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HISTORY OF CARROLL COUNTY.

      On the 25th of September, 1879, a disastrous fire destroyed two entire blocks and a part of a third block. Nothing daunted by this weighty calamity, building was immediately commenced and in place of the "burnt district" massive and costly brick structures were erected.
     Carroll has a number of jobbing houses, three banks, four newspapers, an electric light plant, water works controlled by the city, public hot water heating system, fire department, excellent schools, seven churches, public library, four public halls, opera house, flouring mills, grain elevators, and one of the finest hospital buildings in the middle west fully equipped with all the modern hospital facilities.
     Besides its several large factories, Carroll has: General stores, five; groceries, six; boots and shoes, four; clothing, three; hotels, five; restaurants, five; bakeries, one; hardware, three; agricultural implements, three; grain warehouses, two; stock dealers, two; livery barns, three; grain elevators, two; lumber yards, two; coal dealers, six; brick yards, one; wagon shops, one; drug stores, four; dentists, three; photographers, two; banks, three; real estate, six; several insurance agencies and land offices; loan agencies, two; merchant tailors, three; printing offices, four; jewelry, three; architects, one; shoe shops, one; cigar stores, two; barbers, five; fruit stores, one; harness shops, two; meat markets, two; attorneys, fourteen; saloons, eleven; wholesale liquors, five.
     The principal resident portion of the city is on an elevation which slopes gradually back from the business center and neat and beautiful homes are evidence of the cultivated and refined tastes of their inhabitants. In its business portion the stately blocks of brick, its costly public structures of fine architectural designs, all bespeak the wealth, enterprise and public spirit of the Carroll citizens. The high school building of Carroll is a large and magnificent structure, occupying a beautiful location and overlooking the entire city.


METHODIST CHURCH.
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     The first Methodist church of Carroll was organized in 1868 by Rev. Jas. Manning who kept the charge for two years. The church began with about a dozen members, and meetings were held in the sample room of the old Boots Hotel, which stood on the vacant lot next to the building now occupied by John Nockels. As the membership soon increased it was decided to use the old school building, where services were regularly held for some time.
     In 1871, three years after the organization of the church, and while Rev. S. Snyder was pastor, the small congregation succeeded in building a church of their own, which cost about $1,600 and was large enough to accommodate many more than the seventy-two members who belonged to the church at that time.
     Rev. Snyder labored with the church two years, then E. P. Vail was appointed in 1872. The next pastors were W. C. Smith in 1873, E. W. Brady in 1874, then J. C. Eckels in 1875, who served three years, followed by J. A. Smith in 1878.
     In 1879, under the pastorship of W. A. Chambers, the church was enlarged and many improvements made. All of the north end was built on and the tower erected, making the value of the church about $3,000. The full membership at this time was 125.
     In 1880 Rev. S. Jones was appointed pastor, serving for three years; in 1883, Rev. E. M. Holmes for two years; in 1885, Rev. James Lisle; 1886, Rev. W. M. Welsh; 1887, Rev. Cyrus Smith, who was returned the second year. During his second year, the Woman's Home Missionary Society was organized. In 1889, Rev. J. W. McCoy was pastor, and in 1890 Rev. Geo. Winterbourne was appointed and served two years. During his first year the attendance had increased so that it was necessary to have more room, and the gallery of the church was built. During this year also, the Epworth League which has since done so much toward the advancement of the church, was organized, and was later followed by the Junior League.
     Mr. Winterbourne was followed by Rev. W. B. Thompson in 1892, who officiated as pastor of the church for five years. No greater workers have ever been in Carroll than Rev. Thompson and wife. The charge at this time included two churches, the First Methodist and the little church of Beulah, about six miles southwest of town. During the five years Mr. Thompson was here the church membership increased from 172 to 318.
     In 1894 the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society was organized, followed a little later by the organization of the Ladies' Industrial Society.
     In 1897 Rev. W. E. Howe was pastor, followed in 1898 by Rev. C. E. Bently, who remained three years. In 1901 Rev. W. J. Stratton was appointed.


