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Compliments of Rev. John Battell
 


 
 
 

HISTORY

OF THE

McCullough Family

BY

SIMEON McCULLOUGH
 

First Comers to America and Origin of Name.

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    The McCullough ancestors came from Scotland, place unknown. Three brothers came to America at an early date in the history of this country. From these have perhaps descended the numerous branches of the McCulloughs in the United States, at least that branch which terminates the name with "lough" instead of "loch." The manner of spelling the name is of course a matter of preference. The origin of the name must have been the same.

    The construction of the name indicates that the McCulloughs were Scotch Highlanders, and that the name originated from some chieftain of an ancient clan living in the vicinity or around Lake Cul, "loch or lough." They were probably called Culloughers or lochers, while the Mac, which means "son,' was applied to the individuals in speaking of them as the son of the Cul-loughers.

    These three brothers, the first of the name who came from Scotland, settled in Virginia, in or near the Shenandoah valley in 1735. The McCullough who performed the terrible feat (called McCullough's leap) of jumping horse and rider over the precipice to escape the too closely pursuing Indians, was of this family of McCulloughs.

    Our grandfather's name was James McCullough. There were two other sons, one named John and the other William. James was engaged In the Indian wars of the eighteenth century and was once taken prisoner after being badly wounded. He was kept captive for some time until the wounds were well healed.

    Shortly after the opening of the Revolutionary war these three brothers enlisted in the colonial army, James and John serving the entire eight years. William was killed at the battle of Brandywine. The surviving brothers, shortly after the close of the war, emigrated to Montgomery county, Kentucky. John soon afterwards settled at or near Cross Plains in Ripley county, Indiana. From him descended a numerous family. He died in 1821. That he was held in high esteem is evidenced by the fact that nearly one thousand people attended his funeral. He was buried with the honors of war, the United States flags suspended crossed over the body and a military salute, fired by old Revolutionary comrades, over the grave. His daughter-in-law as late as 1852 or '53 lived with her daughter in the southern part of Decatur county, Indiana. She had a large family. One daughter married a man named Burk.

    John, the oldest son, was an attorney living at Greensburg, Indiania. He moved from there to Madison, Ind. Another son was a doctor who as late as the '80's was living at West Point, Indiana. Another son was a tailor by trade and lived at the same place.

    Our father, Simeon McCullough, was born December 3, 1794, in Montgomery county, Kentucky, and grew to manhood there. His father was married twice. The first wife's children were two sons, Simeon and James, and a daughter (name not known). The second wife's children were John, Daniel and Hannah.

    The daughter by the first wife married a man named Wilson and after raising a large family of children, all moved to Texas. James McCullough came to Indiana about the same time as Simeon and settled on the West ½ of SE¼ of Section 19, Township 12 North, Range 10 East, a piece of land adjoining his brother's on the E½ of NE¼ of the same section. He married a widow named Nancy Yocum who had one daughter, Elizabeth Yocum. They had several children, John, Franklin and Druzillah, and perhaps others whose names are not known. They moved from Rush county to near Brazil, Clay county, Indiana.

    Our ancestors, on our mother's side, came from Germany or Holland, place not known. Our mother's grandparents came from Germany or Holland and settled in Maryland near Hagerstown, near which her parents were born and grew up. They left this place shortly after the Revolutionary war and went to Montgomery county, Kentucky, and settled on a stream called Stoner Creek, a tributary to Licking River, entering not far from the famous Big Bone Lick, where so many skeletons and fossil remains of huge animals have been found. Our mother's father owned and run a large mill situated on and propelled by the Stoner. They were not far from Mt. Sterling, the county seat of Montgomery county. Here our mother, Mary Ann Sydner, was born May 3, 1794 and grew up. The German or Holland language was used entirely in her father's family until she was twelve years old, after which the English was spoken, and by disuse she almost forgot the mother tongue in later years.

    Our grandmother on our mother's side, was before her marriage named Fruit, from which our brother Andrew received his middle name.

    Grandfather Sydner's family consisted of seven children: Catherine, Martin, John, Nancy, Jacob, Mary Ann, and Sarah. Aunt Catherine, the eldest, married David Douglas who became a "new light" preacher with an extraordinary memory in the Scriptures. He was also a land surveyor. They came to Indiana about the same time as our father, and settled in the southern part of Decatur county, Indiana, six or seven miles southwest from Greensburg. Their children were William, Mary, Sarah, Elizabeth, Martin, Jacob and Nancy. William owned a farm southwest of Greensburg and raised a large family of children. Mary married a man named Hugh Jones, they lived in the same neighborhood. Sarah married a man of the same name as herself, Douglas. Elizabeth Douglas never married. She became a preacher among the New Lights and Baptists. Martin Douglas married and joined the Baptists. He became a minister and lived in Greensburg, Ind. Jacob Douglas, if he married at all, did so quite late. Nancy married Tarleton Caldwell; their children were Emma, Nancy and William. Several of the Douglas' sold out and went to Iowa.

