Families from Marano Marchesato, Cosenza, Calabria
Marano Marchesato and Marano Principato are neighboring villages about five miles from the provincial capital of Cosenza in the southern Italian region of Calabria. During the era of mass migration, from 1880 to 1920, the population of Marano Marchesato hovered around 3,000 while that of Marano Principato stayed around 1,500. The work force was largely agriculture-based, with some small landholders and many landless laborers. The characteristics of the immigration to America from these two villages are the same as those for the rest of southern Italy and are best described by Franc Sturino in Forging the Chain: Italian Migration to North America, 1880-1930 (Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1990), which deals superbly with migration from this precise area. The earliest recorded departures from the villages occurred in the early 1880s. These pioneer immigrants were unaccompanied men hoping to find work and earn enough money to return to Italy and live comfortably. There then followed a steady stream of men to the United States; some of these men also began a two-way transatlantic "bridge" as they made many round trips between the villages and the United States. These early sojourners also began a chain migration, based upon kinship and locality, which persisted into the 1960s.
Most of the early arrivals made their way to Chicago where they were employed as railroad laborers throughout the Midwest and West. When in Chicago, they congregated in the Near West Side Italian colony, made up largely of Calabresi and other southern Italians, particularly on Forquer and West Taylor Streets. The first Maranesi who settled in Kenosha, Wisconsin, about seventy-five miles directly north of Chicago on the western shore of Lake Michigan, were track laborers for the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad who made the trip north with section gangs in the 1880s. In the decades that followed, hundreds of immigrants from the villages settled in Kenosha. This article examines Kenosha’s Maranese colony during the World War One period using World War One draft registration cards as primary source documents. (back to top)
There were four national draft registration days (June 5, 1917, June 5, 1918, August 24, 1918, and September 12, 1918) in the United States during its involvement in World War One, and all men between the ages of 18 and 45 were eventually required to register. The draft registration cards that they filled out give us a glimpse into the lives of many immigrant men who arrived in the midst of the so-called Great Migration. Since most immigrants didn't leave oral or written accounts of their lives, these cards form a vital record that would otherwise have been lost. Of necessity, then, this article focuses upon these draft-age men; information on other men, women, and children can be gleaned from this source, however. Other source documents, such as passenger lists, naturalization papers, American and Italian vital records, and city directories add to the picture of Kenosha's Maranese colony during the early years of this century.
The information recorded on the cards varied by registration date, however all cards provide much the same information: name, age, address, date of birth, place of birth (1917 version only), citizenship, occupation, employer, dependency/support information (1917 version only), next of kin (1918 version only), physical description, father's birthplace (some 1918 versions), marital status, and prior service information (1917 version only). Often, for "place of birth," a registrant would list simply "Marano," and this generally, but not always, refers to Marano Marchesato, the larger of the two villages. Also, sometimes just "Cosenza" is listed; this might refer to the city of Cosenza or it might be a general reference to the area or province. The author has not included such "Cosenza" references in the Maranese total unless corroborating material was available through research in Italian vital records or, on occasion, when the card listed the next of kin as residing in one of the two subject villages. Some cards omit place of birth altogether, or list simply "Italy"; the author has not included these references, even when they pertain to persons with common Maranese surnames (indeed, as might be expected many of the prevalent surnames in the villages can be found in other villages in the immediate area). Thus, the actual numbers recorded here should be viewed as conservative, yet the information they yield gives an accurate picture of the colony. (back to top)
Although Kenosha began in the 1830s as a commercial and agricultural center, by 1900 it was one of the most industrialized cities in Wisconsin. Its burgeoning industries included the "textile, bedding, tanning, boxing, furniture, wagon-making, and metals industries," and, after 1900, automobiles, tools, and wire rope. This massive, rapid industrialization was made possible by the import of large amounts of unskilled labor from southern and eastern Europe beginning in the 1880s. So rapid and complete was the industrialization, and so necessary was the unskilled labor, that by "the 1920's, about three-fourths of the city's labor force was employed in manufacturing." It was, in part, Maranese immigrants who filled this great labor demand.
