Archaeology in Indiana - the Early Years - Timeline
Paleoindians live in what is now Ind. (Outline,1).
Early Archaic Indians live in what is now Ind. (Outline,1).
Middle Archaic Indians live in what is now Ind. (Outline, 2).
Late Archaic Indians live in what is now Ind. (Outline, 2).
Terminal Late Archaic Indians live in what is now Ind. (Outline, 2).
Early Woodland Indians live in what is now Ind. (Outline, 3).
200 B.C.-500 A.D.
Middle Woodland Indians live in what is now Ind. (Outline, 3).
Late Woodland Indians live in what is now Ind. (Outline, 4).
Mississippian Indians live in what is now Ind. (Outline, 4).
Ruins of Roman city of Pompeii discovered (Grun, 263).
Iroquois wars with French and Huron tribes; at this time, historic Indian groups documented in what is now Ind. (Barnhart and Riker, 59-60).
LaSalle enters what is now northern Ind. (Barnhart and Riker, 62).
Wea settle on Wabash River (Barnhart and Riker, 66).
Early Miami establish settlement (now Fort Wayne) (Barnhart and Riker, 66).
Fort Ouiatenon established (now Lafayette) (Barnhart and Riker, 72).
Fort Miamis established (now Fort Wayne) (Barnhart and Riker, 74-75).
Post Vincennes established (now Vincennes) (Barnhart and Riker, 80).
French and Indian War begins (Barnhart and Riker, 121).
Pontiac's War (Barnhart and Riker, 141-43).
Treaty of Paris; ending French and Indian War; British control Ind. area (Barnhart and Riker, 127).
Declaration of Independence; American Revolution begins (Grun, 360 ).
Treaty of Paris ends American Revolution (Grun, 362).
Congress establishes Northwest Territory with Northwest Ordinance (Barnhart and Riker, 266-68).
Ohio River settlements and towns develop in Ind. Territory (Chronology, 2).
Extensive excavations at ancient Roman city of Pompeii (Grun, 379).
Ind. becomes a state; first constitution; capital at Corydon (Barnhart and Riker, 444,462).
Early archaeological interest in Ind. prehistory begins with Charles Alexander Lesueur, Posey Co. (Vail,12-13).
Ind. road construction begins (Chronology, 2).
Mexican archaeological ruins explored (Hellemans, 282).
Rosetta Stone translated; 1st time Egyptian hieroglyphics deciphered (Hellemans, 282).
Ind. canal and railroad construction begins (Chronology, 2).
First Ind. state geologist, David Dale Owen, appointed by governor; geological survey ordered (see Report of A Geological Reconnoissance of Indiana, 1837) (Acts,1937, 108).
Mayan archaeological ruins discovered in Central America (Hellemans, 304).
Ancient Assyrian sculpture near Khorsabad, Iraq excavated (Hellemans, 310).
Nineveh, ancient capital of Assyria, excavated (Hellemans, 312).
Prehistoric Indian mounds explored in the Mississippi River Valley (Hellemans, 314).
Mysterious statues discovered in Central America (Hellemans, 318).
Indiana's 2nd constitution written and adopted (Carmony, 408, 450).
Ind. General Assembly authorizes State Board of Agriculture to make geological survey of state (Acts, 1859, p. 112).
Mammoth tooth found with engraved sketch of mammoth (Hellemans and Bunch, 330).
U.S. Civil War (Grun, 424, 428).
Papyrus dating circa 1,550 B.C. summarizes surgical practices written in 2,500 B.C. (Hellemans and Bunch, 332).
Edward Burnett Taylor, England, publishes Early History of Mankind (Hellemans and Bunch, 336).
Ancient city of Troy discovered in Turkey (Hellemans and Bunch, 346).
American, William Henry Jackson, 1st known non-Native American to explore cliff homes, Mesa Verde, Colo. (Hellemans and Bunch, 346).
Peru Illustrated; Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas, published (Hellemans and Bunch, 350).
Wheeled toys found on Mount Popo-catepetl, Mexico; 1st evidence of wheels in pre-Columbian New World (Hellemans and Bunch, 354).
Royal tomb near Luxor entered; contains mum-mies of famous rulers of Egypt (Hellemans and Bunch, 356).
Ind. General Assembly creates Department of Geology and Natural History to combine geological and scientific survey of state and develop its natural resources (Phillips,182).
Flinders Petrie, England, publishes The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, revealing precision of Great Pyramid's alignment (Hellemans and Bunch, 358).
Egyptian pyra-mid of Senurset II excavation begins (Helle-mans and Bunch, 366).
Cliff Palace, largest of Mesa Verde cliff dwellings, discovered; contains about 200 ruins and 23 kivas used for religious ceremonies (Hellemans and Bunch, 368).
Native American mummies (basketmakers) discovered in Utah (Hellemans and Bunch, 374).
spanish-American War (Grun, 450).
Great palace of Knossos, central site of Minoan civilization, discovered in Crete; 2nd Minoan palace, Phaistos, discovered in Crete (Hellemans and Bunch, 394).
Tablets with 1st known set of laws discovered at Susa, ancient capital of Elam (now western Iran) (Hellemans and Bunch, 400).
World War I (Grun, 466, 472).
Third great Minoan palace, Mallia, excavated in Crete (Helle-mans and Bunch, 426).
Ind. General Assembly creates Department of Conservation (Phillips, 185).
Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon discover tomb of Egyptian King Tutankhamen (Grun, 480 C).
Indiana Historical Commission (later Indiana Historical Bureau) publishes 1st archaeological survey on Lawrence Co.
Indiana Historical Society establishes archaeology section (Kellar, 16).
Albee Mound, Sullivan Co., 1st modern excav-ation in Ind. funded primarily by Indiana Historical Society (Kellar, 16).
Mounds State Park, Madison Co., established; 1st Ind. state park to preserve major archaeological site (Smith, 7, 20).
Indiana Historical Society hires Glenn A. Black, 1st full-time archaeologist employed in Ind. (Kellar, 17).
Indiana Historical Society publishes Eli Lilly's classic Prehistoric Antiquities of Indiana.
Indiana Historical Society begins publication of Prehistory Research Series.
Carbon-14 discovered; used in dating ancient sites (Hellemans and Bunch, 482).
World War II (Grun, 516, 522).
Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in cave, Khirbet Qumran (Hellemans and Bunch, 500).
Linear B, one of the ancient languages of Crete, deciphered (Hellemans and Bunch, 512).
McKinley site, Hamilton Co. excavated; reveals variety of cultural materials beginning with Early Archaic (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
Archaeologists discover 2 chambers at base of Great Pyramid of Khufu, Egypt (Hellemans and Bunch, 518).
Primitive computer found in Mediterranean Sea built circa 65 B.C.; used to calculate planet positions (Hellemans and Bunch, 532).
Ind. General Assembly creates Department of Natural Resources to succeed Department of Conservation (IDNR Web site, 2).
Congress passes National Historic Preservation Act.
Angel Mounds 1st Ind. archaeological site listed in National Register of Historic Places; also a National Historic Landmark (IDNR, DHPA).
Archaeology in Indiana - the Science Today - Timeline
Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology at Indiana University is established (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
Angel Moundsplaced in National Register of Historic Places; also a National Historic Landmark (DHPA files).
Ball State University excavates Van Nuys site, Henry Co.; over 3,000 Late Woodland artifacts (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
National Anthropological Archives (NAA), Smithsonian Institution, is established (National Park Service Web site).
Indiana University excavates Fort Ouiatenon site near Lafayette (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
"Terracotta army" of over 6,000 life-size model soldiers is discovered in the tomb of China's first emperor (Williams, 649).
Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act passes. Assigns oversight and coordination of U.S. public archaeology to U.S. Secretary of the Interior (National Park Service Web site).
Gary Ellis is first professional archaeologist hired by Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DHPA files).
Council for the Conservation of Indiana Archaeology established; promotes archaeology as profession (DHPA files).
Virgil E. Noble, Jr., Michigan State University conducts excavations at Fort Ouiatenon, Tippecanoe County, Indiana (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) passes. Affirms public policy of Antiquities Act of 1906 and promises to improve enforcement of resource protection (National Park Service Web site).
