Jefferson County >> 1912 Index

History of Jefferson County, Iowa
by Charles J. Fulton. 2 vols. Chicago: S. J. Clarke Pub. Co., 1912.

C


Unless otherwise specified, all biographies have been submitted by Debbie Nash.

JERRY M. CALHOUN, who manifests a spirit of unfaltering determination and unwearied industry in carrying on his farming interests in Center township, is the owner of good farming property which returns to him substantial profits. He is one of Iowa's native sons, his birth occurring in Cedar township, Van Buren county, on the 19th of September, 1857. His parents, Nobe and Malura (Jimeson) Calhoun, were born, reared and married in Pittsburg , Pennsylvania , and in 1853 they came to Iowa , locating in Van Buren county. Their remaining days were passed there and in Jefferson county, the father giving his lifetime to the occupation of farming. He passed away in this county in 1873, at the age of forty-two years. His wife later married Lewis Sense, who is also deceased, and she now makes her home in Knox county, Missouri. In their family were five children, as follows: Anna, who married Frank P.Ball, of Cedar township; Jerry M., of this review; Scott, residing in Los Angeles, California; Mary Adaline Rymer, deceased; and Nobe, the wife of Fred Jimeson, of Knox county, Missouri.

M. Calhoun was but five or six years old when he came with his parents to Jefferson county and within its borders he has since maintained his residence. He was reared to rural life and when not busy with his lessons he assisted his father in the work of the home fields, early becoming familiar with the tasks that usually fall to the lot of the country lad. Upon attaining his majority he wisely selected as his life work the occupation to which he had been reared, and since entering the business world on his own account he has engaged in agricultural pursuits, the success of his undertaking indicating how thorough was his preparation and how well he had mastered the lessons which he had received concerning the value of industry,energy and perseverance. He now owns a good farm of eighty acres located on section 1, Center township, upon which he has resided since 1887, and he also has an additional tract of sixty-five acres on section 3, this township. He has brought his home place under a high state of cultivation, introducing various improvements which have greatly enhanced the value of the property and equipping it with all of the necessary conveniences for the successful conduct of a farming enterprise.

Mr. Calhoun was married, in 1881, to Miss Emma E. McWhiter, who was born on the 11th of February, 1857 , on the farm which is yet her home and which was entered by her father from the government at an early day. Her parents were John and Catharine (Gift) McWhiter, the former born in County Antrim, Ireland, in October, 1818, and the latter in Pennsylvania in 1827. The father on coming to the new world first located in Maryland and later took up a claim in Iowa . In 1849 he went to California and later made another trip to the Golden state, the journey on both occasions being made with ox teams although his second return to this state was made by the water route. He engaged in farming here up to the time of his retirement from the business world, and spent the last ten years of his life in Fairfield. He passed away on the 4th of January, 1901, his wife surviving him for about five years, her death occurring in March, 1906. In their family were seven children of whom Mrs. Calhoun was the second in order of birth, the others being: Mary C. Allen, of Jefferson county; Maggie, deceased; Nina, a resident of Fairfield; Glenn, who has also passed away; Martha Allen, residing in St. Louis; and Etta, deceased. To Mr. and Mrs. Calhoun were born three children, namely: Catharine Malura, who married Harvey Erickson, of Fairfield ; Mabel and Nobe John, both at home.

The religious faith of Mr. Calhoun is indicated by his membership in the Christian church, to which his wife and children also belong. Early in life he became interested in the politics of the country and, forming his own opinions and rules of conduct has given his support to the democratic party and has ever been a worker for the best interests of the community in which he resides. He is now serving as township trustee and in this capacity he is using his influence in behalf of all those projects which have for their object the permanent development and improvement of the district.

WALTER S. CAMPBELL, who has been postmaster of Batavia since 1907, is a native of the town, his birth having there occurred on the 4thof December, 1855, his parents being Joseph and Emma ( Randolph ) Campbell.  The Campbells belong to one of the old colonial families of America , having been among the first settlers of Maryland .  John and Mary Campbell, the great-grandparents of our subject, were both natives of Maryland , as was also their son Thomas. In his early manhood the latter removed to Pennsylvania , where he passed the remainder of his life, his death occurring in 1880.  There he met and married Sidney Wadsworth, a native of the Keystone state and a daughter of Joseph and Susan (Hartman) Wadsworth , who served in the war of 1812, died while returning home from the battle of Lundy's Lane.

Joseph Campbell was born in Greene county, Pennsylvania ,where he was reared and educated.  After leaving school he engaged in teaching in his native state, being successfully identified with this profession from 1848 until 1855, when, believing that the west afforded greater and better opportunities for a young man he came to Jefferson county , Iowa .   The following winter he taught in Batavia and in 1857 made his first purchase of land.  This consisted of one hundred and sixty acres in Wayne county, which he subsequently sold and bought a tract in Wapello county.  He cultivated this for twelve years, but at the expiration of that period bought one hundred acres of improved land in Locust Grove township, this county, where he resided until his death.  At East Liberty , Fayette county, Pennsylvania , occurred the marriage of Mr. Campbell to Miss Emma Randolph, in1851.  Mrs. Campbell was born in New Jersey and is a daughter of Samuel and Nancy (Girard) Randolph, natives of the same state where for many years the father was engaged in the shoe business.  He later removed to Pennsylvania , where he died in 1863; his wife, however, survived until 1884.  After the death of her husband Mrs. Campbell continued to live on the homestead for two years, changing her residence to Albia, Iowa, where she made her domicile for five years.  In1910, she came to Batavia where she is now living with her daughter Miss Clara Campbell. The family of Mr. and Mrs .Campbell numbered ten, of whom our subject is the second in order of birth, the others being as follows:  Sarah J., the wife of T. C. Hall, a farmer of Smith county, Kansas ; Annie Laura, wife of E. M. Parrett, a farmer of Locust Grove township, this county; Florence , married. A. Long, who is engaged in the insurance business in Albia, Iowa; Ella, the wife of John Fansher, a farmer of Wapello county; Charles R., who is engaged in the coal business in Chicago; Alice, a teacher now living in New Jersey; Frank., a furniture dealer and undertaker of Quincy, Washington; Mary, the wife of John Parrett, a farmer of Florence, Iowa; and Clara, who is living with her mother in Batavia.  His political support Mr. Campbell gave to the whig party during his early years, his first presidential vote having been cast for General Taylor.  When the whigs were absorbed by the republicans he was ever loyal to his early principles, remaining a stanch supporter of the men and measures of the younger party.  He always took an active interest in educational matters and while serving on the school board was a prominent factor in promoting the efficiency of the various local educational institutions.

The early years in the life of Walter S. Campbell differ but in detail from those of the average youth rearing in the country.  He remained at home on the farm with his people until he was twenty-five years of age. His education was acquired in the district schools, during which time he was working on the fields and taking care of the stock.  In 1880 he left the parental roof to make a start for himself, farming as a renter for five years thereafter.  At the end of that time he moved westward to South Dakota, where he remained for a time, before he returned to Jefferson county and rented the old homestead. Later he bought a farm in Wapello county that he cultivated for two years, and disposing of the same he preempted some government land in the San Luis Valley.

After operating this tract for a year he came to Batavia and engaged in the grocery business with his sister, Mrs. Long.  He was identified with mercantile pursuits for twelve years, when he traded for sixty acres of land in Locust Grove township. For two years he remained on his land, when returning to Batavia , he engaged in the grain business with Scott& Walker , as silent partner. December 19, 1907 , he was appointed postmaster of Batavia , which at that time was a fourth-class office.  He continued to be connected with the elevator for a year thereafter, when he severed his connection with Scott & Walker, giving his entire attention to his duties to the post office, which on the 1st of October, 1910,was raised into the third-class rank. Mr. Campbell was reappointed by President Taft in 1910, and continues to be the incumbent of the office, the duties of which he has discharged with an efficiency that meets with the approval of the general community.

On December 18, 1879 , occurred the marriage of Mr .Campbell and Miss Ida Frisbe, a daughter of Miles S. and Hannah (Housel) Frisbe.  Her father was a native of Ohio, a descendant of Connecticut ancestry, his father having come from that state to the Western Reserve in Ohio during the pioneer days.  The mother was also born in the Western Reserve, but of German extraction, as the name suggests.  Mr. Frisbe, who was a merchant, came to Iowa in the late ‘50's, locating in Batavia, where for a number of years he was engaged in the restaurant business.  He passed away in 1901.  Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Campbell, the eldest of whom, Roy Ernest, and the fourth in order of birth, a twin, died in infancy. In order of birth the others are as follows:  Jessie L., who married H. L. Whitmore, a farmer of Locust Grove township, and who has one son, Donald; Myrtle L., who became the wife of Guy McNeil, a farmer of Des Moines township; and Raymond W., the last in order of birth and a twin, who is keeping books in Morrell's Packing House in Ottumwa and is married to Miss Bessie Brawley, of that place.

Mr. and Mrs. Campbell are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, in the faith of which denomination they reared their family. Fraternally he belongs to the Masonic order, being identified with Kilwinning Lodge, No. 198, A. F. & A.M., while Mrs. Campbell is a member of the Order of the Easter Star.  He is also an Odd Fellow, belonging to Ohio Lodge, No. 120, I. O. O. F.  His political support he gives to the Republican party, and for several years served as township clerk in Locust Grove, having the distinction of being the first republican elected to that office, by a heavily democratic constituency. Both Mr. and Mrs .Campbell are widely known in Batavia and vicinity where they have many friends.”

WILLIAM P. CAMPBELL, who has made his home in the village of Brookville for more than three decades, has lived retired since1901, but for a number of years was actively engaged in business as the proprietor of a sawmill.  His birth occurred in Fayette county, Pennsylvania , on the 27th of February,1842 , his parents being Thomas C. and Susan (Evans) Campbell, both of whom were natives of the Keystone state.  The father came of Scotch ancestry; the mother was of German lineage.  They came to Iowa in 1857, locating in Fairfield, Jefferson county, where Mr. Campbell worked at the cabinet-maker's trade for several years.  Subsequently,he turned his attention to general agricultural pursuits, purchasing a farm near Perlee, eight miles east of Brookville. After the death of his wife, he put aside the active work of the fields and took up his abode in Brighton , Washington county, Iowa, where he spent the remainder of his life in honorable retirement.

William P. Campbell remained under the parental roof until sixteen years of age, attending the district schools in the acquirement of an education.  He first worked as a farm hand by the month, but, later, purchased an interest in a sawmill,operating the same prior to his marriage. Locating in Brookville, he there conducted a sawmill until 1901, when he retired from active business life.  He sold his farm of forty-eight acres, in Black Hawk township, and purchased his present homestead of six acres in the village of Brookville , Locust Grove township. At the time of the Civil war,he enlisted in the Union army as a member of Company B, Nineteenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, serving with distinction for twenty-three months.  He participated in several important engagements, and was discharged because of impaired eyesight.  Today, he is almost totally blind.

On the 27th of February, 1876, Mr. Campbell was united in marriage to Miss Anna Troette, a daughter of Benjamin and Sarah Elizabeth (Filson) Troette; the former a native of France and the latter of Ohio.  They were married in Pennsylvania and came west in 1855, when their daughter Anna was a child, locating in Birmingham , Van Buren county, Iowa, where they spend the remainder of their lives.  Benjamin Troette, who was a brick mason by trade, passed away thirty-two years ago.  He had long survived his wife, whose demise occurred fifty-three years ago.  Unto Mr. and Mrs. Campbell have been born eight children.  Walter, an agriculturist of Crawford county, Iowa , wedded Miss Lettie Gunn of that county, by whom he has four children:  Geraldine, Anna, Willie and Crawford.  Jessie, who gave her hand in marriage to Enos Lewman, a farmer of Jefferson county, passed away on the 18thof July, 1910.  Clarence E. devotes his attention to general agricultural pursuits in Crawford county, Iowa .  Myrtle is the wife of James W. Grimes, a farmer living west of Libertyville , by whom she had three children:  Cecil; Clive; and Intha, who is deceased.  William passed away when a youth of eighteen.  George, a well known land agent of Packwood , Iowa , handles western and northwestern farm lands and local real estate.  Charles and Fred are both at home with their parents.

In politics, Mr. Campbell is a stanch republican, loyally supporting the party which was the defense of the Union during the dark days of the Civil war.  He was a member of Abingdon post of the Grand Army of the Republic, until it was disbanded.  His wife belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church of Brookville, Iowa .  Mr. Campbell has many friends in Jefferson county, among whom he is most highly esteemed and respected.


DANIEL V. CARLBORG , who for twenty-seven years has been engaged in farming in Lockridge township, is one of the many thrifty, enterprising citizens Sweden has furnished Iowa. His natal day was the 23d of November, 1845, his parents being Karl and Lena Elizabeth (Peterson) Carlborg, who passed away in their native country in 1884, the father having devoted his energies to agricultural pursuits.  

