It is not our purpose to write a history of the "War for the Union," for, even if we had time, space and material, we should not then be tempted to the task, as there is, at present, vastly more war literature extant than is read. And this is not to be regretted, as this class of literature is very unreliable. But a history of Menard County that did not contain its war record, would be no history. Nothing will be of greater interest to coming generations in our country, than a true and faithful account of the events of those four long and gloomy years. It is a duty that we owe to the soldiers who took part in the bloody struggle, to record and preserve the leading facts; especially do we owe this to the long list of the dead, who willingly laid down their lives for their country's honor and preservation; we owe it to the maimed and mangled cripples who were lacerated and torn by shot and shell; and last, but not least, we owe it to the widows and orphans of our brave soldiers, who, for love of country, forsook home with all its endearments, and whose bodies fatten the soil of the Sunny South. Menard County had been Democratic in politics for many years, and in the Presidential race between Lincoln and Douglas, just at the beginning of the war, notwithstanding the high esteem in which Mr. Lincoln was personally held by the people, Mr. Douglas received a large majority of the votes cast in the county. A large class of people boldly opposed the Republican party and its policy; yet, when the grim visage of war began to frown over the land, when the American flag was fired upon at Fort Sumter, and the blood of American citizens had been actually spilled, the feelings of patriotism ran high, and the pulses of all began to beat full and quick; and when the question of union and disunion was brought full before the face of all, then Democrats and Republicans forgot old issues, and petty quarrels, and, with united hands and hearts, resolved to sacrifice all else for the preservation of the Union. When the first call was made for volunteers, it set the entire State in a blaze of excitement, martial music was heard in every town and hamlet, and tender females, no less than males, were wild with enthusiasm. Wives encouraged their husbands to enlist, mothers urged their sons to patriotic devotion, sisters tenderly gave their brothers to the cause of their country, while cases are not unknown where the bride of an hour, joyfully though tearfully, gave the young husband the parting embrace, admonishing him to be brave and true. We propose now, in as brief a manner as we can, to give the part that Menard County took in the late war.
The reader is doubtless aware of the fact that the State of Illinois furnished, in all, six regiments of men for service in the war with Mexico. Those in authority at the beginning of the rebellion, thought it due to the patriotism and devotion of the heroes of that war, to begin the numbering of the regiments raised in the State with seven, thus preserving the numbering of those old regiments. It will, therefore, be borne in mind that the Seventh Regiment is in reality the first furnished during the rebellion. This "Seventh" Regiment of Infantry, Illinois Volunteers, was mustered into service the 25th of April, 1861. The first regiment that had a representation in it from Menard County was the "Fourteenth," and Company "E" was raised in this county. This regiment was first called into the State service for thirty days, under the "Ten Regiment Bill." It rendezvoused at Jacksonville, Ill., and was mustered in for thirty days, on May 4, 1861. On the 25th of May, it was mustered into the United States' service for three years, by Capt. Pitcher, U.S.A. The Colonel of this regiment, when it first went into service, was John M. Palmer. In July, 1861, it was ordered into Missouri. Its first active service was the capture and parole of a rebel force under James S. Green, formerly United States Senator form Missouri. After being with Gen. Fremont in his campaign to Springfield, Mo., it went into winter quarters at Otterville. In February, 1862, it was ordered to Fort Donelson, but arrived there one day after the battle. At Donelson, it was brigaded with the Fifteenth and Forty-sixth Illinois, and the Twenty-fifth Indiana, and assigned to the second Brigade, Fourth Division, under Gen. Hurlbut. Before this, Col. Palmer had been promoted, and Maj. Hall, of the Seventh Illinois Cavalry, became the Colonel. From Fort Donelson, the regiment marched to Fort Henry, and went from there by transports up the Tennessee River to Pittsburg Landing. Up to this time, the regiment had never smelt the powder of an enemy, but a baptism of fire, in the full meaning of the term, awaited it there. Here, on the 6th and 7th of April, this command lost, in killed and wounded, fully one-half of those engaged. This is not mere surmise, but it is taken form the Adjutant General's report. On the evening of the 7th, a grand charge was made, which turned the tide of battle in favor of the Union, notwithstanding the numbers and power of the enemy. This splendid charge was led by the Fourteenth, with Col. Hall at the head of the columns. Gen. Veatch, who commanded the brigade to which the Fourteenth was attached, uses the following language: "Col. Hall, of the Fourteenth Illinois, led with his regiment that gallant charge on Monday evening, which drove the enemy beyond our lines, and closed the struggle of that memorable day." If any one has doubts concerning the force of the storm of lead and iron that this command passed through on that occasion, let him go to Memorial Hall, in Springfield, and count the forty-two bullet holes made in the regimental colors in that battle, and this will surely convince him. This regiment took an active part in the battles of Corinth, Memphis, Bolivar. On January 18, 1863, it went into winter quarters at La Fayette, Tenn. It took part in the siege of Vicksburg until its fall, July 4, 1863. In the latter part of this year, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth, which had been together nearly all the time, were consolidated into the "Fourteenth and Fifteenth Illinois Veteran Battalion. In October, 1864, when Gen. Hood made his demonstration against Sherman's rear, a large number of this battalion were killed, and the greater part of the remainder taken prisoners, and sent to suffer in Andersonville Prison. Those who escaped were mounted, and acted as scouts during the remainder of the march to the sea. They were first to drive the rebel pickets into Savannah, Ga. They were also first to enter Cheraw, S.C., Fayetteville, N.C., and took an active part in the battle of Bentonville. In the spring of 1865, the battalion organization was discontinued, and at Goldsboro, N.C., the two regiments were re-formed, being filled up by recruits, and Col. Hall again took command of the old Fourteenth. It was mustered out of service at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., on September 16, 1865, and reached Springfield September 22, 1865. The aggregate of men belonging to this regiment from first to last, was 1,980, and the number mustered out at Fort Leavenworth was 480. It was in service four years and four months, and during that time, it marched no less than 4,490 miles, traveled by rail 2,330 miles, and by steamboat and transports, 4,490, making an aggregate of 11,670 miles. The officers of the Fourteenth, in their order, were Cols. John M. Palmer and Cyrus Hall; Lieut. Cols. Amory K. Johnson and William Cam; Majs. Jonathan Morris and John F. Nolte.
