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1894 Plat Book of Morgan County Illinois

"Statistics of the Population of Morgan County By Townships, With Abstract of Agricultural Productions"

SAMUEL ADAMS, M.D., was born in Gilead, Maine, December 19, 1806. He entered Boudoin College at the age of twenty and graduated in 1831. He then engaged as a teacher of modern language in the same institution, which he followed for two years, studying medicine in the mean time. He received his degree while a tutor at the college in 1835. He next practiced medicine nearly two years at Brunswick, Maine, and in the mean time was married (September, 1836), to Miss Mary J. Moulton, daughter of Dr. Jonathan Moulton. They have had four children, one of whom is now deceased. Dr. Adams was called to the professorship of chemistry and philosophy in Illinois college, at Jacksonville, in October. 1837. Except president Sturdevant, he is the oldest professor connected with the Illinois college, having held his position thirty-five years. His only son, Frank Adams, enlisted, in July, 1861, in the thirty-third regiment Illinois volunteers. He was only eighteen years of age, but from a first lieutenancy he was promoted step by step for gallantry in the service, and his record was a brilliant one until his discharge in August, 1865. He was breveted major and lieutenant colonel. On his return, he taught a short time in Illinois college. Then he was about one year in business in Wheeling, Virginia, when he engaged in the engineer corps on the Pacific railroad, but his health failing, he returned home, where he died, November, 1868. Professor Adams and wife are active members of the congregational church.

REV. PETER AKERS, D.D., was born in Campbell county, Virginia, September 1, 1790. He received his early education in his native state, completing his classical course at New London Academy, Virginia, and Hyco Academy, North Carolina. In the fall of 1815, he went to Kentucky, and taught six months in the State Institution, at Mt. Sterling, being president of the institution at the same time. During this term senator Davis, of Kentucky, was a pupil. He commenced a thorough course of study preparatory to entering upon the practice of law, which he completed at Flemingsburg, when he was admitted to the bar, in December, 1816, and entering into a copartnership with Major William Fleming, commenced practice. He continued his profession until June, 1821 (being in the meantime editor of The Star, a political paper, advocating the doctrines of Henry Clay), when he turned his attention to the ministry. He was converted June 24, 1821. He was a close student, using his leisure in mastering Hebrew. He has filled up the measure of fifty-one years, as a Methodist preacher; commencing as a pioneer circuit rider in the states of Virginia, Kentucky, and Illinois. He was first sent as a delegate to the general conference, in 1828, and the last mission of that kind was in May, 1872; being forty-four years known in the general conference, a record that no other man in this country can truthfully claim. He first became a citizen of Morgan county in 1832. On his return from the session of the general conference, he was called to fill the chair of McKendree College, which, with reluctance, he accepted for one year. Since he has had charge of various districts. Again he was called to McKendree College five years, making, in the aggregate, over half a century of pastoral labor. He is now on the superannuated list, although often in the pulpit.

Dr. Akers was first married March 12th, 1818. His wife, to use his own language, was his "spiritual mother." By this union he has one son now living, William Dennis Akers. He was married to Miss Betsey Bird, of Morgan county, April 21, 1825, by which marriage he had eleven children, five of whom are now living. He was married to his present wife, Miss Ann Goheen, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, May 12, 1846. By this marriage he had one son, now deceased. We do not propose to even give the outlines of the life of Dr. Akers, but we will say that in his life he has been studious, active, zealous, and devoted. His labors have resulted in grant moral and intellectual good to his fellows; and there are now living in the northwest more people, doubtless, who have listened to his ministrations of the gospel, than to those of almost any other preacher. He was a pioneer preacher in several states.

JOHN T. ALEXANDER is a native of Western Virginia. He was born on the 15th of September, 1820. His father, William Alexander, was born in the town of Dungannan, County of Tyrone, Ireland, in the year 1797, his parents having early in life moved from Scotland to Ireland. Mr. Alexander was married to Miss Ann Smith, soon after which they emigrated to Western Virginia, which was about 1818. Immediately after arriving there, he turned his attention to agricultural pursuits. He resided in that state five years, then moved to Jefferson county, Ohio, and lived there for a period of seventeen years. He there soon became largely engaged in stock dealing, and while residing in Ohio he handled more stock than any other dealer of that state. His markets at that time comprised the cities of New York and Philadelphia, and in getting his large herds to those markets it was necessary to drive them across the mountains. In 1840 Mr. Alexander emigrated to Morgan county, Illinois, with his family, which then consisted of eleven children. Being a man of great energy, and possessing that genuine pluck for which Scotch blood has long been noted, he here soon became a large farmer and stock dealer. When he came to the state, the capital which he possessed amounted to about two thousand dollars. But he soon set to work to make a home for himself and family, and, by that energy which ever characterized him in the course of his business, he acquired a competence. Mr. Alexander and wife both became active and efficient members of the First Presbyterian Church of Jacksonville. As a business man, during his long life, he preserved a purity and honesty in his dealings which mark but few men of his age. His word could always be relied on. Whenever he agreed to do a particular thing at a specified time, it was always sure to be done. Such is but a brief recital of the life and work of the venerable father of the subject of this sketch, coming, as he did, to America, poor and friendless, and accomplishing in life what he did, can but enhance the estimation in which his neighbors and friends held the straightforward principles and policy which actuated his whole career as a business man. He died at the residence of his son-in-law, D. R. Fitch, on the 6th of August, 1872. His widow is yet surviving at the advanced age of seventy-eight years, and is in the enjoyment of good health.

Mr. John T. Alexander received his early education in the common schools of Ohio, attaining what would now be considered a very meager education; his knowledge of the mathematics extended only to about single rule of three. His culture was most all obtained in the log school houses of that day; and, with no other assistance than an education of that character, in conjunction with the native powers of his mind, he was thrown upon the world to battle with its realities. At the age of thirteen years, he accompanied his father on the trip made with their cattle over the mountains to Philadelphia, and when fifteen years of age his father would entrust him with the care of taking over to Philadelphia droves of cattle, paying all expenses on the way, riding ahead and securing feed for the night; and when, having arrived at his destination, he would make a good sale of his stock, then tie the money in belts on his body, and in due time deliver it up to his father. He sometimes had in charge two or three droves at a time. When a small lad he tried raising hogs, and afterwards colts, but meeting with no success in these he turned his attention to the growing of calves, which proved successful, and seemingly gave him a love for handling cattle. The first impression of those youthful days, the carrying out of which ultimately determined his future success, placed him foremost among American farmers; or, more happily expressed in the language of Governor Yates, "The Napoleon farmer of the northwest". Until his father moved to Illinois, Mr. Alexander's time was principally spent at home. When about seventeen years of age he made several trips to this state to buy cattle to take to the Ohio, Philadelphia, and New York markets, and while on a prospecting tour with another young man, when for the first time he saw the extensive and almost treeless prairies of Illinois, he made use of the following expression: "This is God's own country; for me goodbye to the timber and hills of Ohio." He came to Morgan county at the time stated above with his parents. In Mr. Alexander we find a man whose whole life has been one of methodical thought and systematic care in the management of his extensive business; great, from the single fact that he inaugurated new systems in the furthering of his business aims, and carried them out to their legitimate conclusions. While others doubted the correctness of the means employed, he never for once felt but that he was adequate for the task. The first drove of fat cattle that was ever driven from Illinois to eastern markets was taken by Mr. Alexander and his father. When he commenced life on his own account he had only about one thousand dollars, and his course of business was step by step upwards. One thing commendable in Mr. Alexander's career was, that he always had warm financial friends; the greatest deference was always paid to the truth of his word, which was never doubted when given in candor. About 1855 he commenced his large shipments to New York, and his career in the cattle trade has eclipsed anything ever before done in that line in the United States. His name has become as familiarly known to the people of this country as the names of Vanderbilt or Fisk in the railroad world, or Stewart or Astor in mercantile life. At one time Mr. Alexander owned over thirty-two thousand acres of land, some of the most valuable lands of Illinois, situated in Champaign and Morgan counties, and at times he has owned as many as seventeen thousand head of cattle. Now, a mind which could superintend the varied and extensive businesses with which Mr. Alexander had to deal was of no common kind, but most certainly embraced in its composition rare qualities and eminent traits. He united maturity of judgment, far-reaching sagacity, and correctness of business principles with an executive ability that would have done honor to any station. The systems which he inaugurated in his transactions were so new and varied in their application, that men wondered how it was that one mind could penetrate to the results of so extensive a business when we take into consideration that, sometimes in a single year, his transactions in cattle alone amounted to five million dollars. While railroad and mercantile transactions are always governed by systematic rules, he could not so readily establish regulations for the minute control of his business, but seemingly he would launch out on a speculation with nothing for his guide but his well-poised judgment (and that, by all of his friends, was considered equal to all emergencies) and undoubtedly the chances of trade would never have turned against him, had it not been for the dishonest transactions of some of his numerous agents. Yet his friends claim that the energy which now lies dormant will soon again assert itself, and that in a few years his cattle business will be as great and extensive as ever before. However that may be, he has already achieved a great success in life as the result of his great energy and eminent qualifications for business; and when it is considered that he began life poor, the greatness of his achievements stands out in striking contract to his humble beginning. He is, indeed, a great man - great in his sphere, as many others, not more highly endowed, have been in more conspicuous circles; and one cannot be in his presence and converse with him without being impressed by the power of his intellect, - without feeling that he is no common man. We need not eulogize the subject of this notice. His achievements, what he has done, speak more eloquently than words in attestation of the force and excellence of his character. He is a man of fine feelings and gentlemanly qualities, and marked by the same purity of conduct in his business career as in his deportment at home. During the late war he was among the prominent supporters of the Union cause, and his name is associated with many a benevolent act for the alleviation of our suffering soldiers.

At the age of twenty-four Mr. Alexander was married to Miss Mary DeWeese, the daughter of Nimrod and Elizabeth DeWeese, or Morgan County, Illinois. They had a family of eight children, five of whom are still living. Politically, Mr. A. is a strong supporter of the principles of the republican party.

STEPHEN G. ALLIS, was born in Georgia, Franklin county, Vermont, January 5th, 1805. At the age of fifteen he commenced learning the trade of a tanner, and currier, which business, however, he followed only for a few years. In the spring of 1838, he came to Morgan county, and for one year remained three miles south of Jacksonville, when he settled on section 26, township 13, range 8, where he has since resided. Mr. Allis was married, December 28, 835, to Miss Ann Chapin, of Newport, New Hampshire. They had by this union six children; all of them died in infancy.