The first thirty-five years of Daniel V. Carlborg's life were spent in his native land, where after completing his schooling he worked out by the month. Realizing the futility of his efforts to attain his ambition, while the best years of his life, the period of achievement, were passing, America seemed to him the only solution of the problem, so he took passage for the United States in the spring of 1880, first locating in Newton , Illinois , where he spent the summer working on the railroad. On Christmas day of the same year he came to Jefferson county and for two years thereafter he worked as a farm hand. At the expiration of that time he again started westward, Oregon being his destination on this occasion. He remained in that state for eighteen months then returned to Jefferson county where he was married and immediately thereafter began his independent career as an agriculturist. During the succeeding ten years he farmed as a renter, his energy and thrift, abetted by his wife's capable management of the household affairs, enabling him to acquire the necessary capital to become a property owner. He invested his capital in forty acres of unimproved land, erecting upon it a house and barn and the necessary outbuildings. His unceasing industry and intelligence in the direction of his affairs brought him the remuneration that later made it possible for him to increase his holdings by the addition of another twenty acres. He has ever since resided upon this place, which he is still operating in connection with an additional twenty acres that he rents. Mr. Carlborg has always given his personal supervision to the operation of his fields and the care of his crops, his efforts being rewarded by abundant harvests.

On the 25th of June, 1884 , Mr. Carlborg was married to Miss Carrie Farman, a daughter of John P. and Margaret (Peterson) Farman, also natives of Sweden . The father, who was a tailor by trade, emigrated from his native land to Iowa during the pioneer days, first locating in Henry county. In 1846 he came to Jefferson county, entering some government land in Lockbridge (sic) township, in the operation of which he assiduously applied his energies until his demise on the 10th of March, 1911 . The mother passed away in 1883. To Mr. and Mrs. Carlborg there have been born four children, two of whom died in infancy. Those living are, Bertha V., who is now twenty-three years old and at home with her parents and John Clarence H., who is twenty-one years of age.

The family manifest their religious views through their affiliatio with the Methodist Episcopal church, and politically Mr. Carlborg is a republican, but does not actively participate in township affairs, giving his undivided attention to his own interests. During the thirty-one years of his residence in the United States , Mr. Carlborg has never had reason to regret the transference of his allegiance to this republic. He has encountered hardships and disappointments, discouragements and misfortune, but these have been overshadowed by his successes, and today he is an independent landowner with an ample competence and enjoys the respect of the entire community in which he resides.”

LEONARD F. CARLSON

Of Swedish parentage on the paternal side, Leonard F. Carlson is numbered among the sons of those pioneer settlers who came from Sweden to America, pushing their way westward beyond the Mississippi in the days when rolling prairies of wild land stretched in endless monotony to the foothills of the Rockies. At the age of twenty his father, Adam Carlson, came to America from Sweden where he had worked at farm labor. Arriving in this country in 1856 he located in Ottumwa , Iowa , and became a day laborer in a brick yard in that town. He did not continue in this employment very long, but on the advice and solicitation of friends came to Jefferson county, Iowa , to engage in agriculture. He bought a small farm in Round Prairie township which he improved and operated. He was married to Miss Susan Anderson and, during their residence here on the Round Prairie farm in Jefferson county, their son, Leonard F. Carlson, was born June 24, 1877 . At the end of four years Mr. Carlson sold this farm and removed his family to the town of Rome , Henry county, Iowa, where he entered the employment of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. In this he continued for a period of twelve years and at the expiration of this time once more harkened to the call of rural life. He therefore bought a farm of one hundred and sixteen acres in Lockridge township, later adding to this by a further purchase of forty acres. This land he improved and operated for about fifteen years. Then, giving the management of the farm over to his son Leonard, he retired, going back to Rome , Iowa , to live. Here he still resides being seventy-five years old. His wife is sixty years old.

Leonard F. Carlson was reared and educated in Rome , Henry county, Iowa , where he attended the public schools. For the past ten years he has been engaged in operating his father's farm with much success. He raises thirty head of hogs annually, and feeds thirty head of cattle and five horses.

The marriage of Leonard F. Carlson to Miss Etta Duttweiler was solemnized on New Year's day, 1902. She is a daughter of Jacob and Sarah (Baldosier) Duttweiler. Mr. and Mrs. Carlson were blessed with the birth of two children, twins born near the close of the year 1902. They are named Francis A. and Florence R. Mr. Carlson is a republican in his political views and with his family holds membership in the Baptist church. He is a man of forceful character and genial personality, highly esteemed by all who know him.

S. P. and C. M. CARR , whose business interests have always been identified and who are numbered among the leading farmers of Liberty township, have a well improved property of one hundred and fifty acres on section 33, whereon they are conducting general agricultural pursuits and stock-raising. Both were born upon this farm; the former on the 20th of March, 1854 , and the latter on the 31st of December, 1855 . Their parents were Clabourn M. and Martha Ellen (Plasket) Carr, both natives of Clark county, Indiana. The father was born April 17, 1828 . He was a son of Thomas J. Carr, who was born in Pennsylvania , and became one of the pioneer settlers of Indiana . With the history of Clark county his name became inseparably associated, for he was long an active and distinguished figure in the public life of the community, holding the office of county sheriff for four terms, and representing his district in the state legislature for two terms. He also won the title of colonel, by service in the state militia. He was the brother of General John Carr, who was a member of congress, representing the third district of Indiana. It was in Indiana that his son, Clabourn M. Carr was reared and, having arrived at years of maturity, wedded Martha E. Plasket, whose birth occurred March 9, 1831 . She was but seven years of age when brought to Iowa , in 1838, by her father, Samuel Plasket, who cast in his lot with the settlers of the frontier and here spent his remaining days. The family bore all of the hardships and privations of pioneer life, and contributed in substantial measure to the early development and improvement of the region in which they made their home. About 1850, Clabourn M. Carr came to Jefferson county, and married the following year. He always devoted his energies to farming, but was called to his final rest when but a young man; passing away March 17, 1857 , at the age of twenty-nine years. His political allegiance was given to the democratic party, and, always keeping well informed on the questions and issues of the day, he took an active part in debating political themes. He was mentioned as a candidate for the general assembly, but death early terminated his career. His wife long survived him, passing away December 21, 1886 . In their family were three children, of whom Thomas J., the eldest, died, leaving a widow and one child, Mont O., of Los Angeles , California .

The other sons, S. P. and C. M. Carr, have always resided upon the farm which is now their home. They attended the public schools and the Birmingham ( Iowa ) Academy; they were also early trained to the work of the fields, so that liberal experience qualified them to manage the farm when it came into their possession. This farm is an excellent tract of one hundred and fifty acres of valuable land, situated on section 33, Liberty township. It is devoted to the raising of diversified crops and, also, to stock-raising. In the latter connection, the brothers make a specialty of breeding Duroc Jersey hogs, and have become well known throughout the entire country, having made exhibitions and received premiums at many of the state fairs. Their hogs have been shipped from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada to, and including Mexico . They have been sent to many states of the Union for breeding purposes. Upon the home far, the Carr brothers keep about twelve sows, and raise more than one hundred head of hogs, annually. In every respect their farm is well kept and highly improved. It includes a six-acre apple orchard which is the largest in Liberty township.


The Carr brothers give their political support to the republican party; C. M. Carr having served for several terms as township trustee. Both brothers take an active interest in politics and the success of their party. Religiously, they are active and official members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Bethel . As citizens and neighbors, they are regarded as most reliable and enterprising farmers. Straightforward in all their dealings, their activity in business and their honorable dealings in all the affairs of life have brought to them substantial success.

JOHN CARR, who is carrying on general farming on section 22, Polk township, was born on the farm, upon which he is now residing, on the 2d of April, 1875, his parents being Samuel and Martha (Smales) Carr, whose marriage occurred in 1850. The former, who was born in Fayette county, Ohio , was the fourth in a family of nine children, his birth occurring May 25, 1825 , and the latter was a daughter of John Smales, a native of Virginia . The paternal grandparents of John Carr, Jehu and Sarah (Foltz) Carr, were both natives of Virginia . Jehu Carr removed to Jefferson county, Iowa, in 1840, locating in Fairfield township, and four years later removed to Polk township, where he remained for many years before coming to Oregon, where his death occurred in 1870. Mrs. Jehu Carr passed away while they were residing in Ohio . Samuel Carr came to Iowa with his parents when fifteen years of age and assisted in the opening and clearing of the farm which his father undertook to cultivate. Until he was twenty-five years of age he was employed as a farm laborer by the month but, having saved sufficient money to start in a more independent career, he rented a farm in Locust Grove township for five years and subsequently in 1861 purchased his first land, a sixty-one-acre piece, which he cultivated until 1875, when he disposed of it and purchased the farm where John Carr is now residing. Among the improvements which he made upon his farm was the building of a home costing fourteen hundred dollars, which at that time was a costly farm residence for Jefferson county. His death occurred here, on the 6th of September, 1904 , his wife having passed away on the 2d of March of the same year. John Carr remained at home until twenty-one years of age. He attended school in Polk township in district No. 6 and assisted his father in his agricultural pursuits but on attaining his majority his father gave him forty acres of land, which he began cultivating independently and at the same time doing some farming for his father. After the latter's death he purchased one hundred and forty acres from the estate and is still engaged in farming this in addition to his original tract. In his management he has shown skill and ability in both general farming and feeding stock and is recognized as one of the progressive and successful younger farmers of his township. On the 10th of January, 1906 , Mr. Carr was married to Miss Nora Dollie Kenyon, a daughter of Robert Burns and Mary (Cline) Kenyon. In politics Mr. Carr has always given his support to the republican party and, although he is actively interested in the success of its measures and its men, he has never sought office for himself. The demands made upon his time by his agricultural pursuits and the pleasures which he finds in his own home are so great that he has never desired lodge connections or fraternal affiliations. Mrs. Carr is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church of Packwood. By indefatigable energy and constant application to the scientific development of his farm Mr. Carr has won a good measure of success and is today accorded a high place among the ranks of agriculturists of his district.

PHILIP CARY

While there are residents of Jefferson county who have taken a more active part in the political activities of the county or have sought to exert a wider influence in fraternal circles, there is perhaps no resident of the county that has a more extensive local acquaintance or in a larger measure merits the high regard of those with whom he has had business dealings than Philip Cary.  He was born in Athens county, Ohio , July 19, 1842 , his parents being William and Mary (Wallace) Cary, both of whom were natives of France and in their childhood days were brought by their respective parents to America ; each family establishing its home in Ohio .  Mrs. Cary was the first woman to graduate in medicine in the United States , completing a course in Athens College about 1850.  She was a second cousin of General Lew Wallace.  Her whole life was spent in Ohio after coming to the new world; and, for a few years, she engaged actively in the practice of medicine.  William Cary was a man of scholarly attainments.  In his younger days he engaged in teaching, but, later, took up the occupation of farming.  He remained a resident of Ohio until his death, which occurred when he was about sixty years of age.  In the family were eleven children, five of whom reached mature years:  James, now deceased; Angeline, who has also passed away; Elizabeth, who is the widow of John Michmer, of Morgan county, Ohio ; Philip; and Albert, who is living in Wisconsin .  He was married but lost his wife.

Philip Cary was a resident of his native county until he reached the age of five years, after which the family removed to Pike county, that state.  Here the subject of this sketch was living at the time of his enlistment for service in the Civil war, in July, 1861.  He was assigned to duty first to Company I and then with Company C, Fifty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry; and served for three years, after which he veteranized, remaining with his command until April 26, 1866, when he was honorably discharged at New Orleans.  He acted as orderly for General Sherman and was detailed for service as his clerk.  In this way, Mr. Cary became Intimately acquainted with that noted military commander, for whom he carried hundreds of messages and took many midnight rides.  He was known as the “temperance boy” of his division for though, in the discharge of his duties, he measured out whiskey to the boys he never tasted a drop.  He was on detached duty at New Orleans for six months, in 1865, acting as turnkey of the police station in that city, during which time one hundred and fifty desperate criminals were under his charge and never a one escaped.  They were conveyed by him to various places; and, at the end of the half-year, our subject was transferred to the ladies' prison, of which he had charge for some time.  He twice served as judge of regimental elections; he also saw much active duty on the field of battle, participating in ten regular engagements and four skirmishes.  He declined promotion, although he was told, frequently, by General Sherman and General Phil Sheridan that he should have a commission.

When the war was over, Mr. Cary returned to Ohio and in 1872, came to Iowa , settling first in Keokuk county, whence in 1892, he came to Jefferson county.  All through the years he has been engaged in market gardening; and it is this line which has made him so well known throughout Fairfield , where he is called the “Vegetable Man.”  For thirty-five years he has engaged in selling fresh vegetables and fruit of his own raising to the housewives of this vicinity; and, for thirty-five years, he has used the same delivery wagon.  His record book indicates that he has in this way traveled over three hundred and fifty thousand miles.  The produce which he sells is always fresh and of excellent quality; and he has no difficulty in securing patrons, because of the excellence of the goods which he handles and his reasonable prices and honorable dealing.