Warren's Shaft, vertical well that was part of Jerusalem's waterworks before King David, is rediscovered; provides access to ancient waterworks system (Williams, 710).
Underwater archaeological investigations document over 50 Indiana shipwrecks from historical data and result in the field recording of 16-17 wrecks (Jones, 1997:15).
Mary Rose, 16th century warship, sunk off Portsmouth, England, raised; contains Tudor artifacts (Mary Rose Trust Web site).
Roman Temple of Sulis Minerva in Bath, England excavated (Williams, 741).
Indiana State University surveys thousands of acres in southwest Indiana and locates hundreds of prehistoric and historic sites (Stafford et al., 1988).
Remains of an 8,000 year old settlement, Atlit-Yam, discovered underwater off the coast of Israel (Williams, 749).
Ball State University conducts excavations at the All Seasons site, a significant site in Miami Co. providing data on a 3,000 year period of history (Cochran and James, 1986).
Archaeologists in Egypt discover undisturbed 3,500 year old tomb of Maya, Tutankhamen's treasurer (Williams, 772).
French archaeologists report discovery of hearth in Brazilian rockshelter radiocarbon dated to about 32,000 years old--oldest archaeological site in New World (Williams, 772).
U.S. archaeologist discovers tomb of Mayan woman of high status challenging theory that Mayan women held in low esteem (Williams, 773).
Indiana University excavates Swan's Landing site, Harrison Co. This significant Early Archaic Site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
Indiana University excavates Little Pigeon Creek Cemetery, Warrick Co.; 31 burials uncovered, including a dog (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
The nature and age of prehistoric and early historic human use of caves in southcentral Indiana is studied (Munson and Munson, 1990).
Indiana University excavates Mississippian house basin site, Stephan-Steinkamp, Posey Co. (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
IUPUI investigates historic aboriginal sites in Tippecanoe Co. (Jones and Trubowitz, 1987; Trubowitz, 1989).
In Wash., archaeologists find Clovis spear points from about 11500 B.C.; one of oldest occupied sites in North America (Williams, 784).
The Abandoned Shipwreck Act passes. Places management responsibility of shipwrecks with state governments (National Park Service Web site).
The Hesher site, a Late Woodland cemetery in Henry Co., is investigated by Ball State University. (Cochran, 1988).
Archaeologists investigate one of the largest Hopewell mounds in the eastern U.S. The Mount Vernon, Posey Co. site reveals exotic and unique artifacts and is currently listed in the National Register of Historic Places (Tomak, 1990).
Indiana enacts one of U.S.'s most stringent archaeological and human burial site protection laws, now Indiana Code 14-21-1(DHPA files).
Muskegon Shipwreck, La Porte Co., becomes 1st Indiana marine archaeological site listed in National Register of Historic Places (DHPA files).
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) enacted (National Park Service Web site).
Indiana University surveys Oliver Phase occupation sites; prehistoric farming culture occupied east and west forks of White River valleys between 1000 and 1500 A.D. (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
Indiana University excavates Clampitt site, Lawrence Co.; permanent Oliver Phase village occupied during 14th century (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
Largest Bronze Age hill fort in the British Isles covering an area of 320 acres discovered in Republic of Ireland (Williams, 841).
Indiana University studies the Mann Site, one of the largest and most complex archaeological sites in the region. Other Mann Phase sites exist in southwest Indiana (Ruby, 1993).
University of Notre Dame investigates Woodland and Early Historic period settlement patterns in La Porte Co. (Schurr, 1993).
Wabash and Erie Canal Corridor in Tippecanoe Co. is surveyed for archaeological sites (Bischoff, 1994).
Indiana University excavates Cox's Woods, an Oliver Phase site (Glenn A. Black Laboratory Web site).
Indiana-Purdue University Fort Wayne conducts archaeological survey of the St. Mary's River valley--2,511 acres and 131 sites (Jeske, 1996).
Purdue University conducts an archaeological survey of 1,365 acres in White Co. (Helmkamp, 1996).
Indiana State University excavates remarkable Kirk tradition site in Harrison Co. Hundreds of thousands of artifacts recovered (Stafford, 2000).
Governor Evan Bayh issues proclamation, establishing state's 1st Indiana Archaeology Week, celebrating science of archaeology (DHPA files).
Indiana Department of Natural Resources publishes professional archaeological journal, Indiana Archaeology (DHPA files).
Archaeological investigations by Ball State University expand knowledge of African-American and Quaker farms in East Central Indiana (Rotman et al., 1998).
Investigations by Ball State University and Hoosier National Forest archaeologists provide new information about rockshelter utilization during the prehistoric period (Waters and Cochran, 1999).
British archaeologist reports that radar surveys of Angkor, Cambodia, reveal temple remains from 8th-13th centuries A.D., much older than previous ruins found there (Williams, 935).
Israeli archaeologists report discovery of oldest ruins of Jewish synagogue from around 70 A.D. near Jericho in the West Bank (Williams, 935).
University of Notre Dame studies prehistoric mounds in northwest Indiana (Schurr, 1999).
Cemetery and graves protection legislation is strengthened by Indiana General Assembly. Plans made for statewide database of cemeteries (DHPA files).
Indiana has over 47,000 recorded archaeological sites. Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology maintains a database of the sites (DHPA Web site).
Wildfires at Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado endanger numerous archaeological sites. Archaeologists perform emergency archaeology to recover information (Scripps Howard News Service).
Canal Mania in Indiana - Timeline
The following timeline appears in Canal Mania in Indiana, an issue of The Indiana Historian. Indiana events are in green and the "Other Events in History" are in black.
The full citations are available in the issue bibliography.
U.S. Congress establishes Northwest Territory. (Barnhart and Riker, 266-71).
Fort Washington established on Ohio River; adjoining village later named Cincinnati. (Garman, 133)
Indiana Territory established. (Barnhart and Riker, 311-12)
Construction completed on "first true canal" in U.S. connecting Santee and Cooper rivers in South Carolina. (Carruth, 71)
Lawrenceburg platted. (Garman, 133)
Ohio becomes seventeenth state. (Carruth, 74)
Michigan Territory established. (Barnhart and Riker, 337)
Indiana territorial legislature charters Indiana Canal Company to build a canal around the Falls of the Ohio; Indiana General Assembly charters Ohio Canal Company in 1817; canal started but not finished. (Buley, 1:435-36)
U.S. Congress provides for road from Cumberland, Maryland to Ohio; becomes known as Cumberland or National Road. (Buley, 1:446-48)
Robert Fulton's steamboat Clermont makes first voyage from New York to Albany. (Carruth, 80)
Brookville platted. (Barnhart and Riker, 420)
War of 1812 begins; ends in 1815. (Carruth, 86, 90-91)
Enterprise is first steamboat to go to New Orleans and return upriver to its home port north of Pittsburgh. (Taylor, 63)
First steamboat on Great Lakes, on Lake Ontario. (Taylor, 61)
Indiana becomes nineteenth state. (Carruth, 92)
Théophile René Laënnec of France invents the stethoscope (Hellemans and Bunch, 265).