This influx of laborers boosted Kenosha's population considerably. Kenosha's population grew from 6,532 in 1890, to 11,606 ten years later, to 50,262 by 1930. Fully thirty percent of this increase was due to immigrants. Only 102 Italian-born immigrants lived in Kenosha in 1900, but by 1920 they numbered 1,921. And by 1930 they totaled 2,458 (with their children adding another 3,290), at least seventy-five percent of them Calabresi, with most of them coming from the Cosenza area.
During the early phase of immigration, Kenosha was a secondary settlement for immigrants from Marano Marchesato and Marano Principato. Paesani had settled in the Italian colony in Chicago beginning in the 1880s, and the earliest arrivals made their way to Kenosha on foot, courtesy of their jobs on section gangs with the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad. Many of the immigrants moved from railroad labor to indoor manufacturing jobs in the tanneries and foundries which required large amounts of unskilled labor. Other Maranesi followed from Chicago when they heard of the job opportunities in Kenosha.
By the first decade of the twentieth century, Maranesi were coming to Kenosha directly from Italy, bypassing a lengthy stay in Chicago, largely at the behest of friends and relatives already living in Kenosha, where lodging and jobs awaited them. This trip involved a two-week ocean crossing in steamships ranging in age from a few to twenty years, a grueling train ride from New York to Chicago, then a shorter railroad trip about seventy-fives miles north for the final leg of the long journey to Kenosha. Many of the Maranesi made the trip with the financial assistance of men like Eugenio LaMacchia, a native of the Marano area who had settled in Kenosha and had opened a travel and steamship business, catering to his paesani, at 117 Howland Avenue.  (back to top)
By the eve of the First World War, hundreds of Maranesi had settled in Kenosha. During the 1917 and 1918 draft registration drives, which tallied all Kenosha men born between 1873 and 1900, inclusive, at least 138 Maranesi registered for the draft. (This reflects about two percent of all Kenosha registrants, which totaled about 6,300, and just under ten percent of Kenosha’s entire Italian population.) Of these, 132 were born in either Marano Marchesato or Marano Principato, and one, whose father was from Marano Marchesato, was born in Montalto, a small village a few miles north of Marano Marchesato. Five others were born in the United States to parents from Marano. The Giorno brothers, Antonio and Giuseppe, whose parents were from Marano Marchesato, were born in Kenosha in the mid-1890s; they moved to Marano Marchesato with their parents in 1897 but returned to Kenosha in 1909. The Molinaro brothers, Arthur, Lewis, and Michael, also were born in the United States.
This burgeoning Maranese colony was located within the larger Calabrese settlement in the West Side, with Howland Avenue (now 22nd Avenue) as it's main artery. This area, about fifteen to twenty-five blocks west of Kenosha's main business district, was home to many of the southern and eastern European immigrants who worked in the city's factories and foundries. The Calabrese colony was about eight blocks square, centered around the intersection of Howland Avenue and Garden Street (now 54th Street). The Maranesi clustered together in a smaller section, about five blocks square, centered upon the same intersection and bounded on the north by Jenne Street (now 53rd Street), on the east by Ridge Street (now 19th Avenue), on the south by Park Street (now 57th Street), and on the west by Newell Street (now 24th Avenue). In fact, approximately one hundred of the 138 registrants, or more than seventy percent, lived in the heart of the Maranese settlement; most of the remainder lived within a few blocks of the settlement, but still in the greater Calabrese colony.
