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An Chabh`ain

Al Beagan"s "Genealogy Notes"© 1996 of County Cavan

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THE North of Ireland is divided into the counties of Antrim, Down, Armagh, Londonderry (formerly Coleraine), Tyrone, Monaghan, Donegal, Fermanagh, and Cavan. These nine counties comprise the ancient province of Ulster, which includes a fourth part of the island, and contains 8567 square miles of territory, an area equal to nearly one-fifth that of Pennsylvania, or of about the same extent as the portion of that State lying south and east of the Blue Ridge Mountains.


This was the seventeenth year above three score of Tighearnmas, as king over Ireland. It was by him the following battles were gained over the race of Emhear, and others of the Irish, and foreigners besides. These were the battles: the battle of Elle, in which fell Rochorb, son of Gollan; the battle of Lochmagh, in which fell Dagairne, son of Goll, son of Gollan; the battle of Cul Ard, in Magh Inis; the battle of Cuil Fraechan; the battle of Magh Techt; the battle of Commar; the battle of Cul Athguirt, in Seimhne; the battle of Ard Niadh, in Connaught; the battle of Carn Fearadhaigh, in which fell Fearadhach, son of Rochorb, son of Gollan, from whom Carn Fearadhaigh is called; the battle of Cnamh Choill, in Connaught; the battle of Cuil Feadha; the battle of Reabh; the battle of Congnaidhe, in Tuath Eabha; the battle of Cluain Cuas, in Teathbha; the battle of Cluain Muirsge, in Breifne; the two battles of Cuil, in Argat Ross; the battle of Ele; the battle of Berra; seven battles at Loch Lughdhach; two other battles at p.43 Argat Ross; three battles against the Firbolgs; the battle of Cuil Fothair, against the Ernai." Annals of the Four Masters,

M3656.2 "It was by Tighearnmas also that gold was first smelted in Ireland, in Foithre Airthir Liffe. It was Uchadan, an artificer of the Feara Cualann, that smelted it. It was by him that goblets and brooches were first covered with gold and silver in Ireland. It was by him that clothes were dyed purple, blue, and green. It was in his reign the three black rivers of Ireland burst forth, Fubhna, Torann, and Callann, their names. At the end of this year he died, with the three fourths of the men of Ireland about him, at the meeting of Magh Slecht, in Breifne, at the worshipping of Crom Cruach, which was the chief idol of adoration in Ireland. This happened on the night of Samhain precisely. It was from the genuflections which the men of Ireland made about Tighearnmas here that the plain was named. Annals of the Four Masters,

M3727.2 "These were the battles that were fought, and the plains that were cleared, by Eochaidh Faebharghlas: the battle of Luachair Deadhadh; the battle of Fosadh Da Ghort; the battle of Comar Tri nUisge; the battle of Tuaim Drecon, in Ui Briuin Breifne; the battle of Druim Liathain. These are the plains: Magh Smeathrach, in Ui Failghe; Magh nAidhne, p.47 Magh Luirg, in Connaught; Magh Leamhna, Magh nInir, Magh Fubhna,and Magh Da Ghabhar, in Oirghialla." Annals of the Four Masters,

500 BC "In a glade on Shantemon Hill there are five boulders standing in a row on the grass. These were named after the mythical legendary Irish giant-slayer Finn MacCumhaill. The stones are supposed to have been erected during the Bronze Age (1750 -500 BC), but the purpose of these stones is unknown, lost in time."

