--The Declaration of the Renewal of the War of Rebellion--Complaints Against the Priests Defined--The Most Important Document the Filipinos Have Issued--Official Reports of Cases of Persecution of Men and Women in Manila by the Spanish Authorities--Memoranda of the Proceedings in Several Cases in the Court of Inquiry of the United States Officers
HAWAII AS ANNEXED.
The Star Spangled Banner Up Again in Hawaii, and to Stay--Dimensions of the Islands--What the Missionaries Have Done--Religious Belief by Nationality--Trade Statistics--Latest Census--Sugar Plantation Laborers--Coinage of Silver--Schools--Coffee Growing
EARLY HISTORY OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.
Captain James Cook's Great Discoveries and His Martyrdom--Character and Traditions of the Hawaiian Islands--Charges Against the Famous Navigator and Effort to Array the Christian World Against Him--The True Story of His Life and Death--How Charges Against Cook Came to Be Made--Testimony of Vancouver, King and Dixon, and Last Words of Cook's Journal--Light Turned on History That Has Become Obscure--Savagery of the Natives--Their Written Language Took Up Their High Colored Traditions and Preserved Phantoms--Scenes in Aboriginal Theatricals--Problem of Government in an Archipelago Where Race Questions Are Predominant--Now Americans Should Remember Captain Cook as an Illustrious Pioneer
THE START FOR THE LAND OF CORN STALKS.
Spain Clings to the Ghost of Her Colonies--The Scene of War Interest Shifts from Manila--The Typhoon Season--General Merritt on the Way to Paris--German Target Practice by Permission of Dewey--Poultney Bigalow with Canoe, Typewriter and Kodak--Hongkong as a Bigger and Brighter Gibraltar
KODAK SNAPPED AT JAPAN.
Glimpses of China and Japan on the Way Home from the Philippines--Hongkong a Greater Gibraltar--Coaling the China--Gangs of Women Coaling the China--How the Japanese Make Gardens of the Mountains--Transition from the Tropics to the Northern Seas--A Breeze from Siberia--A Thousand Miles Nothing on the Pacific--Talk of Swimming Ashore
OUR PICTURE GALLERY.
Annotations and Illustrations--Portraits of Heroes of the War in the Army and Navy, and of the Highest Public Responsibilities--Admirals and Generals, the President and Cabinet--Photographs of Scenes and Incidents--The Characteristics of the Filipinos--Their Homes, Dresses and Peculiarities in Sun Pictures--The Picturesque People of Our New Possessions
CUBA AND PORTO RICO.
Conditions In and Around Havana--Fortifications and Water Supply of the Capital City--Other Sections of the Pearl of the Antilles--Porto Rico, Our New Possession, Described--Size and Population--Natural Resources and Products--Climatic Conditions--Towns and Cities--Railroad and Other Improvements--Future Possibilities
The Island of Guam a Coaling Station of the United States--Discovery, Size and Products of the Islands
THE OFFICIAL TITLE TO OUR NEW POSSESSIONS IN THE INDIES.
Full Text of the Treaty of Peace with Spain Handed the President of the United States as a Christmas Gift for the People, at the White House, 1898--The Gathered Fruit of a Glorious and Wonderful Victory
BATTLES WITH THE FILIPINOS BEFORE MANILA.
The Aguinaldo War Upon the Americans--The Course of Events in the Philippines Since the Fall of Manila--Origin of the Filipino War--Aguinaldo's Insolent and Aggressive Acts, Including Treachery--His Agent's Vanity and Duplicity in Washington--Insurgents Under Aguinaldo Attack American Forces--Battle of Manila, February 4 and 5--Heroism of American Troops in Repelling the Insurgents--Aguinaldo's Proclamations--Agoncillo's Flight to Canada--The Ratification of the Treaty of Peace with Spain by the American Senate Followed the Fighting--The Gallantry and Efficiency of the American Volunteers--Another Glorious Chapter of Our War History
THE AGUINALDO WAR OF SKIRMISHES.
The Filipino Swarms, After Being Repulsed with Slaughter, Continue Their Scattering Efforts to Be Assassins--They Plan a General Massacre and the Burning of Manila--Defeated in Barbarous Schemes, They Tell False Tales and Have Two Objects, One to Deceive the People of the Philippines, the other to Influence Intervention--The Peril of Fire--Six Thousand Regulars Sent to General Otis--Americans Capture Iloilo, and Many Natives Want Peace--The People of the Isla of Negros Ask that They May Go with Us--Dewey Wants Battleships and Gunboats, Gets Them, and Is Made an Admiral--Arrival of Peace Commissioners, with Their School Books, Just Ahead of the Regulars with Magazine Rifles--The Germans at Manila Salute Admiral Dewey at Last