Company E of this regiment was raised in Menard County, eighty men of the county joining it. The first Captain was Amory K. Johnson, followed by Frederick Mead, of Petersburg, and he by Henry M. Pedan, of Shelbyville. The First Lieutenants, in their order, were: Jacob M. Early, of Petersburg; Ethan H. Norton, of the same place, and Alonzo J. Gillespie, of Bloomington. Second Lieutenants, E.H. Norton and A.J. Gillespie. Of this company, John L. Kinman, of Petersburg, was killed in action at Shiloh, April 6, 1862. None deserted. The following were discharged on account of disability, viz., John Murphy, James Wilhite, Edwin Worth and Joseph Todd. The above statement is taken from the report of the Adjutant General, that is, as far as that report goes; but even this is imperfect in many respects, and a number of facts are added, derived from individual members of the regiment.
One company-Company A-of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Illinois Veteran Battalion, was also composed of Menard County men; but in the eighty men of Company E, of the Fourteenth, and the twenty-four men of Company A of the Battalion, no man is counted twice. The history of the Battalion is sketched in that of the Fourteenth, given above, hence it is unnecessary to repeat it here. Suffice it to say that the men of this command saw hard service, but never flinched when the storm beat the hardest.
We come now to the Twenty-eighth Infantry. This regiment was organized by Lieut. Col. Louis H. Waters, and Maj. Charles J. Sellan, at Camp Butler, Illinois, in the month of August, 1861. On the 28th of August, was ordered to Thebes, Ill., and thence to Bird's Point, Mo., on September 9. Early in October, it was removed to Fort Holt, Ky., and there remained until the last day of January, 1862, when it was taken to Paducah, Ky., and was there assigned to Col. M.L. Smith's Brigade, Brig. Gen. Lew Wallace's Division. On the 6th of February, this regiment took part in the capture of Forts Hinman and Henry. A little event took place on the 13th of February that is worthy of a place here:
A detachment of 500 rebels were in the vicinity of Little Bethel Church, which was only five miles from Fort Henry, seeking some kind of adventure. Now, it so happened that Col. Johnson was out on a scout with 48 men and 12 officers-61 men all told-and, hearing of the 500 "Johnnies," determined to try their mettle; so, finding out their locality, approached them, cautiously at first, but, soon after the firing began, he ordered a charge, and so furious was the attack that the rebels gave way in confusion, and were completely routed. About the 6th of March, the regiment was ordered to Pittsburg Landing, and was assigned to Gen. Hurlburt's (the Fourth) Division. Just at dawn, on Sabbath morning, April 6, 1862, the shrill notes of martial music called the men into line. Ominous signs of danger, if not disaster, were everywhere. Buckling on their belts and cartridge-boxes as they fell into line, they were hurried at double-quick over half a mile to the front, where they met Gen. Prenties' command, being driven before the exultant enemy. It was, in a short time, assigned a position on the left of the line, in what was called, and since known as, the Peach Orchard. The enemy immediately began to pour a galling fire on this point, with a view to turning the flank. Stubbornly and doggedly these Illinoisans held their position, from before 8 o'clock in the morning till after 3 in the afternoon. Nor did they then retire, until orders were given from Brig. Gen. S.A. Hurlbut, commanding the "Old Fighting Fourth Division." On Monday, the 7th, it was assigned a position on the right of the line, and was there most hotly engaged until victory closed the two-days struggle. Thus they were two full days from dawn till evening, in actual engagement. These were long and trying days: blood flowed everywhere, and the night was rendered hideous by the groans of the dying; yet, in all this hotly contested conflict, this regiment never wavered, nor was its line once broken or driven back. During these two days, the regiment lost 239 men in killed and wounded. In May, it was active in the siege of Corinth, then marched to Memphis. Reaching Memphis the 23rd of July, 1862, it rested there until early in September, when the march was taken to Bolivar, which point was reached September the 14th. Some twenty days later, the regiment was in the battle of Hatchie River, or Matamora, in which it lost in killed, wounded and missing, 97 men. In the summer of 1863, the Twenty-eighth was ordered to Vicksburg, and was there in the siege from the 11th of June to July 4. After this, on the 12th of July, a detachment, composed of men from the Forty-first, Fifty-third and Twenty-eighth Illinois and Third Iowa Infantry, amounting in all to not more than 800 men, were ordered to charge across an open and level corn-field, some six hundred yards in width, and carry a line of rebel works that were strong in their formation, and from which twelve dark-mouthed cannon frowned defiance on all comers, and behind which lay 2,000 men, ready for the fray. The bugle sounded the onset; not a man faltered nor a cheek paled, but right onward "into the jaws of death, rode the" 800. As they came, they were met with a pitiless storm of rifle and minie balls, while the twelve cannon belched a constant tide of fire and iron; but when they reached the works, their whole line was swept from right and left and front, so that to persist in the attempt to carry the works was sure annihilation. They retreated to their line, leaving more than half their number, rank and file, in dead and wounded. Of the 128 men of the Twenty-eighth that were in this charge, 73 were killed and wounded, and 16 taken prisoners; 89 left behind, to 39 who returned.