Those precious gems of earthly love,
Were early called to realms above.
Mr. Allis has made farming a specialty since he has been a citizen of Morgan county. His motto is, "That which is worth doing at all is worth doing well." He had taken a prominent part in sustaining all institutions, both moral and intellectual, which tend to ameliorate and elevate the condition of our race. His purity of life and disinterested Christian benevolence, his system and method as a practical business man, coupled with his domestic virtues, are among the traits by which he is known and appreciated among his numerous acquaintances, who can best estimate his worth. He is a good practical farmer, and has been quite successful. A fine view of his residence may be seen elsewhere in this work.

ROBERT ALLISON was born near Selby, Yorkshire, England, September 12, 1801. He embarked for America in the spring of 1821, and spent a few months after his arrival with his brother Thomas, in Indiana. He came into Morgan county and settled about four miles northwest of the present site of Jacksonville, in the spring of 1822. He bought the Mount Pleasant farm, where he now lives about two years after. He established the first mill, using ox power in grinding corn and wheat, and had customers from a great distance. He visited England in 1829. After his return he was married to Miss Mary, third daughter of Robert Norwood. He had six children by this marriage, four of whom are now living; viz.: Sarah, present wife of Robert Hill; Mary, present wife of George Branham; Adam, still residing with his father; and Ann, present wife of John Funk. Mr. Allison is still enjoying health and mental faculties almost unimpaired by age. His family are comfortably located near him, and he has one of the most desirable locations in the county - a good farm, situated on section 22, township 15, range 11, which is one of the best townships in the state. Mr. Allison has been a witness of the gradual and stead y growth of Morgan county almost from its first settlement for half a century, and is one of the few pioneers of fifty years ago who are still residing in the county.

WILLIAM ARMSTRONG. - THIS GENTLEMAN WAS BORN IN Greene County, Kentucky, on the first of September, 1795. Joshua Armstrong the father of the above, was an old revolutionary soldier. He served under the direct command of Washington for several years. The Armstrongs originally were of Irish descent, and settled in Pennsylvania some years previous to the war of the revolution. The old hero entered the army from that state. After the war, he went from Pittsburg, by water, to Kentucky, and located in Greene county. Not liking this section he removed to Warren county. From the latter he emigrated to Illinois, and settled in Madison county. This county at that time comprised nearly one-third of the state. Again he removed, to Jersey county, where he died about twenty years ago. The old soldier's widow (whose maiden name was Sarah Moss) only lived about eight years after her husband's decease. They sleep side by side in the Richwoods cemetery. "United in life, they were not separated in death." There were nine children, six boys and three girls, all of whom arrived at maturity, and were an honor to their patriotic parents. Truly the old hero was rewarded in some measure for his fidelity and love of country. The education of Mr. A. was obtained under the subscription system. As was the case in many of the poor and thinly-settled districts, the schools were of little importance, owing not only to the limited continuance of the terms, but also the incapacity of the instructors. He attended several sessions in Greene and Warren, in Kentucky, and also in Madison county, Illinois. In the latter county, the remaining days of his pupilage were used to some advantage. The memory of Mr. A. is ever fresh with the scenes that transpired in that little log cabin, called, by courtesy, a school house. Mr. Armstrong learned the saddlery business under the instruction and guidance of Capt. Chambers, of Chambers' Fort, St. Clair county, Ill. After having served an apprenticeship of over three years, he went into business on his own account. (Capt. Chambers, whose name is mentioned above, was one of the celebrated settlers of that section of the state.) Mr. Armstrong was particularly fortunate in securing a position in his establishment, as Capt. Chambers was one of those good-hearted men who looked closely after the interests of his employees. In connection with Capt. Chambers we would state that the subject of this history was a member of his company during the war of 1812. They were engaged in garrisoning the forts, reinforcing the same, and guarding supplies. Mr. Armstrong was discharged a short time after the battle of New Orleans. Peace had been declared several days previous to the engagement, but the official notification did not reach the army until several days after the battle. He returned home to Madison county after his indenture was cancelled, and purchased a building on his father's land, which he used for s shop. Previous to this time, he had assisted his father in conducting the labor on the farm; and now he worked at the saddle and harness business, and in conjunction with the same, afforded considerable aid in the field.

Mr. Armstrong was married in Madison county to Miss Susan H. Oden, daughter of Thomas Oden, Esq., of St. Charles county, Mo. Having purchased a farm in Madison county, he remained on the same several years. His labors were varied, either by tilling the soil, working at his trade, or making some improvement about his house. In 1825 he stared, with his family, to Morgan county, arriving there in the spring of that year. The old pioneer saw the stakes set for the location of Jacksonville, and witnessed the survey and sale of the lots. The excitement was great in regard to the location of the court house and other public buildings. Even in 1825 the people understood the art of lobbying, and well practiced that scientific mode of influencing officers and citizens in favor of their schemes for the site of the court house and other prominent buildings. Mr. Armstrong saw many hunting parties of the Indians who roamed unmolested over this portion of Illinois. The game was plenty on the prairies and in the timber. The rivers and creeks were stocked with fish that would please the appetite of the epicure. Well might the aborigines regard Morgan as their favorite hunting ground, and watch the approach and increase of the whites with feelings of commingled fear and vengeance. Soon hostilities commenced, and many a poor farmer's house and buildings were burned, his stock carried off, and, perhaps his wife and children scalped and massacred by their wily foe. Mr. Armstrong often was engaged in conflict with the Indians, but was fortunate in receiving no wounds. Many a day and night were passed in burying the dead or dressing the fearful wounds caused by the tomahawk, arrow, or musket. Peace was soon declared, and the settler once more returned to his avocation. About this time (1827) Mr. A. killed two black bears while out hunting. Many a day was spent in chasing the deer, treeing the coon, or in setting the traps for the fur-bearing animal. Those were halcyon days, when venison was so common and cheap that much was wasted or thrown to the dogs. It seems like a dream, to think of the deer, the wolf, and the buffalo, to have roamed over the present situation of Jacksonville. Verily, "truth is stranger than fiction."

Mr. Armstrong did not take part in the Black Hawk war. Many of the pioneers hastened to the fray, but owing to his large family, Mr. Armstrong, though much against his inclination, remained at home. Mrs. Armstrong, an estimable lady, died about fifteen years ago, leaving a large family to mourn her departure. There were eleven children in all, three of whom have since died. We understand that the veteran receives a pension as some compensation for his services in the war of 1812. His father before him was also a pensioner, the patriotic feeling seeming hereditary in the family. Mr. Armstrong is over seventy-nine years of age, and keep house all by himself. His health appears good, and, judging from his energetic stride, we should count him as yet good for a hard day's work. The old hero remains to tell us of the past, and to remind the present generation of the labors and privations incident to the founding of a state. He is fortunate in living in the present age, and contrasting its luxuries with the necessities of former times. Yatesville is fortunate in having the old pioneer as one of her citizens. He has been foremost in all works of improvement or of a philanthropic character. He, moreover, has aided in a substantial manner many of the present generation. We trust that when the time comes to close his pilgrimage on earth, he will feel that he is rewarded in some measure for all his troubles, anxieties, and distresses in the cause of liberty and free government. We trust that the time is far distant when the old hero shall be removed from the midst of his relations and friends, endeared as he is by ties of consanguinity and friendship. May we copy his patriotism, energy, and love of improvement, that we, like him, may accomplish much of good for our country. We could dwell more at length upon the history of Mr. Armstrong, but we feel that the above may give some idea of his eventful life as a pioneer, soldier, and citizen farmer.

HON. HENRY J. ATKINS is a native of Mt. Vernon, Maine, and was born February 23, 1835. He was the eldest son of Joseph and Eunice Atkins. At an early age he entered Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, and in consequence of ill health, was prevented from completing a full collegiate course. After leaving school he made a trip west, in order to recuperate his energies, and traveled considerably in the territories. In 1858, Mr. Atkins opened a law office in Jacksonville, and, by his energy and strong intellect, rose rapidly in the profession, until he had attained a reputation as a lawyer, surpassed by few members of the bar of central Illinois. He filled with marked ability, the position of State Attorney, of this district, for a considerable period. In 1869, was elected a member of the constitutional convention, from Morgan county; and, although an invalid during its entire session, proved himself a useful and valuable member, being the youngest in that convention except one member.

On the 15th December, 1861, Mr. Atkins was married to Miss Laura A. French, the daughter of Samuel and Nancy French, of Morgan county. Mrs. Atkins was educated in the grammar school of Roxbury, Massachusetts. They have had three children, Herbert T. Atkins, is the only one now living. Mr. Atkins, for a short period, was private secretary to Gov. Yates. After a brief illness, he died at his residence, December 4, 1870.

DAVID B. AYERS - Among the men who early became identified with the moral and intellectual welfare of Jacksonville and Morgan county, no one has left a more desirable record than the subject of this biography. The great aim of his life, like that of His whom he humbly sought to imitate, was to do good. He was active and energetic among the few pioneers of the Sabbath School work of his time. His history shows conclusively, that for nearly half a century of life, he fully comprehended its importance. He has left to the world a brilliant record of his faith, shown by his untiring zeal and energy in this work. As one of the original trustees of the Jacksonville Female Academy, which position he occupied till his death, he exhibited his love and devotion to the cause of education. One of the channels of his benevolence was furnishing finances, aid, and encouragement to young men who were striving to obtain an education. These private acts of his beneficence are still treasured up in grateful hearts living today. David B. Ayres was born Nov. 21, 1798, in Newark, New Jersey. He was the son of David and Abigail Ayres, and removed to Philadelphia, where he engaged in the sale of drugs and medicines. Here the subject of this sketch was educated, and was married November 1, 1821, to Miss Eliza, daughter of Daniel and Mary Freytag. He continued his business in the sale of drugs until 1830, when with his family, he settled in the village of Jacksonville, where he established, on east State street, near the Public Square, the first drug store in Morgan county, which was doubtless the first in the state. He erected the building on the corner of west State street and the Square, now occupied by John Carter and the banking house of M. P. Ayres & Co., which he moved into in 1832. He soon added books to his trade, which was the first stock of importance in that line in the county. As agent of Mr. John Grigg, of Philadelphia, assisted by others, he sold 125,000 of land, in various counties in Illinois. In the sale these lands he was actively engaged, his two sons becoming his successors in his former mercantile interests. He finished his earthly record September 26, 1850. He was an earnest Christian, and a useful and highly respected citizen. Mr. Ayres and his family (as his parents before him) were active members of the Presbyterian Church. His mother, after a residence of eighteen years in Morgan county, died at the advanced age of ninety-one years. His wife is still living in Jacksonville. Mr. Ayres has not only bequeathed to posterity the example of a well spent life, but has left representatives who are among the business men of the county, interested largely in the financial and manufacturing interests, with which, for over forty years, they have been identified.