1. Frontispiece ... Major-General Merritt, First Governor-General of the Philippines.
2. The President and His Cabinet
3. President McKinley
4. Secretary of State Hay
5. Secretary of the Treasury Gage
6. Secretary of War Alger
7. Secretary of the Navy Long
8. Attorney General Griggs
9. Postmaster General Smith
10. Secretary of the Interior Bliss
11. Secretary of Agriculture Wilson
12. Admiral Dewey, the Hero of Manila
13. Map of the Philippine Islands
14. Photograph and Autograph of Aguinaldo, as Presented by Him to Mr. Halstead, the Author
15. Archbishop of Manila. His Photograph and Autograph Presented to Mr. Halstead, the Author
16. Ex-Consul General Fitzhugh Lee, Now Major-General Commanding
17. Captain Sigsbee, Commander of the Ill-fated Maine
18. Brigadier-General F.V. Greene
19. Government Building in Pampanga
20. Church at Cavite
21. Masacue--Town in Cavite
22. Natives Taking Refreshments
23. Official Map of the Isle of Luzon, Prepared by War Department
24. Official Map by the War Department of the Seat of War in the Philippines
25. Murat Halstead, the Author, at Manila
26. Cathedral of Manila After Earthquake
27. Spanish Re-inforcements Crossing Bridge Over Pasig River
28. Oriental Hotel, Manila
29. The Sultan of Jolo in Mindanao
30. A Beheaded Spaniard--Sign of the Order of Katipunan
31. San Juan del Monte, Where Revolution Started
32. Brigadier-General E.S. Otis
33. Brigadier-General Thomas M. Anderson
34. Military Heroes of Santiago and Porto Rico
35. Major-General Miles
36. Major-General Shafter
37. Major-General Wheeler
38. Major-General Brooke
39. Brigadier-General Wood
40. Colonel Roosevelt
41. Naval Heroes of Santiago
42. Admiral Sampson
43. Admiral Schley
44. Captain Chadwick, of the New York
45. Captain Cooke, of the Brooklyn
46. Captain Clarke, of the Oregon
47. Captain Evans, of the Iowa
48. Captain Higginson, of the Massachusetts
49. Captain Philip, of the Texas
50. Commander Wainwright, of the Gloucester
51. Lieutenant R.P. Hobson
52. General Greene's Headquarters at Manila
53. Manila and Its Outskirts, Showing Malate
54. Principal Gate to the City
55. Loading Buffaloes with Produce in Luzon
56. Filipina Preparing for a Siesta
57. Philippine Author-Martyr, His Wife and His Execution
58. Dr. Rizal
59. Dr. Rizal's Execution
60. Dr. Rizal's Wife
61. The Seat of War in Cavite
62. Attack on Manila, Showing Position of Our Ships and Troops
63. Fortifications of Manila
64. United States Peace Commissioners
65. Senator Frye
66. Senator Gray
67. Ex-Secretary of State Day
68. Senator Davis
69. Whitelaw Reid
70. Flowers of the Philippines
71. Interior of the Fortifications of Manila
72. Fort Santiago at Manila, Where the American Flag Was Raised
73. Dining Room in General Merritt's Palace at Manila
74. An Execution Entertainment on the Luneta
75. Victims Reported Dead After the Execution
76. Aguinaldo and His Compatriots
77. Senor Aguinaldo
78. Senor Montsusgro
79. Senor Natividah
80. Senor Ninisgra
81. Senor Rins
82. Senor Belavinino
83. Senor Covinbing
84. Senor Mascordo
85. Senor Arbacho
86. Senor Pilar
87. Senor Viola
88. Senor Francisco
89. Senor Llansoo
90. Savage Native Hunters
91. Girl's Costume to Show One Shoulder
92. Public Buildings in Manila
93. Fort Weyler, Built by General Weyler When Governor of the Philippines
94. The Destruction of Cervera's Spanish Squadron at Santiago
95. The Luneta--Favorite Outing Grounds of Manila, and a Place for Executing Insurgents
96. Admiral Dewey's Fleet That Won the Battle of Manila Bay
97. The Flagship Olympia
98. The Baltimore
99. The Concord
100. The Raleigh
101. The Boston
102. The Petrel
103. The Monument of Magellinos in the Walled City
104. A Railroad Station North of Manila--Spaniards Airing Themselves
105. The Battle of Manila Bay--In the Heat of the Raging Fight
106. A Suburb of Manila, Showing a Buffalo Market Cart
107. The Cathedral at Manila
108. An Insurgent Outlook Near Manila
109. Display in Manila Photograph Gallery, Insurgent Leaders
110. Group of Filipinos Who Want Independence
111. The Principal Gate to the Walled City
112. A Public Square in Manila
113. A Bit of Scenery in Mindanao, Showing Tropical Vegetation