New York begins construction of Erie Canal. (Carruth, 94)
Illinois becomes twenty-first state. (Carruth, 95)
Stage line begins from Vincennes to Louisville. (Esarey, 1:296)
Canal construction begins on Kentucky side at Falls of the Ohio, killing canal project on Indiana side; completed 1831; New York's Erie Canal opens; Stockton and Darlington, world's first railroad for general transportation, begins in England. (Fatout, 20-21; Carruth, 103; Taylor, 75-76)
Indiana General Assembly incorporates Whitewater Canal Company. (Laws, 1825-1826, pp. 29-36)
U.S. Congress grants Indiana lands for building Wabash and Erie Canal; route of National Road in Indiana surveyed. (Fatout, 39; Esarey, 1:291)
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad chartered. (Taylor, 77)
Indiana General Assembly accepts land from Congress and elects canal commissioners. (Fatout, 41)
Welland Canal, New York, connecting Lake Erie with Lake Ontario, opens. (Taylor, 61)
Stage coach service from Brookville to Cincinnati begins. (Esarey, 1:297)
Construction begins on the Wabash and Erie Canal. (Taylor, 47)
Miami and Erie Canal completed from Cincinnati to Dayton. (Taylor, 46)
Ohio and Erie Canal completed from Cleveland to Ohio River. (Taylor, 46)
Indiana General Assembly orders survey for Whitewater Canal; engineers report December 23, 1834 calls for canal from Nettle Creek to Lawrenceburg. (Esarey, 1:410)
Indiana General Assembly requests Ohio to construct part of Whitewater Canal in Ohio; Ohio gives permission in 1836 law. (Laws, 1834-1835, pp. 272-73)
Indiana's ambitious Internal Improvement Act approved by Governor Noah Noble; construction on Whitewater Canal begins. (Laws, 1835-1836, pp. 6-21; Esarey, 1:418)
Michigan becomes twenty-sixth state. (Carruth, 118)
Canal completed between Brookville and Lawrenceburg; state orders work stopped on most internal improvement projects. (Esarey, 1:418-19; Fatout, 98)
White Water Valley Canal Company resumes work on canal. (Fatout, 108-9)
Whitewater Canal completed to Laurel. (Fatout, 109)
Miami and Erie Canal from Cincinnati to Toledo completed. (Taylor, 46)
Whitewater Canal completed to Connersville in June and to Cambridge City in October. (Fatout, 117)
U.S. declares war on Mexico; war ends in 1848. (Carruth, 132, 135)
Floods cause $100,000 damage to Whitewater Canal and repairs from flood in 1848 are $80,000; Hagerstown Canal Company completes Whitewater Canal from Cambridge City to Hagerstown; Madison and Indianapolis Railroad completed. (Esarey, 1:426; Garman, 133; Taylor, 91)
Wisconsin becomes thirtieth state. (Carruth, 135)
International cholera epidemic reaches Midwest. (Carruth, 140)
Indiana's new Constitution adopted. (Esarey, 1:520-21)
Wabash and Erie Canal completed to Evansville. (Taylor, 48)
Central Canal sold for $2,425. (Esarey, 1:426)
U.S. Civil War begins; war ends in 1865. (Carruth, 157, 166)
White Water Valley Canal Company property sold to president of Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad; towpath later becomes roadbed for White Water Railroad Company. (Fatout, 155-156)
Yellowstone National Park Reserve established. (Carruth, 179)
Wabash and Erie Canal sold for $96,260 to repay bondholders. (Esarey, 1:445)
Indiana in the spanish-American War - Timeline
* Entries in Italics indicate Indiana connection.
George Eastman introduces the Kodak, a square box camera using roll film, making photography practical for the first time (Carruth, 349).
Republican Benjamin Harrison of Indiana is elected president of the United States (Carruth, 348).
Singer Manufacturing Company of Elizabethport, New Jersey, produces and markets the first electric sewing machine known in the U.S. (Carruth, 351).
The great Oklahoma land rush begins at noon; thousands of settlers race to stake a claim (Carruth, 350).
First May Day celebration is held in Paris (Grun, 445).
Flood kills 2295 persons when dam on Conemaugh River above Johnstown, Pennsylvania, breaks due to heavy rain (Carruth, 352).
Census shows U.S. population of 62,947,714; the center of population is placed 20 miles east of Columbus, Indiana (Carruth, 354).
Idaho and Wyoming are admitted to the Union as the 43rd and 44th states (Carruth, 354).
Sitting Bull, chief of the Sioux Indians, is killed in a fight with U.S. soldiers in South Dakota (Carruth, 356).
James Naismith, a physical education instructor in Springfield, Massachusetts, invents the game of basketball (Carruth, 357).
Thomas A. Edison files the first patent for a motion picture camera (Carruth, 359).
Ellis Island in upper New York Bay becomes the receiving station for immigrants (Carruth, 360).
Democrat Grover Cleveland is elected president of the U.S. (Carruth, 362).
Natural gas found in Indiana provides power for an estimated 300 new factories (Phillips, 194).
Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii is deposed by a revolution. American Sanford Dole, protected by U.S. Marines, heads a provisional government, which is ended on April 13 (Carruth, 362, 364).
Worldwide financial panic and economic depression begin (Carruth, 363).
World's Columbian Exposition officially opens in Chicago, Illinois (Carruth, 363).
Indiana Department of Statistics estimates average annual wage of miners in Indiana at $287 (Phillips, 326).
Indiana National Guard units, including 2 black companies, are called by Governor Claude Matthews to calm striking coal miners in Sullivan County (Gatewood, 118, 118n).
136,000 U.S coal miners strike for higher wages (Carruth, 367).
Strike at the Pullman railroad car plant in south Chicago begins; a general railway strike by the American Railway Union, headed by Eugene V. Debs of Indiana, follows (Carruth, 369).
U.S. congressional resolution makes Labor Day a legal holiday (Carruth, 369).
Hawaiian Republic is officially recognized by the U.S. government (Carruth, 368).
12,000 garment workers strike in New York City protesting sweatshop conditions and piecework wages (Carruth, 369).
U.S. and Great Britain come close to war over 80-year-old boundary dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana (Carruth, 370).
Indiana General Assembly authorizes the reorganization and reequiping of the Indiana National Guard (Phillips, 63, 64).
Cuban revolt against Spain breaks out (Carruth, 370).
Swedish philanthropist Alfred Nobel dies; Nobel prizes are established for those who have benefitted mankind in physics, physiology and medicine, chemistry, literature, and peace (Grun, 450, 451).
Governor Matthews removes the 2 black companies from the Indiana National Guard and designates them as "separate" companies A and B (Gatewood, 118).
First moving pictures on a public screen are shown in New York City (Carruth, 374).
Assembly of the first Ford automobile is completed in Detroit, Michigan by Henry Ford and associates (Carruth, 375).
Rural free postal delivery is established in West Virginia (Carruth, 374).
First U.S. ice hockey league is formed in New York City (Carruth, 375, 376).
Republican James A. Mount is elected governor of Indiana (Phillips, 51).
Republican William McKinley is elected president of the U.S. (Carruth, 374).
Indiana General Assembly passes labor law prohibiting children under the age of 14 from working in manufacturing; no one under 16 or no woman under 18 is allowed to work more than 10 hours a day or 60 hours a week (Phillips, 332-333).
Indiana General Assembly passes law making it mandatory for all children between ages of 8 and 14 to attend school (Phillips, 389).
First Boston Marathon is won by John J. McDermott of New York City in 2 hours, 55 minutes, 10 seconds (Carruth, 377).
U.S. Congress appropriates $50,000 for relief of Americans in Cuba. Later in the year, Spain releases Americans imprisoned in Cuba (Carruth, 376).
Coal miners' strike shuts down mines in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia (Carruth, 377).
January 25 Battleship U.S.S. Maine arrives at Havana, Cuba (Carruth, 378).
Letter written by spanish minister to U.S., stolen and published in New York Journal, calls U.S. President McKinley weak and questions his honesty (Carruth, 378).
U.S.S. Maine explodes in Havana harbor; 260 officers and crewmen are killed. Cause of explosion is not known (Carruth, 378).
U.S. President McKinley requests authorization from Congress to use armed force to end the civil war in Cuba (Carruth, 378).
U.S. Congress adopts joint resolution authorizing President McKinley to use military force in Cuba and demanding Spain's withdrawal from the island (Carruth, 378).
President McKinley orders a blockade of Cuban ports; Rear Admiral William T. Sampson sails from Key West, Florida with a large fleet (Carruth, 378).
Congress passes Volunteer Army Act authorizing the organization of the First Volunteer Cavalry, known as the Rough Riders, commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood and Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt (Carruth, 378, 380).
U.S. President McKinley calls for 125,000 volunteers to fight in war with Spain (Carruth, 380).
Spain declares war on the U.S. (Carruth, 380). 1898 April 25 U.S. Congress passes declaration of war against Spain effective April 21 (Carruth, 380).