ABRAHAM R. BAILEY was born March 4, 1789, in Springfield, Essex county, New Jersey. He worked at carpentering in his native state in early life. He went to Ontario county, New York, and after stopping there with his uncle, Thomas Bailey, about one year, went down the Allegheny river on a raft, to Pittsburg, at that time a small village. He visited also the villages of Dayton and Cincinnati, Ohio, and made one trip to New Orleans, on a flatboat, before the war of 1812, and on his return, settled in St. Louis, in 1814. He was at that time acquainted with nearly all the American citizens in the village. Here he worked at his trade, and built the second frame building ever erected in St. Louis, which at that time contained only five stores and two doctors, and Col. Rufus Easton was the only prominent lawyer of the town. He went to St. Charles, and there erected a saw and grist mill. He soon after settled in Newport, Franklin county, Mo., where he was married to Miss Elizabeth Sullins, Nov. 4, 1823. He soon after settled on Plumb creek, Morgan county (now in Scott), where he remained four years, when he settled on the northeast quarter of section 2, township sixteen, range 12, where he now resides, living in quiet retirement with the wife of his early life, with whom he has lived nearly fifty years. His children are: Mary, born September 1, 1824, now deceased; Nancy, born May 2, 1827, wife of Thomas Crawford, who resides near her parents; Samuel Sullins, born April 16, 1833, now a prominent citizen of Dundee, Mo.; Phoebe Elizabeth, born August 9, 1842, wife of Joseph F. Heffner, residing with her parents. Mr. B. has been absent from the county twenty-eight years, but has always owned the property he now lives on. He also owns a large farm in Dundee, Missouri. Few, if any, of the citizens of Morgan county have lived to see greater changes in the great west and northwest than Mr. Bailey. He has lived to see some of our large cities emerge from a wilderness, and from small villages. He has the love and respect of a large circle of acquaintances.

BALDWIN, ISAAC. - Among the prominent nurserymen and fruit growers of Morgan county, or even of the state, Mr. Baldwin stands conspicuous. His fruit farm is situated about one mile north of the city of Jacksonville. It contains one hundred and two and one-half acres, about forty acres of which are in small fruits, and the most distinguishing feature is fourteen acres of red raspberries, known as "Turner's Seedling." Some twenty-five years since, Prof. Turner, from the seeds of the red Antwerp, produced this stock, which is now considered superior to any other variety for marketing; its fruit is large, of good flavor, hardy, and a more continuous bearer. From a few canes, some ten years ago, Mr. Baldwin began to propagate this variety, and has now fourteen acres of fruit-bearing vines. Last spring he filled orders for about seventy-five thousand canes, shipping to different parts of this country and Europe; and judging from the past increase of orders, it would not be surprising if next year, they should exceed two hundred thousand vines. In the nursery business he is producing fruit trees in large varieties, and also osage plants largely. Mr. Baldwin was in early life an English gardener, with small means. He began some twelve years ago making at first strawberry culture a specialty, beginning with only ten acres, which he has from time to time enlarged. He now, by his enterprise and industry, has accumulated a fair competence, and thousands, for years to come, will be benefitted by his labors, in the fruits of which he has patiently proven. While we give Prof. Turner credit for raising the variety of fruit which will ever bear his name, we must award to Isaac Baldwin the honor of proving and demonstrating its superior claims, and by his energy, spreading it broadcast over the country.

Mr. Baldwin was born in Scotland, but was raised in Lancashire, England. His father, James Baldwin, and his grandfather, Jeremiah Baldwin, were active horticulturists of their time. Mr. Baldwin first came to this country in 1859, and after remaining at New Orleans a short time he came to Jacksonville. His first business in Morgan county was laying off and beautifying the grounds of the state institution for the education of the blind. In the spring of 1860 he began as a proprietor on the fruit farm where he now resides. Mr. Baldwin was married in Lancashire, November 11, 1851, to Miss Mary Ann Stansfield, daughter of David Stansfield. They have had a family of ten children, of whom two are deceased; of those living, six are sons and two daughters, all residing on the farm with their parents. Mr. Baldwin is a man of great energy, and with regard to the interests which he so ably and largely represents, he has a sound judgment. He took an active part in founding the Morgan County Horticultural Society, over which he has presided with characteristic ability. As Vice President of the Central Illinois Horticultural Society, the last year, he is well known. He is a citizen highly esteemed by all who have the pleasure of his acquaintance, being honorable in all his business transactions, and having a just pride in all his acts, wishing and striving to advance the public weal in all his business operations. With regard to himself, his life is a success; with regard to others, a blessing. A vew of his residence will appear elsewhere in this work. Morgan county, as well as the prairie state, may justly feel proud of her distinguished horticulturist, Isaac Baldwin. "By their fruits ye shall know them."

HON. WM. H. BARNES was born in Hampton, Connecticut, May 14, 1843. He is the oldest son of Rev. William and Eunice Barnes. His father is of English and his mother of Puritan stock. His father is an eminent clergyman of the Presbyterian Church. He was a graduate of Yale College, in the class of 1839. He is a Christian man, of fine talents and classical attainments.

Hon. Wm. H. Barnes is greatly indebted to his parents' training. He entered Illinois college in the fall of 1861, and graduated in the fall of 1864, when he entered the Senior Class of Michigan University, and graduated in June, 1865. He read law in the office of Wm. Brown, at Jacksonville, and in May, 1866, was admitted to the bar. He then opened a law office, has been the attorney for the T., W., & W. Railroad Company, and has made the sale of railroad lands a specialty. As an attorney in criminal cases, he is distinguished among the criminal practitioners of central Illinois. Mr. Barnes was elected by the democratic party to the state legislature in the fall of 1871, a position which he filled with distinguished ability and with satisfaction to his constituents. Hon. Wm. H. Barnes, as an advocate in point of tact and ability, is second to none. Though young, he is an ornament to the bar of Morgan county, and a credit to the state of which he has been a citizen for twenty years.

BARNABAS BARROWS was born April 14, 1796, at Bridgeport, Addison county, Vermont, and in that state he received most of his early education. His ancestry are of English descent. Two of the ancestors of Mr. Barrows came over in the May Flower; one settled in Pomphret, Connecticut, the other in Mansfield, Conn.; and from the one who settled in Pomphret sprang the family of Barnabas Barrows.

On the tenth of August, 1828, Mr. Barrows landed in Kentucky, where he spent several years as a farmer, and he there became acquainted with Miss Mary A. Craig, to whom he was married on the first of February, 1832. She was the daughter of James Craig, of Shelby county, Ky., who afterwards became a resident of Morgan County, Ill. Mr. Barrows and wife have had a family of nine children, five boys and four girls, and all are yet living. In the winter of 1830 Mr. Barrows removed to Morgan county, Ill., and settled on a farm, and was married in that county at the time stated above. He is among the older pioneers. He came to the county poor, but, with strong muscle and a determined will, he set about making a farm, having entered land soon after coming to the state. Mr. Barrows quite early became engaged in the breeding and growing of sheep. As a business man he was successful, having raised a large family of children, and given them the advantages of an academical education. Mrs. Barrows died in October, 1852, beloved and respected by her numerous circle of friends. Her loss was deeply felt in the community where she resided, and the remembrance of her noble qualities as a mother and woman of pure Christian character had the salutary effect of bringing all of their children to the profession of Christianity. She was a consistent and active worker in the Presbyterian Church, her husband and family being members of that church. The sacred memory of such a mother and wife can but reflect with the purest influence on her survivors, she having died leaving a young family. Mr. Barrows was married within two years after, to Mrs. Butts. By this marriage there is one child. Mr. Barrows acquired considerable valuable land, and as his boys grew up he has given them each a half quarter section, or its equivalent. In early life he imbibed the principles of the anti-slavery party, and remained steadfast to those principles till the black man was liberated. He now votes with the republican party, and during the war was a thorough Union man. He has lived under every President of the United States. His first vote for President was in 1820, for James Monroe. He voted twice for Abraham Lincoln and lastly for U. S. Grant. He is now a hale and hearty old gentleman, and among the older settlers of Morgan county. He furnished one son to the army, viz., Josiah A. Barrows, who enlisted August 8, 1862, in company D, 101st regiment Illinois volunteers. He was soon after detailed to the topographical corps of engineers of the third brigade, first division, twentieth army corps. He assisted in making a survey of the country from Kenesaw Mountain to Savannah and Atlanta, and from there through the Carolinas to Richmond and Washington, visiting on the way, the bastiles of Libby and Belle Isle. The last bearing he took with the compass was from Fairfax Court House to the dome of the Capitol. He was discharged January 1, 1865, when he returned to his home and engaged in the quiet pursuits of agriculture. He was married March 4, 1866, to Anne E. Butts, and they have had three children, one deceased. A vew of Mr. Barrows' residence is shown in this work.

ANTHONY BOSTON was born in Bourbon county, Kentucky, April 27, 1807. He was the son of John and Barbara Boston, of Maryland, who emigrated to Kentucky, where he is now living (at Woodford), aged ninety-three years. Anthony Boston was married, December 9th, 1839, to Miss Louis Stevenson, daughter of Jas. Stevenson, of Kentucky, who settled in Morgan county in the fall of 1829, where he lived till 1831, when he died. His wife died, in Kentucky, in June, 1829. Mr. B. located on a farm near Virginia (now Cass county), in 1835, where he resided twelve years. Here he had a farm of eight hundred acres. He moved to Jacksonville in 1856, where he resided two winters, when he moved to the farm where he now resides, about three miles east of the city. He has had a family fo ten children, nine of whom are still living. They are all married but two, and well settled in life. Their names, in the order of their birth, are: James, William, Mary Ann, Jacob, Augustus, John W., George, and Martin (Martha); besides Judson and Charles, who are residing at home. Mr. Boston has reared and educated a large, respectable family, who are among the enterprising and intelligent citizens of the respective localities in which they reside.

JOHN C. BOZARTH was born on section 7, township 16, range 11 (Concord), Morgan county, December 26, 1826. He was the third son of Joseph Bozarth, who came from Christian county, Kentucky, and after residing a few months in Missouri, settled permanently in Morgan county, in 1823. He remained on the same farm until his death. July 16, 1847, aged fifty-six years and seven days. He was one of the early settlers of the county, and was esteemed for his many virtues by a large circle of acquaintances. He raised a family of eight children, five sons and three daughters. His daughter, Mrs. Ann Seehan, of Chapin, and his son, John C., are the only members of the family now residing in the county. John C. was married December 9, 1849, to Miss Harriet, daughter of Olney Ticknor, one of the early settlers, who is still living near Chapin. He had by this marriage five sons and three daughters, all deceased except James, William and Harry. Mr. Bozarth, as well as his ancestors, have always followed farming. He is a good, substantial and plain farmer, and has the satisfaction of knowing that, with a good heart and a willing hand, he has done his humble part in improving the moral and physical condition of his native county.