BREDA.
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     The town of Breda is located in the rich agricultural district of Wheatland Township, 13 miles from Carroll, in the northwest part of Carroll county, on the Sioux City branch of the Chicago & North-Western railway. This road was built in 1877, and on October 30 an election for incorporation was held and carried by a vote of 36 for and 5 against.
     December 26, 1883, the first town election was held which resulted in the election of the following officers: Frank Salmon, mayor; Joe Kempker, clerk; J. F. Schelle, Henry Bruning, Clem Knotte, Richard Riche and H. W. Lammerding, councilmen. It has a population of 450, graded school, bank, newspaper, opera house and three churches.
     Fits & Wade were the first to engage in the general merchandise business; D. B. Simpson, in the lumber business; McDougal & Co. were the first to deal in grain and live stock. Frank Knobb was the first commissioned postmaster of the town.
     In 1883 an independent school district was formed and a new public school building erected on a favorable site in the northwest part of town.
     The Breda Watchman, a weekly newspaper, began its existence in 1890 under the ownership of a stock company, J. J. McMahon being its first editor.
     A large and beautiful Catholic church was built in 1886 at a cost of over $15,000 and a large parochial school was erected in 1904 costing over $10,000.
From a mere temporary village of a few and scanty buildings and small business undertakings, in two decades, the town has had a steady and gradual growth in business and population.
     The progressive spirit of its citizens and the interest of the people living in and tributary to the town have always proven powerful factors in the upbuilding and maintaining of our private and public institutions, and the dwellings and business establishments in general that make up this progressive town.

MANNING.
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     Whether or not our first impressions are lasting, and whether or not they are correct, are questions which the writer cheerfully abandons to discussion by those who are inclined to argument In so far as the town of Manning is concerned, it is certainly true that the general appearance of this wide awake and thriving town cannot fail to favorably impress all who visit it, and this impression is more than confirmed by careful investigation.
     It is seldom that the stranger has the pleasure of visiting a more interesting town than this, and when that privilege falls to his lot, there is but one sentiment to express, and that is, astonishment—at so many evidences of thrift, prosperity, individual enterprise, social and business advancement, and the general harmony that seems to prevail in all matters of public benefit, as well as the whole-souled cordiality of the people.
     It is claimed by commercial travelers and others who are in a position to know that more business is transacted in Manning than in any other town of the same size in the State of Iowa.
     Manning, although comparatively a new town, has had a steady and substantial growth from its very birth, and though it has encountered railway wars, and political contentions, and on several occasions has met with revere losses from conflagrations in which whole portions of the town were wiped out of existence, none of these things seem to have retarded for one moment the indomitable spirit of progress, and, "Phoenix like," it has risen from the disaster of flame and smoke, to a more magnificent growth and development.
     The greater portion of Manning is situated on a commanding eminence, overlooking a beautiful country of rolling hills and winding valleys, rich beyond measure in soil and agricultural resources.
 

    Manning is located on the southwest corner of the county, eighteen miles from Carroll, on Little Botna creek, and on the crossings of the mail lines of the Chicago & Great Western and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, and the Audubon branch of the Chicago & North-Western railway. It has a population of 1,382.
     The town and surrounding country of Manning is settled largely with about the same class of people which characterizes Scott County, Iowa, and which has made Davenport famous for her wealth and prosperity, and the richest city of its size in the United States; that good German stock of people that represents the brain and brawn of the most powerful government in Europe and one of the greatest nations of earth.
     The "Town of Manning" was named in honor of ex-Lieutenant Governor 0. H. Manning, who, in 1881, was attorney for the Iowa Southwestern branch of the C. & N. W. system.
     In the spring of 1880 the Chicago & North-Western Railway Company wished to extend its system by running a branch from Carroll to Harlan, and with this object in view, ran a survey and laid its roadbed as far as Kirkman. This branch was called the Iowa South-Western R. R. About a year after this, in the autumn of 1881, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Company wished to extend their main line from Marion to Council Bluffs, Iowa. They ran a survey westward until they reached the eastern boundary of Shelby County, where on running out " feelers," they discovered an obstacle in their way commonly known as the Guthrie Hills. The instruction to the chief engineer had been to keep about half way between the main lines of the Rock Island and North-Western railroads, but in order to pass these hills, they had to go to a great expense for grading, or veer off to the north, which brought them closer to the C. & N.-W. than was desirable, so in order to determine the route a number of surveys were made from near this point.
     The base of survey was located near the point where the C. M. & St. P. now crosses the southern boundary line of Carroll county. The first survey was made in the autumn of 1881 but was abandoned on account of the grade necessary to cross the divide between the Elk Run Creek and a small tributary to the Nishnabotna River.
     In the spring of 1882 another line was run—where the present right of way now is—an far as the west boundary line of section 12 of Warren Township. It then ran nearly due west through sections 12, 11, 10 and 9, then veered northwest through sections 8, 5 and 6, when it changed again and followed a southwesterly direction back and joined what is now the main line, at the center of section 15 of Iowa Township in Crawford County. This survey, however, was also abandoned, as it brought the road too near the C. & N. W. and also made it longer. The chief engineer was acting under instructions, that when he could shorten the route a mile at an extra expense of $35,000 to do so. Had it not been for the Guthrie Bills the road would probably have run from ten to fifteen miles further south than it does now. As it now stands the last survey was the one finally adopted.