    Uncle Martin Sydner secured the homestead in Montgomery county, Kentucky, and owned a few slaves. William, his son, did business in Indiana, as a horse trader. Uncle Jacob Sydner lived about three miles west of Greensburg. He was married twice, but had only one child, Washington Sydner, son of the first wife. Uncle John Sydner settled near Hope, Bartholomew county, Indiana. Of his nine children all but one died young of consumption. Dawson, the surviving child, married Florinda Hawk. He was very wealthy. Washington Sydner, son of Uncle Jacob, married Harriet Lathrop. They had several children, mostly girls. One son, Martin, served in the 37th Indiana Company E, but was discharged on account of rheumatism. Washington Sydner was very wealthy and was ruined by going security on a note. He gathered together what he had left from the wreck and moved to Iowa. Aunt Nancy Sydner married Jacob Salyers and settled near Cross Plains. She reached sixty-five or seventy years of age. Aunt Sarah Sydner married Samuel Salyers, a brother of Jacob. They lived in Ripley county, Indiana.

    Simeon McCullough, our father, and Mary Ann Sydner were married September 7th, 1815. Simeon was six feet tall, well proportioned, sandy hair and blue eyes. Mary Ann Sydner was large, above medium height with black hair and eyes. Eleven children were born to them: William Lawrence, Sept. 22, 1816; Andrew Fruit, Sept. 11, 1818; Susanna Catherine, July 7th, 1820; Elizabeth, May 22, 1822; Margaret, March 16, 1824; James, March 26, 1826; John Burns, April 16, 1828; Simeon, June 15, 1830; Mary Ann, Sept. 2, 1832; Nancy Jane, Nov. 18 1834, and Jacob Sydner, Oct. 10, 1836. Four were born in Kentucky: the others in Rush county, Indiana. Catherine died in August, 1821, in Southeastern Indiana.

    Grandfather McCullough visited his son Simeon in the year 1835. He was then ninety-four or five.

    Our father, Simeon and his oldest son, William Lawrence, after harvest each year, made and sold brick. Father became justice of the peace and was captain of the militia in Rush county, Indiana, at his death. In 1838 he took a State Government contract on what was called the White River and Black Creek Canal - a cross branch running from the White river to the Wabash river. It was on or near the White river north of Anderson in Madison county, Indiana. William and Andrew worked with him from the fall of 1838 till March 1839, when the typhoid fever broke out in the camp. Our Father McCullough took the fever and was removed to the home of a woman who had lived in the father's family as a child. William carried the news to mother. She returned and arrived a few days before her husband's death, which occurred on April 8, 1839. She went back home with her son to break the news to the family. In a short time William fell ill and died on the twenty-ninth of June, 1839. All but the two youngest of the other children took the fever and Margaret died at the home of Mr. Sharps, where she and John had been taken when it became necessary to separate the family.

    Mrs. McCullough and Jesse Cain were married in the fall of 1840. The family was their separated and put in homes. Nancy lived at home until her death in 1858. William, Margaret and Nancy Jane McCullough and Mary McCullough-Patten are buried in Bethesda Church yard near Milroy, Indiana. Andrew and James moved to Knox county, Missouri, in 1844 or 1845. Brother Andrew married Eliza Anderson and had five children: John, Simeon, James, Mary and Eliza. He died in Missouri in 1881, I think. Brother James married Julia Ann Woolsey and died in California in 1854. Elizabeth married Aaron Patten. Their children were Moses, Martha, Ann, Benjamin and two whose names are not known. Mary McCullough married Moses Patten, a twin brother of Aaron. They had two children, Alonzo and Benjamin Franklin. She died of typhoid fever in October, 1865, near Milroy, Indiana. John married Margaret Wright. They had four children, Mary, William, Silas Simeon and Thomas. Silas died of diphtheria in Grant county in 1857, or '58. Simeon married Mary Ellen Shields August 14, 1855, in the city of Indianapolis. John and Simeon moved from Grant county, Indiana, where each of them made a farm bought from the government in 1848, to Illinois in 1864.

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    Auto-Biography

    OF

    J. B. McCULLOUGH

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    To His Children, Grandchildren, Nieces, Nephews and Friends:

    Simeon McCullough, writer of the above sketch, moved west from Elpaso, Ill., in 1875, and settled on a half section of land 8 miles west of Council Grove, Morris county, Kansas, and called it "Grand View" because of its nice location. He kept the postoffice at Grand View until it was changed to Delavan on the R. R. His nearest neighbor was 7 miles away. One night a storm blew his house down and of a family of ten, not one of them was hurt. He was a great educator and most all of his children graduated at Manhattan College, Kansas. He was one among the best informed men in Morris county. His favorite studies were geography, history, botany, astronomy and chemistry. He was a local preacher and took a great interest in building up the Methodist church in Delevan, He was a member of the church for over fifty years. Died June 30, 1897. Buried at Delavan, Kansas.