WILLIAM H. BROADWELL was born in Morgan county, September 14, 1823. He was the son of Baxter and Mary Broadwell, who were natives of Morristown, New Jersey. Mr. B. enlisted and served through the war of 1812, being mustered out in Ohio in 1815. He remained there two years, when, with his wife, he moved to Calhoun county, in 1817, and settled near the mouth of the Illinois river, where he remained till the fall of 1821, when he settled near the present town or station known as Morgan city. He lived there and followed farming till his death, December 8, 1832. He had seven children, two only of whom are now living, viz.: Wm. H., in business on south Main street, and Jane S., at present matron of the Jacksonville Infirmary. Wm. H. Broadwell served an apprenticeship at the blacksmith trade, and established business in Jacksonville, in 1845, which he followed till January, 1863, when he engaged in his present business, the sale of agricultural implements, garden and field seeds. Nine years ago he commenced this business, which has been constantly increasing to the present time. He is one of the self made men of Morgan county, who, by an upright course of dealing, and a friendly and amiable character, has drawn around him a large circle of friends and patrons, who duly appreciate his many good qualities as a citizen and business man.

DR. ISAAC H. BROWN was born in Goshen, Litchfield county, Connecticut, October 20, 1805. He pursued his course of medical study in Pittsfield, Mass., and graduated in the city of New York, at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, February 20, 1828. The following spring he established himself in his profession at Avon, Conn., where he continued till the spring of 1836. He then emigrated to Quincy, Ill., remaining there about one year, when he located in Waverly, Morgan county, where he has successfully followed his profession to this time. Dr. Brown was married in Avon, Conn., July 29, 1834, to Miss Mary, youngest daughter of Chandler Woodford, by which union he has had eight children in the following order: Jane A., born March 3, 1836, present wife of Frederic Curtis, residing two miles east of Waverly; William W., born March 28, 1839, and now engaged in the sale of drugs and hardware on the west side of the square, Waverly, Ill.; Lucy M., born Aug. 12, 1841, present wife of Prof. E. A. Tanner, of Illinois College, Jacksonville, Ill.; Georgianna, born October 14, 1843, deceased; Oliver H., born August 20, 1846, and now engaged extensively in the sale of stoves and hardware on the west side of the square in Waverly; Albert C., born June 25, 1849, who, after graduating at Illinois College, is now with Dr. Prince, at the Infirmary in Jacksonville, and is taking steps towards a thorough medical course to qualify himself to adorn the profession his father has so successfully followed for over forty years; Frederic A., born October 22, 1851; and Sylvester S., born August 17, 1853, are now in their collegiate course at Illinois College.

Dr. Brown has a brilliant record as a physician and Christian gentleman; his upright life and benevolent acts make him a pattern to all who may follow him; by his love of truth, his devotion to science, his desire to improve and elevate those with whom he has been associated in life, he has merited and secured the confidence and respect of all who know him. His family are widely known and appreciated throughout their native county for their moral and intellectual attainments. Dr. Brown is still in the enjoyment of his mental and physical faculties almost unimpaired by age, and may live long to be a comfort to his family and a blessing to the community in which he has resided for thirty-five years.

WILLIAM BUCKINGHAM was born in Greenborough county, Virginia, May 1, 1807. He was the third son of James and Rebecca Buckingham, citizens of Virginia. In March, 1828, William came to Morgan county, and settled at Diamond Grove, near Jacksonville, where he was engaged in farming for two years. He moved to the village in the spring after the "deep snow" (1831), where he followed plastering and bricklaying till 1838, when he moved on his farm, two and a half miles from Jacksonville, where he followed farming for ten years. He sold his farm in 1848, and returned to town and followed his trade till 1856, when he engaged in the grocery trade for two years. He bought a farm, eight miles south of town, in 1858, which he cultivated about two years, and then sold it and moved to his present place, near town, on the Springfield road. In the firm of Buckingham & Hamilton he is now engaged in the ice trade. They put up, last year, over three hundred tons, and are prepared to store for the future sufficient to supply the increasing demand. Mr. B. was first married to Miss Armina Eaton, October 15, 1831, who died in June, 1833. He was again married to Mrs. Mary Landers, relict of James Landers, of Kentucky. He had, by this union, three children, two of whom are still living, viz: Margaret, wife of Jas. O. Hamilton (his partner in the ice trade), and Mary, wife of George Glover, United States mail agent, residing with her father. His wife died October 15th, 1844. He was again married, October 10th, 1847, to Miss Eliza Pitner, of Cass county. By this union he has William F., residing in Whitehall, Illinois. Mr. Buckingham has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal church forty years. He is respected for his upright and consistent life, and is esteemed for what he truly is, a good citizen and upright business man.

ADAM A. BUTCHER was born in Pike county, Ohio, January 20, 1826. He was married to Miss Mary Ann Thorp, December 29, 1850. He moved to and settled in Meredosia, in October, 1851. He bought the farm where he now lives and settled on it in March 1857. Mr. Butcher has six children all living at home, viz: Roland, born November 23, 1856; Royal, born June 10, 1858; Josiah, born December 4, 1861; George, born July 22, 1864; Albert, born December 9, 1866; and Ida, born June 4, 1870. Beside these his three oldest sons died in infancy. Mr. Butcher, as a parent, is kind and respected for his many virtues. May he long continue a solace and comfort to his family, and an ornament and blessing to the community in which he resides.

SAMUEL CAMM was born in Sheffield, Yorkshire, England, January 24, 1807. He was the son of William and Mary Camm, of Sheffield. Samuel C. Camm was married in May, 1836, to Miss Jane Merrimack. He was afterward engaged as proprietor of a coffee house, in Sheffield, till 1841, when, with his family and three children, he came to this country, and settled near Winchester, Scott county, Ill., where he resided until the death of his wife, which occurred in August, 1849. Mr. Camm had an addition to his family of five daughters, born in Scott county. He was again married to Miss Martha D. Butler, daughter of Edward and Elizabeth Butler, of Virginia. He is now residing on his well cultivated farm, two miles southeast of Jacksonville. His oldest son, William, on the breaking out of the rebellion, raised a company, and was elected captain of company H. 14th regiment Illinois infantry, being mustered into service in the spring of 1861. Captain Camm was soon after promoted to the office of lieutenant colonel, which he held till the close of his three years service, during which he participated in many hard fought battles, being at Shiloh, in the campaign of Vicksburg, etc. He enlisted in Hancock's corps, and served as captain of company H, 1st regiment, to the end of the war. He is now in Missouri. Mr. Camm's second son, Bernard, was also a volunteer, in the 101st Illinois regiment, serving four years as a non-commissioned officer. He is now residing in Champaign county. Mr. C. was brought up in the Episcopal church, but his wife is a Methodist. He visited his native land after an absence of twenty-nine years. Mr. Camm commenced in this country with a small capital, but by his industry, and good, orderly management in business, he has acquired a comfortable living, and is a gentleman well respected by all who have the pleasure of his acquaintance.

JOSEPH CAPPS was born January 23, 1811, in Clark county, Kentucky. He was the son of Caleb and Martha Capps, who were natives of North Carolina. They emigrated and settled in Clark county, Kentucky, in 1810. Joseph received his early education in Kentucky. His regular trade was that of a machinist, although he followed wool carding for several years in his native state. He was married November 23, 1837, to Miss Sarah Ann H. Reid, daughter of Stephen H. Reid, and in the fall of 1838 he came to Morgan county. He established wool carding in Jacksonville, and after several years, added to his business, cloth dressing. He first commenced spinning about twenty years ago, and added to his manufacturing interest from time to time, until January, 1872, when he has the most extensive woolen manufactory owned by a single individual in central Illinois, giving employment to over eighty persons. His enterprise as a citizen and business man was extensively known and duly appreciated. Mr. Capps was for over twenty years an active official member of the Methodist Episcopal church, to which his family still belong. His death occurred from varioloid, March 10, 1872. As a business man, he was reliable and energetic; as a citizen, active and public spirited; and as a Christian, consistent and zealous. His loss to the church and community is deeply felt.

GEORGE CARTER was born in Warren, Litchfield county, Connecticut, May 25, 1809. He is the oldest son of Daniel and Lucinda Carter, who were both citizens of Warren, Connecticut. They had a family of twelve children. Mr. Carter's vocation was that of a farmer for many years. He emigrated west in October, 1835, and settled at Waverly, Morgan County, Illinois, where he remained until the fall of 1864, devoting his time to agricultural pursuits, excepting about five or six years spent in merchandising. Since 1864 he has been a citizen of Jacksonville, and is now devoting considerable of his time to the interests of his farm, situated in the north part of the county. Mr. Carter was married to Louisa J., daughter of Rev. Carlos Smith of Ohio, on the 6th of April, 1853. They have had two children, Edward E. and George M., both of whom are residing with their parents. His family are members of the Westminister church, of Jacksonville. Politically, Mr. Carter was a member of the Whig party, and since the dissolution of said party he has been identified with the principles of the republican party. Mr. Carter is one of the substantial citizens of Morgan county, who has the esteem of those who for the last thirty-seven years have had the pleasure of his acquaintance.

JOHN CARTER was born in West Virginia, September 20, 1822. He is the second son of John and Nancy Carter, who emigrated to Morgan county in the spring of 1827, and located on a farm near Lynnville, where the old gentleman spent the remainder of his life. In 1851 John Carter, the subject of this notice, formed a co_partnership with John Gordon, in mercantile business at Lynnville, which exists at the present time. Mr. Carter has been twice married, and has four children. He moved to Jacksonville in 1866, since which time he has been in the drug and hardware business, on the west side of the public square.

W. CHAUNCEY CARTER was born in Fairfield county, Connecticut, April 2, 1820. His father, Ebenezer Carter, was a native of the same county, born March 17, 1797. He received his education in Connecticut, and was married to Miss Eliza Weed, daughter of Enos Weed, by whom he had three children, two of whom are now living. The subject of this sketch is the oldest of the family. Mr. E. Carter, with his family, emigrated to Illinois in the fall of 1834, and after a short residence in Winchester, bought a farm south of Jacksonville, in January, 1835, where his oldest son now resides. He gave his children the advantages of a good education. Mr. Carter and his family were all members of the Congregational church. Mr. Carter was a shoemaker by trade, and carried on manufacturing largely and successfully while in his native state. He was a man of unusual energy, and by too close application to business lost the enjoyment of good health. Politically, he was strongly anti-slavery in his views. He was highly esteemed by all who really knew him. His widow is still living, and is residing with her daughter, Mrs. Woodward, in Jacksonville.