In 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, after which, it was in the engagement at Spanish Fort and at Mobile. It had, during the war, 9 officers killed; 19 wounded, and 2 died of disease. Privates-killed, 52; died of wounds, 34; wounded, 265; missing in action, 17; killed by accident, 5; died of disease, 139. The officers of the regiment, in their order, are as follows: Colonel Amory K. Johnson, of Petersburg; Lieutenant colonels-Louis H. Waters, of Macomb; Thomas K. Killpatrick, of Milton, and Richard Ritter, of Havana; Majors-Charles J. Sellon, Springfield; Barclay C. Gillam, Rushville, and Hinman Rhodes, Vermont, Ill. Of this regiment, companies F, K, and C were all or in part form Menard County. Company F contained in all 107 men from this county. The officers were: Captains-William J. Estill and Thomas Swarenguin, both of Petersburg; First Lieutenants-Isaac B. Estill, Thomas Swarenguin and John H. Ewing, all of Petersburg; Second Lieutenants-Thomas Swarenguin and John H. Ewing. There were killed in action 4, viz.: James T. Jones, at Shiloh; J. Deerwester, at Vidalia; James H. Stewart, at Jackson, Miss., and Charles N. Riley, at Hatchie. Five died of wounds, viz.: David c. Stone, Jacob Ackleson, Peter Farnheine, Jacob Homer and H.G. Toland. Wounded and discharged, 3, viz.: Jesse Bradley, David Lucas and Elijah S. Nichols, Died of disease, 9, viz.: William Canterbury, Henry H. Fulton, Elijah Ferguson, Henry T. Gudgell, James Harman, Francis M. Twaddle, Christopher Alexander, William B. Davis and Michael Johns. There were 3 who deserted, viz.: John W. Rutledge, Henry Johnson and Charles Noble.
In Company K, there were 39 men form Menard county. The officers of Company K were: Captains-William R. Roberts, of Menard, and Albert J. Moses, from elsewhere; First Lieutenants-John Brewsaugh, Fred Garternicht, Albert J. Moses, John B. Newton and Dennis Pride, the last two from Menard; Second Lieutenants-John B. Newton, of Menard, and A. J. Moses. Of these, only 1, Adam Forsyth, was killed in action; Alonzo G. Fleming died of wounds; 4 were wounded, but recovered, viz.: Richard Bernard, Amos Mouser, Logan Rayburn and Samuel T. Rogers; discharged on account of disability, 2, viz., John Sulivan and John Rogers; discharged on account of wounds, 3, viz., William W. Dudley, James H. Gardener and Nult Greene; the 4 following died of disease: Elijah Edwards, Gottlieb Fotsch, Francis Schasner and Phillip A. Simpson. None of the men in this company from Menard County deserted.
Company C of the Twenty-eighth had 46 men form Menard county in it. None of the commissioned officers of this company were form Menard County. One man of this company, Deerwester, was killed in action. None were wounded. Two died of disease, viz., William B. Davis and Mike Jones. Columbus Crosby was the only deserter. The above companies took their share of all the trials and honors of the gallant Twenty-eighth Regiment of Illinois Volunteers.
We come now to the Thirty-eighth Regiment, as this is the next in order in which there were any companies containing any considerable number of Menard County men. It is true, however, that there was scarcely an Illinois regiment that did not have a representation from this county. The writer has performed an amount of labor that none would imagine, hunting these stragglers. Where there were less than four or five in a company, we have not given a detailed history of it. But in order that none be overlooked, we read every name and post-office address in the eight volumes of the Adjutant-General's Report.
The officers of the Thirty-eighth were as follows: Colonels-William P. Carlin, Daniel H. Gilmer and Ed. Colyer; Lieutenant Colonels-Mortimer O'Kean, D.H. Gilmer, William H. Chapman and Ed. Colyer; Majors-D.H. Gilmer, Henry L. Alden and Andrew M. Pollard, none of whom were from Menard. This regiment was organized in September, 1861, at Camp Butler, Illinois, by Col. William P. Carlin. Moved at once to Pilot Knob, Missouri, receiving arms en route, and as early as the 21st of October, one month and one day, from leaving Camp Butler, it was introduced to the stern realities of war, at Fredericktown, by being engaged in battle with the Missouri "Swamp Fox," Jeff. Thompson. This introduction was a very good index to the future four years and three months of its service. At or near the city of Nashville, it lost in battle, 8 killed and 8 wounded. At Stone River, 34 killed, 109 wounded, and 34 missing. Near Liberty Gap, the regiment lost, killed, 3; wounded, 19. In the battle of Lookout Mountain, the Thirty-eighth suffered severely. Col. Gilmer was killed, Maj. Alden severely wounded; and of the 301 men who went into the action, 180 were killed, wounded and missing. The history of this regiment is one of constant hard work and bloody fighting, from first to last; and the student of history can trace its way through those long, dark four years by the weary marches, and bloody fields that it left as waymarks. Only one company of this regiment had representatives from Menard county on its roll, and this was Company G. Only twelve of these were from this county. The company officers were as follows, viz.: Captains, A.M. Pollard, Abraham Golden and John H. Adams; First Lieutenants, William F. Chapman, Abraham Golden and J.H. Adams; Second Lieutenants, A.J.Rankin and Abraham Golden. Of these only Golden was from Menard. Of the twelve men from here, none were killed, wounded, or deserted. Two died of disease, these were Edward W. Martin and Ralf Snodgrass. Considering the general mortality in the regiment, those twelve came off remarkable well.