    Mary Ellen McCullough, his wife, died of dropsy about 1891. She was a faithful member of the Methodist church. Buried at Delavan, Kansas. They had ten children. Mary was born in 1856, graduated at Manhattan, Kansas, taught school several years. Married Alexander McNichol. They live at Delavan, Kansas.

    Jacob was born in 1858. He graduated at Manhattan College, Kansas, and while there became interested in electricity and telephony, and, being a good mechanic, made his own telephones and attached them to the wire on the fences from his home to the post office at Delavan and all of the neighborhood where wanted. Later he bought the telephone plant at Herington, Kans., which he ran successfully until 1902 or 1903, He hurt his arm, took blood poison and died. A good, noble, Christian man. He was buried at Delevan, He never married.

    Robert was born in 1860. He graduated at Manhattan College, Kansas. He married Miss Kinnehan. They live in Herington, Kansas. Have two children, Anna and Charles. He is a carpenter by trade. Has considerable land and town property.

    Olive and her sister married brothers to Robert's wife (Kinnehan). One of them lives in Canada and the other in the south. They are both good business men and wealthy. Neither of them have children. Margaret lives in Herington. Not married.

    Helen died in 1906 or 1907. Buried at Delavan in the home cemetery.

    Dr. William McCullough, the youngest son, graduated at Manhattan College, Kansas, and at a medical school. He married Josephine Wilder. They are living on the old homestead (Grand View farm). He has an office at Delavan and a very extensive practice. They are both good and faithful workers In the M. E. church and Sabbath School. His two youngest sisters, Adda and Nancy, live with him on the home farm. Both of them have been great sufferers, being invalids all their lives. All of Brother Simeon's family are good working members of the M. E. church.

    The last word from Brother Andrew's children in 1900, John was editing a paper at Dallas, Texas, and James was farming in that vicinity. Mary married and living on a farm north of Quincy, Ill. Heard nothing from Eliza, and Franklin was running a store in Abilene, Kansas, and his sister living with him.

    Elizabeth McCullough Patton moved to Baxter Springs, Kans., in 1867 or 1868 and died in 1876. Aaron Patton lived to be an old man, died in 1905. They were buried at Baxter Springs. One of the boys lives in Kansas City. I think that the other children live in or near Baxter Springs.

    Mary McCullough Patton's son, Alonzo, lives on a farm east of Bloomington, McClain county, Illinois.

    Brother Jacob S. McCullough, the youngest of the Simeon McCullough and Mary Sydner McCullough family, graduated at Richland Academy, Rush county, Indiana, In 1859. In the spring of 1861 he went as a volunteer in the 37th Indiana regiment of the rebellion. He was mustered out in 1865. He was in the battles of Stone River, Lookout Mountain, Vicksburg and all the battles of Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, etc., thus enduring all the hardships of a soldier's life for over four years. In the fall of 1865 he was married to Miss Addie Downey, of Richland, Ind. They moved to Indianapolis, Ind., where he clerked in the wholesale dry goods house of Geo. Hibben, Tarkington & Co. In five or six years he was put in as head manager of the house, a position he held at the time of his death in the fall of 1897. His wife died two or three years before he did. They were members and workers in the M. E. church. They had four children: Luther is a dentist, lives In Indianapolis; married. John travels for the Indianapolis Coffin Co., married. Andrew is a printer in Indianapolis, married. Elizabeth is teaching in Indianapolis.

    Jesse Cain (our stepfather) died in 1866 aged 86. Was buried at Bethel, the home cemetery. Was a member of the M. E. church for 71 years, a class leader for 40 years. He was a noble hearted, devoted, Christian man. After his death our mother lived with her sons, Simeon at Elpaso, Ill., and John B., at Monmouth, Ill. She died March the 5th, 1878, after 14 months of intense suffering from a broken hip, caused by a fall. Was buried in Monmouth cemetery. She was 84 years old. A member of the M. E. church for 70 years. She was a great worker in the church. A woman of strong mind and retentive memory, and if I am anything I owe it to my Christian parents.