While a soldier in the Civil war, Mr. Cary returned home on a furlough.  In 1864, he was married to Miss Mary A. Cissna, who was born in Pike county, Ohio , in 1841, a daughter of David Cissna of that county, where her marriage took place.  Unto this union have been born seven children:  Alonzo B., now living in Sigourney , Iowa ; Luella, the wife of E. S. Frye, of Burlington , Kansas ; Fannie May, the wife of Truman Ronley, of Fairfield ; Charles, of this city; Rosa, who was a very precocious child but died at the age of seven years; and twin daughters who died in infancy.

Soon after the close of the war, Mr. Cary began to preach in the Baptist church; and, while living in Pike county, Ohio, he erected a house of worship to be used jointly by the Baptists, the United Brethren and the Methodist Episcopal people in that locality.  His life has always conformed to his teachings, and there has been nothing narrow in his views.  He believes that each individual has a right to hold to his own religious opinions.  In politics, our subject was for many years a republican, but his views on the temperance question led him to become identified with the prohibition party and he is now its secretary in Jefferson county.  Mr. Cary has been elected for twenty-nine consecutive years as officer of the day in the Grand Army of the Republic, acting for ten years in Sigourney , Iowa , and for twenty years in Litchfield.  He has written many poems and pieces of music, which have been published.  Nearly all of these productions are permeated by a strong patriotic strain, breathing a spirit of loyalty to the country.  Progress and patriotism constitute the keynote of Mr. Cary's character; his position is never an equivocal one, for it is known that his influence is always to be found on the side of right and improvement.

ANDREW F. CASSEL is widely known throughout this section of the country for the numerous political offices he has held and for his interest in educational and religious questions touching the intellectual and moral welfare of his community.  He has the further distinction of being the son of one of the first Swedish settlers in the western states.  His father, Peter Cassel, came to this country in 1845, locating in Jefferson county, Iowa .  In Sweden he had been a farmer by occupation, but his love for machinery and the mechanical arts had led him to spend most of his time in the manufacture of threshing machines.  He had also been a proficient millwright and worked in this capacity for some time after his arrival in this country.  Like the others of the little band of Swedish immigrants who had crossed the ocean with him and accompanied him to his destination in Iowa , he bought a plat of land in Lockridge township and entered upon a career of farming.  It was raw, unbroken land that he found out on the wind-swept prairie, but Swedish industry and Swedish thrift worked a marvelous transformation in the once barren landscape.  Green fields of waving corn, barley and wheat appeared in their due season to gladden the hearts of the toilers and give them promise of riches to come.  Mr. Cassel's farm comprised one hundred and forty acres of land which he cultivated for the remainder of his life.  On March 4, 1857 , death too soon claimed him, cutting short his labors.  His wife, whose maiden name was Katherine Anderson and became by her marriage the mother of Andrew P. Cassel, outlived her husband by twenty years, passing away in May, 1877.

When thirteen years of age Andrew F. Cassel, whose birth occurred December 3, 1831 , accompanied his parents to the United States .  He had already received a good fundamental education in Sweden which he continued in the district schools of his township in order to acquire a ready use of English.  He remained at home assisting with the chores and the work in the fields so that, when his father died, he was prepared to take full charge of the operation of the farm.  At the death of his mother he came into possession of the home farm by purchasing the place and adding more land to it until now he owns one hundred and ninety acres, a part of which he rents keeping the rest for his own use.

The marriage of Mr. Andrew F. Cassel to Miss Louise Peterson was solemnized November 13, 1857 .  She was a daughter of Andrew and Christina Peterson, natives of Sweden .  Her parents had severed their home ties in order to seek better opportunities for themselves and their children in the land of promise across the sea, but on the voyage over Mr. Peterson and two of the children died of cholera.  It was a sad little band consisting of the mother and seven children who came at length to join the Swedish colony in Lockridge township, Jefferson county, Iowa .  Undaunted in her determination, however, the mother bought forty acres of land and began farming with the aid of her children until these were old enough to take from her the heavy burdens which the responsibility of providing for the needs of her family had thrust upon her.  It is to women like Mrs. Peterson that we owe an unpaid tribute, the widowed mother with a crown of sorrow on her brow going forth cheerfully from home and friends to endure hardships and toil, to suffer privation, to encounter sickness and the bereavement of death, and yet through it all retaining a faith unshaken in its sublime serenity.  At the shrine of her memory let us pause for a moment in silent adoration.

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew F. Cassel had ten children born to them, four of whom died in infancy.  Those living are:  Mary Ella, living at home; John Wesley, book-keeper in the Iowa State Savings Bank at Fairfield; Simon P., employed as an engineer on the Union Pacific Railroad and residing in Omaha, Nebraska; Andrew E., a rural mail carrier living in Fairfield, Iowa; Clara S., the wife of George Stephenson, a farmer of Lockridge township and Esther A., the wife of G. V. Scott, farmer and trustee of Lockridge township.

Mr. Cassel is a republican in his political sympathies.  He cast his first vote for Fremont as president.  Always an eager worker for the good of his community, he has often and repeatedly been called to office by the many warm friends who appreciate his sincere and progressive spirit.  He served as state representative from his district in the twenty-ninth, the thirtieth and the thirty-first general assemblies, was for nine years a member of the board of supervisors, and for a long period of years acted in the capacity of trustee of the township and director of the school in his district.  In the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal church held at Philadelphia , Pennsylvania , in 1884, Mr. Cassel, on account of his active interest in the work of this church, was sent as one of the delegates from the state of Iowa .  He is a stockholder in the Iowa State Savings Bank of Fairfield , Iowa , and has served as the secretary of the Swedish Mutual Fire Insurance Association ever since its organization January 1, 1870 .  His wife died June 27, 1900 , having been an invalid for six years preceding.

Few men in Jefferson county have lived a fuller life than Mr. Cassel nor have been more willing to give of their time and services for the good of the family, the school, the church, the state and the nation.  He has never shirked a responsibility; and whatever duties were laid upon him he has discharged with utter willingness, asking for no other reward than the joy that comes of service well performed.  [Photo also available]

LIEUTENANT S. J. CHESTER , a veteran of the Civil war and at different times closely associated with the business interests of Jefferson county, is now living retired in Fairfield, enjoying a well earned rest.  He was born near Warsaw , Indiana , March 16, 1840 , a son of Joseph and Jane (Robinson) Chester .  The father was born in Ohio , March 16, 1806 ; the mother's birth occurred in Pennsylvania , June 2, 1807 , and they were married in Delaware county, Ohio , January 22, 1829 .  Removing westward to Iowa in 1850 they first settled in Lynn county and six years later came to Jefferson county, taking up their abode in Rich Woods.  They remained residents of this county until several years after the Civil war and about 1870 removed to Wayne county where they lived until going to Jasper county, Missouri .  The father was a farmer by occupation and also for many years a local preacher of the Methodist church.  In his honorable, upright life he left a worthy example for his family and the priceless heritage of an untarnished name.  He died in Carthage , Missouri , March 4, 1891 , having for less than a year survived his wife, who passed away on the 4th of April, 1890 .  They were the parents of nine children of whom four died in early life, the others being:  Mrs. Emeline Nevin, now deceased; S. J., of this review; Thomas W., and V. L., both of whom have passed away; and Oliver F., of Arkansas.  The last two were soldiers of the Civil war, enlisting from Jefferson county in the Fourth Iowa Cavalry.  V. L. Chester served for three years while Oliver F. Chester went out as a recruit and continued with the army to the end of the war.

The family was also represented in the Civil war by Lieutenant S. J. Chester who had come to Jefferson county with his parents and remained under the parental roof until he entered the army on the 12th of August, 1862 , as a member of Company G, Thirtieth Iowa Volunteer Infantry.  He enlisted as a private but after the organization of his company was elected second lieutenant and following the charge at Vicksburg was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant.  He sustained a gun-shot wound through the left leg at Vicksburg during the charge on the city on the 22d of May, 1863 .  Because of his injuries he was granted a two months' furlough which he spent at home and then rejoined his regiment which was still before Vicksburg , continuing with that command until April, 1864, when he resigned, owing to disability.  He had participated in a number of important engagements including the battles of Arkansas Post, Raymond, Jackson , Cherokee Station, Lookout Mountain , Mission Ridge and Ringgold.  He possessed a soldierly bearing, being six feet two inches in height, straight and well formed, and his comrades admiringly spoke of his fearlessness and bravery.

Soon after being mustered out Lieutenant Chester was married, on the 22d of September, 1864 , to Miss Olive E. Hendricks, a daughter of James H. Hendricks, and they took up their abode upon a farm, to the cultivation and development of which Mr. Chester devoted his energies until 1873.  He then removed to Fairfield where he has since resided, here becoming identified with business interests as a grocer, conducting a store until 1879.  He was then elected sheriff of Jefferson county and on the 1st of January, 1880 , entered upon the duties of this position to which he was afterward reelected, serving until the 1st of January, 1884 , when he declined another nomination.  He later spent several months in traveling, visiting Salt Lake and other points in the west for the benefit of his health.  In 1890 he was appointed postmaster of Fairfield and served for four years under President Harrison.  Subsequently he spent several months in California with his wife and upon his return to Fairfield engaged in the hotel business, conducting the Leggett House for five years.  He again spent several months in California and also took a trip to Cuba and since that time he has lived retired, devoting his time to those things which are a matter of interest and entertainment to him.  He has some property interests, owning land in Texas .

By the marriage of Lieutenant Chester and Olive E. Hendricks there were born four children:  Flora E., the wife of Charles Herring of Fairfield; Mildred L., deceased; Daisy E., the wife of C. W. Trowbridge, of Fairfield; and Frank M., of Los Angeles, California.  The wife and mother died July 13, 1878 , and on the 4th of December, 1879 , Lieutenant Chester wedded Elizabeth McKenney, a native of Fairfield and a daughter of J. A. McKenney.

In politics Mr. Chester is a republican, having supported the party since age conferred upon him the right of franchise.  He has always been more or less active in public affairs here and has served as marshal on the occasion of all public celebrations in this city for the past thirty years.  In Masonry he has taken the degrees of the lodge, chapter, commandery and Mystic Shrine and is an exemplary representative of the craft.  Loyalty has always been one of his strong characteristics.  It was manifest in his army record, in his public service and in his friendships.  He is one of the widely known residents of the city and enjoys in unusual measure the warm regard and high respect of those who know him.

B. E. CLARK

Prominent among the citizens of Linby is B. E. Clark, who has been conducting a general store in that town for the last six years.  He was born near Dodgeville, ten miles north of Burlington , in Des Moines county, Iowa , November 15, 1848 , his parents being John Milton and Mary (Jones) Clark.  The father was born and reared in Hamilton county, Ohio , and was of English and Dutch ancestry, his forefathers having come to Ohio from New York at an early day.  The mother was born near Norfolk , Virginia , and was of English ancestry.  Their marriage occurred in Indiana , after which they went to Des Moines county in 1846, where they resided two years, at the end of this time coming to Jefferson county and locating on a farm, two miles south of Linby.  This was their home until 1880, when they removed to Kansas , where Mr. Clark passed away in 1884.  Mrs. Clark is now eighty-four years of age and is still enjoying good health, residing at the home of her son B. E. Clark, who is one of six children:  Mary, who is the wife of David Smith, a liveryman of Linby; Margaret, the wife of Ollie Smith, an agriculturist of Abingdon; Elizabeth, who was married to John Hudson, also of Abingdon; John Allen, a retired merchant of Mount Pleasant, who is now engaged in the real-estate business; and Matilda, who became the wife of Theodore Cuddy, a land agent of Hedrick, Iowa.

B. E. Clark spent his early years upon the home farm, attending school and assisting his father until he was eighteen years of age, when he entered the Iowa Central University at Pella , Marion county.  He attended this institution for two and a half years and then took up teaching, a profession which he followed for a period of twenty-three years, the last three years of which were spent in Kansas .  At the end of that time he purchased a farm in the Sunflower state and spent the next thirty-three years of his life in agricultural pursuits, returning to Jefferson county in 1905 and opening the general store at Linby which he still conducts.  In his various activities Mr. Clark has always aided the advancement of his community, having worked according to aggressive and modern methods which have been so prominent in the educational and industrial development of the county.

Mr. Clark has been twice married.  His first union was with Miss Lydia Catharine Witham, of Mitchell county, Kansas, and to them five children were born, namely:  James Walter, who is a graduate of the Osborne County high school and the Washburn College of Topeka, and at present is city attorney of that city; Leah, who is the wife of Samuel McCall, a retired farmer of Downs, Kansas, who is at present in the service of the United States postoffice; Chloris, the wife of William Barger, an agriculturist of Osborne county, Kansas; Oland, who is a student at the medical college of Topeka, Kansas, from which institution he will graduate in 1912; and Mary, who is residing in Topeka.  Mr. Clark's second marriage occurred in 1904 to Miss Elizabeth Hale, of Osborne county, Kansas , and to them one child has been born, Magdalene, whose birth occurred February 14, 1908 .