Typical of the southern Italian settlement patterns of the time, many men roomed with relatives or paesani. For example, of the 138 Maranesi surveyed, twenty-six men lived at eleven different addresses on Garden Street, including seven members of the Giorno, Santelli, Ritacca, and Cosentino families living at 950 Garden Street. This wasn't unusual; seven men from Marano Principato lived at 825 Park Street, six Maranesi lived at 129 Brockett Street (now 23rd Avenue), and six men lived at 78 North Fremont Street (now 14th Avenue, just east of the greater Maranese colony). Other concentrations of Maranesi could be found on Newell, Howland, Market, Ridge, Maplewood, Edward, Jenne, and Westcott Streets within the colony and Anton, Grover, Victoria, and Middle Streets just outside the colony. Of the 138 men tallied, there are thirty instances where at least two men with the same surname (indicating a probable close family relationship) lived in the same house, evidence of the chain migration which brought the men to Kenosha and the support structure existing there. (back to top)
Once settled into the colony, Maranesi quickly found jobs (or assumed the jobs which may have been arranged for them by paesani) in Kenosha's industries. The new industries were large employers of the southern and eastern Europeans flocking to Kenosha. Every day, crowds of laborers walked to work through the working-class neighborhoods bordering the factories. Kenosha's Calabresi were no exceptions to the rule, and many of them found employment at American Brass Company (at Elizabeth and Pleasant Streets, now 63rd Street and 18th Avenue, a few blocks south of the colony), Hall Lamp Company (across 18th Avenue from American Brass Company), N. R. Allen Sons Tannery (east of the colony, near Lake Michigan, at the end of Jenne and Garden Streets), Black Cat Textiles, Windsor Spring Company (at Howland Avenue and Market Street, now 22nd Avenue and 56th Street in the heart of the Maranese colony), and other factories. No different than the typical southern Italian immigrants of the early twentieth century, the Maranesi in Kenosha were largely engaged in blue-collar jobs in these industries.
In fact, of the 138 Maranesi surveyed, eighty-five were listed as "laborer" in a variety of industries, and another seventeen were listed in various unskilled (or minimally skilled) manual labor positions such as machine hands, firemen, oilers, box makers, etc. Thus, more than one hundred, or about seventy-five percent, of the Maranesi were engaged in unskilled or low skilled occupations. American Brass Company proved to be the largest employer of draft-age Maranesi during the war years; no fewer than fifty-nine draft-age Maranesi toiled in the American Brass foundry. Other factories also had groups of Maranese workers: N. R. Allen Sons Tannery (fourteen men), Black Cat Textiles (twelve men), Simmons Manufacturing Company (twelve men), and Vincent Alward Company (five men). Smaller groups of Maranesi held positions at Windsor Spring Company, Hall Lamp Company, Cooper Underwear Company, Nash Motor Company, Kenosha Hosiery Company, Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, Wisconsin Gas and Electric Company, and Hannako Manufacturing Company.
Even in industrial employment there was some job differentiation. For example, although there were at least forty-six draft-age Maranesi working as laborers at American Brass, other Maranesi were employed there in such positions as cooper, packer, rolling-mill hand, fireman, carpenter, crane operator, metal inspector, clerk, solderer, roll-worker, oiler of machinery, and box maker. Likewise, Maranesi at N. R. Allen Sons Tannery worked at such diverse jobs as laborer, fireman, steam fitter, bark mill hand, shaving machine operator, leather buffer, and tanner. Men working at Black Cat Textiles were employed as laborers, oilers, fleecers, knitters, and press hands. This illustrates the mix of blue-collar, semi-skilled/specialized, and white-collar jobs available at the various places of employment and the progress some Maranesi had made within industrial occupations.
Not all immigrants arriving from Italy's Mezzogiorno participated in the vast industrial labor army of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Some men with artisan skills learned in "the old country" found employment in immigrant enclaves catering to paesani. Eleven Maranesi on the draft registration lists were employed in skilled or artisan positions as follows: five were tailors, two shoemakers, one each carpenter, cooper, photographer, and truck repairer (Leopoldo Conforti, who worked at the Nash Motor Company just west of the Maranese settlement at Charles and Grand Avenues, now 26th Avenue and 52nd Street). These last two positions were rather unusual jobs for Maranesi, and southern Italians in general. Seven other Maranesi were in service occupations as follows: barber, storekeeper, driver, salesman, milk peddler, grocer, and butcher. Thus at least eighteen men were in skilled or service occupations, some in connection with the growing heavy industries in Kenosha, but others were self-employed or employed by small businesses.
Generally, it wasn’t until succeeding generations entered the work force that Italian Americans began moving out of blue-collar unskilled laborer positions and into white-collar clerical jobs. In fact, the only three Maranesi who were recorded as having clerical or white-collar jobs were native born United States citizens. They were the Molinaro brothers, whose father, Fred, had come from Marano. Arthur Dominic Molinaro was a clerk for American Brass Company, Michael Molinaro was a metal inspector for the same company, and Lewis Anthony Molinaro worked in an office for the Simmons Manufacturing Company. (The only other native-born United States citizens of Maranese descent, brothers Antonio and Giuseppe Giorno, worked for American Brass Company as a laborer and a solderer, respectively.)