    John B. McCullough, the only survivor of the children of Simeon and Mary A. Sydner McCullough, moved from Grant county, Indiana, in 1864, and settled near Monmouth, Ill. His wife, Margaret, died of consumption November the 13th, 1870, and was buried in the Monmouth cemetery. She was a member of the Presbyterian church and a devoted Christian woman. On the 23d of October, 1872, he married Miss Mary I. Davison, daughter of Mark Davison, of Wapello, Iowa. He went into the hardware business with E. E. Wallace & Co., of Monmouth, Ill. January 1st, 1875 sold out and in August, 1878, he settled on 160 acres of prairie land one mile south of York, Neb. Built a house and barn, fenced 40 acres pasture, turned up 100 acres of sod, raised three crops. Sold out in 1881 and the last of August moved to Wapello, Iowa, where I went into the lumber business. Continued in the business until December, 1897, when Mrs. McCullough's health failed her, and in January 1898, when operated on at the hospital at Chicago, it was found to be cancer of the stomach. She was a great sufferer for over three years, dying March 3, 1901. She was a member of the Presbyterian church, a devoted Christian and a great worker in the church. Buried at Wapello, Iowa.

    J. B. McCullough had six children, Mary C., William W., Thomas G. and Silas S. (died in infancy) by the first wife, Margaret Wright; and Roy Davison and Cora Blanche (died in infancy) by second wife, Mary Davison. Mary C. married U. Z. Gilmer, a Methodist minister, December 30th, 1870. They had eight children, two died in infancy. Erma graduated from high school. Married Geo. Feustel. Live at Fairport, Iowa. Owns a pottery for making flower pots. They have three children, Gilmer, Vashti and Rex. She has been very badly afflicted for 15 years. Was taken to the hospital at Peoria, Ill., in June 1903, and was brought home in December with the right lung gone and wearing a steel jacket to protect the body on account of tuberculosis of the backbone. But her suffering was so great that seven years ago she was taken to a hospital at Chicago and after giving her a thorough examination, decided that the backbone was dislocated. They put it in place and she enjoyed fairly good health for 3 or 4 years. But she has been going down for two years and the last word was that there was little hopes of her recovery.

    Nellie Gilmer graduated at Abington, Ill., College. She married Elmer Gilmer, her cousin, a Lutheran minister. They live at Tipton, Iowa. They had seven children. Three died in infancy. The living are Daniel, Mary, Max and Frances.

    Rex Gilmer graduated at Monmouth College. He is married and has one child, Mary Louisa. Is a lawyer and lives in Marysville, Washington.

    Mildred Gilmer graduated at Monmouth College. Not married. Is superintendent of schools at Mt. Vernon, Iowa.

    Harold Gilmer graduated at Monmouth College. Is married and has one child. Has chair in Latin and Greek in college at Fayette, Iowa, Upper Iowa Ministry.

    Paul Gilmer graduated at Monmouth College. After graduating he was employed by the government to superintend schools in the Philippine Islands for 4 years. He is now professor in a college in New Athens, Ohio.

    Mary McCullough Gilmer died the 29th of May, 1903, of cancer of the stomach and bowels. Buried in Monmouth cemetery. She was a devoted Christian and a great help to her husband in his ministerial work. Rev. U. Z. Gilmer married later to a lady living at Washington, Ill., and is preaching at Hersher, Ill.

    Wm. W. McCullough graduated at Monmouth College in June, 1875, taking the first honors of his class. He commenced working in the Wallace & Sullivan Hardware Co. (I being a member of the, firm at that time) at $35 a month, to pay $160.00 borrowed from his uncle to finish his schooling. In the fall of 1878 he was married to Miss Cora Shaw, of Monmouth. He continued working with Wallace & Co. for several years, when he bought the lumber and coal business which he is still running. Later he bought an interest in the Wallace Hardware & Implement business and then the plumbing business, and for 5 or 6 years has been taking all the ice that the ice plant can make to keep down the temperature of Monmouth on the hot days in summer time.

    In 1902 Mr. Gale, of Galesburg, Ill., and Wm. Young, S. S. Hallam and W. W. McCullough of Monmouth, Ill., formed a company to build an interurban railroad from Monmouth to Galesburg and it was finished and opened for traffic in June or July 1905, and it has been doing a good business ever since. Wm. W. and Cora McCullough had no children of their own, but they loved children and most always had some one under their care to see that they were getting an education. When Nettie McCullough's (T. G.'s wife) health failed they took a great interest in his children, giving them a home. They also gave Takasho, a Japanese boy, a home and sent him to school, graduating him in high school, Monmouth college and two years at Harvard, fitting him for any position he might be called on to fill. He was a bright, noble boy.

    Mrs. Cora McCullough has almost lost her hearing and has to use an instrument most of the time.

    Thos. G. McCullough lived with his brother, W. W., at Monmouth, and went to school. He was married to Miss Nettle Brownlee Feb. 18th, 1891. They have three children, William, Harry and Robert. Nettie was in very poor health for several years and died on the 16th of December, 1905, a noble, Christian woman. Buried at Monmouth. Thomas lived with W. W. and Cora until March 9, 1913, when he married Miss Clara Brown, of Cable, Ill.

    T. G. was running a branch lumber yard at Mathersville, Ill., which he sold out and now has an interest in the home company at Monmouth. William, Harry and Robert, (all of T. G.'s sons) work for the firm when not at school. William will graduate at college next June, Harry is collecting for the firm and Robert is ready for anything.