434 "The idol , Crom Cruach, which stood on the palin of Magh Slecht, (near Ballymagauran, in Cavan) before which the ancient Tighernmas and his host, long centuries before Christ, were stricken with sudden death , on the eve of Samain (Hallow Eve) was destroyed , it is said by St. Patrick. The image or the pillar of Crom Cruach was said to be of gold and silver (probably covered with those metals) and around it were twelve other images or pillars of brass and bronze." The Story of The Irish Race, Seumas MacManus

464 "Eogan became ancestor of the royal house of O'Neil of Tyrone, and Conal Gulban of the royal house of O'Donnell, of Donegal. Although in later centuries the Kinel Conal and the Kinel Eogan developed a fierce rivalry, so great was the affection between the brother founder of the two families that when conal Gulban was killed in 464 by a clan of the Firbolgs, on the plain of Magh Slecht, in the present county of Cavan, his brother Eogan, within a year, after died of grief." The Story of The Irish Race, Seumas MacManus

M464.3 "Conall Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages (from whom are descended the Cinel Conaill), was slain by the old tribes of Magh Slecht, he having been found unprotected, and was buried at Fidhnach Maighe Rein, by Saint Caillin, as the Life of the aforesaid saint relates." Annals of the Four Masters,

Aug. 9, 560 Felim. Kilmore diocese. circa 560

Felim (spelt Fedilmith in Adomnán's life of Columba) was the father of Columba (Colmcille), according to tradition. The abbey on Trinity Island in Lough Oughter, not far from the diocesan cathedral, recalls the early days of Christianity in Cavan and the neighbourhood. A later Norman doorway from the island is now incorporated in the present cathedral. William Bedell, the much honoured 17th century bishop of Kilmore, is remembered for his saintly life and his work of translating the scriptures into the Irish language.

M574.2 "The killing of Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirmcharna, by the Ui Briuin." Annals of the four Masters

M615.2 "Ailill, son of Baedan; Maelduin, son of Fearghus, son of Baedan; and Diucolla, were slain in Magh Slecht, in the province of Connaught. They were of the race of Baedan, son of Muircheartach."

M622.5 "The battle of Lethed Midinn, at Drung, was fought by Fiachna, son of Deman, Lord of Dal Fiatach, against Fiachna, son of Baedan, King of Ulidia. The battle was gained over Fiachna, son of Baedan, and he fell therein. Annals of the four Masters

634 " But probably a more remarkable man than any of the foregoing was the brilliant genius Ceannfaelad. "Undoubtedly one of the most eminent men of his age," O'Curry, with good warrent says of him. he had been a warrior in his early days and only turned scholar when, by a serious wound in his head, got in the battle of Magh Rath (Down) in 634, he was incapacitated for fighting. He was borne unconscious from the battlefiel to Armagh, where he seems to have undergone a surgical operation ---- trepanning, some conclude----which not only restored his mentality but, it is concluded made that mentality ifintely more vigorous than ever it had been. "His brain of forgetfulness," says the old writer, "was removed." To convalesce he came to Tuaim Bricin in cavan --- where there were three schools --- of Classics, Law and Poetry." The Story of The Irish Race, Seumas MacManus

M649.3 "The battle of Airther Seola, in Connaught, by Ceannfaeladh, son of Colgan and Maenach, son of Baeithin, chief of Ui Briuin, in which was slain Marcan, son of Toimen, chief of Ui Maine." Annals of the four Masters

M665.7 Duibhinnreacht, son of Dunchadh, chief of Ui Briuin, died." Annals of the four Masters

July 8, 689 "July 8 Kilian, bishop and martyr. Kilmore diocese. 689 Kilian from Cavan was a missionary to Franconia and rebuilt the Church in Baden and Bavaria. Many pre-Reformation cathedrals in Germany and Austria were dedicated in honour of Kilian, pre-eminent among them being that at Würzburg, where with two companions he was murdered in 689."

M738.8 "Dubhdothra, Lord of Ui Briuin Cualann, was mortally wounded." Annals of the four Masters

M749.7 "The battle of Ard Naescan, between the Ui Briuin and Cinel Cairbre, wherein many were slain." Annals of the four Masters

M753.9 "The battle of Druim Robhaich, which is called the battle of Breachmhagh, was fought between the Ui Fiachrach and Ui Briuin, in which were slain the three Ui Ceallaigh, i.e. the three sons of Fearghus, son of Roghallach, i.e. Catharnach, Cathmugh, and Artbran, their names." Annals of the four Masters