RAILROAD RIVALRY.
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     It was not expected that two competing companies could meet at a common point without one or both resorting to more or less strategy to further their own interests and to gain supremacy. At about the time that the Milwaukee was running its lines of survey, the Northwestern anticipated building a branch from the Iowa South-Western to Audubon, and had run three lines of survey. One with a junction near Halbur, running south by west through sections 34 and 85 of Washington Township, and sections 1, 12, 13, 24 and 26 of Warren Township, where in the last named section it took the course of the present roadbed. Another line was run the same as above to section 12 of Warren Township, there crossed the divide between the two branches of the Nishnabotna River and followed the eastern branch through sections 7, 17, 20, 28 and 34 of Eden Township. Still another line was run around north of Manning, through section 16, striking the present roadbed about the northeast corner of section 21. These first two lines were abandoned as the Milwaukee had a pervious claim through the second survey, and in order to force the Milwaukee to pay them a large bonus for the right to cross their line, the North-Western started a line of survey at a point near where the section line between sections 17 and 20 intersect it, and ran in a zig-zag manner so that the third line of the Milwaukee survey could not be run without Crossing the third of the North-Western's survey nearly half a dozen times.
     The Milwaukee was forced to pay the North-Western $38,000 for the right of crossing the branch running to Kirkman, which was already constructed. The North-Western had wished to cause the Milwaukee more inconvenience and expense through the Audubon branch of the Iowa South-Western and thought by running a previous survey they could demand of the Milwaukee a bonus for the right to cross. In this they were mistaken, for the strict interpretation of the law read: "When a railroad company has laid a part of its roadbed, another company is barred from crossing that part of the line that is in process of construction without paying a reasonable sum for the right, which crossing must be granted by the other company, for no company can prevent another from laying its road across theirs; although the company that is doing the crossing is liable for the damages incurred on the other company as well as a reasonable bonus." On the 14th day of May, 1881, about 300 men and teams suddenly made their appearance and pitched their tents on the hill just west of town. They at once set to work to designate the right of way, as laid out according to their third survey, and by morning there were several miles of way thus designated and the men commenced grading and laying track.
     By this bit of strategy the Milwaukee compelled the North-Western to either straighten out their track or pay a heavy bonus, which was most gracefully conformed with, in the former requirements.
     After the Milwaukee had gained their right of way, the North-Western decided that the curve required to connect the "Audubon Branch" with the "Kirkman Branch" would be too small at 300 feet, so concluded to make it 1,500 feet -by making a junction about 250 feet north of where the Milwaukee intersected the "Kirkman Branch." This necessitated their crossing the Milwaukee's right of way, and for which the latter charged the North-Western just $38,000, the same sum that the Northwestern had demanded of them for crossing the "Kirkman Branch," so the Milwaukee virtually crossed the North-Western without, as is usually the case, having to pay a heavy bonus, although the latter had a previous claim. The "Audubon Branch" was finished in 1882.
     On the 28th of July, 1881, the first town lot in the town of Manning was sold.
     The first birth in Manning was to Mr. and Mrs. P. A. Emery, October 31, 1881.
     The first death was that of Elizabeth Merry, October 19, 1881.
     The first social event was a Thanksgiving hop in the fall of 1881.
     The first theatrical performance was given February 10, 1881, by home talent.
     The first store was kept by Whealen Brothers.
     The first dwelling erected was built by John Ferguson in autumn of 1881.
     The first blacksmith shop was opened by Charles Breath.
     The first informal assessment was taken just after the first lots wore placed on sale. The value of the real and personal property at that time was estimated at $200,000.
     The first stock of drugs consisted of a supply of medicines which Dr. McKinne brought with him when he located in the town.
     The first train of cars W R8 run into Manning July 4, 1881, over Chicago & North-Western railroad.
The first religious services were bold near here in 1878.
     The first attending physician in the vicinity of Manning was Dr. K. R. Williams, who located in the county long before Manning was thought of.
     The first livery and feed establishment was the open lots where the Park Hotel now stands. The trees and clouds were the only shelter for the horses and rigs against the burning sun, while Mother Earth served as mangers. The stalls consisted of a circle, about fifteen feet in diameter, encircling each post or tree.
     Manning was incorporated on the 17th day of February, 1882. The first officers under the incorporation were: I. W. Collimore, mayor; W. F.