    Roy Davison McCullough (son of Mary Davison McCullough) born January 23d, 1875. He worked in the Commercial Bank which was established by Mark Davison in 1868, from 1901 to the present time, and at his mother's death inherited her share of the bank stock and is now cashier. Attended State University of Iowa. He was married to Miss Edith Springer, of Wapello, December 16th, 1905. They have five children. Mary John, Jean, Frances and Robert, as fine a set of jewels as ever graced a home.

    Early History.

    The land in Rush county, Indiana, was surveyed by the government in 1816 and it was settled up very fast. My father came there from Kentucky in 1822. The heavy timber had to be removed before anything could be raised, and all the settlers were poor and times were hard. They all lived in log houses. I was born April 16, 1828, on the west of the nw¼ of Sec. 21, Township 12 North, Range 10 East of the 2nd P. M. In the summer of 1833 our school board built a brick school house on the East ½ of the nw¼ of See. 29, township 12 North, Range 10 East of the 2nd P. M., and we had a three month public school that winter which I attended. In 1835 my father bought the East ½ of the northeast¼ of Sec. 19, Township 12 North, Range 10 East of the 2nd P. M. on which we lived until the 8th of April, 1839. My father died of typhoid fever and from that time until in October (out of a family of twelve, all but the two youngest were down with the fever) we had to be separated among the neighbors for three months. It was a sad homecoming that cold October day, with three empty chairs, father, brother William and sister Margaret gone and no crop raised. But I cannot tell you how we got through that winter. They say that there is a silver lining to every cloud.

    In May, 1840, I made my first money by covering five acres of corn and got 25 cents for it, with which I paid postage on a letter. In May, 1841, my mother married Jesse Cain. We had school three months each year, which I attended. The books used were Webster's speller, American Preceptor, Bible and anything you could get to read, Talbot's Arithmetic, Grammar, Geography, etc. I graduated in that school in February, 1849, in McGuffey's 4th reader, Ray's Higher Arithmetic, and five weeks in Kirkham's Grammar. In January, 1850, 1 took up Gummery's Geometry, Trigonometry and Surveying which I finished in six weeks. I worked out at $10 a month for the summer months and in the fall of 1848 1 bought 120 acres of land from the government in Grant county, Indiana. On the 30th day of January 1851, I was married to Miss Margaret R. Wright, and in the fall of 1851 I was elected county surveyor of Rush county for a term of four years. On the 8th of January, 1856, we moved to our land in Grant county. We had a log cabin 16 feet square, with puncheon floor and clapboard ceiling waiting for us. We had a team of horses and wagon, three cows, 23 sheep, $56 in money and one barrel of flour, which was all that we had until we raised wheat the next year. We cleared 5 acres for corn that spring, put in wheat in the fall and threshed 150 bushels of wheat the next July. And while I was busy clearing ground, your grandmother was busy "keeping house," spinning wool and weaving it into cloth for home use or to sell. In the spring of 1857 1 rolled logs 23 days and your grandmother would pick the trash and fire 5 or 6 log heaps each day and I burned my log heaps at night. But times were hard and money hard to get. In the winters of 1857, '58 and '59 1 taught a 3 months school at $25.00 per month and I assessed our township (Richland) in 1860 and '61, which helped a great deal. In 1858, my brother, who was attending the Richland Academy (my home town) sent me a question they could not work and as I am writing this letter to my grandchildren and want them to work it, I will give you some hints to start with. And remember that this is no "catch" question, but a real one. The question is: How large must a square field be to contain just as many acres as it takes rails to fence it, allowing two panels to the rod and fence 7 rails high (14 rails to the rod)? A geometrical question worked by supposition. I took one- fourth of a section, which contains 160 acres. It takes two miles or 640 rods to fence it; 14 rails to the rod equals 8960 rails. We find the one-fourth of a section contains 160 acres, and rails to fence it, 8960. Put this as a common fraction 160-8960, and reduce to lowest term equals 1-56 of a whole number. 56 times 8960 equals 501,760, the number of rails needed to fence it, and as the acres and rails must be equal and as 640 acres make one square mile, we divide the number of rails, 501,760 by 640 acres equals 784 square miles or sections, the square root of which is the answer, 28 miles square, the size of the field.

    As written before, we sold our farm in Grant county and in 1864 we moved to Spring Grove, 8 miles north of Monmouth, Warren county, Illinois, and settled on the West ½ of the NE ¼ of See. 20, Township 12 North, Range 2 West of the 4th P. M. In the fall of 1871 I was elected county surveyor of Warren county for a term of 4 years. A part of the duties were testing the scales of the county, examining the railroad crossings of the county roads and examining the coal banks to see that they were well ventilated and the number of hands worked and the number of tons of coal mined each year. In 1874 there was about 60 mines worked in Warren county. The veins of coal were from three to five feet thick.