114. Parade of Spanish Troops on One of Their Three Annual Expeditions to the Southern Islands
115. After an Execution--Prostrate Forms are Men Shot
116. Spaniards Ready to Execute Insurgent Prisoners
117. A Group of the Unconquerable Mohammedans
118. A Native House 119. Riding Buffaloes Through Groves of Date Palms
120. Natives Fishing from a Canal Boat
121. Great Bridge at Manila
122. Southern Islanders--Showing Cocoanut Palms and the Monkey Tree
123. A Review of Spanish Filipino Volunteers
124. A Spanish Festival in Manila
125. Spanish Troops Repelling an Insurgent Attack on a Convent
126. Business Corner in Manila
127. A Native in Regimentals
128. A Country Pair
129. Peasant Costumes
130. Woodman in Working Garb
131. Map of Hawaii
132. Official Map of the Hawaiian Islands
133. Map of Cuba
134. Map of Porto Rico
135. Outline Map of the Philippine Islands
136. A Spanish Dude--An Officer at Manila
137. The Harbor at Manila
138. General E.S. Otis and Staff on Porch of Malacanan Palace, Manila
139. Malacanan Palace and Pasig River, Manila
140. General Otis and Staff, Dining Room, Malacanan Palace, Manila
141. Views in Manila, Philippine Islands
142. View from My Office Window in Palace, Sept. 8, 1898
143. Fountain, Manila, August, 1898
144. Door of Hospital De San Juan Di Dios, Intramuros, Manila, Aug. 29, 1898
145. Sentry Box in Old Manila Wall, August, 1898
146. Dungeons in Old Manila Wall, Sept. 7, 1898
147. Door of Jesuit Church, Manila, Sept. 3, 1898
148. Court Yard of Palace, Manila, Sept, 3, 1898
149. View of Tower of Iglisia De Sta Grum, Manila, Sept. 9, 1898
150. Corner of Old Manila Wall, August, 1898
151. Interior in Palace, Manila, Sept. 4, 1898
152. View of Church of August 30, Manila
153. General Hughes' Temporary Office in Palace
154. Puerto De Gabel, Old Manila Wall, Aug. 29, 1898
155. Views in Manila, Philippine Islands
156. Wash Lady in the River, Manila
157. Soldiers Washing Their Persons and Clothes, Manila
158. Man Rowing Small Boat, Manila
159. Ferry in Canal, Manila
160. Group of Native Women on Canal Bank, Manila
161. Government Launch, Manila
162. View of Canal in New Manila
163. View From My Ferry Crossing River Looking Toward New Town, Manila
164. View of Intramuros From the Water, Manila
165. Women Washing, Manila
166. Barge in Canal, New Town, Half Barge, Half House Boat, Manila
167. Canal Scene in Neuva, Manila
168. Stern of Lighter in Canal, Manila
169. Views in Manila, Philippine Islands
170. Native Woman, with Fruit and Child
171. Native Woman
172. Fruit Woman on Main Bridge
173. Small Boy, With Pup
174. Native Woman on Canal Bank
175. Buffalo, Wagon and Two Coolies
176. Beggar on Main Bridge
177. Views in Honolulu and Manila
178. Leaving Honolulu, Aboard U.S.S. Peru for Manila
179. A Soldier on Deck of Oakland Ferry
180. Three College Men, Corporal Morrow in Center
181. U.S.S. Philadelphia Entering Honolulu Harbor
182. In Camp at Manila
183. Leaving Honolulu, U.S.S. Peru, for Manila
184. U.S.S. Philadelphia, Honolulu Harbor
185. Bridge Over River Naig, Cavite, Connecting Santa Cruz Road with Town of Naig
186. Highway in the Philippines
187. Native House in Suburb of Calamba, Philippines
188. Front and Back View of Native Woven Shirt
189. Malay Women of Jolo Pounding Rice
190. Ancient Cannon Taken from Insurgents
191. Arsenal Grounds in Cavite, Chapel in Front of Commandant's House
192. Bridge Crossing the River at Tambobeng, Manila Province
193. Cane Bridge Over Arm of Bay at Ilo-Ilo, Philippines
194. Sergeant Dan Hewitt, Hero of Caloocan
195. View on Pagsanjan River in the Province of La Laguna
196. Royal Street in Ilo-Ilo, Island of Panay, Philippines
197. Native Dwelling in the Suburbs of Manila
198. The Insurgent Leaders in the Philippines
199. Isabelo Artacho
200. Baldomero Aguinaldo
201. Severino de las Alas
202. Antonio Montenegro
203. Vito Belarmino
204. Pedro Paterno
205. Emilio Aguinaldo
206. Church of San Augustin, Manila
207. Schooner Anchored in Ilo-Ilo Harbor, Philippines
208. Major-General Thomas M. Anderson and Staff, in Command of 1st Division, 8th Army Corps, at Manila
209. Major-General Thomas M. Anderson, Commander of 1st Division, 8th Army Corps, at Manila