The next regiment containing men form Menard county was the Fifty-first Illinois Infantry. As there were but few of our men in this regiment, we give but a very brief history of it. This regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, Ill., by Col. Gilbert W. Cumming, on the 24th of December, 1861. On the 14th of February following, it moved to Cairo, Ill., and thence on the 27th to Camp Cullum, on the Kentucky shore of the Ohio River. Its first actual engagement was at Island No. 10, where, on the 8th of April, 1862, it forced the surrender of Gen. Mackall, with four thousand men.
On the 24th of April, the brigade of Brig. Gen. John M. Palmer, composed of the Twenty-second, Twenty-seventh, Forty-second and Fifty-first Illinois, and Company C, First Illinois Artillery, was assigned to Brig. Gen. Paine's Division. This division was engaged in the battle of Farmington, and the siege of Corinth. At Mission Ridge, the regiment lost one-fifth of the men who went into the battle. At Kenesaw Mountain, it lost, in killed and wounded, 2 officers and 54 men. During the fighting around Atlanta, the regiment lost in killed and wounded, 7 officers, and 105 privates. At Franklin, Tenn., Lieut. Thomas was killed, 3 officers wounded, 52 men killed and wounded, and 98 missing. Mustered out of service September 25, 1865. The regimental officers were all Chicago men. Company F, of this regiment, had eleven men from this county. The company officers were all from elsewhere. Of these eleven, none were killed or wounded. One, John H. Martin, died of disease. Two of the eleven deserted, viz., Samuel Wagstaff and Jordan Shoon.
The Seventy-first Illinois Infantry was enlisted for three months' service only. Company G, of this regiment, was partially raised in Menard county-thirty-seven of the men being from here. Of the officers of the company, only one was form Menard, this was First Lieut. James C. Tice, of Petersburg. Of these, none were killed or wounded, and only one died of disease-this was William H. Graham, form the eastern part of the county. Being out only ninety days, they saw but very little of the reality of soldier life.
We come now to the Seventy-third Infantry, and we cannot more briefly or pointedly give an outline of the work of this brave body of men, than by quoting the report of Lieut. Col. James I. Davidson, as made to Adjt. Gen. Haynie. This report was dated at Springfield, Ill., March 19, 1867.
"Having no record of the regiment with me, a history would be impossible. The regiment was organized at Camp Butler, State of Illinois, in August, 1862, and immediately became part of Gen. Buell's army. Fought nobly at Perryville, finished under Gen. Thomas, at Nashville. The Seventy-third Illinois Volunteer Infantry was in every battle fought by the Army of the Cumberland, from October, 1862, until the rout of Gen. Hood's army at Nashville, and the winding-up of the whole matter. The only report I can make, General, is that our dead are found at Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, away in East Tennessee, and then in the succession of battles from Chattanooga to the fall of Atlanta. And when Sherman pushed down South, the Seventy-third remained with Gen. Thomas. It formed a part of Opedyke's Brigade, at Franklin, which saved the day and gave him his star, and lost it's last man killed in driving Hood's army form Nashville. It has more than once been complimented by its Generals. It lost heavily in Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge and Franklin. It had two Majors and two Adjutants killed and nearly every officer of the regiment wounded, at some time-several of them many times; but as to the number of killed and wounded, I know not. We left the state one of the largest, and returned one of the smallest regiments. Her officers and men, and especially the men, have never been surpassed for bravery, endurance and devotion to the county. I believe that nearly two-thirds of the organization passed away, wither by disease, death or battles, during the three years service."
Such is the simple, unostentatious record of this devoted regiment. In Company F of this regiment, were thirty of the citizens of Menard County. Of the officers of this company, none were from this county, except the first Captain, George Montgomery, and he served only till the 19th of December, 1862, when he resigned and left the command. Three were killed in action, viz., Robert Z. McBride, Enoch Preston and William Weaver. Eight of the others died of disease; these were Thomas D. Nolan, George W. Gardener, Joseph Montgomery, William W. Martenia, David Martenia, Ritchey Montgomery, William L. Stollard and Cornelius C. Wolf. Four others were severely wounded, viz., James A. Coil, Wesley Long, Isaac C. Coil and George H. McKinney. Thus it will be seen that, of this little band going out from here, more than one-third the number were left to sleep amid the flowers of the Sunny South, undisturbed by the roar of battle, while half the number were among the dead or the wounded when the final account of the regiment was made up. Their comrades in arms "carved not a line, and raised not a stone, but left them alone in their glory."
From the Seventy-third up to the Eighty-fifth, there was to be found no representative from "Little Menard,' except here and there a company having on its muster-roll the name of some one who had enlisted among strangers, but who should have been credited to this county. But Company E, of the Eighty-fifth, was largely made up from this county, having the names of seventy-five men from here on its roll. Here again it becomes our duty to chronicle some of the leading events in the history of that regiment, though the record will necessarily be brief.