U.S. Conress passes declaration of war against Spain effective April 21 (Carruth, 380).
Black leaders in Indiana begin movement to recruit an "independent colored regiment" whose services will be offered to Governor James Mount (Gatewood, 121-22).
In the Philippines, Commodore George Dewey commanding a six-ship squadron, destroys a larger spanish fleet with only 8 U.S. wounded (Carruth, 380).
Battleship U.S.S. Oregon reaches Key West, Florida after 67-day voyage from San Francisco, California. Need for a canal across Panama is demonstrated (Carruth, 381).
President McKinley issues a second troop call, this time for 75,000 volunteers (Carruth, 380).
Governor Mount telegraphs U.S. Secretary of War Russell A. Alger requesting acceptance of Indiana's black regiment with black officers in addition to Indiana's quota under the second call for volunteers (Gatewood, 123, 123n).
Secretary Alger sends telegram to Governor Mount denying the request for the black regiment (Gatewood, 123).
Governor Mount sends request to Secretary Alger via Indiana Senator Charles W. Fairbanks asking to add to Indiana's quota a black battalion which could be attached to one of the "immune" regiments recruited by the U.S. War Department (Gatewood, 125).
Upon receiving an unfavorable response concerning Indiana's offer of a black battalion, Governor Mount and Senator Fairbanks appeal directly to President McKinley (Gatewood, 126,127).
Governor Mount receives word from U.S. Adjutant General Henry C. Corbin that War Department regulations have been modified so that black companies can keep black captains (Gatewood, 127, 127n).
17,000 U.S. forces leave Key West, Florida under General William R. Shafter, to capture Santiago de Cuba, Spain's largest naval base in Cuba (Carruth, 380).
Governor Mount is informed that Indiana's quota of soldier volunteers includes 1 regiment and 2 black companies (Gatewood, 128).
U.S. troops win first major land battle against Spain at Las Guasimas, Cuba (Carruth, 380).
U.S. troops, including the Rough Riders, take over San Juan Heights and El Caney, Cuba with heavy casualties on both sides (Carruth, 382).
U.S. ships destroy the spanish fleet attempting to break the blockade at Santiago (Carruth, 382).
President McKinley signs legislation annexing the Hawaiian Islands (Carruth, 380).
Forces under Admiral Dewey occupy Isla Grande in Subic Bay near Manila, Philippines (Carruth, 382).
Indiana's 2 black companies, A and B, are mustered into the U.S. volunteer service at Camp Mount in Indianapolis (Gatewood, 130).
General José Toral and 24,000 spanish troops surrender to U.S. General Shafter at Santiago de Cuba (Carruth, 382).
U.S. forces invade Puerto Rico with little resistance (Carruth, 382).
Ponce, Puerto Rico's second largest city, surrenders to Americans (Carruth, 382).
Rough Riders and other U.S. forces leave Cuba to escape epidemics (Carruth, 382).
U.S. force defeats spanish force at Coamo, Puerto Rico (Carruth, 382).
U.S. war with Spain ceases; Spain agrees to give Cuba its independence and to cede Puerto Rico and Guam to U.S. The status of the Philippines will be discussed later (Carruth, 382).
Indiana's black companies leave Camp Mount for Ft. Thomas, Kentucky, where they are to be attached to the 8th Infantry, a black immune regiment (Gatewood, 132).
Indiana black companies and 8th Infantry move to Chickamauga Park, Georgia (Gatewood, 133).
Republican Theodore Roosevelt is elected governor of New York (Carruth, 382, 384).
Treaty ending spanish-American War is signed in Paris (Carruth, 384).
Slaughtering and meat packing is the largest industry in Indiana (Phillips, 280).
Indiana black companies leave Chickamauga Park to return to Indianapolis (Gatewood, 137).
Indianapolis Recorder reports the celebration of the return of Indiana's black companies with a banquet by Indiana Soldiers' Aid Society at Bethel AME Church in Indianapolis (Gatewood, 138).
Philippine guerrillas fire on U.S. forces at Manila marking the beginning of rebellion for independence (Carruth, 384).
President McKinley signs peace treaty with Spain; Cuba gains independence, U.S. gains Puerto Rico, Guam, and, for $20,000,000, spanish holdings in the Philippines (Carruth, 384).
U.S. cigarette production reaches 4,000,000,000 gaining on cigars, pipes, and chewing tobacco in popularity (Carruth, 389).
Ball Brothers Co. of Muncie is largest producer of glass canning jars in the U.S. (Phillips, 297-298).
U.S. Congress passes act establishing the Territory of Hawaii; Sanford B. Dole is appointed first governor (Carruth, 388).
U.S. military governor of the Philippines, General Arthur MacArthur grants amnesty to Filipino rebels (Carruth, 388).
Republican Winfield T. Durbin, commanding officer of the 161st Indiana Volunteers in the spanish-American War, is elected governor of Indiana (Phillips, 75).
William McKinley is reelected president of the U.S. and New York governor Theodore Roosevelt is elected vice president (Carruth, 388).
Queen Victoria of England dies; her son Edward VII becomes king (Grun, 454).
First great oil strike in Texas gushes in on the Spindletop claim near Beaumont, Texas (Carruth, 393).
Army Nurse Corps is organized as a branch of the U.S. Army (Carruth, 390).
The rebellion in the Philippines is ended by proclamation (Carruth, 392).
President McKinley is shot and dies September 14 (Carruth, 390).
Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as 26th president of the U.S. (Carruth, 390).
U.S. Congress passes Isthmian Canal Act which authorizes and finances construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama (Carruth, 394).
U.S. Congress passes Philippine Government Act declaring Philippine Islands an unorganized territory and authorizing a commission to govern the territory (Carruth, 394).
First Pacific communications cable is opened; President Roosevelt sends message around the world and back to him in 12 minutes (Carruth, 397).
First baseball World Series begins between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Boston Red Stockings; Boston wins (Carruth, 395).
Orville Wright makes first powered flight in a heavier-than-air machine at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina (Carruth, 395).
Russo-Japanese War begins (Grun, 456).
Eugene V. Debs of Indiana is nominated for the presidency of the U.S. by the Socialist National Convention (Carruth, 398).
Theodore Roosevelt is elected president of the U.S; Charles Fairbanks of Indiana is elected vice president (Carruth, 398).
United States Steel Corporation begins construction of world's largest steel furnace and mill in northwestern Indiana; the company lays out the new town of Gary (Phillips, 309).
First president of Cuba, Tomás Estrada Palma, requests U.S. intervention to stop a revolt arising from election disputes; President Roosevelt finally sends troops in October who take over government for 13 days (Carruth, 404).
U.S. Congress passes a law prohibiting corporate campaign contributions to candidates for national office (Carruth, 404).
Lusitania, the largest steamship in the world, arrives in New York City on its maiden voyage setting a new speed record of 5 days, 54 minutes between Queenstown (now Cobh), Ireland and New York (Carruth, 407).
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is founded in the U.S. to promote the rights and welfare of black Americans (Carruth, 412).
Albion Fellows Bacon of Evansville successfully lobbies the Indiana General Assembly to pass the state's first comprehensive housing law (Phillips, 487).
Madam C. J. Walker, black woman from Louisiana, establishes a company in Indianapolis to manufacture hair treatments and cosmetics (Phillips, 291-292).
Halley's comet passes close enough to earth for its tail to be seen across much of night sky; some people fear the end of the world (Carruth, 415).