The subject of this sketch is a graduate of Illinois College, of the class of 1845. Soon after receiving his diploma, he visited Connecticut, and on his return, engaged with his father in farming. He was married November 19, 1846, to Miss Julia Ann Wolcott, by which union they have had a family of nine children, six of whom are now living. Soon after his marriage, Mr. Carter commenced farming on his own account, which he continued about two years. He then followed teaching for two years, when he resumed farming, which business he has since followed. He purchased a farm south of his father in 1851, and is now residing on the old homestead. He has at this time a valuable farm of over six hundred acres. In business he has been energetic and successful. His children in the order of birth, are: Samuel W., Willie W., Ella M., Walter Lee, Truman Post, and Herbert, all residing with their parents. Mr. Carter is endeavoring to give his children the advantages of a liberal education. He was politically a whig, and is now a zealous republican. He is a good citizen, and highly esteemed for his many virtues.

SAMUEL CARUTHERS is the oldest son of James Caruthers, one of the old settlers who, over forty-five years ago, settled on or near the same farm which his son now resides. Samuel Caruthers was born in Tennessee December 15, 1812. His father settled in Madison county in 1815. After five years he removed to the territory of Arkansas and settled near Little Rock, where he lived till the fall of 1825, when he became a citizen of Morgan county, Ill., where he resided until his death. November 28, 1849.

The subject of this sketch came to the county with his father, and has been one of the few citizens who have devoted over forty-six years of the prime of life to the development of its resources. He has been a worthy and respected citizen. Mr. C. celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of his birthday by his marriage, December 15, 1836, to Miss Emily McMahan. By this union he has had a family of seven children, five of whom are still living, viz: Ann B., residing near Waverly; Caroline M., present wife of Charles Wilcox, of Berlin, Sangamon county; George A., a citizen of the same county; five miles northeast of Waverly; Jane, present wife of Ransom R. Carter, two and a half miles northeast of Waverly; and Francis Marion, now residing with his parents. Mr. Caruthers is largely engaged in farming and stock growing, and owns one of the most desirable farms in the southeast part of the county. Being still in health and unimpaired mental vigor, he may long remain a useful citizen in the community where he has so long been respected as an upright business man.

JOHN H. CARVER was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, October 12, 1826. He came to Naples April 5, 1836. A portion of his early life was devoted to carpenter work as an apprentice (about one year). He then followed clerking several years for Royal Movers & Co. He engaged in mercantile pursuits at Naples, in 1857, where he is still interested in the firm of M. H. Mauch & Co. He came to Meredosia in 1859, taking charge of the above company's branch house, where he now resides. A lithographic view of their business house appears in this work. Mr. Carver was first married May 16, 1849, to Miss Almira, daughter of Captain Orlando Kellogg, of Naples. He has by this marriage two sons, George W., now residing and employed with his father, and Royal M., with J. L. Miller, of Meredosia. His first wife died October 9, 1854. He was married again November 15, 1866, to Miss Kate, daughter of James Steele, now residing in Manchester, Illinois. He has had by this union two children, Katie B. and Lillian. Mr. Carver, as a public spirited and upright citizen, is too well known and appreciated to call for commendation in this short sketch. The best ground for appreciation of his merits is to know him.

DR. JOHN T. CASSELL, was born in Fayette county, Kentucky, December 29, 1803. He graduated under the tuition of Rev. Barton W. Stone, at Georgetown, Kentucky, in 1821. He went through his medical course at Lexington, Kentucky, and graduated at Transylvania, University, in the spring of 1826. He soon after established himself in the practice of his profession, five miles east of Lexington, in his native county, where he remained until 1833. He made his first tour to Jacksonville, Illinois, in the spring of 1830, making at that time an investment in real estate. He bought two lots at $100 each, on the west side of the square, one of which he sold in 1870, for $16,500; the other, occupied by the Hardware store of Conover & Dunlap, he still owns. He moved his family to Morgan county in the fall of 1833, making his first settlement on south Main street, where he remained about five years. He then removed to his land, eight miles east of Jacksonville, on the Springfield road, where he soon improved a farm of over 1,300 acres. He remained on his farm till 1853, when he sold it and returned to Jacksonville, where he now resides, his object being the superior advantages for the education of his children.

Dr. Cassell, in addition to farming, has dealt largely in real estate. In 1855 he engaged in merchandising on the west side of the square; he also built the City Mill which he run for several years. He disposed of the mill in 1860, and of his merchantile interest the next year. Since 1871, he has been in a measure retired from all active business. Dr. Cassell has practiced his profession for forty_six years, but without remuneration since 1833. He was married to Miss Mary L. Gregg, of his native county, November 28, 1827. She died about fifteen months after. He was again married in 1831 to Mrs. Sarah Meagly. By this marriage he had seven children, only two of whom are now living; viz.: H. O. Cassell, of the firm of Cassell & Smith, Attorneys at Law, Jacksonville, and Dr. M. H. Cassell, a practicing physician of Jacksonville, Illinois. He was married to his present wife, Mrs. Mary R. Robertson of Davenport, Iowa, May, 27, 1852. By this union he has one daughter, Kate, about fifteen years of age, residing with her parents. Dr. Cassell is a substantial, plain, common sense business man _ a man who, in a career of nearly forty years, by his energy and perseverance, has added to his own, as well as to the general wealth of the county. He is one of our highly esteemed citizens.

LYMAN CHAPIN was born in Chickopee, Hamden County, Massachusetts, October 27, 1825. His opportunities for education were in the common schools of his State and Williston Seminary. His chief occupation has been farming. He was married to Mrs. Julia Wetherbee, of Southwick, Massachusetts, April 3, 1848. He came to Morgan county in the autumn of 1852, and settled on the farm where he now resides. He has two children, Ella Mariah and Edward D., beside his stepson, Wm. B. Wetherbee. Mr. Chapin has three brothers, who are all prominent citizens of the county; viz.: Captain Horace, one of the proprietors of the Jacksonville Journal; Cornelius O., residing with Lyman, at Chapin; and Quartius Horatio, United States mail agent. Lyman with his brother Horace, laid out the village of Chapin in 1858, and added his first addition in 1870. The village is about ten miles west of Jacksonville, at a point where the Rockford, Rock Island, & St. Louis Railroad crosses the Toledo, Wabash, & Western Railroad. It is now in the incipient stages of its growth; but, judging from its location in one of the finest portions of our State, and, possessing as it does, the advantages of two important railroads, we may safely predict, that at no distant day it will become a thriving mercantile and manufacturing town, that will reflect credit on our state and honor on its founders, whose name it bears. Mr. Chapin is one of those stirring, energetic, public spirited citizens, who has done much to advance the interest of the county and the state.

COL. ALEXANDER R. CHESNUT was born in Ross county, Ohio, September 6th, 1801. His father, Charles Chesnut, was a native of Rockingham county, Virginia. He was married to Miss Elizabeth Robertson, daughter of Col. Robertson, of Augusta county, Virginia. They had two children, of whom the subject of this sketch was the oldest, and at this time, the only one living. His father, with his wife and family, settled in Ross county, Ohio, in 1797. He served with the rank of captain, during the war of 1812, under General Harrison participating in the battles of Fort Meigs and the Thames. His occupation through life was farming. His grandfather, James Chesnut, was a soldier of the revolutionary war, and was a witness of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, at Yorktown. Captain Charles Chesnut died, at his residence, in 1857, at the advanced age of nearly eighty-nine years; his wife died about twenty years previous.

Col. Chesnut received his early education in the common schools of Ohio; although the facilities in those early times were quite limited compared with the present. His early occupation was farming. He was married, January 1st, 1833, to Miss Mary Ann, daughter of Robert McAllister, of Ross county, Ohio. They had by this union a family of six children, of whom four are still living, and are married and well settled in Illinois. The Colonel, after he was married, settled on a farm in Chillicothe, which he had previously purchased, where he resided till 1849, when he left on the1st of October, and, after about six weeks, located at Mount Auburn, Christian county, Illinois, November 15th, 1849. He purchased a farm of about three hundred and twenty acres, on which he resided two years, when he sold it and moved to Logan county, Illinois, and bought a farm of four hundred and forty acres, known as "Conger's Grove," on which he resided till 1867, at which time he moved to Jacksonville, and bought the farm on which he now resides. The Colonel, at the breaking out of the rebellion, though too old to join the service in the field, took an active part in recruiting, and in putting up the old 7th Regiment of Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and also the 106th regiment. He also aided, indirectly, by his financial contributions, and several substitutes whom he procured to represent him in the army. Few of the citizens of our state acted a more patriotic part than Col. Chesnut. In his veins flowed the same patriotic blood that prompted his father to assist in giving life to the nation, and to aid in preserving it afterwards, in 1812. The first wife of Colonel Chesnut died May 9th, 1863. He was again married to his present wife, Mrs. E. Bennett, relict of Esquire Bennett, of Logan county, November 15th, 1867. Politically, Colonel Chesnut was a Whig. He was a warm admirer of the political teachings of that great statesman, Henry Clay, with whom he was personally acquainted. He became identified with the republican party, at its organization, supporting Abraham Lincoln, who was an old acquaintance and personal friend. He voted for U. S. Grant, at his first election, and now looks forward with pleasure to next November, when he expects to cast his ballot for him again. His eldest son, and his son-in-law, Jefferson Donavan, residing near Mason City, are among the prominent farmers and stock dealers of Logan county. His youngest son, Alexander Chesnut, is now a merchant in St. Joseph, Monroe county, Illinois. His youngest daughter, the present wife of John M. Jones, is residing with her father on the farm. When Colonel Chesnut began life he had but little means; but, being energetic and persevering, he has made life a success, by acquiring for himself a competence, and bestowing upon his children such practical advantages of education as shall enable them to act well their parts in the drama of life. The Colonel is pleasantly situated on his farm, east of the limits of the city of Jacksonville. A lithographic view of his farm residence appears elsewhere in this work. He is respected by large circle of friends and acquaintances throughout the county and state.