M761.4 "The battle of Sruthair was fought between the Ui Briuin and Conmaicne, in which numbers of the Conmaicne were slain, as was Aedh Dubh, son of Toichleach. This battle was gained by Duibhinnreachtach, son of Cathal." Annals of the four Masters

M762.7 "Glaindiubair, Abbot of Lathrach Briuin, died." Annals of the four Masters

M766.4 "Forbasach Ua Cearnaigh, Abbot of Cluain Mic Nois, died; he was of the Ui Briuin." Annals of the four Masters

M770.11 "The battle of Achadh Liag was fought between the Ui Briuin and Ui Maine, wherein the Ui Maine were defeated" Annals of the four Masters

M787.15 "The battle of Ard Mic Rime was fought also by Muirgheas, son of Tomaltach, against the Ui nAilella, wherein were slain Conchubhar and Aireachtach Ua Cathail, and Cathmugh, son of Flaithbheartach, lord of Cairbre, and Cormac, son of Dubhdachrich, lord of Breifne." Annals of the /four Masters

M788.7 "Maeltola, Abbot of Laithreach Briuin Laraghbrine;" Annals of the four Masters

U792 "Bellum Aird Maicc Rime ubi Nepotes Ailello prostrati sunt, & Concobur & Airechtach nepotes Cathail ceciderunt, & Cathmugh m. Flaithbertaigh rex Coirpri, & Cormacc m. Duibh Da Crich ri Breifni, ceciderunt." The Annals of Ulster.

M794.3 "Anaile, Abbot of Cluain Mic Nois, who was of the Ui Briuin, died." Annals of the four Masters

M800.11 "Muircheartach, son of Donnghal, lord of Breifne;" Annals of the /four Masters

M801.8 "Connmhach, Judge of Ui Briuin, died." Annals of the /four Masters

M807.13 "The slaughter of Calraighe Luirg by the Ui Briuin." Annals of the /four Masters

M810.11 "The plundering of Cluain Creamha: and the slaying within it of some of the men of Breifne, and of the Sil Cathail." Annals of the /four Masters

M816.5 "The battle of Rath Fhearadh by the chieftains p.429 of Ui Briuin, Diarmaid, son of Tomaltach, and Maelcothaigh, son of Fogartach, against the lord of Ui Maine, Cathal, son of Murchadh, in Dealbhna Nuadhat, between the Suca and the Sinnainn, where Cathal and many other nobles along with him were slain." Annals of the four Masters

M854.3 "Cormac of Laithreach Briuin, scribe, anchorite, and bishop, died." Annals of the four Masters

M866.10 "Flann, son of Conaing, lord of all Breagh, collected the men of Breagh and Leinster, and the foreigners, to Cill Ua nDaighre,---five thousand was the number of his forces,---against the king, Aedh Finnliath. Aedh had only one thousand, together with Conchobhar, son of Tadhg Mor, King of Connaught. The battle was eagerly and earnestly fought between them; and the victory was at length gained, by dint of wounding and fighting, over the men of Breagh, the Leinstermen, and the foreigners; and a slaughter was made of them, and a great number of the foreigners were slain in that battle. There were slain therein Flann, son of Conaing, lord of Breagh; Diarmaid, son of Ederscel, lord of Loch Gabhar; and Carlus, son of Amhlaeibh, i.e. son of the lord of the foreigners. There fell on the other side Fachtna, son of Maelduin, Righdhamhna of the North, in the heat of the battle. Mannachan, lord of Ui Briuin Na Sinna, slew Flann; of which was said:

1] Great the triumph for Mannachan,

2] for the hero of fierce valour,

3] To have the head of the son of Conaing in his hand,

4] to exhibit it before the face of the son of Tadhg."Annals of the four Masters

M868.14 "Cinaedh, son of Fearghal, lord of Ui Briuin Cualann, died." Annals of the four Masters

M878.12 "Flaitheamhain, son of Ceallach, lord of Ui Briuin Cualann;" Annals of the four Masters

M888.4 "Tighearnan, son p.543 of Seallachan, lord of Breifne, died. " Annals of the four Masters