Smith, recorder; Byron E. Wheaten, assessor; P. A. Emery, J. M. Turner, R. F. Pidd, J. L. McQuaid, J. S. Wilson, Mathias Hoffman, councilmen.
     Der Manning Herold. This paper was established February 2, 1894. It is a twelve page six column German weekly. Bert Kraus, the present editor, has been the sole proprietor ever since the first issue of the paper.
     Mr. Kraus received his education in a Staats gymnasium or Latin school of Austria, which is a national institution, where the students obtain a preparatory classical and universal education. Previous to the establishment of the Manning Herold, Mr. Kraus bad been engaged in the theater business for twelve years. Playing a great deal in German. It was only an accident that he launched into the newspaper business in Manning. The circumstances are, that he visited the town with a German troup and severed his connection with them at this place. On looking the ground over and some persuasion by the Germans who wished a local paper in their native language, he was prevailed upon to establish a paper at this place. He entered into the enterprise with his usual zeal and energy, and in a short time had a font of type, and a bale of paper ready to go to work. Some of his cases were impromptu, composed of cigar boxes and lots of cases lie extemporized himself.
     His office was located in the Wm. Ruhde building and as soon as he had time to get fairly settled in his new profession, things began to assume a more progressive object. New cases replaced the old ones, and new type was substituted for the old, and the marred and pied type was returned to the foundry. For a time the notorious Free Press mimeograph was rented for printing the paper, and when this was destroyed in the fire of 1895 Mr. Kraus invested in a Washington hand press of his own. Previous to this, he had invested in a job press and entered for competition in English and German job printing. lie now has two job presses and makes a specialty of job work of all kinds.
     In 1897 he moved his plant from the Ruhde building to the second floor of the Carpenter building.
He has been publishing annually since 1898 a city directory of Manning.