Indiana Territory - Timeline
The name of the author and the page number of the reference is in parenthesis. The full citations are available in the issue bibliography.
|1773 February 9||William Henry Harrison born at Berkeley, Va. (Carruth, 80).|
|1773 December 16||Boston Tea Party (Carruth, 80).|
|1774 Spring||In Ohio River Valley, atrocities by Indians and whites against each other escalate. Results in Dunmore's War with troops under Gov. Dunmore of Va. Movement to the west increases after this campaign against the Indian. (English, 64-65).|
|1774 September 5-October 26||First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia to resist British tyranny (Carruth, 78).|
|1774 December 14||First military encounter of American Revolution, Fort William and Mary, N.H. (Carruth, 82).|
|1775 April 19||Battles of Lexington and Concord, Mass. (Carruth, 84).|
|1775 June 17||Battle of Bunker Hill, Mass. (Carruth, 86).|
|1776 July 4||Continental Congress approves Declaration of Independence; signed by members August 2 (Carruth, 88).|
|1777||Colonel Henry Hamilton, lieutenant-governor of Detroit, recruits pro-British Indians to fight American frontier settlements. Indian attacks on Ky. settlers increase (English, 81-85, 215-23).|
|1777 September 19||Continental Congress flees Philadelphia; occupied by British forces, September 26 (Carruth, 92).|
|1777 November 15||Continental Congress adopts Articles of Confederation (Carruth, 92).|
|1777 December 10||George Rogers Clark presents plan to Va. Governor Patrick Henry to capture British posts in Illinois Country (English, 87-88).|
|1778 January 2||Clark receives permission and support for expedition against British; result, Clark captures British-controlled posts, including Vincennes (English, 92-94, 168-77, 192-201).|
|1778 October 7||Hamilton leaves Detroit to retake Vincennes; succeeds on December 17 (English, 226-34).|
|1779 February 25||Clark retakes post at Vincennes; British surrender (English, 349).|
|1780 October 10||Continental Congress passes "Resolution on Public Lands," which resolves to settle lands west of Appalachian Mountains and create future states (Patrick, 49).|
|1780s approximately||William Henry Harrison attends Hampden-Sydney College, Prince Edward Co., Va. (Goebel, 16-18).|
|1781 March 1||Last of 13 states approve Articles of Confederation, 1st U.S. constitution (Carruth, 98).|
|1781 October 19||British General Charles Cornwallis and men defeated at Yorktown, Va. (Carruth, 98).|
|1783 September 3||Treaty of Paris signed, officially ends war; recognizes American independence from Great Britain (Carruth, 100).|
|1784 March 1||In Virginia Deed of Cession, state of Va. cedes claims to western lands (Hawkins, 5-8).|
|1785 January 12||Treaty of Fort McIntosh signed whereby large portion of current Ohio ceded by Wyandot, Delaware, Chippewa, and Ottawa Indians to U.S. (Kappler, 4).|
|1785 May 20||Land Ordinance of 1785 allows surveying and selling of land in Western Reserve (now in Ohio) (Carruth, 102).|
|1787 July 13||The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 establishes and provides system of government for Northwest Territory (Carruth, 102).|
|1787 October 5||Arthur St. Clair appointed governor of Northwest Territory (Barnhart and Riker, 272n).|
|1789 March 4||First session of Congress convenes (Carruth, 104).|
|1789 April 6||George Washington elected 1st president of U.S.; John Adams elected vice president. Washington inaugurated April 30 (Degregorio, 7-8).|
|1790||Harrison at Richmond, Va. studying medicine with physician. Then attends University of Pennsylvania's College of Physicians (Goebel, 18).|
|1790 June 20||Knox County, Northwest Territory formed, Vincennes is county seat (Barnhart and Riker, 274).|
|1790 September 30||General Josiah Harmar leads expedition against Miami Indians; battles October 19 and 22; Harmar retreats; ends November 3 (Barnhart and Riker, 283-84).|
|1791 August 16||Quitting medical studies, Harrison enters army, obtaining commission of ensign in First Regiment of U.S. Infantry (Goebel, 19-25).|
|1791 Fall||Harrison's regiment leaves for Pittsburgh, then to Fort Washington (now Cincinnati) (Goebel, 25-26).|
|1791 November 4||Governor St. Clair, on expedition against Miami Indians, attacked by 1,000 warriors; St. Clair retreats (Barnhart and Riker, 293).|
|1792 August||Harrison sent to Pittsburgh to join General Anthony Wayne's troops. They return to Fort Washington May 1793; Harrison becomes aide-de-camp to Wayne (Goebel, 31-32).|
|1792 December 5||Washington reelected president; John Adams, vice president (Carruth, 112).|
|1794 August 20||General Anthony Wayne's troops, including Harrison, defeat Indians at Battle of Fallen Timbers, temporarily ending Indian hostilities (Goebel, 34).|
|1795 August 3||Americans and Indians sign Treaty of Greenville; Harrison in attendance (Goebel, 35 ).|
|1795||Harrison sent back to Fort Washington, serves at blockhouse in North Bend; marries Anna Symmes in November (Goebel, 35-36).|
|1796 August||Harrison placed in charge of Fort Washington (Goebel, 37).|
|1796 December||John Adams elected president; Thomas Jefferson elected vice president (Carruth, 116).|
|1797 May||Harrison advances to rank of captain (Goebel, 37).|
|1798 June 1||Harrison resigns from army (Goebel, 37).|
|1798 July 6||Harrison appointed secretary of Northwest Territory (Goebel, 40).|
|1798 October 29||Northwest Territory advances to 2nd stage of government (Barnhart and Riker, 308).|
|1799 October 3||Harrison elected delegate to represent Northwest Territory in Congress; Harrison writes Land Act of 1800 (Goebel, 42-45).|
|1800 May 7||Congress splits Northwest Territory into 2 territories: Indiana Territory and Northwest Territory (now Ohio, tip of southeast Ind., and part of Mich.) (Hawkins, 24-26).|
|1800 May 10||Land Act of 1800 passed, makes buying land in Indiana Territory easier (Hawkins, 27-36).|
|1800 May 13||Harrison appointed governor of Indiana Territory; John Gibson, secretary; Henry Van der Burgh, William Clark, and John Griffin appointed judges (Goebel, 56-59).|
|1800 July 4||John Gibson, secretary of Indiana Territory, serves as acting governor until Harrison arrives 6 months later (Goebel, 56).|
|1801 January 10||Harrison arrives at Vincennes, assumes duties as governor (Goebel, 57).|
|1801 January 12||Harrison calls judges for 1st legislative session; meet for 2 weeks, pass 6 laws, 1 act, and 3 resolutions (Goebel, 59).|
|1801 March 4||Thomas Jefferson 1st president inaugurated in Washington, D.C. (Carruth, 124).|
|1802 January 30||Harrison calls 2nd legislative session; meet for 6 days, pass 2 laws (Philbrick, 25-29).|
|1802 August 12||Harrison meets with Wabash tribes at Vincennes; bitterly disputing amount of land to be ceded, Indians eventually sign preliminary treaty September 17 (Goebel, 100-1).|
|1803 February 8||Harrison reappointed governor of Indiana Territory (Goebel, 56).|
|1803 February 16||Harrison calls 3rd legislative session; meet intermittently through March 24; pass 1 law and 2 resolutions (Goebel, 60).|
|1803 February 19||Ohio becomes 17th state (Carruth, 126).|
|1803 Spring||Harrison, unsuccessful in getting Wabash Indians to accept Vincennes Treaty, invites chiefs to Fort Wayne in June; threatening to withhold annuities, Harrison obtains 1,152,000 acres of land; treaty signed June 7 (Goebel, 103-4; Kappler, 47-48).|
|1803 August 13||Harrison treats with Kaskaskia Indians and obtains almost 8 million acres of land (Kappler, 49-50; Goebel, 105).|