In politics Mr. Clark is an ardent socialist and devotes all of his leisure time to the study and the advocacy of socialistic principles, firmly believing that the best form of government would be one which would provide for a more equal distribution of labor and wealth.  He is strongly opposed to any and all secret orders and has severed his connection with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.  Having known the advantages to be derived from an advanced education himself, it is his desire and purpose to give each of his children equal advantages in that line.  Mrs. Clark holds membership in the Methodist church and both are well known in their community as being upright and honorable and ready at all times to support any movements from which benefits to the community might accrue.

JOSEPH V. CLARK , a prominent and influential resident of Van Buren county, where he is successfully engaged in general agricultural pursuits, is perhaps equally well known in financial and business circles in this locality with which he was identified for many years.  He is one of the county's native sons, his birth having occurred in Village township on the 29th of October, 1849.  his parents, Julius L. and Emeline M. (Carson) Clark, were both born in Belmont county, Ohio, the former on the 7th of April, 1824, and the latter on the 31st of October, 1827.  In 1846 they came to Van Buren county, Iowa, in company with the parents of Mrs. Clark, and here they were married.  Mr. Clark at once purchased a farm of eighty acres which had just been entered by another northeast of Doud Station, and in 1850 he went to California by the overland route, returning to Iowa after a year and a half spent on the coast, the return trip being made via the isthmus.  He was a wagon maker by trade, having followed that occupation for about twenty years, and he also gave much of his attention to general farming.  He was one of a family of nine children, all now deceased, of whom all but the eldest, Madison, and the two daughters, Elizabeth and Caroline Smith, who were the youngest in the family, enlisted for service in the Civil war.  Julius L. Clark, however, after enlisting in the Tenth Iowa Infantry was rejected but his five brothers all went to the front and gave up their lives on the altar of their country.  Joseph enlisted from Mansfield, Ohio; John became a member of the Thirtieth Iowa Regiment; George enlisted in an Illinois Regiment and later reenlisted in the marine service, being killed at the battle of Mobile, while Waterman and Samuel both belonged to an Ohio Regiment.  Unto Mr. and Mrs. Julius L. Clark were born nine children, as follows: Joseph V., of this review; William, deceased; Samuel, a resident of Edwards county, Kansas; Mary Smith, a widow living at Mount Pleasant; Annie, who married Oscar Cornell, of Pawnee county, Kansas; Nora Jane, who married W. S. Shoemaker of Ottumwa, Iowa; John M., who has also passed away; Thomas M., of Hutchinson, Kansas; and Amanda, the wife of Elmer Richardson, of Wilmore, Kansas.

Joseph V. Clark spent the first seventeen years of his life in Van Buren county and then, in 1866, came with this parents to Jefferson county, making his home in Liberty township until his marriage.  He then took up his abode in Wayne county where he resided for one year, after which he returned to Liberty township, here engaging in agricultural pursuits until twenty years ago.  At that time he removed to Birmingham and at once began dealing in horses and at the same time carried on a real-estate business.  Later he became identified with financial interests as a director of the Birmingham Savings Bank, in which capacity he has served as a director of the Farmers Exchange Building of Birmingham.  For nineteen years he divided his attention between these various enterprises and by reason of well directed efforts and keen business sagacity came at length to be ranked among the most prosperous and representative residents of the town.  He continued actively in business there with increasing success until about a year ago, when he returned to country life, taking up his home upon his home farm of one hundred and fifty acres located on section 27, Liberty township.  He also owns another tract in Ford county, Kansas, and one in Haskell county, that state, and in the conduct of his farming enterprise his labors are likewise proving most profitable.  He is well known and influential in agricultural circles in this district, serving at present as secretary of the Van Buren County Farmers Institute, which office he has filled for several years and in which capacity he is doing all in his power to stimulate the interest of his fellowmen in all that tends to promote progress in agricultural lines.

Mr. Clark was married February 18, 1873, to Miss Ella M. Tower, who was born in Ripley county, Indiana, on the 24th of February, 1852, and came to Jefferson county, Iowa, November 1, 1854, with her parents, J. H. and Philena (Burton) Tower.  Her father, born February 24, 1825, is still living at the venerable age of eighty-six years.  When he came to Iowa he entered two hundred acres of land near Batavia.  He now makes his home in Pamona, California, but the mother passed away in 1869.  In the family of Mr. and Mrs. Clark there are three children, namely: Clara M., who is the wife of Dr. A. E. Nelson, of Sidney, Iowa, and they have two children, R. and A. C.; Lester T., has four children, A. C., Mary LaRue, Ralph Edmund and Robert Dale, residing at Palisade, Colorado; and Inez J., at home, who graduated from Birmingham high school, from the College of Oratory of Drake University and from Fremont, Nebraska, College, and who for a time was principal of the schools of Broken Bow, Nebraska.  The other children also graduated from the high school. Since age conferred upon him the right of franchise Mr. Clark has voted for republican candidates and principles and has served in various minor offices, including that of school director, in which capacity he has acted for many years.  He is well known throughout the community for the interest which he takes in all matters of public improvement, is a man worthy of the confidence of the people and is one of the township's most substantial business factors.

DR. JAMES FREDERIC CLARKE is one of Fairfield 's native sons, born February 23, 1864 .  His parents were Dr. Charles Shipman and Sarah Louisa ( Wadsworth ) Clarke.  The father was born in Marietta , Ohio , December 15, 1814 , and the mother's birth occurred in Pittsfield , Vermont , November 28, 1815 .  They were married in Frederickstown , Ohio , October 7, 1834 , and subsequently became residents of Maysville , Kentucky , where they remained four years.  They then came to Mt. Pleasant , Iowa , in 1843.  Dr. Charles Clarke was a graduate of the medical school of Cincinnati , Ohio .  He was a careful student, a dignostician of unusual ability, generous to a fault, and he had the respect and esteem of all who knew him.  While in Mt. Pleasant he was appointed by Governor Grimes as a member of a commission to study the insane hospitals of the country and to establish Iowa 's first institution of that character.

The horseback-riding and hard night-and-day professional work of a large practice in a sparsely settled country, undermined the Doctor's health.  He was compelled to give up active practice and this was only possible by leaving the community.  For this reason he moved to Fairfield , in 1852, where he and his wife spent their remaining days.  Dr. Charles Clarke's life's labors were ended in death, March 4, 1882 .  Mrs. Clarke survived him until November 29, 1905 , when she also passed away in Fairfield .

They were both actively interested in the welfare and progress of the community.  Although Dr. Clarke was too old to enter the army at the time of the Civil war, he gave freely of his means and Mrs. Clarke gave all her time and labors, to aid in the equipment of the soldiers.  Both were active workers in the public library – the first of such institutions in Iowa – and for all other public institutions.  Both were members of the Universalist church, thoroughly believing in universal salvation.  Dr. Clarke left the republican party at the time of the Greeley independent movement and thereafter usually voted with the democracy.  The democratic party made him, on one occasion, its candidate for the state legislature.

Unto Dr. Clarke and his wife were born five children:  Emma Wadsworth, now living in Fairfield;  Charles Ansyl, who after serving thirty years in the United States navy, is now a retired lieutenant commander, living in California;  George Danforth, who succeeded his father in the drug business, in Fairfield, where he died in 1902;  Mary the wife of J. W. Sampson of Weldon, Iowa; and James Frederic.

James Frederic Clarke has always made Fairfield his home, save during the periods spent in acquiring his education.  After attending the public schools he was for three years a student in Parsons College .  During this time he was one of the founders of the first Agassiz Society in Iowa – a scientific organization which flourished for years and had branches all over the state.  These Agassiz clubs finally united in a state organization and Mr. Clarke was elected the first president of this “Iowa Assembly of Agassiz Association.”

From Parsons College Dr. Clarke went to the Iowa State University , where he graduated on the honor roll in the class of 1886 with the degree B. S., his graduating thesis being a study of Indian corn.  He next entered the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia , and was there given the degree of M. D., after a three years' course of study and again was on the honor roll for scholarship in 1889.  The same year he received his Master's Degree from the University of Iowa for work in physiology.

After graduating in medicine, Dr. Clarke entered the competitive examination for the position of resident physician in the Philadelphia Hospital .  Being successful in this, he served two years in this venerable institution of seventeen hundred beds, acquiring a broad practical experience in medicine and surgery.  For a time he was chief resident physician and while here, he published a study of the mercurial tremors of felt-hat makers.

Returning to Fairfield Dr. Clarke began the practice of his profession and after a few years work, he spent one further year in post-graduate study in Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore , and in the University of Goettingen , Germany .

Dr. Clarke has always taken an active interest in medical and scientific societies.  He has been a member of the American Society of Microscopists, the American Public Health Association, the Philadelphia Pathological Society and aside from all the local medical societies he belongs to the American Medical Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is a fellow of the Iowa Academy of Sciences.  He has sometime served as president of the Des Moines Valley Medical Association and of the Southeastern Iowa Medical Association and as first vice president of the Iowa State Medical Society.

In 1900 Dr. Clarke was appointed “lecturer on hygiene” in the medical and dental departments of the State University of Iowa.  For the past eight years he has been lecturer on bacteriology in Parsons College , in Fairfield .  He has made a special study of defective children, having discovered and relieved many cases of sporadic cretinism and, through addresses in various parts of the state, he has called wide attention to this often misunderstood condition.

In 1891 Dr. Clarke was united in marriage to Miss Melinda E. Clapp, a native of Ohio , then living in Lee Center, Illinois, a daughter of Sylvester Clapp.  In 1906 Dr. Clarke was elected to represent Jefferson county in the Iowa state legislature.  Though a democrat he had a majority of six hundred votes in a county which has a normal republican majority of one thousand.   Jefferson county had not before sent a democrat to the legislature for forty years.  Dr. Clarke was for one term mayor of Fairfield , during which time he labored for the construction of a sewer system and other city improvements.  Failing to carry his cherished plans through a factional city council, he resigned for the purpose of focusing public attention on the situation.  The letter of resignation, widely published, helped in the accomplishment of the city's advancement.  He is connected with the blue lodge, chapter and Knights Templar of Masons and is a member of the Congregational church.

At the beginning of the Spanish war, Dr. Clarke, who had long been connected with the Iowa National Guard, was commissioned major and surgeon of the Forty-ninth Iowa Volunteer Infantry and he served in this rank throughout the war, in Florida and Cuba .  Most of this time he was on detached duty, in charge of the medical wards of the second division hospital of the Seventh Army Corps.  Here, with at times thirteen assistants, he cared for the sick in a hospital of seven hundred beds.  Knowing from experience the value of trained women nurses, Dr. Clarke, early in the war, asked that they be employed to care for the sick soldiers in these semi-field hospitals.  This attempted innovation for army hospitals met with the emphatic disapproval of the regular army corps surgeon.  Disregarding army traditions, in the cause of dying soldiers, Dr. Clarke went over the heads of his superiors and appealed through the governor of Iowa to the secretary of war.  For this insubordination he was sent back to his regiment by the corps surgeon, but his object was accomplished.  The governor of Iowa was allowed to send graduate women nurses to care for Iowa soldiers, the precedent was established, and soon female nurses were employed throughout the army hospitals in the field.  The cause of Dr. Clarke's dismissal being brought to the attention of General Fitzhugh Lee, the corps commander, he was soon reinstated to his position as chief physician in the division hospital.  Dr. Clarke later established and had charge of the Convalescent Hospital at Pablo Beach, Florida.

At the present time Dr. Clarke is witnessing the completion of a project for which he has worked for twenty years, the establishment of a hospital in Fairfield .  For all these years he has agitated this subject and finally, when the Munger law made the voting of a hospital-tax possible, he as a committee of one, appointed by the physicians of the county, had sole charge of the campaign which carried at the polls, by a five-hundred-majority vote, a tax to build a hospital.

Though some time president of the local Old Settlers Association, a director in the Chautauqua Association and active generally in the public life of Fairfield , the following three things, Dr. Clarke feels, are his only important contributions to the welfare of his fellowmen:  The introduction of trained women nurses in army hospitals. – The development of many imbecile cretin-children into normal individuals. – The building of a hospital in Fairfield .  Dr. Clarke's principal writings, other than those already mentioned are:  “Huber.”  A Hospital Story.  Midland Magazine.  “What Iowa People Eat.”   New York Medical News, 1898.  “The Plasmodia of Malaria.”  Studies in the Philadelphia Hospital .  Reports of cases of Sporadic Cretinism in the Medical Fortnightly and the Journal of the American Medical Association at various times.  “A Medical History of the Forty-Nine Iowa Volunteer Infantry.”   Iowa Medical Journal.  “The Water Supply of Fairfield .”   Fairfield Tribune.  “Who are the Doctors of Medicine.”  President's Address.”