Kenosha's Maranesi also participated in the American dream of free enterprise and entrepreneurialism. Seven men were self-employed in service occupations, with two others listed as self-employed laborers. Gioacchino Andrea was a store keeper, Augustino Morelli was a grocer, Louis Chiappetta was a jitney driver, Pasquale Chiappetta and Richard Pucci were shoemakers, Sam Totero was a butcher, and Vincent Presta was a photographer, each man apparently owning his own business. Some of the men worked for businesses owned by other Maranesi or Italians. For example, Pasquale Aiello, a barber, worked for Frank Aiello; Serafino Ferraro worked as a tailor for Ernesto Gianantonio; Joe Muto was a salesman for the Spola Brothers at 216 Howland Avenue; and Serafino Presta was a "milk peddler" for the Montemurro Brothers Dairy at 117 Newell Street. (Thomas and Michael Montemurro, fellow Calabrian immigrants, owned the Montemurro Brothers Dairy, which moved to Market Street in the 1920s.)
As a testimony to the availability of work and, incidentally, to the desire of Maranesi to work, only one man was listed as unemployed, while two others were listed as sick in the Willowbrook Sanitarium.
A general summary of occupation type follows (some semi-skilled occupations have been tallied under the "Laborer/Unskilled" category):
Although Maranesi had been coming to the United States since the 1880s, some Maranesi in Kenosha were comparatively recent immigrants, as is evident from several indicators. First, as noted above, the large number of men who were apparently living as boarders with other families, or with fellow unaccompanied men, seems to indicate that many men were in the early stages of immigration and settlement. In the future, many of these men would follow the pattern current at the time and achieve their goal by purchasing a home of their own. Also, the large number of men still engaged in unskilled manual labor, which in itself isn't necessarily an indicator of recent arrival in the United States, is typical of first generation immigrants from southern Italy. Future generations would move out of the factory and into the office in large numbers, again typical of Italian immigrants in the United States.
Because many southern Italians desired to return to Italy after making enough money in America, especially during the early phase of the Great Migration (1880-1900), they typically were slow to formalize their immigrant status by becoming United States citizens, and the Maranesi in Kenosha were no exception. Of the 138 men tallied, five were native-born United States citizens, twelve were naturalized citizens, forty-two had declared their intention to become citizens, and seventy-nine remained aliens. Thus, of the 133 men eligible to become United States citizens, only forty percent had taken steps to do so, while sixty percent had not. These numbers might reflect a desire on the part of some men to return to Italy for permanent residence, even this late in the overall migration process. Certainly some men became citizens or declarants after the war.
The Maranese colony still had very close ties with their paese. For example, at least twenty-six of the men had close relatives (parents, wife, children, or siblings) still in Italy; many more listed relatives without giving addresses—probably most of these men had immediate family ties to the Cosenza area. Of these twenty-six men, eleven had a wife and children still living in Italy. And at least one Kenosha Maranese who served in the U.S. Army during the war returned to Marano Principato to live with his family in 1921.
Despite the comparatively recent arrival of some Maranesi, a practical, if small, adaptation to American English is evident in the choice of first names as recorded on the registration cards. Apparently, many men, for whatever reason, had begun to Americanize their first names. Thus, among the Giuseppes, Gaetanos, and Luigis, we find forty-one other Marano-born men who called themselves such American given names as Sam, Louis, Tony, Bill, Richard or Joseph. While this might reflect a lack of facility with Italian names on the part of some clerks who recorded the information on the cards, it is also true that many men in fact signed their names thus, indicating a basic acceptance of American ways. Some of the men perhaps had been living in the United States for some time; others might have become slightly acculturated due to family members’ early sojourns in America. In any event, what a person calls him/herself is an important indication of that person’s self-identification; some might claim it is more important than an outward declaration of allegiance to any particular nation. (back to top)
Of the 138 Maranese registrants, sixteen claimed prior service in the Italian Army, due to Italy’s compulsory military service for male citizens at age twenty, however none of them claimed exemption from the American draft based solely upon their Italian service. Indeed, one man, Mike Volpentesta, a laborer at American Brass who had already served three years in the Italian infantry, declared his desire to return to Italy and be drafted by the Italian Army. Eighty-nine men claimed to be the sole support for their family, be it wife, children, parents, or siblings. Forty men requested exemption from the draft, largely on the grounds of such family support. However, forty-nine men who claimed to be the sole support of some family members refused to request exemption from the draft even though they were entitled to do so.