This regiment was organized by Col. Robert S. Moore, and it was mustered into service August 28, 1862. The organization was at Peoria, Ill. Immediately after being mustered in, it was ordered to Louisville, Ky., which point it reached about the 6th or 7th of September. Here it was assigned to the Thirty-sixth Brigade, Eleventh Division, Third Army Corps, Col. McCook commanding the Brigade, Brig. Gen. Phil. Sheridan commanding the Division, and Maj. Gen. Gilbert commanding the Corps. The Eighty-fifty marched in pursuit of the enemy under Gen. Bragg,, October 1, 1862, and took part in the battle of Champion Hills, at Perryville, Ky. October 8th, and moved with the army to Nashville, Tennessee, arriving November 7, 1862. After long and hard service, it was mustered out June 5, 1865, at Washington, D.C., and arrived at Camp Butler, Illinois, June 11, 1865, where they received final payment and discharge. Company E, of the Eighty-fifth Regiment was largely made up of men from this county; the company officers were all from Petersburg. The regimental officers were Cols. Robert S. Moore and Caleb J. Dilworth; Lieutenant Colonels, C.J. Dilworth, James P. Walker, and James R. Griffith; Majors, Samuel P. Cummings, Robert G. Rider and Pleasant S. Scott. Of these, none were from Menard County except Maj. Scott. The company officers of Company E were: Captain, Pleasant L. Scott; First Lieutenants, Joseph M. Plunket, Hugh A. Trent and Charles Borchert; Second Lieutenants, Abraham Clary, Clark N. Andrun and Andrew F.J. Shackey. All of these were from Menard County; seventy-five of the men were also from this county. Three were killed in action, viz., J.C. Miller, George Watterman and Thomas Owens; William S. Potter was killed in a railroad accident, and William Ray by the accidental discharge of a pistol. The following named persons, six in number, died of wounds: James N. Sheets, Bowling Green, Richard Griffin, William F. Hokimer, A.J. Taylor, and J.E. Thomas; four received severe wounds, of which they recovered; these were James Linn, William F. Allen, James Senter and John H. Arnold. Ten others died of disease, viz., Samuel Havens, David Armstrong, John Barnett, John Cox, Michael Ekis, Wesley Frost, William A. Mence, Thomas Osterman, Christopher Shutt and Ephraim Stout. Thus, of the seventy-five who enlisted, just one-third, or twenty-five, were dead or wounded before the time of service expired. Of the remainder, no less than ten deserted the ranks, and sought safety elsewhere. Pleasant S. Scott, who was Captain of the company at first, was promoted to the position of Major, served out his time, and is now a respected citizen of Petersburg.
From the Eighty-fifth, we pass the intermediate regiments up to the One Hundred and Sixth before we find any men form Menard, unless it be a single individual in a company here and there. The One Hundred and Sixth was organized at Lincoln, Logan Co., Ill., by Col. Robert B. Latham, in August, 1862. It was mustered into service on the 18th of September, the same year. On the 7th of November, it started for Columbus, Ky., by way of St. Louis, arriving at the objective point on the 10th of the same month. From there it was soon removed to Jackson, Tenn. At that time, Col. M.K. Lawler commanded the post at Jackson, and Brig. Gen. J.C. Sullivan the district. Much of the time was spent west of the Mississippi River; and the regiment was mustered out of service at Pine Bluff, Ark., on the 12th of July, 1865. IT reached Camp Butler, Illinois, July 25, 1865, and there received final payment and discharge.
While this command was eminently useful in guarding posts and various kinds of service, it was not its lot to see much of the real tragedy of war, and perhaps the comedy was equally as full of amusement to the men composting it. Only one officer of the regiment was from this county, and that was Lieut. Col. John M. Hart, of Athens, who died at Pine Bluff, Ark., November 18, 1864. A company from this county-company K, consisting of 102 men-belonged to this regiment. The first Captain of this company was Alonzo E. Currier, of Athens. He resigned June 15, 1863, and was succeeded by George Collier, of Petersburg. But, only eleven days after, Capt. Collier died of disease, and was succeeded by Lieut. John A. Hurt, of Athens. On the 28th of March, 1865, Capt. Hurt was honorably discharged, to be promoted Major. Lieut. Samuel H. Blane then became Captain and served to the close of the war. He is now a popular lawyer in Petersburg, Ill. The other officers, in the order of their service, are as follows: First Lieutenants, George Collier, John A. Hurt, James D. McCann, Samuel H. Blane and Gage S. Gritman; Second Lieutenants, John A. Hurt, S.H. Blane and Encoh B. Smith. All of these, except McCann, Gritman and Smith, were promoted. Of these 102 men, besides the officers, 20 died of disease, viz., James McCann, Jesse Stone, Henry C. Black, Andrew Gunstenson, Calvin Goodell, Homer Goodpastine, John C. Goff, Samuel H. Hardin, James C. Hurst, James H. Jackson, James W. Kincaid, James McClary, Thomas H. Metteer, Francis Rice, James E. Roberson, Odd A. Roe, William A. Smith, Terry Tuckleson, Francis A. Vanaman, George D. Brockway and David S. Rice. None were killed or wounded in action, nor did any desert. Through a singular Providence, or fatality, as some of them regarded it, they were given no chance to exhibit their great prowess on the ensanguined field. But we doubt not that the motive prompting them to enlist were just as pure as that of those who stood where the fight was hottest; and, if opportunity had presented itself, no doubt they would have won as many laurels as any who marched under the Stars and Stripes. As said before, it was no fault of theirs that they were not in the thickest of the fight, for both officers and men enlisted to fight.