GEORGE W. CLARK was born in Dekalb, St. Lawrence county, New York, October 19, 1822. He, with his father's family, emigrated to Illinois, and settled in Clayton Township, Adams county, in 1837. His parents, Silas and Elmina Clark, had, at that time, a family of ten children, six sons and four daughters. Mr. Clark, the father, died in Clayton, in August, 1856, and his wife, in November, 1869. Mr. George W. Clark settled in Morgan county, near Bethel, in 1847, and engaged in farming until 1852. He commenced mercantile business at Bethel, in 1855, which he continued till 1862, when he removed to Jacksonville, where he now resides. He was elected constable in 1848, which office he filled four years, when he was elected justice of the peace, and remained in that office till December 2, 1862. When he came to Jacksonville he acted as deputy sheriff till 1867, when he was elected clerk of the circuit court and recorder, which position he now occupies. Mr. Clark was married in December, 1847, to Miss Margaret Taylor, daughter of John and Mary Taylor, by which union they have had eight children, seven of whom are still living. As an official citizen of Morgan county, Mr. Clark has a record which reflects credit alike upon himself and those who gave him the important trusts which for over twenty years he so ably filled.

W. C. CLARK was born in Athens county, Ohio, on the 6th of October, 1818. His father, William Clark, was a farmer, and Mr. Clark, whose history appears below, was accustomed to farming from his early life. He also worked for some time, in Ohio, for a saddler, in order to perfect himself in that line of business. Mr. Clark was twenty-seven years of age when he came to Illinois. In 1845 he located in Menard county, remained here one year, and in 1846 removed to Morgan county. He was married, in 1852, to Miss Sarah Sample, daughter of Jacob Sample, Esq., of Morgan county. Mr. Clark has been a resident of Illinois for twenty-seven years, and has lived on his present farm and Mr. Alexander's property twenty-six years. When Mr. C. first came to this section, there were no settlers living in the vicinity. Two men by the names of Shultz and Ward had formerly lived in the neighborhood, but had moved away. A Mr. Foster also moved in about that time, but only remained a year, and went to some other point. At this time gave was very plenty, and in some places the tall prairie grass grew as high as the head of a man on horseback. Deer and wolves roamed unmolested, and the hunter only had to travel a short time before he could secure a sufficient quantity of venison, wild turkey, or some other variety of game. The father of Mrs. Clark was an old settler, having been the county from childhood, and many years prior to the "deep snow." In looking over the incidents recorded in the lives of the pioneers, we are struck with the bravery they exhibited in meeting every danger and suffering all the trials of pioneer life without a murmur. We have listened with pleasure to the incidents in the life of the subject of his sketch, and, if our space was more extended, would be glad to chronicle same. We feel a great pleasure in presenting his name as a wide-awake citizen, who never falters when duty presents itself. His life is well known to all the old families, and we have yet to hear anything derogatory to his character as a man, or his standing as a citizen. Mr. Clark is in the enjoyment of good health, and attends personally to the management of his estate. The admirable cultivation of the farm, its system of drainage, and crops, indicate to all the master hand that controls and guides the labor in the property. His genial nature and hospitality are well known, and we can speak with truth as regards the latter from personal experience. He has taken a deep interest in the improvements which have ranked old Morgan among the best counties in the Union, and in those affairs that interest the public at large he has taken a prominent part.

WILLIAM C. CLAYTON was a native of Georgia, born August 14, 1802. His father moved to Warren and Caldwell counties, Ky., and thence to Missouri, where he remained till 1829, when he removed to, and settled on, section 25, township 14, range 9, Morgan county. After a good citizenship of twenty-five years he died, leaving a family of three sons, still citizens of Morgan county, of whom William C. is the oldest, he having entered the land he now lives upon bout forty years ago. At that time there were no improvements on the prairies north between Franklin and Judge Wood's. He was married in 1824 to Minerva, daughter of Robert Woods, by whom he has had eight children, only two of whom are now living - Elizabeth, wife of Wm. Slacks, of Franklin, and Francis M., residing with his father. His amiable wife died March 6m 1869. Mr. Clayton, by his industrious life and moral influence, has been for forty years a blessing to the community in which, as a citizen, he has so efficiently acted a conspicuous part.

HON. NEWTON CLOUD was born in Stokes county, North Carolina, November 30, 1804. He removed, with his parents, to Logan (now called Simpson) county, Kentucky, where he remained until the fall of 1827, when he came to Morgan county, and settled on the farm where he now resides. He was married, February 15, 1825, to Miss Elizabeth C. Wood, of Warren county, Kentucky. They have had nine children, four of whom are deceased. Mr. Cloud became a local Methodist preacher in 1827, and was among the pioneer clergymen who first preached in Morgan county. He has had an active experience of forty-five years as a preacher, and has been required to fill a full record as a statesman. He was first elected to the legislature in 1830, and has been re-elected for sixteen subsequent sessions, serving in both branches and making for himself a noble political record of thirty-four years. He was canal commissioner of Illinois for a term of two years, and also a delegate to revise the state constitution in 1847, over which body he was called to preside. He was speaker of the house one session. His political record is brilliant, reflecting credit upon his constituents as well as himself. He acted fearlessly and honestly for justice and right, regardless of the fear or favor of men.

DAVID COLE was born in Middlesex county, New Jersey, February 21, 1817. His father, James Cole, had a family of thirteen children, of which number David was the oldest son. In his youth he was, like thousands of our young men, wholly dependent upon his own exertions and energy for success through life. At eighteen years of age he commenced an apprenticeship to acquire a knowledge of blacksmithing, which he followed three years, or until 1838, receiving the paltry sum of fifteen dollars per annum as compensation for his services; and from that amount he clothed himself. He continued at journeyman's work, at eight dollars per month, for a year. When in April, 1839, he stared for the far west. He secured passage on a steamboat from Pittsburg to St. Louis; but the boat failed to reach its destination, as it was burned to the water's edge, near Cairo, Illinois, which endangered the lives of the passengers, and destroyed most of the baggage, and all of the freight. After being forty days out from New Brunswick, New Jersey, he arrived at Meredosia, Illinois, on the 30th of May, 1839. He came immediately to Jacksonville, which at that time contained but a small population, and few of the shade trees of which the city now boasts as ornaments to its thoroughfares. Here he engaged work with Mr. James Cosgrove, at blacksmithing, and continued with him about two years, when Mr. Cosgrove died; after which time he took charge of the shop, as partner with Mr. Cosgrove's widow, who at present resides in McLean county, in this state. He continued as partner for about four years, when he established his own blacksmith business, on the corner of Morgan and West streets, where he now resides. His business at that time increased, and he engaged largely in the manufacture of plows, being the largest manufacturer of the solid mould board plow in the county. In connection with his plow shop he carried on an extensive shoeing business.

Mr. Cole was married, January 2, 1842, to Miss Sarah Southerland, of Kentucky. By this union he had six children, viz: James William and Henry Theodore, the eldest, both of whom died in infancy. Next in order, John Edgar, who was a member of Company K, 27th Illinois volunteer Infantry, being engaged in many of the battles in the west, under Buford, Pope, and Rosecrans. He was taken prisoner at Chicamauga, and, after seventeen months imprisonment in seven different southern prisons, he, with a few others, who survived the siege which resulted in the death of thousands of valuable lives, were exchanged. He is at present at Aurora, Illinois, as an ornamental painter, in the employ of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad Company. He has few superiors at his trade in the country. Ben F., Clark S., and Charles W., are still residing with their parents. Mr. Cole, as a Christian man and industrious citizen, is well known by a large circle of patrons and friends in the city and county, in which, for over thirty years, he has been respected for his characteristic virtues. His economy, energy, honesty, and probity as a business man, are points in his character which are worthy of imitation by the youth of our land, who are to be, through the Divine blessing, the sole artificers of their own fortunes in this world. Mr. Cole and his estimable wife are members of the Presbyterian church, and their lives are consistent with their Christian profession.

REV. ISAAC CONLEE was born in Green county, Tennessee, May 7, 1795. His father, Rev. John Conlee, moved to Barren county, Ky., in 1891, where he remained till 1814, when he settled ten miles southeast of Edwardsville, Ill. Isaac followed the next year. His father had a family of twelve children, four of whom, in after life, were citizens of Morgan County, viz: Isaac, Whitfield, Vincent, and Rachel, wife of C. Maupin. His father died in 1817. His mother, Mrs. Hessie, became the second wife of Richard Wood in 1821, and died in September, 1861.

Isaac was married in Kentucky, June 20, 1814, to Miss Sarah McDonald, and had twelve children: Rebecca, present wife of James Wood; Eliza Ann (deceased), former wife of Thomas Weller; Priscilla, wife of Andrew Wood; Josiah, a citizen of Girard, Ill.; Nancy, who died in infancy; Allen, now near Waverly; Betsey Ann, wife of Richard Rogers (son of Rev. Wm. Rogers, one of the first preachers of Morgan county); John, residing near Carlinville; Polly (deceased); Mary M., wife of James Stice; William, living near Carlinville, and James, near Waverly. His wife died August 3, 1858. He was again married, to Mrs. Jane Sherman, relict of James Sherman, formerly of Morgan county, August 6, 1859, who is still living. She is a woman highly respected by her large circle of acquaintances. Rev. Mr. Conlee has raised a large number of orphan children, having been a father to the fatherless. In November, 1824, he settled four miles south of the present site of Waverly, and has been an active and useful citizen ever since, being rather, "a man of all work.: He built the first horse-mill in the township in the spring of 1829, and another in 1837, in which business he was engaged till 1846. No customer of his ever left without an invitation to dine with the proprietor. He worked on the first state house at stone laying; was handy at brick laying, and never knew what he could do until he tried, but usually accomplished whatever he undertook. Few of the early settlers have had a more varied experience than Isaac Conlee. He was familiar with the site of Alton before it contained a single house; knew St. Louis when it was hardly a first-class village; staid over night, in 1821, with two brothers named Wilson, in a double log cabin, which was all there was then of the city of Springfield. He became a citizen of Illinois three years before it was a state, and, as his health is good, may still live many years. As a Christian man and citizen, he has the respect and esteem of a large circle of acquaintances in the state in which he has resided for over fifty-seven years.