    As to politics, I am a Republican, born in 1828, the year that "Old Hickory" General Andrew Jackson (the father of Democracy) was elected president the first time. In 1832 he was elected for a second term. In 1836 Martin Van Buren, a democrat, was elected president. In 1840 Wm. H. Harrison, a Whig, was elected, but only lived in office one month and John Tyler, the vice president, who filled out the term, turned democrat. In 1844 Jas. K. Polk, a democrat, was elected president. He annexed Texas to the U. S., which caused the war with Mexico in 1846 and '47. In 1848 Zachariah Taylor a Whig was elected president and died after serving 15 months, and Millard Filmore, the vice president, filled out the term. But as the Senate and House were democratic, they could do nothing. In 1852 Franklin Pierce, a democrat, was elected president and in 1856 James Buchanan, a democrat, was elected president. In 1860 Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, was elected president. So that 32 years of Democratic legislation almost paralyzed the country.

    The Whig party advocated a protective tariff to enable them to build large machine shops for all kinds of work and compete with cheap labor in foreign countries. Some of the democrats wanted free trade and others wanted tariff for revenue only, but nothing for protection. So there was nothing done and as the banking laws of Indiana were very bad, from 1850 to 1860 there were over 1,000 banks ("wild cat" they call them) were started and in three or four years none of them were worth 100 cents on the dollar, but varied from 25 per cent to 80 per cent on the dollar and times were hard. This is the way it was when A. Lincoln, a Republican, took the oath of office of president, March 4th, 1861. An empty treasury, army all in the south and a war declared, etc. But you know all this. The war ended in April, 1865, and with 52 years under Republican rule (excerpt two terms of Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892) and legislation, tariff reform, etc., the country has grown very wealthy, treasury was full and every one that will work can lay up money in the bank. In 1912 Woodrow Wilson was elected president by the minority vote of 6,300,000 out of a total of 16,500,000 votes in the U. S. He entered on the duties of his office March 4th, 1913, and with great zeal he took up the work of reducing the cost of high living by condemning the protective tariff laws that has made us the great and prosperous nation that we are in 55 years. He sets his machinery to work and in about 6 months they placed before congress the Underwood tariff bill for its adoption by the two houses of congress, which was done by whipping the weak-kneed democrats into line. This list was virtually a free trade list as it put most of the manufactured goods on the free list or cut it in two, and there is not enough protected goods to encourage the manufacturer or laborer to work. The farm products are about all on the free list, stock of all kinds and wool, which will kill off the large sheep ranches in the west. The tariff on sugar was yielding about $60,000,000 was reduced 25 per cent March 1st, 1914, and will be put on the free list next May, which will cripple the sugar business in the south and will be the death knell of the sugar beet factories everywhere, as they cannot run without a protective tariff; and then all their costly buildings and machinery will be lost; and now we are paying 2 cents a pound higher than we were two years ago. And now after having "killed the goose that laid the golden egg," to raise this money lost by annulling the tariff, they adopted the income tax law (which is a class legislation) all with an income of $3,000 and up to 1 per cent, thinking that this would fill the loss. But I see by the papers that at a cabinet meeting they decided that they must have $250,000,000 very soon and would raise it by assessing 10 per cent on all incomes over $30,000 and commence the assessment at an income of $2,000 in place of $3,000. This shows that there is some very poor guessing in that democratic conclave. One thing more that I must speak of: In four days after President Wilson signed that tariff bill, there was $100,0.00,000 worth of foreign goods in bond in the different warehouses in the U.S. the tariff on which would have been over $30,000,000 and not a dollar of this money went into the pockets of the poor laboring man or the millions in the U. S. So with a full treasury, to show their good will to foreign nations, they repeal our protective laws, stop our great manufacturers of different kinds of trades, which is the life of our nation, and turn the poor laboring man and family out to starve, and then put a direct tax on the men who have made their money because of this protective tariff. And there is no doubt that with the loss of that which would be raised by the tariff, the loss of buildings and costly machinery that will not be needed any more and the money that will be raised by the income tax to say nothing of the direct injustice to the laboring man and family will be more than $400,000,000 a year. So it looks to me like a very expensive experiment. Later, we see by the papers the president and cabinet and all the leading democrats have concluded to vote to replace the tariff on sugar when congress meets. "Consistency, 'thou are a jewel."

    Age of Improvement.