At least forty-eight Kenosha Maranesi, and possibly as many as sixty, were drafted or joined the military before the war's end, including thirteen men who had claimed exemption due to family support and five men who had already served in the Italian armed forces. Interestingly, twenty-seven of the men who served during the war were aliens; six were United States citizens (three of whom were native-born), and fifteen had declared their intention to become citizens. All who served did so in the Army.
During World War One, the U.S. Army relegated recruits who couldn't speak English, or were otherwise deemed unfit for combat, to units called Depot Brigades. These units performed menial chores and duties at various stateside posts. Later, with the goal of "Americanizing" draftee immigrants, some men were assigned to Development Battalions where they learned the English language and American history. Of the forty-eight Maranese servicemen, at least twelve spent some time in Depot Brigades and/or Development Battalions. Interestingly, many Maranesi served together in some units. For instance, five men served in the 340th Infantry, three of them in its Machine Gun Company, and at least four men were assigned to the 159th Depot Brigade at Camp Zachary Taylor, Kentucky. Others served in various infantry, field artillery, engineer, and hospital units.
Some men served in Midwestern training camps, such as Camp Custer, Michigan, before being sent to other units as replacements. Most were in the rank of Private or Private First Class (the two lowest U.S. Army ranks at the time); only one man, Serafino Ruffolo, a "Battalion Sergeant," was a non-commissioned officer (NCO). Two men, Simone Ruffolo and Joseph Ritacca, were cooks; two others were musicians (Augustino Morelli, who was a Musician First Class in the 27th Field Artillery, and Vincent Presta, a photographer who served as a Musician Second Class in Headquarters Company, 340th Infantry). Two of Kenosha's Maranesi, Private First Class Angelo Biscardi (Company D, 4th Infantry) and Private Eugenio Scarlato (Company I, 23rd Infantry), died in service during the war, although the location and circumstances of their deaths are unknown. (back to top)
Kenosha's Maranesi exhibited some occupational and residential mobility during this period. Indeed, Kenosha might be considered a first- or second-stage jumping-off point, not only physically, but also with regard to occupation, for Italian immigrants during the early twentieth century. The earliest arrivals came to Kenosha after a stint as railroad track laborers; they soon became factory hands in Kenosha's burgeoning industries. Others, who went directly to Kenosha with the assistance of paesani already there, started out in the factories but soon made their way into other occupations. The following two brief case studies illustrate Kenosha’s function as a base of support for some immigrants who frequently changed residence and occupation as they sought economic improvement.
Luigi Santelli was born in 1896 in Marano Marchesato. His father, brothers, and cousins began making sojourns in the United States in 1882. In 1914, Luigi came to the United States with his brother Gaetano (who had two previous stays in America beginning in 1900) and settled initially with his brother Francesco at 815 Scholto Street in Chicago's Near West Side Calabrese settlement. By early 1917, he and Gaetano had moved to Kenosha, with Gaetano living at 950 Garden Street and Luigi, a laborer at Black Cat Textiles Company, at 155 Newell Street. Later that year Luigi moved in with paesani at 160 Newell Street. By July, 1918, when he was drafted, Luigi was living with his brother at 950 Garden Street. Luigi served as a private in the 159th Depot Brigade at Camp Zachary Taylor, Kentucky, until his discharge in December, 1918. In the early 1920s, Luigi moved back to Chicago, living with his brother Francesco and working as a laborer with the American Licorice Company. Luigi lived in Chicago and Oak Park, Illinois, until his death in 1974. Luigi moved freely among relatives and paesani while living in Kenosha; such frequent movement was typical of the single men using kinship and paese bonds for support during the settlement process. For Luigi, Kenosha served as a secondary or transitional settlement between his initial arrival in the United States and his final choice of residence and occupation.