|1803 September 20||Harrison calls 4th legislative session; meet intermittently through September 22, 1804; pass 7 laws, 1 act, and 7 resolutions (Goebel, 60).|
|1804 August 4||Harrison issues proclamation, calls for election to determine if voters want general assembly (Hawkins, 37-38).|
|1804 November 3||Harrison treats with Sauk and Fox Indians, obtaining over 50 million acres of land (Kappler 54).|
|1804 December 5||Harrison proclaims Indiana Territory advancement to 2nd stage of government, allowing general assembly (Hawkins, 39).|
|1804 December 6||Petition to Congress by Wayne Co. (now Mich.) for separate territorial government (Hawkins, 40-41).|
|1804||Harrison completes Vincennes estate--Grouseland (Goebel, 58-59).|
|1805 January 11||Act by Congress divides Indiana Territory, creating Michigan Territory (Hawkins, 42-43).|
|1805 July 29||First General Assembly of Indiana Territory meets through August 26 (Barnhart and Riker, 347).|
|1805 August||Amid growing Indian unrest, Harrison holds council at Grouseland (Goebel, 106).|
|1805 December 30||Harrison treats with Piankashaw Indians who give up 2,600,000 acres of land in southwestern Indiana Territory (now Ill.) (Kappler, 65; Dillon, 419).|
|1806||Harrison becomes increasingly aware of influential Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and The Prophet, and their growing hostility against whites (Goebel, 109-11).|
|1806 December 17||Harrison reappointed governor of Indiana Territory (Goebel, 56).|
|1807||Indian crisis grows; Harrison demands The Prophet and his followers move away from Greenville, Ohio (Goebel, 112).|
|1808||Tecumseh, The Prophet, and his followers move to Prophetstown (near Battle Ground, Ind.) (Edmunds, 111 ).|
|1808 February 26||Suffrage Act of 1808 extends vote to those holding town lots with minimum value of $100; provision added to those of Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (Hawkins, 47).|
|1808 December 7||James Madison elected president (Carruth, 136).|
|1809 February 3||Congress passes act dividing Indiana Territory, creating Illinois Territory (Hawkins, 48-50).|
|1809 Spring||Harrison, believing The Prophet plans to attack settlements, calls up 2 companies of militia; when rumors prove false, he dismisses troops (Goebel, 112-13).|
|1809 September 30||Harrison treats with Delaware, Miami, Potawatomi, and Eel River tribes; obtains about 2.5 million acres of land (Kappler, 73; Goebel, 113-15).|
|1809 December 20||Harrison reappointed governor of Indiana Territory (Goebel, 56).|
|1810 August||Tecumseh and Harrison meet in Vincennes; Tecumseh, angry over Treaty of 1809, warns he will not tolerate any more land cessions without consent of all tribes (Barnhart and Riker, 379-80).|
|1811 March 3||Suffrage Act of 1808 revised by Congress; any free white male, 21 years or older, who has paid a county or territorial tax and has resided 1 year in said territory may vote (Hawkins, 55).|
|1811 July||Harrison meets again with Tecumseh; Tecumseh asks Harrison not to disturb present state of affairs (Barnhart and Riker, 383-84).|
|1811 September 26||Harrison and 1,000 men leave Vincennes to march on Prophetstown; October 1, troops begin to erect Fort Harrison (near Terre Haute); October 29, continue march to Prophetstown (Goebel, 119).|
|1811 November 7||In Tecumseh's absence, Harrison defeats The Prophet at Battle of Tippecanoe, ending Tecumseh's confederacy; Harrison returns to Vincennes November 18 (Goebel, 122-23).|
|1811 December 11||Indiana Territory petitions Congress for statehood; petition denied (Barnhart and Riker, 413-14).|
|1812 June||John Gibson becomes acting governor in Harrison's absence (Ewbank and Riker, 819n).|
|1812 June 18||War of 1812 begins; Americans fight British for control of American lands and shipping (Carruth, 144).|
|1812 August||Harrison is appointed major general of Kentucky militia (Goebel, 136-37).|
|1812 August||Harrison leaves Indiana Territory to collect and supply regiment for defense of Vincennes (Goebel, 135-36).|
|1812 September 17||Harrison receives full command of northwestern army; must take Detroit from British forces; invade Upper Canada (Goebel, 142).|
|1812 December 2||James Madison reelected president (Carruth, 146).|
|1812 December 28||Harrison resigns as governor (Ewbank and Riker, 819n).|
|1813 March 11||Indiana General Assembly passes The State Capital Act, moving territorial capital from Vincennes to Corydon (Hawkins, 57-59).|
|1813 April||Thomas Posey, new governor of Indiana Territory, arrives at Vincennes (Ewbank and Riker, 819n).|
|1813 September 29||Harrison's troops take Detroit; British retreat to Canada (Goebel, 180).|
|1813 October 5||Harrison defeats British General Henry Proctor at Battle of Thames, Ontario, Canada; Tecumseh killed, destroying Indian resistance and British power in Northwest (Goebel, 181-83).|
|1814 May 11||Harrison resigns from army; retires to North Bend, Ohio; negotiates Indian treaty at Greenville, Ohio July 22 (Goebel, 195-98, 204-10; Kappler, 76).|
|1814 August 24||Washington, D.C. captured by British (Carruth, 150).|
|1814 December 24||Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812 (Carruth, 150).|
|1815 January 8||Battle of New Orleans takes place 2 weeks after War of 1812 officially ends (Carruth, 152).|
|1815 August||Harrison negotiates his last council with Indian tribes; Treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) signed on September 8 (Kappler, 83; Goebel, 211).|
|1815 December 11||Indiana's General Assembly petitions Congress for statehood (Hawkins, 60-63).|
|1816 April 19||President Madison signs Enabling Act, allowing Indiana Territory to hold constitutional convention (Hawkins, 64).|
|1816 May 13||Election of delegates to constitutional convention, scheduled for June 10 (Hawkins, 64-67).|
|1816 June 10-29||Constitutional delegates (43) meet at Corydon to compose Indiana's state constitution (Hawkins, 70-94).|
|1816 August 5||Jonathan Jennings elected 1st governor of state of Indiana; inaugurated November 7 (Barnhart and Riker, 460-61).|
|1816 November 4||Indiana holds first General Assembly under 1816 Constitution (Barnhart and Riker, 461).|
|1816 December 2||Harrison wins seat in 2nd session of 14th Congress (Goebel, 212-13).|
|1816 December 11||President Madison approves Indiana's admission into Union as 19th state (Hawkins, 95).|
|1817-1819||Harrison serves in U.S. House of Representatives (Goebel, 217-26).|
|1818 December 3||Illinois becomes 21st state (Carruth, 158).|
|1819||Harrison elected to Ohio Senate; serves 2 terms (Goebel, 223, 228-30).|
|1821||February Harrison returns to North Bend, Ohio (Goebel, 235).|
|1825 January||Harrison elected U.S. Senator from Ohio; serves 3 years (Goebel, 243-46).|
|1828-1829||Harrison serves as minister to Columbia (Goebel, 254-55, 288).|
|1830 April||Harrison returns to North Bend, Ohio (Goebel, 294).|
|1834 March||Harrison nominated for president (Goebel, 306).|
|1836||Harrison loses presidential election to Martin Van Buren (Goebel, 320-21).|
|1837 January 26||Michigan becomes 26th state (Carruth, 200).|
|1839 December 4-7||Harrison nominated for president; John Tyler for vice president (Carruth, 208).|
|1840 December 2||Harrison elected president (Carruth, 210).|
|1841 April 4||Harrison dies of pneumonia; buried at North Bend, Ohio (Goebel, 377-78).|
|1848 May 29||Wisconsin becomes 30th state (Carruth, 230).|
|1858 May 11||Minnesota becomes 32nd state. (Carruth, 258).|
Indiana Statehood - Timeline
The name of the author and the page number of the reference is in parenthesis. The full citations are available in the issue bibliography.