    I am thankful that it has been my privilege to live in the greatest age of improvement in the world's history. I have plowed with the old, wooden mould-board plow that my father made and have seen the traction engine with twelve or fifteen plows turn over the sod. I plowed with the jumping shovel and have seen the cultivator that plowed two rows of corn at the same time. I have cut grain with the reaphook and cradle and in 1852 raked it from the reaper and later shocked it after the self-binder. I have threshed grain with the flail, the ground-thumper and the separator. I saw the first railroad in 1844. It had a wooden track, run from Shelbyville, Ind., to Indianapolis, cars pulled by a horse. In 1848 I saw the first railroad and telegraph line and I looked a long time at that little wire to see how it was going to put the messenger boy out of business. So as time passes, we have improvements in everything. The Iron Horse is pulling sixty to eighty cars at a time. It was in the 'sixties I believe, that Queen Victoria sent the first cable message of peace on earth and good will to men," to the president of the U. S. At the same time we have the telegraph and can send messages of business, friendship and love, etc. Then comes the telephone, the greatest convenience of all. Then we have the wireless telegraphy, which is proving to be of such a help in case of shipwreck at sea. And last, but not least, we have Captain Webb sitting in the tower at Arlington Heights whispering to the man at Eifel tower in France 5,000 miles away and is heard distinctly, and then Mr. Webb turns to the west and whispers to the man in the tower at Honolulu 6,000 miles away and they converse together. Thus one man's voice has covered a space of 10,000 miles, plainly. Wonders will never cease.

    While at Newcastle, Pa., where is located 8 or 10 large steel mills (they are all large, cover 10 to 20 acres) we went through the mills and saw every operation from the ore to the manufactured article. Where the mills run 24 hours a day and 7 days a week until they close down for repairs, 3 shifts of hands every 8 hours. The furnace is about 30 feet in diameter. The ore (which is red colored earth brought from Michigan) is thrown down the chimney into the furnace and every eight hours they draw off the molton lava extracted from the ore, which runs in trenches made for it in the sand and into blocks, about 200 lbs. weight. They are called pig- metal and soon as they are hard enough to not break, then they are lifted out of the sand with grappling hooks, thrown into cars and run to another mill for the next process, which is about the same as the first. This time the lava is run into iron boxes about 15 x l5 inches and 5 feet long. This is called iron now. To save the heat (for they don't allow it to get cold) they run this to another mill for the next process. They put it in a large furnace and put on 6 or 8 tons of limestone rock to clarify it. When the rocks get hot they fly all to pieces and the sparks are so thick that you cannot see across the room. In 8 hours this becomes the best Bessemer steel and is run into the iron boxes then layed on a large steel plat- form and big steel rollers pass over them to get the shape they want. Having an itemized bill to fill they cut these steel plates into whatever the bill calls for never letting the steel get cold until it is finished, Then (with a large crane that they lift a big locomotive with) they pile it away just like you would a lumber bill for a house. Then they go at the next job, as they keep everything running and hot till they close for repairs. Now, to handle all the business of 8 steel mills, 1 bolt mill and the largest tin plate mill in the world, at Newcastle, Pa., and 10 mills 20 miles up the valley at Youngstown, Ohio, and 8 mills 15 miles further up the valley at Sharon, Pa., and 8 or 10 mills still further up the valley, there are four trunk line railroads each running 25 or 30 trains a day with big mogul engines pulling 60 or 70 heavy loaded cars with the ore from Michigan or coal (both products coming out of the bowels of the earth) and the merchantable manufactured article ready for use. We did not see a bushel of grain shipped in the month we were there. Everything was dug out of the earth, which was not known of in 1776 to 1783, when our forefathers were fighting for our liberty, which I fear we do not rightly appreciate.