Of the regiments we have named, there is not one of which an Illinoisan need be ashamed; but there were some that had better opportunity to write its deeds of daring in crimson letters than others. Among the Illinois regiments that will live in the memory of man, we may name the gallant One Hundred and Fourteenth. This regiment was composed of six companies from Sangamon County, B, C, E, G, H and I; two from Cass County, A and D; and two from Menard, F and K. The regiment was made up in the months of July and August, 1862, and was mustered into service at Camp Butler, Illinois, on the 18th of September following. It was at once ordered to Memphis, Tenn., and there did picket duty until the 26th of November, when it started on the Tallahatchie campaign as a part of the First Brigade of Brig. Gen. Lanman's Division. During the winter, it marched to College Hill, and then to Jackson, and thence back to Memphis. On March 17, 1863, it was transported down the river to Young's Point, and soon after went into camp at Duckport, La. On the 2d of May, the regiment broke camp to take a position in the rear of Vicksburg, and, in the 14th of May, engaged in the battle of Jackson, Miss. Reached the rear of Vicksburg the 18th, and took part in the siege. Just one month after the fall of Vicksburg, Col. James W. Judy, of Menard County, resigned. This was August 4, 1863, he having served eighteen days less than one year. He was succeeded by Lieut. Col. John F. King. Samuel N. Shoup acted as Colonel after May 11, 1865. The regiment participated in the battles of Wyatt, Mississippi, Guntown, Tupelo, Harrisville. It was on the long and tedious pursuit of Gen. Price in Missouri, marching from the Arkansas border, to Kansas City and back to St. Louis. At both Guntown and Harrisville, the regiment was highly complimented for bravery. Having returned South, on the night of the 13th of April (the very night that President Lincoln was shot), the regiment was ordered to attack Forts Tracy and Hugee, situated in Mobile Bay. The attack was made in pontoon boats, but when the forts were reached, they were found to have been entirely evacuated. After the surrender of Mobile, the regiment marched to Montgomery, Ala., arriving April 24, and bridging the Alabama River with pontoons, remained on duty at the bridge until the 17th of July, when it was ordered to Vicksburg, to be mustered out. On the 3d of August, 1865, it was mustered out, and reached Camp Butler, Illinois, August 7, and were paid off, and discharged August 15, 1865.
Company C, though not credited as a company to Menard County, had thirty men from that county in its rank and file. Out of the thirty, four were killed in battle, viz., William M. Blue, James Griffith, John W. Langston and William Bamford. Two died of wounds, James H. Mitchell and Benjamin F. Sever. One was severely wounded but recovered; this was William Lawrence. Two died in prison, viz., Simeon Little and Charles S. Parker; two others, who were in prison, lived to be exchanged, viz., William H. Holland and William Staples. Six deserted. Thirteen died of disease; these were William Cantrall, George H. Broaderick, Young M. Cantrall, David S. Driscall, Charles Frisby, Jacob B. Hutchinson, Isaac N. Halladay, Henry Parks, William O. Smith, John W. Sampson, Peter Sebriney, Charles C. Tufts and John W. Wilson.
Company F mustered fifty-six men from Menard County. Capt. Absalom Miller, of Menard; First Lieutenant, Willett B. Taylor, of Cass, and Second Lieutenant, Joseph T. Workman, of Menard, were the company officers. Two of this company, George A. Bell and Charles P. Carson, were killed in action; Thomas R. Humphrey and Robert J. Clarke died of wounds; James S. Smith was severely wounded but recovered; two died in prison, viz., David Monroe and William H. Penny. Seven out of this company were for a time prisoners but were exchanged; their names are as follows: Jacob Brown, Jasper I. Campbell, William D. Colby, A.J. Etherton, George H. Hoff, John A. Kinner and Russel B. Thrapp. Died of disease, twelve, viz., Richard Smedley, Thomas S. Armstrong, James W. Bell, Thomas D. Fuller, John A. Hurd, John McNeal, Michael Spinner, William A. Smith, William Tippet, George M. Wilson, Lycurgus Workman and John A. Conyers. There were also two deserters from this company, but we will not record their names on these pages.
Company K, of the One Hundred and Fourteenth, was also raised in this county, and ninety-two of her citizens were enrolled in it. The company officers were all, save one, from this county. They were: Captains, Samuel Estill and Robert Hornback, First Lieutenants, Lucian Terhune and Ezra Fish. Second Lieutenant, Henry C. Rogge. All of these, except Fish, were from Menard. Of the men, Joseph Denton was killed in battle; James Morris and John M. Hart died of wounds received in battle, while Jesse Knoles lost a leg at the knee, but recovered. Four were taken prisoners; these were William J. Allen, Henry Beckman, Evan McLean and Samuel Knoles; the last named, now editor of the Petersburg Democrat, was in Andersonville for nine months. Nor long before he was taken prisoner, while in the heat of battle, he was hit square over the heart with a minie ball, but having a large bunch of letters in the breast pocket of his coat (letters from the girl he left behind him, perhaps), the ball lodged in the center of the letters and he escaped with a thorough shaking-up and a severe bruise. Fourteen of the company died of disease; these were David F. Estill, Louis P. Moore, William J. Denton, George W. Powell, Isaac F. Estill, William Johnson, Harman Meyer, Joseph Oswold, Isaac Snodgrass, Rhodes Snodgrass, John W. Trumbo, Walter Taylor, Arthur Thomas and John Yelkin. Eight of the privates, full of chivalry and patriotism, took "French leave," that is, they deserted; their names we will not give at present. This completes the record of this regiment, so far as we have space to give it. Menard County had 178 men in the ranks for this brave body of men. Many are sleeping on the hillsides of the Sunny South, while many others, having almost forgotten the arts of war, are here enjoying the liberties for which they fought, showing the same fortitude and courage exhibited by them in battle.