THE PRESS.
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     The Manning Free Press was established in 1889 by (G. W.) Lafiar & (C. C.) Coe. The first issue of the paper was dated August 2, 1889. It was a six column folio, printed on pink paper, one side of which was a patent sheet.
     Mr. Coe withdrew from the partnership and Mr. Lafiar continued as sole proprietor, with G. E. Ferguson as manager, until September 15, 1890. On that date he sold the plant to Martin Brothers, who changed the political policy of the paper from Republican to Democratic. The paper, however, did not seem to prosper so well under the change, and in December, 1891, the plant was closed by foreclosure of a mortgage. The publication, however, was soon renewed and continued under name of Martin Brothers until Nov. 1, 1893, when the policy of the paper again became Republican.
     On September 11, 1895, the plant was almost entirely destroyed by fire, but new offices were at once opened up and only one issue of the paper was missed. The paper was run off on the Monitor preen until November 1, 1895, when Mr. Lafiar sold what remained of the plant to the proprietor of the Monitor and it was absorbed by that paper.
     The "Manning Monitor" was the first and is the oldest paper in Manning. Volume 1, No. 1, was published Nov. 17, 1881, by S. L Wilson.
     In 1903, E. W. Funk, who had conducted the paper along the line of Democratic principles sold out and the paper was changed to a Republican one. September, 1897, it was sold to W. E. Sherlock, and in September, 1898, G. W. Lafiar became sole owner and proprietor and has remained as such to the present time.
     Mr. Lafiar has been postmaster of Manning for many years.
     The town of Manning has two newspapers, three banks, city park, five churches, excellent schools, electric light plant, city water works, opera house and three depots.
     The business classification of Manning is as follows: General stores, five; groceries, one; drugs, four; boots and shoes, one; furniture, two; hardware, two; jewelry, three; millinery, two; cigar store and factory, one; billiard and pool rooms, two; saloons, nine; express offices, three; drayage and transfer, five; harness shops, two; shoe shops, three; dentists, three; newspapers, two; lawyers, two; physicians, four; grain elevators, three; barbers, four; hotels, three; agricultural implements, two; lumber yards, three; creameries, one; bottling works, one; flour mills, one; livery barns, two; bowling alley, one; stock yards, three; manufacturing concrete building blocks, one; electric light plant, one; steam laundry, one; sale pavilion, one; banks, three; loan agencies, four; real estate, two; insurances agencies, four; poultry stores, two; confectionery, one; restaurant, three; photographer, one; blacksmiths, four; woodworks, two; contractors and builders, four; merchant tailor, one; dressmakers, three.

GLIDDEN.
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     The town of Glidden is situated in the eastern part of Carroll County, and is surrounded by a country that for fertility of soil is not surpassed in Western Iowa. The town is picturesque, attractive, prosperous and progressive, well drained and with good roads that reach out in every direction.
     The artificial strength of Glidden is principally derived from that great trunk line of railway, the Chicago & North-Western, the management of which does not dictate a policy detrimental to the interests of towns along its line of road, but, on the contrary, offers the best shipping facilities and the lowest rates possible.
     From an esthetic point of view this is a beautiful town, environed with pretty suburban farms, groves and orchards, embellished in every quarter with elegant homes, tasteful lawns, many columns of forest trees that have made the streets and avenues long arcades of living green.
     The schools are in a fine condition and one meets with evidences of social refinement on every hand.
As a business point Glidden is in the front rank of Iowa's enterprising towns. It has excellent stores and its merchants do a thriving business on a scale of unusual magnitude.
     The population of Glidden is 818. The town was platted in 1886, and is a shipping point for a large district of country.

ARCADIA.
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     Arcadia is from nine to ten miles west of Carroll, on the main line of the Chicago & North-Western Railway. It has always been a place of sure promise and certain growth. It is beautifully located, and in every respect adapted to the conditions of a prosperous country town. Its exact location is upon section 16, township 84, range 36. As usual, along the lines of the Chicago & North-Western the Blair Town hot & Land Company was its sponsor.
     Arcadia was incorporated in the autumn of 1881, the following being the officers in pursuance of the incorporation: D. J. McDougall, mayor; F. A. Charles, recorder; D. H. Moore, treasurer; ; Mr. Agnew, marshal; D. H. Moore, 0. E. Hawk, C. H. Westbrook, Claus Erp, Henry Ewaldt, councilmen. The population of Arcadia, according to the census of 1880, was about 450; the present population in 462.
     In 1880 a disastrous fire visited Arcadia, destroying nearly the whole business portion of the town and leaving but two stores unharmed. The work of rebuilding was immediately commenced, and the buildings destroyed were nearly replaced during the autumn of the same year.
     I. N. Vorris was the original town proprietor of Arcadia, and subserviently sold the town site to the company already mentioned.
     The town was first called "Tip Top," from the fact that it was on the summit of the divide and the most elevated town, topographically, in the State.

HALBUR.
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     Halbur is situated on the Iowa Southwestern branch of the North-Western system and on the main line of the Chicago & Great Western railway and thus affords facilities for shipping this section's large output of agricultural products to all parts of the world, while its passenger service is satisfactory to those wishing to visit any point.
     Its growth has been similar to small trading points throughout the country and it has a population of 155.

 

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