JOHN G. COCHRAN

A resident of Jefferson county all his life, John G. Cochran has been associated with agricultural interests in this locality since he was old enough to follow a calling. He was born in Round Prairie township, Jefferson county, in April 1845. His father, John Cochran, was a native of Ireland and came to this country in his youth, settling in Ohio where he operated a farm for a number of years. He was married to Mary Gregg, a native of Pennsylvania. In 1840, at the age of thirty-seven years, he came to Jefferson county, Iowa, and bought land from the government in Round Prairie township. This he cleared and improved, continuing his work in the fields until death claimed him, in 1876. His wife survived him eleven years, dying in 1887.

Brought up amid the familiar scenes which he has known all his life, John G. Cochran was educated in the district schools of his native locality. He remained with his parents until their death, when he came into possession of the home place of two hundred and five acres. This he improved and operated with success until 1891, when he sold one hundred and sixty-five acres of this tract, keeping about forty acres adjoining the town of Glasgow. Engaged in the operation of this moderate sized farm, he is sufficiently occupied to fill his days with profitable labor and has accumulated a competence which enables him to live in bountiful comfort.

In December 1880, Mr. Cochran was united in marriage to Miss Lizzie Butler, a daughter of Stephen and Elsie (Smith) Butler, the former a native of Kentucky and the latter of Illinois. Mr. Butler came to Jefferson county, Iowa, in 1852 and he bought a tract of land comprising eighty acres which he operated for a time, subsequently trading farms with a friend. He then sold out his holdings and removed to Harrison county, Iowa, where he resided until his death, November 16, 1881. His wife passed away three years later. Mr. and Mrs. Cochran are the parents of two children: Harry S., aged thirty years, who resides at home; and Elsie B., aged twenty-seven years, the wife of Arnold V. Murray, who is connected with a wholesale drug concern and resides in Ottumwa, Iowa. They have two children: Arnold V., Jr., aged six years and Mildred E., aged five. Mr. Cochran is affiliated with the republican party and has always given his loyal support to the men and measures that serve the best interests of his community and was called upon to fill the office of trustee of this township. He and his wife subscribe to the tenets of the Methodist Episcopal church, in which they are attendants. He is well known throughout the county in which his long record of industry and thrift has won him the respect of all who know him.

HARRISON COLLINS

When Harrison Collins passed away a year ago, Locust Grove township lost one of its best known, wealthiest and most highly respected citizens.  He was for many years actively interested in farming, conducting operations on an extensive scale; but no matter how many responsibilities his own affairs entailed, he was never too much occupied to give generously of his time and energy whenever the public welfare demanded his aid or cooperation.  He was born in Gallia county, Ohio , August 29, 1839 , being a son of J. E. and Emaline (McGee) Collins; the former of English descent and a native of Kentucky , the latter of Irish parentage and a native of Ohio .  When seventeen years of age, he came west accompanying his parents to Locust Grove township where they settled just north of Batavia .  They were among the pioneer residents of this county, and in the operation of their farm, of one hundred and sixty acres, met with very substantial results.

His early education, Harrison Collins obtained in the school of his native locality; supplementing this by further study in the Batavia schools.  He then worked in the fields until he came of age and, in 1862, traveled overland to California, drawn thither not by the hope of gaining riches but of regaining his health, which was never robust even when at the prime of his power.  In a year, he returned home and for fifteen years after his father's death managed the farm for his mother.  He never left the homestead, but continued to devote himself to the management of the farm, supervising the cultivation of its soil and the breeding of a high grade of stock.

On January 29, 1889 , Mr. Collins was united in marriage to Miss Anna Dunn, a daughter of Henry and Harriet (Fleener) Dunn.  Mrs. Collin's father was born near Chillicothe , Ohio , of Scotch-Irish lineage, and during his lifetime followed agricultural pursuits.  He came to Jefferson county when a young man, and here was married to Mrs. Harried (Fleener) Fancher, who was born in Illinois of English parentage.  Mrs. Dunn died when her daughter Anna was three years old.  Mr. Dunn was engaged in farming in various parts of Jefferson county until 1873, when he removed to Kansas , where he lived until his death in 1886, near Stockton .  In the Dunn family there were only two children:  Anna and a sister, Effie, who died at the age of six months.

Mr. Collins took much interest in public affairs.  He was regarded as one of the most influential men of his community in matters relating to the general welfare, and in shaping the policy and public attitude towards questions of local interest.  He was a democrat in his political views, and an ardent worker for the advancement of higher educational standards.  He served for years as a member of the board of directors of school district, No. 7, of Locust Grove township.  He maintained fraternal relations with the Odd Fellows of Batavia.  On July 18, 1910 , Mr. Collins passed away, deeply mourned by his widow, their only child, Bertha Ma, and one sister and a brother:  John H. Collins, formerly a farmer and hop dealer, now living retired in Independence in Lammet Valley , Oregon ;  Mrs. H. Latta, the wife of Hugh Latta, a farmer near Batavia in Wapello county, Iowa .  A sister, Margaret, was the wife of Ira Bennett, deceased, who were residents of Jefferson county, their home being near Libertyville but she is also deceased.  After the death of her husband, Mrs. Collins rented the home farm and valuable land holdings, amounting to more than five hundred acres in the aggregate; and in October, 1910, she removed to Fairfield in order to give her daughter the advantages of higher education.  Miss Collins is a student in the Fairfield high school, and is a prominent member of the younger social set in the town.  She is a charming young girl and a favorite with everyone who knows her excellent qualities.  She is a musical student of Parsons College .  Her mother purchased a very fine home in West Broadway street , where their friends are lavishly entertained.  Mrs. Collins is a woman of generous impulses and kind to all, doing good wherever she sees an opportunity.  She is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church of Fairfield , having formerly belong to the church of the same denomination in Batavia ; to which her husband also belonged.

WALTUS COLLINS is one of the venerable citizens of Jefferson county.  He was born in Simpson county, Kentucky , November 10, 1824 , so that his life record has already spanned eighty-seven years.  It covers a most interesting period in the history of the country and he can well remember many of the chief evens which have left their impress upon the records of this land.  He has himself taken an active part in shaping the development and promoting the welfare of Jefferson county and he can relate many interesting points concerning pioneer history not only in this region but also in Illinois and Kentucky .  His parents were Thomas and Polly ( Elam ) Collins.  The father was born in North Carolina , in 1787, and the mother's birth occurred in Virginia , on the bank of the James river , about eight or ten years after the birth of her husband.  He was a son of Jasper Collins, who was born in North Carolina and served through the Revolutionary war as a teamster.  In the days of peace, however, he followed the occupation of farming.  The Elams were a prominent Virginia family and one of the name served in congress.  Although reared in North Carolina Thomas Collins was married in Kentucky .  In early life he learned the cooper's trade which he always afterward followed, and he also owned a farm which was operated by his sons and their negro assistants.  About 1827 the family removed from the state line into Sumner county, Tennessee , and after living there for a time took up their abode in Christian county, Kentucky , where they remained for three years.  In the spring of 1836 they arrived in Morgan county, Illinois , and while living there the mother of Waltus Collins passed away, in 1852.  The father died later at Pekin , Illinois , when seventy-nine years of age.  Their children were eleven in number:  Valina, the wife of William Edwards;  Olivia, who married Charles Wilson;  Thomas Jefferson;  James Madison;  Mary, the wife of Enoch Frazey;  Waltus;  Benjamin Franklin;  Susan, the wife of William Baldwin;  Frances Ann, the wife of William McCasland;  Henry Clay, who died at the age of eight years; and Orvil, who served through the Civil war in an Illinois regiment.  Waltus and Mrs. Baldwin are the only ones now living.  Benjamin Franklin enlisted from Illinois for service in the Civil war and died at the front, near Memphis , Tennessee .

The first incident in his life which Waltus Collins remembers occurred when he was about two years of age, when the family were removing from Kentucky to Tennessee .  He can recall the large logs that were used in the building of his father's house and in the other buildings on the premises.  While living there he frequently saw General Jackson riding in the stage coach.  Following the removal to Christian county, Kentucky , when he was about nine years of age, he witnessed the development of his father's farm into one of the finest tobacco plantations in the world.  In the neighborhood lived Peter Cartwright and for a number of years they were neighbors to Jefferson Davis and Buckner.  In the same part of the state also lived Lincoln, Clay, and Harlan, together with others who have won state and national prominence.  In those early days he and his brother were allowed to hunt rabbits while the older brothers hunted turkey and larger game which was quite plentiful in that district.  Corn and tobacco were the chief products raised and Mr. Collins' father frequently sold corn to the slave drivers at fifty cents per bushel.  Both the white and black people worked in the fields and Mr. Collins was many days employed by a neighbor when but a young lad.  Fox hunting was the favorite sport of the young men of the district and some of the older ones and there were a good many packs of hounds kept in Kentucky .  Mr. Collins says that his life was fraught with much pleasure during that period.  Corn huskings were among the most interesting social functions of the day and on such occasions a splendid supper was served at which the principal dish was pork pie.  When a red ear of corn was found a drink of whiskey was given to the finder, but the owner was usually careful about the disposition of the intoxicant.

Following the removal of the family to Morgan county Mr. Collins spent about eight years of his life in that district.  There was no free instruction, the schools being supported by the parents of the children and partly by the state, but later a system of free public instruction was introduced, owing to the rapid settlement of Illinois .  When about sixteen years of age Waltus Collins left the parental roof and started out in life for himself, working for farmers for a number of years, including some of the big cattle men and wealthiest stock dealers of the country.  While thus employed he first came to know something of the Mormon religion and its followers.  Resentment against the Mormons grew stronger as it found that many of the people were desperate characters who committed much theft.  In September, 1843, Mr. Collins enlisted in the Illinois State Constabulary, a light horse cavalry, for active duty during the trouble with the Mormons at Nauvoo.  There were one hundred mounted men in the brigade, under Captain Thomas Turner and Brigadier General Hardin.  Mr. Collins remained in the state service for three years and was the tallest man in his company, standing six feet four inches and weighing about two hundred pounds at that time.  He is thoroughly familiar with the history of Mormonism and the movement that ended in transporting the followers of Joseph Smith to the west.  The people who had been defrauded would follow their lost property to the edge of the Mormon city but could not recover the stolen goods, and again and again officers with warrants for the recovery of stolen goods would attempt to make an arrest and were never heard of again.  At length feeling became so intense against the sect that the Smiths, who were imprisoned in the Carthage jail, were killed by a mob of thousands from Missouri and Illinois .  The movement against the Mormons was probably delayed by the political situation, as both parties wanted their votes, but Ford, the democratic candidate governor, won.  In September of the same year he called out a brigade of soldiers to quell a mob composed of desperate men from Missouri and Illinois , men who had suffered great loss of property through the Mormons.  Governor Ford had as his advisers Stephen A. Douglas and Hardin who counseled a diplomatic course.  But at length it was seen that the movement against the Mormons was so strong that they feared a massacre and finally agreed to leave this part of the country.  The governor detailed two companies to remain at Carthage and maintain peace.  One of these, commanded by Captain Turner, was the cavalry company to which Mr. Collins belonged and the other company was composed of Quincy riflemen, under Captain Morgan.  Mr. Collins says that his experience in the constabulary service among the Mormons convinced him that they were the worst body of men he has ever had anything to do with.

At length, when he was discharged from service he came to Iowa , reaching Jefferson county March 20, 1846, and here he has since lived.  He made the journey on horseback to join his sister, Mrs. Valina Edwards, who resided in what is now Buchanan township.  With her he had spent the winter of 1843-4 and then returned to Illinois , but came here to reside permanently in 1846.  He entered eighty acres of land in Buchanan township and resided on it for nine years, after which he sold out and in February, 1857, purchased his present farm, containing one hundred and one acres in Lockridge township, a mile northeast of Salina .  It was mostly covered by heavy timber although thirty acres had been cleared and cultivated.  The fertility of the ground, however, had been so reduced that it could yield only thirty bushels to the acre.  But Mr. Collins planted it to grass and kept his stock thereon, and after a few years its productiveness had so increased that he could raise from seventy-five to one hundred bushels per acre.  On his first farm he built a log house with a shingle roof and glass windows.  The cabins of those days were mostly built with round logs and clapboard roofs.  Splitting a puncheon and hewing it until it was thin, he made a settee upon which he put rockers and used this for the baby's cradle.  All the necessary farm buildings were built of logs and covered with clapboards.  Mr. Collins availed himself of the wide range for cattle and as the years passed his efforts at farming and stock-raising brought him substantial profit.