    I have been a member or the church for 75 years and at the age of 16 1 formed this code of principle "that I would not tell a lie, swear or use bad language, use tobacco or anything that would intoxicate in any way, play cards or gamble, nor attend any place or resort that was not strictly moral in its nature," and I have carried out this principle through life. I have been in church work and a reader of the Bible most all my life, so that 35 years ago I took up the study of Bible History, Bible Geography and Topography of the land of Palestine. I sent to J. W. Miller, of Jacksonville, Ill., (publisher of maps and trails of different ones) and got a set of 12 small maps to paste in the Bible at the place stated on the map, then open out the map and you can follow their travels as you read and by looking at the top of the page you can see the age in which they lived. By following this plan I was soon able to take any of the Bible characters and give the time and place of birth, travels and time of their death and burial. And I have found this the best way to study the Bible and that is the way that I taught it until my heath failed 14 years ago and I had to give up teaching Bible class. I will use Abraham's life as a sample. Abraham was born at Er of the Chaldus 100 miles south of. Babylon on the Euphrates river 2000 years B.C. In 1950 B.C. he married Sarai and moved with his father Tera and Lot 600 miles up the river and settled in Mesopotamia (where the Turks are killing off the Armenians now) and built the town of Haron. It is about 75 miles west of the Ararat Mountains (where the Ark rested). In 1922 Tera, Abraham's father died and the Lord called Abraham to leave his people, and he took Sarai and Lot and all his goods and not knowing where he went, landed at Shecken (this noted place is 2500 feet above the sea level, where in 1750 Jacob with 4 wives and 11 sons landed after leaving his father- in-law in Mesopotamia and where he dug that famous well; where in 32 A. D. Christ talked to the Samaritan woman and where in 1444 B. C. Joshua had conquered Cannan. He took the army of 603,500 men and placed six tribes on Mount Ebel and six tribes on Mount Gerazim, read the blessings to the men at Mt. Gerazim and the cursings to the men on Mt. Ebel and each would call out "Amen." He also buried Joseph's bones here on his son Ephriam's inheritance. Many other sacred things happened here.) In 1921 B. C. because of famine, Abraham left Sheckerr and went to Egypt, taking Lot with him. In 1919 he left Egypt and settled at Bethel, where in 1760 B. C. Jacob camped and saw in his dream the ladder, the angels, etc. Bethel is 12 miles north of Jerusalem, is 3075 feet above sea level. Here Abraham and Lot's men had trouble. They separated, Abraham giving Lot the choice of localities, Lot taking Sodom and Abraham went 20 miles south of Jerusalem to Hebron and built an alter unto the Lord. In 1917 Chedortomer, king of Elam and 3 other kings made war with the king of Sodom and 4 other kings, and whipped them and took all of their goods and Lot and all he had. Abraham at Hebron, heard of it, took his 318 men, pursued them to Dan (50 miles west of Damascus) and making a night march he smote them and brought back Lot and all the women and goods and people, and the King of Sodom wanted him to take the goods, but he would not. In 1912 Hager Sarai Hardmad bare Abraham a son and called his name Ishmael. In 1901 the Lord made a Covenant with Abraham and changed his name to Abraham and Sarai to Sarah and established circumcision, and Abraham and all males of his house were circumcised. In 1899 as Abraham sat in his tent door two angels appeared and Abraham invited them in and fed them, and then the promise of a son (Isaac) was given. And as the angels departed. Abraham followed them and made that wonderful prayer for Sodom: If 50 righteous be found will you spare it? Shall not the judge of all the earth do right? I will spare it for their sake and if there be ten righteous I will not destroy it for their sake. Abraham quit asking and the Lord quit promising and Sodom was destroyed. In 1899 Abraham left Hebron and went southwest 35 miles and settled in Benursheba- a plain 800 feet above sea level. He dug 4 wells, 2 of them still in use. In 1898 B.C. Isaac was born. In 1872 B.C. Abraham offered up Isaac at Moriah (near Jerusalem), but the Lord furnished a sacrifice and Isaac's life was saved. This was the longest trip (55 miles) that we have of Isaac's travels. In 1860 B.C. Sarah died and Abraham bought the cave of Machpelia in Hebron and buried Sarah there. In 1857 B.C. Abraham sent his servant to Mesopotamia at Nabor to find a wife for Isaac, where he found Rebekah, a daughter of Bethuel, Abraham's nephew, which be brought with him for Isaac's wife. At about the same time Abraham married Katura and she bore him Zimron, Jokshan, Medan, Mindan, Ishlak and Shuak. Abraham died in 1825 B.C. aged 176 years and his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpilah at Hebron with Sarah and here Jacob was brought from Egypt and many others were buried. Hebron is 20 miles south of Jerusalem and is 3075 feet above sea level. Now I can take Jacob, Joseph, Moses, David, Samuel or most all Bible characters and trace their meanderings through like this and I believe any of my children, grandchildren, nieces and nephews (who I am writing this to) can do it too. If you get new Bibles be sure and get those with date figures at the top of the page, as all those $3 to $4 Bibles printed on fine paper that I have seen have no dates but 4004 B. C. If you should try this plan of studying the Bible, I hope and pray that you will receive as much benefit from it as I have.

    Mary Davison McCullough died March 3rd, 1901, and on the 25th of November I had a stroke of paralysis, and after having a home for over 50 years it was thought best to break up the old family home. On December 3d, I was moved to my daughter's at Abingdon, Ill., and as she had to be taken to the hospital at Peoria, December 27, 1 was taken to my son's, W. W McCullough, at Monmouth, Ill., where I made my home most of my time until Nov. 11, 1903. I married Miss Alice L. Thomas, who was born and raised here and we are living in the old McCullough homestead with the "latch-string hanging out" really at all times to welcome any of the children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, nephews and nieces that may visit us and if you cannot do that and we live to see the 16th of next April, we will claim a card from you to welcome us on our 88th birthday. I will close. Your grandmother joins me in sending love to all.

    JOHN B. AND ALICE THOMAS McCULLOUGH.

    March 1, 1916.

    Contributed by:

    Rev. John Battell
    N2322 River Oaks Road
    Reeseville, Wisconsin 53579-9608
    920-927-3475

    Obituary of Mrs. J.B. McCullough