The One Hundred and Fifteenth Illinois Infantry will now be noticed briefly, as among its men we find quite a number from this county. But had there been none of our volunteers among them, we would be almost led to state a few facts concerning it, as it merits a place wherever a record is made of Illinois soldiers. The One Hundred and Fifteenth was ordered into the field from Camp Butler, Illinois, on October 4, 1862, having mustered in the 14th of September of the same year. It went to Cincinnati, and, the same day, crossed the Ohio River into Kentucky. It was assigned to the Second Brigade, Second Division, Army of Kentucky. It was never actively engaged in battle until it was ordered to Franklin, Tenn., in March, 1863. But the mortality, on account of exposure, hard marching and a diet to which they were unaccustomed, with the change of climate, was fearful. Up to that time, more than two hundred men had died or been permanently disabled by disease; they had died by scores. After driving Gen. Bragg's army across the Tennessee River, on the 24th of June, 1863, the brigade had a respite form battle until the 19th of September. On this day, it engaged in the bloody conflict of Chickamauga. In this battle, the loss of the One Hundred and Fifteenth was very slight. On September 20, it crossed to the support of Gen. Thomas, on the extreme right, leaving camp at sunrise. At 1 o'clock P.M., it engaged the rebels of Thomas' right with Steadman's division, ten regiments reserve corps. After a most fearful and sanguinary struggle, it held its position until night put an end to the day's carnage. But it was held at a fearful sacrifice, more than one-half the command being cut down on the field. The regiment took part in the battles of Chattanooga, Mission Ridge and countless skirmishes.
In the campaign around Chattanooga, the regiment lost 235 men and 10 officers, among them being Lieut. Col. Kinman, of Jacksonville. After this, it fought at Dalton, Resaca, Atlanta and other points and finally was in the pursuit of Hood from Nashville. It was mustered out of service near Nashville, on the 11th of June, 1865, and reaching Camp Butler, Illinois, on the 16th of June, there received final pay and discharge June 23, 1865.
Company K of this regiment was made up in part of men from this county, there being forty-three among the privates and three of the company officers from Menard County. The company officers were as follows: Captains-James Steele and Alanson Pierce, both of Menard, and Philip Riley, of Springfield; First Lieutenants-Sylvester M. Bailey, of Salisbury; Philip Riley and Samuel Alexander, of Menard; Second Lieutenant-Philip Riley. This company had killed in action, two, James B. Strode and William B. England. Three of its number died in prison, Lewis J. Ferguson, Edward R. Center and William H. Bumgardner. Two were for a time prisoners, but were at length exchanged; these were Andrew J. Hall and Jacob A. Allison. The following persons, six in number, died in prison: James P. Moran, William Bailey, William Ferguson, William L. Hyde, Smith A. Marshall and Lawrence Newhart. Six, also, were deserters. In one or two other companies in this regiment, there were one or two men form this county, but the reader will find a list of these scattered individuals at the close of this article; it is unnecessary to speak of any of them in this place.
The One Hundred and Thirty-third Illinois Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Butler by Col. Thaddeus Phillips and mustered into the service for one hundred days on the 31st of May, 1864. On the 3d of June, it was removed to Rock Island Barracks, and was there assigned the duty of guarding prisoners of war. This duty it faithfully performed during its term of service, and, on the 24th of the following September, it was mustered out of service at Camp Butler. The regimental officers were: Colonel, Thaddeus Phillips; Lieutenant Colonel, John E. Moore; Major, James F. Langley. Company I, of the One Hundred and Thirty-third contained twenty-three men from Menard County. The company officers were: Captain, Alfred Orendorff, of Lincoln; First Lieutenant, Ethan A. Norton, of Petersburg; and, Second Lieutenant, Samuel A. Rannels, of Murrayville. Of the twenty-four men of this county, counting Lieut. Norton, not one died or deserted; and, as they were never in action, of course none were killed or wounded.
The One Hundred and Fifty-second Illinois Infantry was organized by Col. Ferdinand D. Stephenson, at Camp Butler, and was mustered in for one year's service on the 18th of February, 1865. On the 20th of the same month, it moved to Tullahoma, Tenn., by way of Nashville, and there reported for duty to Maj. Gen. Milroy, February 28, 1865. The regiment was mustered out at Memphis, Tenn., on the 11th of September, 1865. It reached Camp Butler, Illinois, September 19, 1865, and received final payment and discharge. The regimental officers were: Colonel, Ferdinand D. Stephenson, of Groveland; Lieutenant Colonel, Jasper Partridge, of Whitmore; and John N. Nale, of Blue Mound. One company of the regiment was partially raised in this county. This was Company A. Of the company, forty-eight men and two officers (fifty, in all) were from Menard. The company officers were: Captain, William S. Slocumb, of Groveland; First Lieutenant, Merritt Hurst, of Menard; and Second Lieutenant, James N. Barger, of Menard, also. None were killed, wounded or prisoners, the only reduction of the company being from disease and desertion. Four died of disease, viz.: Andrew J. Brown, John Flemming, Nosh L. Weaver and Stephen L. Wilson. The deserters were three.