As a companion and helpmate for life's journey Mr. Collins chose Jane Chilcott whom he wedded June 11, 1846 .  She was born in Huntington county, Pennsylvania, June 14, 1830, and in April, 1844, came to Jefferson county with her parents, Richard and Ruth (Gorsuch) Chilcott, who were also natives of the Keystone state and spent their last days in Jefferson county.  Mrs. Collins was a sister of United States Senator George M. Chilcott, of Colorado , who came to Jefferson county in 1844 with the family and worked for our subject at fifty cents per day, furnishing his own yoke of oxen and thus assisting in clearing the land.  For forty-four years Mr. and Mrs. Collins traveled life's journey together but were separated in the death of the wife, December 13, 1890 .  They were the parents of nine children:  Ruth, the wife of Alonzo J. Green, of Fairfield;  Emma, the wife of Finley Chester, of Kansas City, Missouri;  Sarah Jane, who died at the age of nine years;  Jay, a farmer of this county;  Ira, a resident of Los Angeles, California;  Melvin R., of Fairfield;  Miles Grant, of Colorado Springs, Colorado;  Ernest, of Emerson, Iowa; and Dennis Colfax, of Los Angeles, California.

For the past four years Mr. Collins has resided at the Leggett House, in Fairfield .  In his early life he learned the cooper's trade with his father but never enjoyed the work, nature having intended him for farming, for he always found pleasure and success in that calling and is today the owner of an excellent property in the midst of which stands a large and attractive residence.  For twenty years he has been a member of the Jefferson County Farmers' Club and has taken an active part in its work.  He has also been a member of the Farmers' Institute since its organization and was a member of the Jefferson County Agricultural Society.  He was reared in the faith of the whig party and joined the ranks of the new republican party on its organization.  He was associated with John Spielman and Senator James F. Wilson as members of a committee to organize the republican party in this county for the Fremont campaign.  He was a stanch abolitionist, later a protectionist and subsequently became equally stalwart in his championship of prohibition.  Of recent years he has voted an independent democratic ticket.  During the Civil war he was a member of the Union League and he has always been a believer in the Christian religion although he has never held membership with a church.  Of the one hundred men who enlisted at the time of the Mormon trouble at Nauvoo, Mr. Collins and William Wyatt, of Franklin , Illinois , are now the only survivors and the latter entertained the former in 1908.  Mr. Wyatt also enlisted for service in the Mexican war and again in the Civil war and became a colonel.  The two had been reared as boys together and attended the same school, and the visit in 1908 was a most happy occasion to both as they had not seen each other since the Mormon trouble.  Mr. Collins has been a member of the Iowa State Historical Society since its organization.  He is a remarkably well preserved man for eighty-seven years.  He has not used intoxicants for more than half a century and never was addicted to the use of tobacco.  Nature is kind to those who abuse none of her laws and she had been good to Mr. Collins who, although he has advanced far down the hillside of life, yet preserves a wonderful physical and mental vigor, keeping in touch with the progress of the times and the thought that has moved the world.  He relates, too, in a most interesting manner the incidents of early days and is one of the most respected and honored residents of Jefferson county.

GEORGE PERRY CONLEE , who passed away on his farm on section 33, Cedar township, on the 17th of August, 1911 , came to Jefferson county in 1882 and devoted about two decades to general agricultural pursuits here.  He was the second white child born in Burlington , Iowa , his birth occurring on the 3d of June, 1840 , when that city boasted only two houses.  His parents were Reuben and Nancy (Doyle) Conlee, both of Scotch-Irish descent.  They owned and lived near the famous Mammoth Cave in Kentucky .  In 1839 they came to Iowa , locating in Burlington , while subsequently they purchased a section of land near Sand Prairie, west of Fort Madison , where Reuben Conlee followed farming.  He was one of the first representatives in the state legislature from Lee county, Iowa – Mr. Bullard being the other – and died suddenly while attending a session of the general assembly at Iowa City .  This was in 1847.  The demise of his wife occurred nine years later, on the farm near Fort Madison , Iowa .  The only surviving member of the family, which numbered thirteen children, is James Conlee, a resident of Oregon .

George P. Conlee attended the district school in Jefferson township, Lee county, Iowa , and after the death of his parents remained at home until the outbreak of the Civil war.  In 1861, at Keokuk , Iowa , he joined Company A, Thirteenth Iowa United States Regular Infantry, remaining with that command for three years.  He went with Sherman on his march to the sea and participated in the following battles:  Birds Point, Memphis , Jackson , Vicksburg , Clayton, Missionary Ridge , Lookout Mountain , Chattanooga , Nashville , Cairo , Shiloh , Natchez , Bowling Green and Collierville.  He also took part in numerous skirmishes and made a most creditable military record, never faltering in the performance of any task assigned him.  When hostilities had ceased he returned home and the same year was married.  In 1882 he came to Jefferson county, locating on the farm where his widow and son, Charles C., now reside.  In 1901 he retired from the active work of the fields, spending the remainder of his life in well earned rest.  He became ill in August, 1910, and on the 17th of August, 1911 , passed away.

Mr. Conlee was twice married.  In 1865 he wedded Miss Jane Masterson, of Van Buren county, Iowa , who died in 1866 and by whom he had one child, who passed away in infancy.  On the 25th of November, 1873 , Mr. Conlee was again married, his second union being with Miss Mary A. Graves, who was born in Ohio , on the 20th of May, 1849 .  Her parents were Aaron and Sarah ( Harvey ) Graves , the former a native of Jackson county, Ohio , and the latter of Frederick county, Virginia.  They were married in Ohio in 1844, and came west in 1856, locating at Hillsboro , Henry county, Iowa , where Mr. Graves maintained his residence while he farmed in the vicinity.  In March, 1871, he passed away on his farm about two miles north of Hillsboro .  His widow afterward sold the place and took up her abode in Hillsboro , where she purchased property and is now living at the ripe old age of ninety years.  To them were born nine children, six of whom still survive, as follows:  Jacob, a blacksmith living in Oregon;  Mrs. Conlee;  Frances, who is the wife of Charles A. Stevens, the postmaster at Salem, Iowa;  Robert, a banker of Hillsboro, Iowa;  Carlton, who follows blacksmithing in the city of Oklahoma, Oklahoma; and Naomi, the wife of Jerry Moxley, a farmer of Hillsboro, Iowa.  Mr. and Mrs. George P. Conlee were the parents of six children.  Fred T., a bridge carpenter on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, lives at Mount Pleasant , Iowa and wedded Miss Maude Snyder, of Birmingham , Iowa , having one child, Otelia.  Jessie M. is the wife of A. W. Davis, a bridge carpenter on the Rock Island Railroad at Fairfield and they have five children:  George, who died at the age of two years and Charles, Daisy, Ada and Clair.  George P. is master mechanic of the Pekin branch of the Santa Fe Railroad and resides at Pekin , Illinois .  He married Miss Florella Palmer, of Fort Madison , Iowa , by whom he has three children:  Ruth, Ethel and Beulah.  Lillian, the next in order of birth, died when but eight weeks old.  Mary is the wife of Sylvester Keller, a farmer of Cedar township, this county, by whom she has two children, George and Clarence.  Charles C., who lives with his mother, operates the home farm of one hundred and five acres.

In politics Mr. Conlee was a stanch democrat and held the office of school director for ten years.  He also served as justice of the peace for two terms and for several terms acted as constable.  Fraternally he was identified with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, belonging to the lodge at Montrose , Iowa .  Prior to the Civil war he was a member of the Missionary Baptist church.  His widow is a devoted and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church.  She is well known and highly esteemed throughout the community, her many commendable traits of character having endeared her to all with whom she has come in contact.

DR. WARREN H. CONNER , engaged in the practice of medicine in Fairfield, for which thorough preliminary training well qualified him, and constant study and research have kept him in touch with the advanced thought and progress of the profession, was born in Chautauqua county, New York, July 30, 1855, his parents being David and Caroline (Morehouse) Conner, both of whom were natives of New York, the father born in Ulster county, and the mother in Chautauqua county. In the winter of 1864-5 they removed westward to Rock Island county, Illinois, and Mrs. Conner passed away in that state when about forty-eight years of age. The death of David Conner occurred in St. Joseph, Missouri, when he was seventy-nine years of age. He was born in 1814 and in early manhood engaged in farming but after his removal westward followed the lumber business in Illinois. Subsequently he hade his home with his son, Dr. Conner, until 1890, and then went to live with another son at St. Joseph, Missouri, where he died in 1893. The Conner family numbered nine children, of whom the eldest, Alexander, died in infancy. Volney, the second son, was an engineer on the New York & Erie Railroad, now a part of the Lake Shore system, and had the notable record of being made an engineer when but sixteen years of age - the youngest in the service of the company. He was killed, however, in a railroad accident in 1855. Rodney, of St. Joseph, Missouri, enlisted when twenty-one years of age for service in the Civil war and was wounded and taken prisoner on the first day of the battle of Gettysburg, but was recaptured by the Union troops on the 2d. His injuries were so serious that for one year he remained in the hospital at Washington, D. C. He afterward went to the front, participating in the Virginia campaign but in the battle of the Wilderness he was again wounded and taken prisoner, being incarcerated at Andersonville, where he was paroled, this freedom being granted to all soldiers who were likely to live through the winter, thus saving to the Confederate army the cost of their maintenance. In 1877 he went to Nebraska, where he entered land, was married, and there resided until about 1899, when he went to St. Joseph, Missouri. Adaline, the fourth member of the family, died when twenty-five years of age. Gilbert enlisted at the age of sixteen, serving throughout the entire period of the Civil war. He was wounded on the first day of the battle of Gettysburg but did not retire from duty, although the wound continued to trouble him throughout his after life. He became a contractor and builder at Springfield, Ohio, and met death by falling from a scaffold when engaged in the construction of a building. Florence Ayres, the next of the family, is also deceased. Alison, who had charge of all carpenter work for the St. Louis division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, was killed by falling from a scaffold two months after his brother met death in a similar manner. Dr. Conner was eighth of the family. Herman, the youngest, died of diphtheria when five years of age.

When a lad of five years Dr. W. H. Conner was taken by his parents from New York to Crawford county, Pennsylvania, where the family lived for five years and thence removed westward to Rock Island county, Illinois, where they remained until 1878. In that year they became residents of Polk county, Nebraska, where they continued until 1890. In the meantime Dr. Conner went upon the Mississippi river as an engineer having been granted a license when but twenty-one years of age. He had previously been employed on the river in different capacities from the age of thirteen years. Subsequent to the removal to Nebraska, he engaged in farming and also followed engineering and the painting trade, but thinking it more profitable, he took up the study of medicine in 1890 in the Iowa State University at Iowa City, from which he was graduated on the 6th of March, 1893, receiving his M. D. degree. He then located for practice at Blue Grass, Scott county, Iowa, where he remained until 1894, since which time he has been a resident and practitioner of Fairfield. While he continues in the practice of medicine with good success he also makes a study of the treatment of diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat and displays marked skill in that department of professional service. His ability as a general practitioner is also marked and he has long been numbered among the leading and successful representatives of the medical profession in Fairfield. He has always been a student of advanced medical literature and he further keeps in touch with the advanced work of the profession through his membership in the Jefferson County Medical Society, the Hahnemann Medical Association, the Illinois and the American Institute of Homeopathy.

On the 4th of June, 1877, Dr. Conner was united in marriage to Miss Mary Vanderveen, who was born in Darke county, Ohio, in 1853, and in 1861 was taken to Rock Island county, Illinois, by her parents, Mr. and Mrs. John Vanderveen. Dr. and Mrs. Conner now have an interesting family of eight children: Harry W., a veterinary surgeon of Bloomfield, Iowa; Chauncey, a musician, of Kahoka, Missouri; Jessie, the wife of J. F. McEldery, a farmer of this county; John V., a dealer in pianos in Kahoka, Missouri; Gertrude, a teacher of vocal music; Gladys, at home; Clyde C., a piano salesman, of Alexandria, Minnesota; and Helen. Nearly all of the children are musicians and their musical talent adds to the enjoyment of a happy home. Dr. Conner holds membership with the Masonic fraternity, having taken the degrees of the York Rite and also crossed the sands of the desert with the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. He likewise belongs to the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and to the Commercial Club. He served as pension examiner under President Cleveland's second administration and has always been a democrat in politics. While in Nebraska he filled the office of county commissioner for two terms. He belongs to the Congregational church, in which he is a trustee and is always loyal to his professions. In every relation of life he measures up to a high standard of manhood and citizenship and in his chosen life work displays an unfaltering fidelity to the most advanced professional ethics.