1780 October 10
|Continental Congress passes "Resolution on Public Lands," which resolves to settle lands west of Appalachian Mountains and create future states (Patrick, 49, 54).|
1783 September 3
|Treaty of Paris signed, officially ends American Revolution, recognizes American independence from Great Britain (Carruth, 100).|
1785 May 20
|Land Ordinance of 1785 allows surveying and selling of land in Western Reserve (now in Ohio) (Carruth, 102).|
1787 July 13
|The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 establishes, and provides a system of government for, Northwest Territory (Carruth, 102).|
1800 May 7
|Congress splits Northwest Territory into 2 territories: Indiana Territory and Northwest Territory (now Ohio, tip of southeast Ind., and part of Mich.) (Hawkins, 24-26).|
1800 May 13
|William Henry Harrison appointed governor of Indiana Territory; John Gibson, secretary; Henry Van der Burgh, William Clark, and John Griffin appointed judges (Goebel, 56-59).|
1801 March 4
|Thomas Jefferson 1st president inaugurated in Washington, D.C. (Carruth, 124).|
1803 February 19
|Ohio becomes 17th state (Carruth, 126).|
1804 August 4
|Harrison issues proclamation, calls for election to determine if voters want general assembly (Hawkins, 37-38).|
1804 December 5
|Harrison proclaims Indiana Territory advancement to 2nd stage of government, allowing general assembly (Hawkins, 39).|
1805 January 11
|Act by Congress divides Indiana Territory, creating Michigan Territory (Hawkins, 42-43).|
1808 February 26
|Suffrage Act of 1808 extends vote to those holding town lots with minimum value of $100; provision added to those of Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (Hawkins, 47).|
1808 December 7
|James Madison elected president (Carruth, 136).|
1809 February 3
|Congress passes act dividing Indiana Territory, creating Illinois Territory (Hawkins, 48-50).|
1811 March 3
|Suffrage Act of 1808 revised by Congress; any free white male, 21 years or older, who has paid a county or territorial tax and has resided 1 year in said territory may vote (Hawkins, 55).|
1811 December 11
|By a 4 to 3 vote, Indiana General Assembly petitions Congress for statehood; representatives Peter Jones of Knox, James Dill of Dearborn, and Richard Rue of Wayne oppose the petition sending with it their written objections--territory too small, population too scattered, and cost of a state government too expensive; petition denied but congressional committee would allow statehood when population reached 35,000; due to lack of money, territory did not pursue statehood (Barnhart and Riker, 413-14).|
1812 June 18
|War of 1812 begins; Americans fight British for control of American lands and shipping (Carruth, 144).|
1812 December 2
|James Madison reelected president (Carruth, 146).|
1813 March 11
|Indiana General Assembly passes State Capital Act, moving territorial capital from Vincennes to Corydon (Hawkins, 57-59).|
1813 September 29
|Harrison's troops take Detroit; British retreat to Canada (Goebel, 180).|
1813 October 5
|Harrison defeats British General Henry Proctor at Battle of Thames, Ontario, Canada; Tecumseh killed, destroying Indian resistance and British power in Northwest (Goebel, 181-83).|
1814 August 24
|Washington, D.C. captured by British (Carruth, 150).|
1814 December 24
|Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812 (Carruth, 150).|
1815 December 11
|Indiana's General Assembly petitions Congress for statehood (Hawkins, 60-63).|
1815 December 28
|Jonathan Jennings, territorial representative to Congress, lays memorial for statehood before Congress; referred to committee, Jennings named chairman (Thornton, 109).|
1816 January 5
|Congressional committee for Indiana statehood reports bill to House of Representatives for citizens of Indiana Territory to form a constitution (Thornton, 109).|
1816 April 19
|President Madison signs Enabling Act allowing Indiana Territory to hold constitutional convention (Hawkins, 64-67).|
1816 May 13
|Election of delegates to constitutional convention which was scheduled to start June 10 (Hawkins, 64-67).|
1816 June 10
|Constitutional delegates (43) meet at Corydon to compose Indiana's state constitution; turn in certificates that they were duly elected; take oaths to U.S. and to discharge their duties faithfully ; elect officers with Jonathan Jennings, president, William Hendricks, secretary, Henry Batman, doorkeeper; assign committees to set up rules to govern convention; vote to form immediately constitution and state government ("Journal of Convention," 77-156).|
1816 June 11
|James Dill, delegate and lawyer from Lawrenceburg, reports 27 rules for government of convention ("Journal of Convention," 7-10).|
1816 June 12
|Delegates resolve to appoint 12 committees to form articles of constitution; employ at least two assistant secretaries; assign delegates to committees ("Journal of Convention," 11-14).|
1816 June 13-28
|Delegates work on preamble and articles of constitution ("Journal of Convention," 14-67).|
1816 June 28
|Contracts made for printing journal and constitution; payment of secretaries, doorkeepers ("Journal of Convention," 67-68).|
1816 June 29
|Convention adjourns ("Journal of Convention," 69).|
1816 August 5
|First state and county elections held after state constitutional convention adjourned (Esarey, 101).|
1816 August 5
|Jonathan Jennings elected 1st governor of Indiana; inaugurated November 7 (Barnhart and Riker, 460-61).|
1816 November 4
|Indiana holds first General Assembly under 1816 Constitution (Barnhart and Riker, 461).|
1816 December 2
|Indiana congressmen and senators present when U.S. Congress opens (Esarey, 101).|
1816 December 11
|President Madison approves Indiana's admission into union as 19th state (Hawkins, 95).|
1818 December 3
|Illinois becomes 21st state (Carruth, 158).|
1837 January 26
|Michigan becomes 26th state (Carruth, 200).|
1848 May 29
|Wisconsin becomes 30th state (Carruth, 230).|
1850 October 7
|Constitutional convention assembles in Indianapolis; 150 delegates serve 127 days; adjourns February 10, 1851 (Kettleborough, 1:221).|
1851 November 1
|Constitution takes effect; Indiana citizens vote August 4, adopting constitution 82, 564-26, 755 (Kettleborough, 1:222).|
1858 May 11
|Minnesota becomes 32nd state (Carruth, 258).|
Public health in Indiana
An issue of The Indiana Historian - a magazine exploring Indiana history
391 to 400 BC
Hippocrates, a Greek, founds profession of physicians, develops Hippocratic oath, and encourages separation of medicine from religion; earns title "Father of Medicine" (Hellemans and Bunch, 34).
The Canon of Medicine written about this time by Avicenna (Ibn Sina) is a five volume treatment of Greek and Arabic medicine that dominates the teaching of medicine in Europe until the 17th century (Hellemansand Bunch, 72).
King John of England proclaims the first English food law prohibiting adulteration of bread with ingredients such as ground peas or beans ("Milestones," 1).
Paracelsus argues that medicine should be based on nature and its physical laws; he is first to suggest the use of chemical substances, such as mercury and antimony, as remedies (Hellemans and Bunch, 106).
Lady Montagu brings to England the Turkish practice of inoculating children with smallpox. She has her two children vaccinated (Hellemans and Bunch, 179).
Zabdiel Boylston introduces inoculation against smallpox into America during the Boston epidemic (Hellemans and Bunch, 181).
First American medical society is founded in New London, Connecticut (Hellemans and Bunch, 215).
John Morgan founds first medical school in America at the College of Pennsylvania (Hellemans and Bunch, 217).
Massachussetts enacts first general food adulteration law in the United States ("Milestones," 1).
Life expectancy of male infants at birth in Massachusetts and New Hampshire is 34.5 years (Cummings, ).
An epidemic of yellow fever in Philadelphia kills about 10% of the population (Hellemans and Bunch, 243).
Napoleon offers prize for practical method of food preservation. Francois Appert eventually receives prize by introducing process of bottling or canning, heating, and then sealing (Hellemans and Bunch, 245).
English physician Edward Jenner performs first inoculation against smallpox by infecting a boy with cowpox (Hellemans and Bunch, 245).
Benjamin Waterhouse is first U.S. physician to use new smallpox vaccine--on his son (Hellemans and Bunch, 251).
Vincennes Western Sun, August 20, 1808, states the cause of diseases affecting town are to be found in the decaying grasses growing along the river.
Théophile René Laënnec of France invents the stethoscope (Hellemans and Bunch, 265).
Pandemic of cholera spreads over India, East Africa, and Asia (Hellemans and Bunch, 265).
Cholera epidemic prevails throughout Indiana. Governor Noble proclaims second Monday in November as day of fasting and prayer (Indianapolis Indiana Journal, October 27, 1832).
Oliver Wendell Holmes of Massachusetts advises doctors to prevent childbed fever (puerperal fever--common to mothers after childbirth at the time) by washing their hands and wearing clean clothes (Hellemans and Bunch, 311).
The Commission for Enquiring into State of Large Towns establishes a connection between dirt and epidemic disease in England (Hellemans and Bunch, 311).
American Medical Association is founded (Hellemans and Bunch, 315).
Indiana Medical Society is founded in Indianapolis (Russo, 40).