JOHN M. COONS - This gentleman was born in the county of Fayette, state of Kentucky, on the 14th day of February, 1800. His boyhood days were passed in this county, and in conversation with the old pioneer we note that his mind often reverts to the scenes of his early life. Working on the farm was the main occupation of most of the youth of that period, as schools were rare, and the facilities for obtaining an education were deficient in every respect. Mr. Coons' entire attendance at school would not amount to over forty days. Most of his knowledge was obtained by reading by the light of the hickory blazing on the fire place. When the remainder of the family were asleep, often, he would study till the "wee small hours" of the morning. Mr. Coons was the youngest of the children, and, as was the custom in those days, he learned the trade of his father, viz: saddle and harness making. He also perfected himself as a carpenter and wagon maker, besides being able to work as a millwright. At the age of eighteen he was married to Miss Sarah D. Shay, daughter of Dennis Shay, a revolutionary soldier and an old citizen of Fredericksburg, Virginia. Mrs. Coons was born in Fredericksburg, on the 7th of January, 1798. Mr. Coons emigrated to Illinois, and finally located in this state in November, 1838. As they passed through Springfield the contractors were laying the foundation of the old state house. The land which they purchased at that early date now bears an altogether different appearance from the raw, uncultivated prairie. As to Mr. C's family we would state that two children were born, who still live and enjoy good health. Mrs. C. died on the 28th of January, 1865. After a long and lingering illness, she passed away to that other world where sickness and distress are unknown. Mr. C. is over seventy-two years of age, and is hale and hearty. He preserves to a remarkable degree the elasticity of his youth. In this connection it would not be out of place to state that his father, Frederick, was a revolutionary soldier, and enlisted in the colonial army in 1776, in Culpepper county, Virginia. He was one of the forlorn hope at Stony Point, being under the direct command of Gen. Wayne, often called "Mad Anthony." The captain of the company in which he served was John Gilisson. He was ill with the putrid sore throat at the time of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis. He moved, in 1794, into Kentucky. He raised seven boys and six girls, all of whom lived to be grown and married. The subject of this sketch was the youngest. In conclusion, we would say that the nem of John M. Coons is a household word among all the early settlers. He has won the confidence of all as an honest, faithful, and enterprising pioneer and citizen.

JOHN D. COOPER was born in Sumner county, Tennessee, December 22, 1809. With his father, George W. Cooper, and his family, he emigrated to Morgan county, and settled in township 16, range 11 (Concord), in November, 1829. He was married January 28, 1836, to Miss Margaret Willard, of this county. He had by this marriage four children as follows: William M., at present engaged in mercantile business with his father, in Chapin, Illinois, who keeps a full assortment of goods for the country trade; Martha, present wife of D. M. Bronson, attorney, residing in Eldorado, Kansas; Hester A., present wife of Lewis Hanback, attorney, of Topeka, Kansas; and George, who died in infancy.

Mr. Cooper's wife died January 15, 1847. He was again married to Margery Ann Risley, of Jerseyville, Illinois, September 28, 1847. He had by this union the following named children: Mary A., wife of O. T. Johnson, of Alexander, Missouri; Hardin and Ida, who live at home with their parents. Mr. Cooper came to his present farm in or near Chapin, where he now resides, in September, 1847.

Besides the mercantile business above described, and farming, Mr. Cooper has carried on regularly through life the cabinet and carpenter trades. In character, he is a man of sterling worth, who has devoted the energies of a busy life to the interest of society and rearing a family who are respected and useful citizens. His good qualities are highly appreciated by a large circle of acquaintances.

JOHN W. CORRINGTON was born within ten miles of Paris, Kentucky, at a place called North Middletown, on the 11th of November, 1824. His father, Joel Corrington, was a saddler, and pursued this branch of trade in Kentucky, but upon coming to Illinois, and locating in Morgan county, he relinquished this business, and followed farming. He at the present time resides in Jacksonville, having paid not attention to active labor for several years. He is seventy-seven years oaf age, and yet hale and hearty, and able to undergo considerable fatigue. His wife is seventy-four years of age; though somewhat enfeebled by sickness a year ago, she yet exhibits considerable vigor and strength.

John W. Corrington was married, at the age of twenty-one to Miss Ann E. Cassell, daughter of Robert F. Cassell, Esq., a resident of Jacksonville. Ten children have been born, nine of whom are living and one is dead. Mr. C. came to Illinois from Kentucky when only eleven years of age. The passage was up the Mississippi to the Illinois river, then up this stream to Beardstown, thence by land to Morgan county, arriving in the latter in March, 1834. Schools were held occasionally in an old log building dignified by the name of a school house; and Mr. C.'s early knowledge as regards learning was obtained by an intermittent attendance at this school. His education is practical rather than intellectual, and he has learned much from the contact and experience of actual life. He has resided on his present farm, in section 12, nearly twenty-two years, and has made all the improvements that we can perceive on the place. At the date of his locating the farm there were very few settlers, and these were widely scattered, mostly located by the timber and water courses. Mr. C. is, comparatively speaking, a young man, yet he has seen a great change come over the prairie and timber lands of Illinois. What was once the home of the wolf and the deer, now is cultivated and inhabited by many hundreds of enterprising farmers and citizens. The tall prairie grass has given place to the blue grass and the timothy, and the game is spoken of as among the things of the past. Mr. Corrington is an industrious, hard-working, and enterprising citizen. He is conversant with the important agricultural and improvement questions of today, and believes in the "go ahead" doctrine which characterizes many of our leading western farmers. He bears an untarnished name, has the respect of his fellow citizens, and well sustains his reputation as a wide awake and public spirited farmer.

WILLIAM COULTAS, ESQ. was born in Yorkshire, England, February 9, 1810. He is the second child of Richard and Sarah Coultas, who had a family of seven children. On the 1st of May, 1830, Mr. Coultas embarked with his family for America, and landed at Quebec on the first of June following. From there he came to Morgan county, Illinois, on the 6th of August, 1830, where he bought a farm. He died at the residence of his son Thomas Coultas, in September, 1857, his wife having died in England. William Coultas came to Morgan county with his father. At the age of twenty-five, he was married to Jane Richardson, daughter of John and Elizabeth Richardson of Morgan county. They have had eight children, seven are still living. Mr. Coultas is residing on his farm near Lynnville.

ANCIL COX. - This pioneer was born in Henry county, Virginia, on the 11th of June, 1791. The parents of Mr. Cox (father, John, and mother, Eliza, whose maiden name was Harris), were Virginians, and lived near Rockingham county, North Carolina. His father was a farmer, and Ancil worked on the farm more than he attended school, even when the latter was in session. About 1801 and 1802, went to school in Rockingham county, North Carolina, for a little while, though exposed to considerable inconvenience in so doing. The school house was a little, rude log cabin. He attended a portion of the winters of 1801 and 1802, as above stated, and left his books to attend to the more laborious duties of a farmer boy. Till his sixteenth year he worked on his father's place; then his people moved into Kentucky, and started a new farm in Franklin county. In 1813 he hired out to a farmer, but catching the war fever of that time(war of 1812), he hired a man to fulfill his engagement on the farm, and enlisted in Col. Richard Johnson's regiment of mounted men. James Johnson, brother of Richard, was Lieutenant Colonel. This was among the first regiments to go from Kentucky. On the fourth of July, 1813, he was at Fort Sandusky, on the Sandusky river. From this place they went to the mouth of the Huron river, and stayed thirteen days. They then rode back to Kentucky, and recruited their horses for fifteen days. They rendezvoused at the crossing, by Col. Johnson's farm, and rode as far as Dayton, Ohio. Here Mr. Cox was taken ill, and forced to return home. The regiment, however, went forward to Detroit, and fought the "Battle of the Thames." A brother of Mr. Cox was in the engagement, but luckily, was uninjured. Seven men, only, of the regiment was killed. The regiment was divided into two battalions, one fighting against the Indians, and the other against the British. It was at this battle that Tecumseh was killed by Col. Johnson. Mr. Cox was ill a long time after his return home, and unable to attend to any business. But his health finally recovered and he was married, at Wolford county, in November, 1816, to Miss Mary Buchanan, daughter of J. Buchanan, Esq., an old resident of Wolford county. Mr. Buchanan accompanied Mr. Cox on his trip to Illinois. In 1819, with his wife and a small child, in company with his father-in-law, Mr. Cox crossed the Ohio river, at Louisville thence to Vincennes, Indiana, crossing the Wabash river at this point, and went as far as Madison county, Illinois, and located by the forks of Silver Creek. Madison county, at this time, included many thousand square miles, almost a state in itself. The following spring they came to Morgan county, and settled on sections three, fourteen, and nine. This land he still retains, and it has advanced greatly in value from its original cost. No settlers were in the neighborhood; save here and there a solitary Indian, or a company of the same, no persons passed the house till the fall of 1820. Never in the history of the state was game more abundant. Wolves, and occasionally a few bears, could be seen. The tall prairie grass waived to and fro, as the wind blew. The timber was more open that at present, and even there the grass grew to a great height. Mr. Cox, though many of his neighbors entered into the Black Hawk war, remained at home to look after his family. Mrs. Cox died about two years after their arrival in the state, leaving two small children to mourn the loss of a fond mother's care. In 1832, Mr. Cox was again married to Miss Lucy H. Palmer, daughter of James Palmer, Esq., an old pioneer of Morgan county. Seven children were born, of whom two are dead. Mrs. Cox is over seventy-two years of age. She is a noble specimen of those women who were true help-mates of the early frontiersmen, and bravely assisted him in all the trials incidental to such a life. Mr. Cox is in his eighty-second year, and seems possessed of considerable endurance and strength for a man of his advanced years. He resides on the old homestead, and looks back with the pleasure upon the changes time has wrought upon the surface of the country. Where once the war cry of the Aborigines was heard, now peals forth the cheerful song of the husbandman. The prairie grass is succeeded by fertile fields of Indian corn and wheat. The rude cabin gives place to the elegant mansion. School houses and churches, those blessed evidence of civilization, are everywhere to be seen. No sound or shock of war is ever heard in this peaceful region, for war and tumult have given place to agriculture, and the implements of violence grow rusty by disuse, and are spoken of as among the things of the past. Mr. Cox has seen the country in all its vicissitudes, and can honestly say: "I have helped to found a state." Although he has no Virgil to perpetuate his deeds in classic metre, we trust that these few lines roughly drawn as they may be, will present to the reader a faint idea of the brave-hearted and energetic pioneer, Ancil Cox, who was among the first settlers of Morgan county, and nobly assisted in all her troubles, and now happily rejoices over her great successes.

LEE COX was born in Chesterfield county, within ten miles of Richmond, Virginia. His father, Higason Cox, as well as his mother, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Cary, were born and raised in the "Old Dominion." Higason Cox was a farmer and accustomed to the raising of corn and other grain. When Mr. H. Cox was thirty years of age, he started, with his family (Lee was bout nine years of age at that time), for Tennessee. He passed over the mountains and finally settled in Clayborne county, East Tennessee. This was a rough and broken country. It required great labor to procure a scanty crop from the unwilling soil, and after a while it failed entirely to produce even the ordinary grasses.