Members of the Sicilia family from Marano Marchesato had been coming to the United States since the 1890s. In 1908, Benedetto Sicilia came to the United States and settled at 117 Howland Avenue, probably a boarding house run by Eugenio LaMacchia, a local businessman and a major player in sponsoring and helping paesani in Kenosha. By the next year, when Benedetto's father came to the United States, he was living at 29 Maple Street. In 1910, Benedetto’s brother, Beniamino, who had gone to Chicago in 1906, joined Benedetto and his father in Kenosha. Following a brief return to Italy, Benedetto moved back to Kenosha, once again to 117 Howland Avenue, in 1911. The next year Benedetto was joined by his cousin, Luigi Sicilia; in 1913, Luigi's brother, also named Benedetto Sicilia after their grandfather, moved to Kenosha following a brief stay with other family members in Chicago. By 1915, Benedetto was working as a laborer and living at 960 Garden Street. By 1918, Benedetto, his parents, and his cousin Benedetto were living at 854 Garden Street, and he was a laborer at N. R. Allen Sons Tannery; his cousin Luigi, sister Maria, and brother-in-law Richard Pucci, were living at 510 New Street. By 1920, most of the Kenosha Sicilia clan (Benedetto and his wife and two sons, Benedetto's parents, and at least two of his cousins) lived at 854 Garden Street, and Benedetto, a cobbler by trade, had moved out of the manual labor work-force and was working as a shoemaker for P. Haubrich. Thus, for the extended Sicilia family, including others yet to arrive in Kenosha from Chicago's Maranese colony, Kenosha served as a base of support which enabled them to move around within Kenosha whenever it was necessary, without losing the vital support of family and paesani. Also, they exhibited some degree of occupational mobility, with Benedetto Sicilia eventually able to ply his trade as a shoemaker from about 1920 until his death in Kenosha in 1958. (back to top)
During World War One, Kenosha's Maranese colony was a fairly homogeneous settlement. They had come to the United States as part of a chain migration from their paese, and most still had close family ties to the Cosenza area. Most people lived in, or very near, a five-block square settlement; many men boarded with relatives and paesani. The presence of large numbers of paesani in Kenosha facilitated settlement; men could live with friends and relatives and move within the enclave, whenever necessary, without losing the support of the larger group.
Most of the draft-age men were laborers in the factories and foundries in the area; indeed, these industrial job opportunities served to attract the immigrants in the first place. No Italian-born draft age Maranesi held clerical or white-collar positions, and only a few were self-employed. While most of the men remained aliens, many would pursue United States citizenship after the war, and at least forty-eight men served in the army of their adopted country during the war.
Kenosha’s Maranesi during World War One were fairly typical of southern Italian immigrants. The evidence points to a close-knit group providing mutual support, well established in the area’s industries, and well on their way to adjusting to American society. (back to top)
 Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, June 16, 1897-December 31, 1942. Micropublication T715, roll 103. Entries for Benedetto Santelli, Vincenzo Aiello, and Gennaro Tenuta, SS Ems Passenger Manifest, 23 February 1900. Washington: National Archives. (return to text)
 Arthur S. Link,, William A. Link, and William B. Catton. American Epoch: A History of the United States Since 1900. Volume I: An Era of Economic and Social Change, Reform, and World Wars, 1900-1945 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983), p. 127.(return to text)
 World War One Draft Registration Cards, Kenosha County, Wisconsin. Microfilm numbers 1,674,739 and 1,674,740 (Copy of National Archives microfilm publication). Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah. Most of the information that follows regarding occupation, residence, citizenship, etc. is gleaned from this source. (return to text)
 John D. Buenker, “Immigration and Ethnic Groups,” in Kenosha County in the Twentieth Century: A Topical History, John A. Neuenschwander, Editor (Kenosha, WI: Kenosha County Bicentennial Commission, 1976), p. 8. (return to text)