4.5% of Indiana's population lives in towns of more than 2,500; by 1880 this number had risen to 19.5% of Indiana's population (Thornbrough, 555).
California passes a pure food and drink law ("Milestones," 1).
A city ordinance gives the Indianapolis Board of Health broad powers over vaccination against smallpox (Thornbrough, 572-73).
Englishman, John Snow, shows that prohibiting use of well contaminated with sewage reduces incidence of cholera in the vicinity of the well (Hellemans and Bunch, 325).
Massachusetts law prohibits adulteration of milk, and three years later prohibits the feeding of distillery waste to cows (Cummings, 55).
England enacts a Food and Drugs Act (Grun, 425).
President Lincoln appoints a chemist to serve in the new Department of Agriculture&emdash;the beginnings of the Bureau of Chemistry ("Milestones," 1).
Joseph Lister of England introduces phenol as a disinfectant in surgery, reducing surgical death rate from 45% to 15% (Hellemans and Bunch, 337).
A patent for a refrigerator car is granted to William Davis, Detroit, Michigan. Davis also designs first refrigerated railroad car which is built 1869 (Carruth, 299).
Illinois passes first general state food law (Cummings, 97).
President of the Indiana State Medical Society emphasizes contaminated water, adulterated food, and "air impregnated with noxious gases" as causes of disease (Thornbrough, 668-69).
Survey of Indiana physicians shows that there is general acceptance among them that typhoid, malarial fever and cholera are caused by germs (Thornbrough, 667-68).
Louis Pasteur develops the germ theory of disease (Hellemans and Bunch, 355).
By this time all major Indiana cities have some sort of sewers, mainly to carry off rain. No more than 10% of private houses in Indiana have indoor plumbing (Thornbrough, 572).
Indiana General Assembly votes to establish a State Board of Health (Thornbrough, 668).
New York, New Jersey, and several other states pass pure food laws (Cummings, 97).
Robert Koch discovers bacterium that causes tuberculosis, the first definite association of a germ with a specific human disease (Hellemans and Bunch, 359).
Robert Koch discovers bacterium that causes cholera and shows that cholera can be transmitted by food and drinking water (Hellemans and Bunch, 361).
Dr. Harvey W. Wiley of Indiana becomes chief chemist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture ("Milestones," 2).
Indiana State Board of Health officially endorses germ theory in its published report (Phillips, 470).
Life expectancy of white males at birth in the U.S. is 42.5 years (Statistical Abstracts of the U.S.).
Dr. John N. Hurty is elected to the secretaryship of the Indiana State Board of Health (Russo, 44).
Paul-Louis Simond, fighting the bubonic plague pandemic in Bombay, India, realizes that fleas on rats transmit the disease to humans (Hellemans and Bunch, 391).
Indiana General Assembly passes comprehensive food and drug legislation (Phillips, 471).
U.S. Congress appropriates funds to establish food standards and to study the effects of chemicals on digestion and health ("Milestones," 2).
Congress passes law organizing U.S. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service thus establishing for the first time a federal role in public health (Duffy, 240-41).
Pure Food and Drugs Act is passed by Congress; on same day, Meat Inspection Act passes requiring federal inspection for all plants in interstate commerce (Carruth, 402, 404).
Indiana General Assembly revises its food and drug legislation, aligned more closely with federal Pure Food and Drugs Act (Outdoor Indiana, September 1970, 33).
Dr. John Hurty, Indiana State Board of Health, is elected president of the American Public Health Association (Russo, 46).
Due to influenza epidemic, Indiana Board of Health issues order banning all public gatherings in the state until October 20 (Indianapolis Star, October 10, 1918, 1).
Life expectancy of white males at birth in the U.S. is 56.34 years; all other males, 47.14 (Statistical Abstracts of the U.S.).
Indiana General Assembly passes law requiring pasteurization of milk or tuberculin testing of cattle (Madison, 314).
A separate law enforcement agency is formed--the Food, Drug, and Insecticide Administration. In 1930 its name is changed to the Food and Drug Administration ("Milestones," 3).
Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin in molds; it is not used clinically until the 1940s (Hellemans and Bunch, 451).
The Postum Company begins marketing frozen foods for the first time (Hellemans and Bunch, 457).
Sliced bread is introduced (Hellemans and Bunch, 457).
German chemist Gerhard Domagk discovers first sulpha drug--Prontosil (Hellemans and Bunch, 461).
Domagk uses Prontosil on his daughter to prevent infection; its success makes Prontosil famous as the first "wonder drug" (Hellemans and Bunch, 469).
Congress passes Social Security Act which immediately provides millions of dollars for public health services (Duffy, 258).
A special session of the Indiana General Assembly passes a law enabling the state to receive monies from the federal Social Security Act of 1935 (Madison, 325).
After a 5 year battle, Congress passes the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, a major revision of the 1906 law ("Milestones," 3).
Birds Eye markets first precooked frozen foods (Hellemans and Bunch, 479).
First food standards are issued--canned tomatoes, tomato puree, and tomato paste ("Milestones," 3-4).
Howard Florey and Ernst Chain develop penicillin as an antibiotic in England (Hellemans and Bunch, 483).
Freeze drying, developed first for medicine, is used for food preservation in the U.S. (Hellemans and Bunch, 483).
Study by the American Public Health Association finds Indiana far behind most states in providing public health services (Madison, 328).
Fluoridation of the water supply to prevent dental decay is introduced into the U.S. (Hellemans and Bunch, 489).
U.S. agency to control malaria in war areas becomes Communicable Disease Center, known today  as the Center for Disease Control (Duffy, 279).
X-rays from a synchrotron are used for the first time in medical diagnosis and treatment (Hellemans and Bunch, 509).
Life expectancy of white males at birth in the U.S. is 66.31 years; all other males, 58.91 (Statistical Abstracts of the U.S.).
Polio epidemic strikes U.S. affecting 47,665 persons (Hellemans and Bunch, 513).
Jonas Salk develops vaccine against polio; used for mass inoculations starting in 1954 (Hellemans and Bunch, 515).
Evarts Graham and Ernest Wydner show that tars from tobacco smoke cause cancer in mice (Hellemans and Bunch, 517).
In U.S., deep freezers capable of freezing fresh food go on sale (Hellemans and Bunch, 521).
Three weeks before Thanksgiving, U.S. cranberry crop is recalled to test for presence of a weedkiller ("Milestones," 5).
Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments pass Congress requiring drug manufacturers, for the first time, to prove to the FDA the effectiveness of their products before marketing them ("Milestones," 5).
Drug Abuse Control Amendments are enacted to regulate problems caused by abuse of depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens ("Milestones," 6).
James L. Goddard, commissioner of U.S. Food and Drug Administration, refuses to permit canned ham that has been radioactively sterilized to be used by the U.S. Army (Hellemans and Bunch, 561).
Environmental Protection Agency begins its work. Established by President Richard Nixon in July, the EPA's first director is William D. Ruckelshaus of Indiana (Carruth, 674).
National Air Quality Control Act calls for ninety percent reduction in automobile exhaust pollution by 1975 (Carruth, 677).
Over President Nixon's veto, Congress passes the Water Pollution Control Act requiring industry to stop waste discharges into water by 1985 (Carruth, 689).
Last recorded case of smallpox found in the wild is in Somalia. Smallpox thought to be extinct except in research laboratories (Hellemans and Bunch, 581).
U.S. Centers for Disease Control recognizes AIDS for first time (Hellemans and Bunch, 587).
In the aftermath of poisoning of Tylenol capsules, the FDA issues regulations requiring tamper-resistant packaging. Federal Anti-Tampering Act of 1983 makes it a crime to tamper with packaged consumer products ("Milestones," 7).
Nutrition Labeling and Education Act passes Congress requiring all packaged foods to have nutrition labeling. All health claims for foods must meet standards defined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services ("Milestones," 8).
The FDA approves the use of irradiation to kill bacteria such as E. coli in beef. The process is already in use for poultry, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Interest in irradiation increased after meatpacker had to recall 25 million pounds of contaminated hamburger (Christian Science Monitor, Archives www page, December 3, 1997, p. 2).
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