JESSE A. CORNELL is the owner of a fine farm of seventy acres located on section 11, Des Moines township, where he engages in general farming and stock-raising.  He is the eldest child born to George Tyler and Elizabeth (Gibbs) Cornell, and began his life record in Warren county, Ohio , on the 8th of May, 1871 .  The parents were born, reared and married in Warren county where the father engaged in farming until 1881, when the family removed to Iowa .  They located in Jefferson county, Mr. Cornell purchasing a farm of one hundred and sixty acres in Des Moines township upon which he resided for twenty-three years.  In 1904 he and his wife retired to Libertyville , where the mother still resides, but he passed away on the 9th of September, 1907 .  Mr. and Mrs. Cornell had six children:  Jesse A., our subject;  Wilbur, who is deceased;  Viola May, the wife of Grant Cornell, a cousin, who is farming in Ohio;  and Clarence, Ralph and Ernest Ray, all of whom are deceased.  In the paternal line of Jesse A. Cornell is of Welsh extraction, his grandfather, George Cornell, having emigrated from Wales to the United States when a youth of sixteen years.  He settled in Ohio during the pioneer days and there three years later, when he was nineteen years of age, he married a Miss Hanna, a native of New Jersey , who was thirteen years of age.  Immediately following this event they located on the farm where they spent the remainder of their lives.  He was very successful in his agricultural pursuits and acquired seven hundred acres of excellent land, that he improved and brought to a high state of cultivation.  The family of Mr. and Mrs. George Cornell numbered eighteen children of whom the son George Tyler was the youngest.

The school days of Jesse A. Cornell began in his native state, the education therein acquired being supplemented by further study in the schools of district No. 1, Des Moines township, after the family located in Jefferson county.  His boyhood was very similar to that of other lads who are reared in the country, his vacations and such time as he was not engaged with his lessons being devoted to the work about the farm, under the direction and supervision of his father.  His services were rendered to his father until he had attained his majority, following which he worked for him on shares until he was twenty-six years of age.  About this time he married and began to work for himself, renting a hundred and sixty acres from his father that he cultivated for seven years.  In 1907 he purchased his homestead, and here he engages in general farming and also raises and feeds stock for the market.  Mr. Cornell is a man of progressive ideas and clear judgment and so capably directs his enterprises that he is meeting with more than a moderate degree of success, being numbered among the prosperous farmers of Des Moines township.

On Christmas eve, 1896, Mr. Cornell was united in marriage to Miss Emma Jacobson, a daughter of Gus F. and Hannah ( Edmonds ) Jacobson, both of whom were natives of Sweden .  The father emigrated to the United States when a young man of twenty-one years, while the mother was a child of five when she accompanied her parents to this country.  Mr. Jacobson first located in New York , going from there to Illinois and subsequently settling on a farm east of Lockridge in this county.  It was there that Mrs. Cornell was born on the 7th of July, 1876 .  The father and mother continued to live on their farm until five years ago when they removed to Batavia , where they are now residing.  Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Jacobson, as follows:  David, who is living in Des Moines , Iowa ;  Mrs. Cornell;  Wilbur, who died in childhood;  and Etta, who passed away when she was eighteen years of age.  Mrs. Jacobson had been married twice before, her first union being with a Mr. Peterson, by whom she had three children:  William, who is deceased;  John, who is living in Denver , Colorado ; and Christina, the wife of T. Lundgren, of Centerville , Iowa .  Her second husband was Mr. Olson and she bore him one child, Anna Alice, who is deceased.  Mr. and Mrs. Cornell are the parents of four children:  Ruth Hannah, who was born on the 9th of November, 1897;  Grace Freeda, whose birth occurred on the 2d of December, 1899;  Ernest Leo, the natal day of whom is the 9th of January, 1900; and Goldie Christina, whose advent occurred on the 17th of August, 1906.  The three eldest children are attending school in district No. 1, Des Moines township.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Cornell hold membership in the Presbyterian church of Libertyville , and he votes the republican ticket.  He cares not to figure prominently in political activities, but he is a loyal and patriotic citizen, as were his forefathers, who offered their services to their country in time of need.  His maternal grandfather, Jesse Gibbs and one uncle, Joseph Gibbs, were in the Civil war, and went with Sherman on his famous march.

CAPTAIN BENJAMIN F. CRAIL

Of the many volunteers that Jefferson county sent to the south during the Civil war, probably none made a more brilliant record or had more thrilling experiences than Captain Benjamin F. Crail, who despite the fact that he received a number of serious wounds, one of which the surgeons pronounced as fatal, remained at the front until the close of hostilities.  He is a native of Pennsylvania , his birth having occurred in Beaver county, on March 19, 1828 , and is a son of Benjamin and Nancy (Daugherty) Crail.  The father, who was a millwright by trade, was born in Pennsylvania , of Scotch extraction, his natal day being in 1793.  He participated in the war of 1812, while his father John Crail fought in the Revolutionary war.  He subsequently became the owner of a grist mill in Beaver county, in the operation of which he actively engaged until his death in 1846.  The mother was born in Ireland in 1798 and in her early childhood came to the United States , where she was reared to womanhood, marrying Mr. Crail in Beaver county.  There she continued to make her home after the death of her husband until 1855, when together with her children she removed to Iowa , settling in Jefferson county.  She passed away in 1886 at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Ella Snodgrass, at Winterset, Madison county, Iowa .  To Mr. and Mrs. Crail there were born ten sons and daughters:  John, Irwin and James D., who are deceased; Benjamin F., our subject; Milton and Mary, both of whom are deceased; Cynthia, of Shenandoah, Iowa; and Ella, Elizabeth and Matilda, who are also deceased.

Reared at home, after the completion of his preliminary education which was obtained in the common schools, Benjamin F. Crail pursued a course in Debts Business College of Pittsburg.  Having decided to take up civil engineering for his life vocation he subsequently went to New Cumberland, Virginia, now West Virginia, to study surveying and engineering under John H. Adkinson.  In 1852  he took a position as carpenter in the ship yards of Pittsburg , going from there to Freedom, Pennsylvania .  Later he signed on as a carpenter and mate on a boat on the Ohio , but relinquished his berth in 1859 and came to Fairfield , where his mother was then residing.  Soon after his arrival here he purchased an ox team and drove to Colorado , where he remained until the fall of 1860, when he returned to cast his vote for Abraham Lincoln for president.  Mr. J. S. McKemey, then treasurer and recorder of Jefferson county, appointed Mr. Crail his deputy, the duties of this office engaging his attention until the call came for troops when he resigned his position to go to the front.  He enlisted on the 20th of August, 1861 , in Company F, Third Iowa Volunteer Cavalry, at Fairfield , entering the service in the capacity of a private.  His regiment was sent to Missouri , participating almost immediately in engagements and skirmishes at Fulton and Santa Fe , that state.  In the latter encounter Captain Crail was thought to be mortally wounded, one bullet having passed entirely through his body in the region of the heart, while another lodged just above that organ.  The surgeons pronounced his recovery as impossible, believing that wounds such as his must necessarily prove fatal.  He was young, however, and possessed a fine constitution and wonderful recuperative powers, and after spending five months in the hospital was discharged and rejoined his command at Lebanon , Missouri .  During the very early days of his enlistment he displayed the courage, resourcefulness and executive ability qualifying him for a more responsible position than that of private, so he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant, and at Paris, Missouri, on the 1st of April, 1862, he was made captain.  He took part in many battles and skirmishes in southern Missouri , among them being that of Pilot Knob, his company seeing active service every day until they reached the Arkansas line.  They were ordered to Little Rock , and driving the confederates before them after some hard fighting took the city.  He next joined a raiding party through the southern part of the state, during that time attacking and capturing the towns of Arkadelphia and Mount Ida , and after driving the rebels out of Hot Springs skirmished all the back to Benton .  While at camp in Little Rock , Captain Crail went on a veteran's furlough, reenlisting for three years.  During his thirty-day furlough he returned to Fairfield and visited his family, then went to Keokuk from there to St. Louis and on to Memphis , Tennessee .  On the 1st of May, 1864 , with his command he crossed the river into Arkansas , where they had some pretty sharply contested battles.  He was defeated at Gunntown , Mississippi , on the 10th of June, 1864 , and on the 14th of July, that year, he participated in two days' fighting at Tupelo , Mississippi .  On the 19th of December, 1864 , his company joined Grierson's raid to Vicksburg , which city they reached on the 6th of January, 1865 .  They subsequently went to Louisville , Kentucky , from which city they departed on the 19th of March, 1865 , via Paducah and up the Tennessee river , on Wilson 's raid that finally lead to Atlanta .  On the way they participated in the battles of Monta Vala, Oldtown Creek and Selma , as well as the siege of Montgomery , the latter city finally capitulating after a hard struggle.  They next went to Columbus , where there was a big battle and on to Macon , Georgia , on April 21, 1865 .  At the latter point they received word of Lee's surrender, and remained in camp until April, 22, when they were advised of the assassination of Lincoln .  The regiment was then ordered to Atlanta , and there they mustered out on the 9th of August, 1865 .  Captain Crail maintains that Wilson 's raid would have been one of the biggest things of the war, had it not have happened so near the close of the struggle.  When mustered out Captain Crail was suffering from some fresh wounds received at Oldtown Creek , Alabama , where a bullet had shattered the bones of his right arm, while he had also been bayoneted during the battle.  He received his discharge at Davenport , Iowa , on the 23d of August, 1865 , and returned to Fairfield , suffering severely for more than two years thereafter from his wounds.  To conclude his war record we quote from the report of the adjutant general, vol. of Iowa:  “On the 24th day of July, 1862, with one hundred men encountered the rebel Porter with his force of about four hundred men strongly posted in the dense brush on the ‘Botts' farm in Monroe county.  Killed one rebel and wounded many others.  Our casualties were, one man killed, Captain B. F. Crail of Company F and nine others wounded.  Porter fled south into Callaway whither we pursued. – Also vols. II 1863 and 1867:”  On the 31st of March, 1865 , Captain Crail led a charge and was wounded with several of his men at Montevallo , Alabama .

Upon his return to civil life he bought a farm in Cedar township, endeavoring to engage in agricultural pursuits.  With one of his arms in a sling he hauled the timber out from forty acres of land into Fairfield , where he sold it.  In 1875, he moved into town and erected a residence on the lot where he now lives.  As soon as he was able after returning from the war he again took up surveying, continuing to engage in this occupation until the 1st of January, 1911 , when his last term as surveyor of Jefferson county expired.  He served for several terms as assistant county surveyor and in 1883 was elected to the office of surveyor, which he held for eight years, when he resigned to go to California .  Returning to Fairfield in 1898 he was again elected to the same office, continuing to serve in this capacity until his retirement from public life at the age of eighty-three years.  At the expiration of his last term he again went to southern California , where he spent the winter of 1911, and has since lived in retirement.  Captain Crail has always been one of the foremost figures in the public life of Jefferson county, and has prominently participated in promoting its development.

In 1832, while residing in Pennsylvania, Captain Crail was united in marriage to Miss Charlotte McCaskey, a daughter of the Rev. George McCaskey, of Washington county, Pennsylvania, and to them was born six children:  James, a prominent dry-goods merchant of Washington, Iowa; William H., a retired  gold miner of Los Angeles, California; Susan, the wife of E. W. Steele, a retired capitalist of Los Angeles; Robert M., a traveling salesman of Marysville, Missouri; David E., of the firm of D. E. Crail & Co., meat dealers of Fairfield; and Frank A., who is a merchant of Burlington, Iowa.  The wife and mother passed away in 1873 and in 1877 Captain Crail married Mrs. Nancy Steel, of this city, who died in 1891.  By this marriage there were born twin sons, Joseph S. and Charles S., who are engaged in the practice of law in Fairfield under the firm name of Crail & Crail.  In 1895, Captain Crail was married to his present wife, whose maiden name was Miss Helen Richardson, a daughter of George Richardson of Fairfield, and they have one daughter, Mary Helen, who will graduate from the high school with the class of 1913.

Both Captain and Mrs. Crail are members of the Christian church and in politics he is a stanch republican.  He is one of the highly esteemed citizens of Fairfield , where he has made his home practically ever since the war and is widely known throughout the county.  He is a most capable man as his long period of public service attests, having been elected to office and efficiently discharged his responsibilities long after reaching his three score and ten.  Success has attended his efforts, because in all of his undertakings he has manifested the intrepidity, foresight and determination of purpose that characterized him on the southern battle fields.  Although he always decided with but little determination what he desired to do, he never acted impulsively, always following a well conceived plan with a definite purpose in view.  Doubtless from the plain where he now stands he sees mistakes he has made, but his life can hold few regrets, as his efforts were always intelligently directed, and he has had the satisfaction of seeing his children grow up into capable men and women, successfully, pursuing their various careers.