 John D. Buenker, “Cosenza Transplanted: Calabrian Immigration to Kenosha, 1893-1929” (Unpublished paper and research notes, University of Wisconsin, Parkside, 1994), p.4. Copy in the author’s possession. Also see Buenker, “Immigration and Ethnic Groups,” p. 3. (return to text)
 An examination of passenger lists from 1900-1920 shows increasing numbers of Maranesi declaring Kenosha as their final destination (although Chicago still surpassed Kenosha, and all other cities, as a final destination for Maranesi). For more on LaMacchia, see Buenker, “Cosenza Transplanted: Calabrian Immigration to Kenosha, 1893-1929,” unpaginated notes showing LaMacchia appearing seventeen times as a witness for Italians filing for citizenship papers; also see the Annual Calendar (1980) published by the Friends of Italian Culture, Kenosha, Wisconsin, 1980. (return to text)
 See, for example, Declaration of Intention Number 5777, Luigi Sicilia, 19 February 1920, Circuit Court of Kenosha County, Wisconsin; Petition for Naturalization Number 54768, Luigi Santelli, 4 April 1921, Superior Court of Chicago; and Declaration of Intention Number 3803, Gaetano Santelli, 12 December 1918, Circuit Court of Kenosha County, Wisconsin. (return to text)
 Benedetto Sicilia, Pension File Number XC-655672, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Copy in the author’s possession. Sicilia came to the United States from Marano Marchesato in 1913 and moved to Kenosha to live with his cousin, also named Benedetto Sicilia. Following service in the 158th Depot Brigade at Camp Perry, Ohio, Sicilia moved to Marano Principato where he died in 1926. As late as 1951, his widow, Innocenza Porro, was receiving pension payments in Marano Principato based upon Sicilia’s wartime U.S. service. (return to text)
 List of First World War Servicemen From Kenosha County. Typescript containing name, rank, serial number, and unit, n.d., Simmons Library, Kenosha, Wisconsin. Much of the following information is gleaned from this source. (return to text)
 An analysis of serial numbers assigned to US Army servicemen during World War One will allow researchers to determine units and location of service in some cases. See Gary A. Mitchell, “WWI Serial Numbers,” The G.I. Journal, Vol. 1, Number 11 (January/February, 1998), pp. 20-24. (return to text)
 The following information is derived from passenger lists, city directories, draft registration cards, US and Italian vital records, and naturalization records, copies of which are in the author’s possession. See, for example, Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, June 16, 1897-December 31, 1942. Micropublication T715, roll 103, entries for Gaetano Santelli, Francesco Dodaro, and Carmine Salerno, SS Ems Passenger Manifest, 23 February 1900; roll 668, entry for Gaetano Santelli, SS Prinzess Irene Passenger Manifest, 28 February 1906; roll 2276, entries for Gaetano Santelli and Luigi Santelli, SS Prinzess Irene Passenger Manifest, 19 March 1914, Washington: National Archives; Discharge Certificate, US Army, 18 December 1918, Private Luigi Santelli; Petition for Naturalization Number 54768, Luigi Santelli, 4 April 1921, Superior Court of Chicago; Kenosha City Directory, 1917, p. 560; and US Social Security Act, Application for Account Number, Luigi Santelli , 25 November 1936. (return to text)
 The following information is derived from passenger lists, city directories, draft registration cards, US and Italian vital records, and naturalization records, copies of which are in the author’s possession. See, for example, Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, June 16, 1897-December 31, 1942, Micropublication T715, roll 1177, entry for Benedetto Sicilia, SS Koenigin Luise Passenger Manifest, 10 December 1908; roll 1958, entry for Luigi Sicilia, SS Principe di Piemonte, 20 October 1912, Washington: National Archives; Declaration of Intention Number 1838, Benedetto Sicilia, 9 March 1915, Circuit Court of Kenosha County, Wisconsin; Declaration of Intention Number 5777, Luigi Sicilia, 19 February 1920, Circuit Court of Kenosha County, Wisconsin; Declaration of Intention Number 6091, Alessandro Sicilia, 18 March 1921, Circuit Court of Kenosha County, Wisconsin; and Kenosha City Directory, 1920, p. 571. (return to text)
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