Lee went to school very little in Virginia, and still less in Tennessee. As regards books, about all knowledge was obtained prior to their emigration from Virginia. Lee's father was surety for some parties on promissory notes. The makers failing to pay the consideration, Higason lost nearly all his property paying the debts. Being honest, he reserved nothing, and so, heart-worn and weary, he crossed the mountains to recruit his failing fortunes. This emigration was fatal to Lee's desire to obtain an education. In Tennessee Lee would attend school possibly for a week, and then be absent for three or four weeks. The boy Lee would also hire to various parties for the "munificent" sum of five dollars per month; yet this was considered high wages in those days. vWhen Lee was in his twenty-first year, he left Tennessee, crossed the Ohio at Louisville, the Wabash at Vincennes, and came to Morgan county. He had a brother and brother-in-law in Morgan, who had lived in this state three or four years previous to his arrival. He worked for his brother the following two years. He was then married to Miss Beccie Scott, daughter of William Scott, who had lived several years in the state, and was well known many years prior to the "deep snow". Mr. Cox also purchased forty-two and a half acres of prairie land and thirty of timber, and for the first time in his career commenced farming on his own account. He was very successful, and was enabled after a short time to purchase more land, and to live more at his ease.

The pen fails to describe adequately the condition of the county at that period. The settlers were poor, and used every device to obtain credit and groceries. No money scarcely was in circulation, and bartering was the only method of obtaining articles necessary for use. The settling of the territories at the present time is child's play compared with the locating and improving this state prior to the opening of our great railroad thoroughfares and line of state canals. Ducks, turkeys, and, in fact, all kinds of game, were plenty, and easily satisfied the hunter's quest of prey, on account of their abundance. Wolves, also, abounded, and were hunted by mounted men, who slew them by the hundred. As parties came into the country, and new settlements were made, they disappeared before the advancing tide of immigration. Now and then an occasional bark may be heard, but we are safe in making the assertion that the game, as a rule, has disappeared, nevermore to return. Mr. C. has eighty acres of land which, as brush prairie, cost him eight dollars per acres. This, as good timber, is easily worth seventy-five dollars per acre. The soil originally was very free from weeds and more swampy than at the present time. Corn was more easily raised, but yet the land is now in a better condition than formerly. Mr. C's property (as may be noted from a glance at his view) possesses many advantages for a stock raiser and grain producer. A fine row of black walnuts, of forty-five years growth, makes a cooling shade for the stock in summer.

Mr. Cox takes a great interest in educational affairs, having been a school director for over seventeen years. With the exception of this office, he has declined all engagements of a public character, preferring the peaceful labors of the farm, and a quiet home life, to the bustle and confusion of a public position. As to his domestic relations, we would state that he has had nine children, of whom eight are living. Mr. Cox's wife, after a long and lingering attack of consumption, died in 1848. He was again married, in 1849, to Mrs. Elizabeth Reynolds, widow of John Reynolds, an old settler, and daughter of Mr. Crawley, an old pioneer of Kentucky. Mr. C.'s children, spoken of above, are all boys, with the exception of two. Boys are an especial necessity on a corn-growing farm like Mr. C.'s.

The above are some of the incidents in the history of one of our oldest pioneers. The poor boy can read the same, and be encouraged to work more earnestly, with the assurance that success may finally perch upon his banner. We need not look to the field of conflict for the true type of a hero, for among the early pioneers of Morgan county the same could be found in large numbers. Their victories were not obtained through blood-shed, but were accomplished by a series of attacks against hunger, poverty, trials and distresses. They now can look with pleasure upon their laborious career, and receive the trite compliment, "well done, good and faithful servant," enjoy the fruits of your labors. The reputation of Mr. C. for honesty, enterprise, and faithfulness, is too well known to require any mention at our hands. Owing to press of other matter, we cannot enlarge upon them at this time. But we urge upon all to read carefully the incidents in his personal history, and resolve to imitate his example, and thus benefit the country at large by a good and useful career.

JOHN C. CRABTREE was born in Ohio county, Kentucky, March 13, 1825. He moved to Morgan county (now Scott) and settled five miles north of Winchester, in 1829, with his widowed mother, where he resided until March, 1854, when he removed to section 18, township 14, range 8, where he now resides. He was married Dec. 25, 1843, to Miss Martha A. M. Six, and has a family of seven children now living. Mr. Crabtree, as a representative shipper and stock dealer, has been prominent for about fifteen years, being well known in St. Louis, Chicago, and New York. He is now principally engaged in farming and stock growing, and has the best stock farm in the township. Mr. Crabtree is esteemed for his numerous good qualities as a citizen and business man.

JOHN A. CRAIN was born in Flemming county, Kentucky, November 5th, 1822. He settled in Waverly in March, 1846, where he now resides. He has a mercantile record of over twenty-six years. He was alone in business one year, three years in the firm of Nilson & Crain & Manson. Since the spring of 1855, he has been a member of the well known firm of Crain, Manson & Co., now engaged largely, on the east side of the square, Waverly, in the sale of dry goods, boots and shoes, and clothing. In the spring of 1871 they established a bank in connection with their mercantile house. Mr. Crain is a self-made business man, who, for a quarter of a century has laid the foundation on which he has built up a business profitable to himself and useful to the interest of the community, in which he, as a Christian and business man, is highly esteemed.

HOMER CURTIS was born in Warren, Litchfield county, Connecticut, May 20, 1787. He followed farming, and taught school during the winter in his early life. President Sturtevant, of Illinois College, in his youth, attended his school, and today is one who cherishes the memory of his old teacher. He married, October 25, 1810, Miss Charry Everritt. By this union he has, Orra M., born August 15, 1811, present wife of Martin B. Strong, of Warren, Conn.; Theodore E., born May 28, 1813; Augustine A., born April 3, 1817; Frederic H., born March 1, 1825; and Lodema, born October 7, 1822, present wife of James R. Godfrey, of Madison county, Ill. Augustine A. is residing with his aged parents. (A picture of the home farm house appears in this work.) His two brothers live near Waverly. Mr. Curtis, with his family, left the early associations and home of his youth, and after a journey of twenty-three days, arrived in the young village of Waverly April 26, 1837, where he and his aged wife are still living, a comfort to their family and friends, and ornaments of the Congregational Church, to which they have been attached since 1816; they are a blessing to the community and county in which, for thirty-five years, they, with their family, have been good, useful, and respected citizens.

GEORGE CURTS. - This gentleman was born in Nelson county, Kentucky, on the 8th of February, 1803. The father of Mr. Curts, Jacob Curts, Esq., and his mother, whose maiden name was Mary Enlew, were old residents of the county. The Curts originally emigrated from Germany and located in Kentucky, many years previous to the birth of the subject of this sketch. The Enlews, as far back as can be traced, were residents of the state long before the time of its admission into the Union. During the boyhood of Mr. C., deer were very plentiful and occasionally bears were killed on the mountains and hills. The buffalo had gone to more extended grazing grounds in the far distant west. In the early settlement of Kentucky, the country was sparsely populated, but yet some little attention was paid to education. School depended upon the subscription of their patrons, and were in session for a few weeks at a time, then a long interval would ensue, in which most of what had been learned would be forgotten. The churches and school houses were constructed of logs, and when we remember that the Curts and Enlews were contemporary with Daniel Boone, the great pioneer, we can judge of the improvement which has taken place since. About the time of their leaving the state, the log buildings in that section used for churches and schools, were torn down, and in most cases replaced by substantial structures of brick. The subject of this article was forced to pay more attention to tilling the soil than to intellectual matters. The dull routine of farming in a rough and broken country with a few days at an itinerant school would comprise most of his life until 1822, when his father removed to Indiana, and settled in Washington county. George now was apprenticed to a blacksmith. For some little time he worked at this trade, but still having in view a trip to the western regions, and desirous of possessing a home among the prairies of Illinois, in company with William Jackson, a neighbor, he started on a tour through Illinois. His friend having purchased land within three or four miles of Jacksonville, he remained with him nearly three years. About this time he purchased a quarter-section of land five miles southeast of Jacksonville. After making considerable improvements on the land, he sold the same and visited Kentucky for the purpose of buying a farm in that state and making it his home. He did not find his new location as desirable as he anticipated, so having the opportunity of purchasing some Illinois land of a Kentucky gentleman, he did so, and again started for the prairie state, which ever since has been his home. This land was located in Morgan county, and comprises a portion of his present extensive farm. After the lapse of a few months, Mr. C. was married to Miss Nancy Huffaker, daughter of Jacob Huffaker, Esq., an old settler of Mauvaisterre precinct. Eight children were born, viz: Elizabeth, deceased; Jane, deceased; William, deceased; George Washington; Jacob Frank; Eviline, deceased; Barton, deceased; and Marietta, deceased. Mrs. Curts dying, Mr. C., at the age of sixty-eight, was again married to Miss Caroline Parker, daughter of Charles S. Parker, an old resident of Sangamon county, and well known as a prominent citizen of central Illinois. Mr. Curts has over five hundred and sixty-five acres of choice land in sections seventeen, sixteen, and nine. He attends principally to the raising of grain and the feeding of stock. During his career as a farmer in this county he has raised many herd for the Chicago and St. Louis markets. He resides in a comfortable mansion, about six miles from Jacksonville. Though over sixty-nine years of age, he attends personally to the management of his large farm. Mr. C., has been prominently associated with many improvements which have been made in the name of Morgan so well known as a wide awake county. He is in favor of reform, and ever exerts his influence for the right.

He can look back with pleasure at the great strides which Illinois has taken since her advent into the union; to the extensive prairies which the wild Indian and buffalo were wont to roam over; now covered with all the emblems of industry, and to the cities and towns which at that time either had no existence or were small and straggling, now centers of a vast and constantly increasing commerce, and endowed with all the privileges of the older cities of the east. He is permitted to behold the fruition of the labors of his early life, and can enjoy the comforts so nobly earned by him since coming as a poor boy into this now wealthy region. Among the pioneers who have inaugurated, encouraged, and fostered the then young state of Illinois, no name will be better respected as an honest and industrious citizen, than that of George Curts, a few points in whose life we have stated above. If space permitted, we could give many incidents of interest in his early career, but suffice it to say that a careful reading of the few lines in this personal sketch will give the reader some idea of the county in its early settlement. We trust that Mr. C.'s health may remain as good as at present, and that he may long be spared to witness the great improvements which are now taking place. He can now look back upon a life well spent, and admonish the youth of the present age to pattern after his example. His family cannot but respect his manly virtues, and feel impelled to transmit the same, by leading a life of industry and enterprise.

1894 INDEX

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