JAMES D. CRAIL

A well known pioneer of Jefferson county, who for many years was successfully identified with the agricultural and dairying interests of the county, was the late James D. Crail.  He was born in Beaver county, Pennsylvania , on the 24th of March, 1822 , and was a son of Benjamin and Nancy (Daugherty) Crail.  The father, who was of Scotch descent was born in the Keystone state in 1793, and there he was educated and reared to manhood.  When old enough to decide upon a life vocation he took up the miller's trade and subsequently became the owner of a grist mill in Beaver county, Pennsylvania , that he operated until his death in1846.  The mother was born in Scotland in 1798, but she was brought to the United States in her early childhood and here she was reared and educated.  She was married to Mr. Crail in Beaver county, and following his death she continued to make her home there until 1855, when she came to Iowa with her children.  She made her home in Jefferson county for many years, but she was living with her daughter, Mrs. Ella Snodgrass, at Winterset, Madison county, Iowa , when she passed away in 1886.  The family of Mr. and Mrs. Crail numbered ten, as follows:  John and Irwin, both of whom are deceased; James D., our subject; Benjamin F., of Fairfield; Milton and Mary, who are also deceased; Cynthia, who is living in Shenandoah; Ella, who is deceased; Elizabeth, who died in infancy; and Matilda, who is deceased.

The early years in the life of James D. Crail were typical to those of other youths of the period who were reared in the more sparsely settled communities.  He attended the common schools in the acquirement of an education, and when qualified to begin preparations for his life vocation laid aside his text-books and applied himself to the ship-carpenter's trade.  After the completion of his period of apprenticeship he entered the shipyards at Pittsburg , where he was employed until he came west.  In 1855 he gave up his position and came to Jefferson county, locating in Fairfield .  He subsequently purchased a farm in the vicinity of Brookville upon which he settled with his family successfully devoting his energies to its operation for many years.  Mr. Crail was a capable agriculturist and prospered in his undertakings, but owing to the state of his health was forced to retire in 1876.  He rented his farm and withdrawing from all active work made two extensive trips through the west.  Later he removed to a dairy farm he purchased south of Fairfield , and there he continued to reside until his death, which occurred on May 12, 1896 .

On the 15th of December, 1861 , Mr. Crail was joined in wedlock to Miss Elizabeth J. Holton, a daughter of Alexander and Nancy (Sellers) Holton, both natives of Bracken county, Kentucky , and of Scotch-Irish descent.  Mr. and Mrs. Holton began their domestic life on a farm in the Blue Grass state, but they later removed to Missouri , settling on a farm where they both passed away, after the war.  Mrs. Crail's paternal grandfather, Joshua Holton, served with distinction in the Revolutionary war, thus entitling his descendants to membership in the various societies organized by the sons and daughters of the heroes of the Revolution.  Mrs. Crail is the third in order of birth of the ten children born to her parents, the others being:  Frances, who is living in Missouri; Ruth, who is deceased; Calvin, who is also deceased; Lydia, a resident of Missouri; Polly and Emily, both of whom are deceased; and Amanda, John and a baby, all of whom died in infancy.  Mr. and Mrs. Crail were the parents of two children:  Benjamin Franklin, who is a stockbuyer in Fairfield, married Mary E. Poulton, and they also have two children, James, who is attending the military school at Lexington, Missouri, and Helen, who is in the Fairfield high school; and Matilda, who married Bruce Ratcliff, a traveling salesman of J. M. Gobble & Company, wholesale grocers at Muscatine, Iowa.  They reside with Mrs. Crail and Mrs. Ratcliff is a member of the Log Cabin Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution of Fairfield.

The family always attended the Methodist Episcopal church of Fairfield , in which the parents held membership, Mrs. Crail still being identified with this organization.  In politics Mr. Crail was a republican, but he never figured in public affairs as an aspirant to official honors.  Owing to the state of his health Mr. Crail was not able to go to the front during the Civil war, but his brother, Captain Benjamin F. Crail, made a brilliant record on the battlefields of the south.  Mr. Crail led a somewhat unobtrusive life, devoting his attention to the development of his personal interests, but he never possessed many most estimable qualities and had a large circle of friends in the county, who held him in high regard.

JULIUS CRILE , well known in agricultural and financial circles of Jefferson county, is today one of the most extensive landowners in this part of the state, his possessions aggregating ten hundred and sixty acres, most of which lies in Walnut and Lockridge townships, Jefferson county.  It was in the former township that his birth occurred in July, 1846, his parents being John P. and Gottlieben (Kull) Crile, both of whom were natives of Germany .  On coming to America the father located in Marion county, Ohio , where he lived for eight or nine years, and in 1836 he arrived in Jefferson county, Iowa , settling in Walnut township, where he entered one hundred and sixty acres of government land.  Later he secured another claim of forty acres and with determined purpose began clearing the land and turning the first furrows in the field.  The work of further development and improvement was continued by him throughout the remainder of his days but death claimed him when this was still a frontier district.  He passed away in 1848 and his wife survived him many years, her death occurring in 1906.

Julius Crile was reared and educated in Walnut township and always remained with his mother.  He was but two years of age when his father died and when twenty-two years of age he began farming on his own account, joining his brother in the purchase of the old homestead property of two hundred acres.  They farmed this in partnership for six years, at the end of which Julius Crile sold his interest to his brother and invested in one hundred and ninety-four acres, since which time he has carried on farming independently.  With resolute purpose he began the task of developing his property and that he has prospered is indicated in the fact that from time to time he has added to his holdings until he now has in his possession ten hundred and sixty acres of valuable land, of which one hundred and forty acres lies in Henry count, while the remainder is situated in Walnut and Lockridge township, Jefferson county.  Whatever he has undertaken he has carried forward to successful completion and that his methods are practical and progressive is manifest in the excellent appearance of his place, with its well tilled fields, its substantial buildings for the shelter of grain and stock and a pleasant and commodious residence.  He raises about sixty head of hogs each year and keeps eleven head of cows and twenty-two head of horses.  He also deals largely in horses and is well known as a breeder, having four Percheron stallions and one Shire.  He is likewise a stockholder in the Pleasant Plain Savings Bank and in the State Bank of Brighton and has become widely known in financial circles.

In August, 1871, Mr. Crile was united in marriage to Miss Minnie Hankammer, a daughter of John and Mary (Holbiser) Hankammer, both of whom were natives of Germany .  The father came to the United States in 1883, settling in Keokuk county, Iowa , where he purchased and improved a farm, continuing in its operation until about a year prior to his death.  His last year was spent in the home of Mr. and Mrs. Crile and here he passed away in 1893.  His wife died in 1889.  Mr. and Mrs. Crile have become the parents of eight children:  Emma, now the wife of George Diers;  George, who died in 1905;  Lizzie, the wife of Frank Diers;  Ida, the wife of Dave Powell;  John;  Ben;  Clara, the wife of Earl Smith, who is operating a farm in partnership with her father; and Minnie, at home.  After an illness covering two years the wife and mother passed away in 1898 and her death was the occasion of deep regret to many friends as well as her immediate family.

Mr. Crile exercises his right of franchise in support of the men and measures of the democratic party and his religious faith is that of the Lutheran church.  His record is notable by reason of the success he has achieved and the honorable, straightforward business policy which he has ever followed.  He has never sought to take advantage of the necessities of his fellowmen in any trade transaction but through industry and wise investment has won the prosperity that places him now among the most extensive landowners of Jefferson county.

WILLIAM F. CUMMINGS , an enterprising and successful farmer and stockman of Buchanan township, is the owner of a tract of eighty acres of rich and productive land.  He is numbered among the worthy native sons of Jefferson county, his birth having occurred in Buchanan township, on the 6th of February, 1867 .  His parents, Samuel A. and Maria (Case) Cummings, were natives of Virginia and Ohio respectively.  It was in 1843 that Samuel A. Cummings came to Jefferson county, Iowa , with his parents, with whom he continued to reside until they were called to their final rest.  He has been identified with general agricultural pursuits throughout his entire business career, purchasing the home farm after the death of his parents and having since been actively engaged in its further cultivation and improvement.  He has now attained the ripe old age of eighty-one years and is well known and highly esteemed throughout the community, in which he has resided for almost seven decades.  His wife passed away on the 1st of July, 1879 .

William F. Cummings was reared to manhood in his native county, attending the district schools in the acquirement of an education.  On attaining his majority he left the parental roof and began the operation of a rented farm, being thus engaged for four years.  On the expiration of that period he purchased a tract of eighty acres in Buchanan township and began its improvement.  The operation of that place has claimed his time and energies continuously since, and the well tilled fields annually yield golden harvests as a reward for the care and labor which he bestows upon them.  In addition to the production of cereals he devotes considerable attention to stock, raising forty head of hogs each year and keeping twenty head of cattle and eight head of horses.

On the 27th of November, 1895 , Mr. Cummings was united in marriage to Miss Alva E. Barnes, a daughter of John C. and Sarah ( Marshall ) Barnes, both of whom are natives of Pennsylvania .  The father, an agriculturist by occupation, came to Jefferson county at an early day, purchased and improved a farm and continued its operation until 1895.  In that year he disposed of the property and removed to Fairfield , where both he and his wife still reside.  To Mr. and Mrs. William F. Cummings has been born a son, Charles L., who is now thirteen years of age.

Mr. Cummings is a republican in his political views and is now serving in the capacity of township trustee.  Fraternally he is identified with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, belonging to the lodge at Fairfield , Iowa .  His religious faith is indicated by his membership in the Presbyterian church, to which his wife also belongs.  He has remained a resident of Jefferson county from his birth to the present time and enjoys an extensive and favorable acquaintance within its borders.

ROBERT H. CURTIS owns a farm of one hundred and sixty acres on section 27, Black Hawk township, where for twenty years he has engaged in general farming and stock-raising.  He was born in Guilford county, North Carolina , on the 16th of June, 1856 , and is the only son of Abraham and Margaret (Brown) Curtis.  The parents, who were of German extraction, were likewise natives of Guilford county, the father's birth having there occurred in 1802.  When he had reached man's estate Abraham Curtis chose the carpenter's trade for his vocation, but after his marriage he bought and operated a farm, with the assistance of hired help, in connection with his carpentry work.  He passed away in 1873, but the mother lived until 1896, both having passed their entire lives in the country where they were born.  Mr. and Mrs. Curtis had seven daughters, three of whom are still living, as follows:  Fannie, of Randolph county, North Carolina ; and Cornelia and Margaret, who are residing in Guilford county.

Reared on his father's farm Robert H. Curtis obtained his education in the district schools, and while engaged in the mastery of the common branches he was also becoming familiar with the practical methods of agriculture.  From the time he attained his majority until he left home four years later he gave his entire attention to the operation of his father's farm.  In 1881, he left North Carolina and came to Iowa , locating on a farm in Richland township where he worked by the month for two years.  During that time he accumulated sufficient capital to enable him to farm as a renter, which he continued to do until 1891, when he bought his present farm.  During the period of his ownership he has wrought extensive improvements in his place, which is well stocked, contains good buildings and is one of the attractive properties of the township.  Mr. Curtis has most intelligently directed his activities and has met with success in his various undertakings.  For the past nine years he has been an invalid and has been unable to do any work, but he gives his personal attention to the supervision and direction of the various operations connected with the tilling of the fields and harvesting of the crops.  He at one time rented his farm for about six years, four of which he spent in Fairfield, while for eighteen months he lived in Arkansas.

On the 5th of December, 1878 , in Guilford county, North Carolina , was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Curtis and Miss Sarah Coble, who was born and reared in Guilford county.  Mrs. Curtis is a daughter of David and Laura (Euliss) Coble, the former of whom is a native of Guilford county, of English extraction, while Mrs. Coble was born in an adjoining county and is of German descent.  Mr. Coble, who was an attorney, owned a large estate and many slaves in North Carolina .  He was a prominent officer in the Confederate army, enlisting in Guilford county, and was well known throughout the state.  He passed away on the 7th of July, 1891 , but the mother is still living at the venerable age of eighty-three years and makes her home in Burlington , North Carolina .  Mrs. Coble is very active and still in possession of all of her faculties despite her age, and in the fall of 1911 was favored by a visit from her daughter, Mrs. Curtis, whom she had not seen for twenty years.  To Mr. and Mrs. Coble there were born six children, Mrs. Curtis, who was third in order of birth, being the eldest of the three now surviving.  William R., the oldest and only surviving son, is a resident of Burlington , as is also the other daughter, Laura Ann, who lives with her mother.  The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Curtis has been blessed with five children:  Mrs. Amy Viola Curtis, of Waterloo, who has two sons, Harry Winfield Howard and Curtis Howard; Henry Vance, who is attending the high school at Fairfield and assists his father with the work of the farm; Robert Vern, who is also attending school in Fairfield; William Grover, who died when he was two years of age; and Rosabelle, who was two and a half months at the time of her death.

In matters of faith Mr. Curtis holds membership in the Christian church of Richland , while Mrs. Curtis belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church of Fairfield .  She is also a prominent member of the Black Hawk Township Neighborhood Club.  The political views of Mr. Curtis conform to the principles of the democratic party, but of recent years he casts his vote for the candidate he considers best qualified for the office, irrespective of party affiliation.  His salient traits of character are such as commend him to the confidence and good-will of those with whom he comes in contact, and as a result he is held in high regard in the community where he has long resided.