This closes the record of the part taken by this county in the infantry service, but the cavalry had several representatives from Menard County, a record of which we will now give very briefly. The Tenth Cavalry was the only cavalry regiment in which any considerable number of men from this county were enrolled. The Tenth Cavalry was organized at Camp Butler, Illinois, on the 25th of November, 1861. Dudley Wickersham was appointed its Colonel on the 15th of May, 1862. On the 20th of December, 1861, it moved to Quincy, Ill., and , on the 13th of March following, it was ordered to Benton Barracks, Mo. From this time on, this regiment saw hard service until it was mustered out. It was made up of a fine lot of men, who were ever ready for the fray. It was finally mustered out of service at San Antonio, Tex., on the 22d of November, 1865, and ordered to Springfield, Ill., for final pay and discharge. The regimental officers were as follows: Colonels, James A. Barrett, Dudley Wickersham and James Stuart; Lieutenant Colonels, Dudley Wickersham, James Stuart, Samuel N. Hitt, Egleton Carmichael and Thomas D. Vredenburgh; Majors, T.D. Vredenburgh, George A. Wills, William A. Chapin and Tabner B. Pierce. Of these officers of the regiment, none were of this county. Two companies of this regiment were made, partially, at least, in this county. These were Companies A and E. Of the first of these, thirty-two men and two officers were from Menard. These were Capt. Christopher H. Anderson, of Sweetwater, and Second Lieut. Samuel F. Russell, of Athens. None of Company A were killed in battle, although Samuel Montgomery died of wounds received in action. Seven died of disease. These were Bradley V. Atwood, Joseph McReynolds, Joseph L. Markwell, John C. Rogers, George W. Reding, Elisha Hall and Selathiel G. Leach. Company E mustered sixty-six men from Menard County and one officer. The company officers were: Captains, Henry Reily, Sameul J. Byrd and William H. Stout; First Lieutenants, Columbus Cross, William H. East, S.J. Byrd, Henry J. Solomon and Samuel B. Garber; Second Lieutenant, William J. Darman. Of these officers, only Samuel B. Garber was from Menard County. Out of this company, none were killed in action. Simon P. Sampson died of wounds received in a fight. Four died of disease, viz.: Levy Shaw, Michael Bolson, James M. Reed and William Young. From some unknown cause, the number of deserters was excessively large in proportion to the numbers, there being no less than ten of the sixty-six who did not
"Fight and run away
To live to fight another day."
But they ran away before they fought a battle.
This brings us to the artillery. Only three men of Menard County were in the artillery, so far as we can learn, as the Adjutant General's Report show. James Ward, of Athens, Menard County, was mustered in as an unassigned recruit, into the First Artillery, on the 20th of March, 1864. Edward L. Bingley, of Petersburg, enlisted as a recruit in Battery B, of the Second Artillery, on the 8th of March, 1864; and was mustered out July 15, 1865. Albert Albertson, of Petersburg, enlisted in Battery K, of the second Artillery, on the 27th of January, 1862. He re-enlisted as a veteran, and served till the close of the war. He served most of the time, while in action, as No.1 or No.2, that is, either placed the cartridge in the mouth of the gun, or rammed it home. Albertson was in a number of battles, his battery being charged more than once, and many of the men cut down at their guns. Mr. Albertson still resides in Petersburg, a respected and industrious citizen.
It is beyond our power to give a full list of those men of Menard County who belonged to commands belonging to other counties; we will mention a few of those who were officers. Charles E. McDougall, now a merchant of Petersburg, was Captain of Company E, in the Sixty-first Infantry. He enlisted in Greene County. James C. Tice, of Menard County, was First Lieutenant in Company G, of the Seventy-first Infantry. As before stated, quite a number of enlistments from this county, in companies from other parts of the State cannot, by any possibility, be found.
Below we give a tabular view of the enlistments, officers, deaths from various causes, the wounded, deserters, etc., etc., from the county. Had space allowed, we would have given the place, date, circumstances, etc. of all the casualties of soldiers from this county, during the war from first to last.
REGIMENT AND COMPANY Number Killed In Died of Killed by Wounded Died in Prisioners Died of Deserted Enlisted Action Wounds Accident Prison Released Disease Fourteenth Regiment, Company E 80 1 Fourteenth and Fifteenth Regiments, Company A 24 Twenty-eighth Regiment, Company F 107 4 5 3 9 3 Twenty-eighth Regiment, Company K 39 1 1 7 4 Twenty -eighth Regiment, Company C 46 1 2 1 Twenty-eighth Regiment, Company D 24 Thirty-eighth Regiment, Company G 12 2 Fifty-first Regiment, Company F 11 1 2 Seventy-first Regiment, Company G 37 1 Seventy-third Regiment, Company F 30 3 4 8 Eighty-fifth Regiment, Company E 75 3 6 2 4 10 10 One Hundred and Sixth Regiment, Company K 102 20 One Hundred and Fourteenth Regiment, Co. C 30 4 1 2 2 13 6 One Hundred and Fourteenth Regiment, Co. F 56 2 2 1 2 7 12 2 One Hundred and Fourteenth Regiment, Co. K 92 1 2 1 1 4 14 8 One Hundred and Fifteenth Regiment, Co. K 43 2 3 2 6 5 One Hundred and Thirty-third Regiment, Co. I 23 One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment, Co. A 48 4 3 Tenth Calvary, Company A 32 1 7 Tenth Calvary, Company E 66 1 4 10 Second Artillery, Battery K 1 Second Artillery, Battery D. 1 First Artillery, Battery E 1 Total Privates 980 21 19 2 21 8 15 117 50 Total Officers 31 2 5 3 Total Privates enlisted elsewhere 78 3 9 Total 1084 26 19 2 26 8 15 129 50
Total deaths of officers and men from all causes, 184. A great many of those who returned home have since died, so that soldiers of the late war are not numerous in the county, even though over one thousand entered the service eighteen years ago. The record of the names of all who enlisted should be given, that the future generations should know who they were that came to the rescue in the hour of the country's peril. A few years in the future and the Report of the Adjutant General will be out of print, and the great mass of those who suffered and bled and died will be forgotten.