M890.12 "Cinneidigh, son of Cinaedh, lord of Ui Briuin, was slain by the Fortuatha of Leinster." Annals of the four Masters

M893.5 "Ruarc, son of Tighearnan, lord of Breifne;" Annals of the four Masters

M896.6 "Tibraide, son of Nuadhat, Abbot of Connor, Lann Eala, and Laithreach Briuin, died."Annals of the four Masters

M897.2 "Fogartach, son of Flann, Abbot of Laithreach Briuin, and lord of Fotharta Airthir Life, died." Annals of the four Masters

Eleventh Century

 "A powerfull kingdom emereged in the eleventh century on the Ulster-Connacht borderlands: Bréifne, centered on the counties of Cavan and Leitrim and ruled by the O'Rourkes" A History of Ulster 0-85640-476-4

1010 " But the Danes were not the only disturbers of the Church's work in Clones, as may be seen from the following extracts from the `Annals of the Four Masters': "AD 1010 Flaithbhertach Ua Cethenem, successor of Tagenach a venerable senior and distinguished bishop was mortally wounded by the men of Breifne; and he afterwards died in his own Church at Cluain Eos. AD 1015. Cluain Eos burned."

12th cent. “Breffney” is an old place-name for the Gaelic lordship of parts of southern Ulster (now Co. Cavan) during the medieval and early modern period (Duffy 1995:17). It refers to a far older Gaelic division of the territory, whereas Co. Cavan is a product of the post 1640s English plantation activities and other political maneuverings involved in the formation of the post-plantation province of Ulster (Gillespie 1995:10). The present Cavan diocese of Kilmore approximately occupies the ancient territory of Breifne as it stood in the 12th century (Moody and Martin 1967:57).

1169 Cavan was originally part of the ancient kingdom of Breifne, now considered part of greater Ulster. This part of Breifne was ruled by the O'Reillys whose base was the town of Cavan. The O'Reillys retained control over the county for several centuries after the arrival of the Normans in Ireland in 1169. This was due to the skill of the O'Reilly cavalry and also to the difficulty of the Cavan terrain with its forests, bogs and lakes.

The Anglo Norman Invasion , which commenced in 1169 was not planned&ldots;it just happened! A bitter rivalry existed between two warrior kings; Dermot MacMurrough of Leinster and Tiernan O'Rourke of Breifne (now Cavan). Mac Murrough had learned the wrath of O'Rourke by wooing his wife , Devorgilla, from him. Although she returned to her husband after a short interval , O'Rourke supported Rory O'Connor, King of Connacht, in a feud against Mac Murrough and his ally, Murtough Mac Lachlainn, the powerful king of Ulster. The sudden death of Mac Lachlainn left Mac Murrough isolated and helpless. His castle at Ferns in County Wexford was destroyed and he fled secretly to Europe to seek the assistance of Henry, Duke of Normandy, count of Anjou and Maine, who had been crowned King Of England in 1154 at the age of 21. Henry actively encouraged Mac Murrough to recruit some of the Normans and Flemings who had invaded England in 1066, a turning point in English history which secured Duke William of Normandy's position on the English throne.

Richard Fitzgilbert de Clare , an ambitious Norman known as "Strongbow" agreed to lead a force to Ireland in exchange for the hand in marriage of Aoife, Mac Murroughs daughter and the rights of succession to the land of Leinster. In May 1169 the first of the Norman invaders landed on the beaches of County Wexford followed later by Strongbow. The indigenous Irish, supported by their allies and naturalised Normans fought valiantly against the invaders but were thwarted by superior military ingenuity. Within a year Mac Murrough had died and his ambitions had come to nothing. The Normans however, thrived in Ireland and in 1175 Henry II came to Ireland to stop the progress and set up centralised administration. During his time in Ireland he built the first Dublin Castle, introduced coinage and the legal jury system.

Within eight years of their arrival the Normans dominated much of Irish life with the exception of parts of Munster and Connacht , which was still dominated by the O'Kellys of Ui Maine. The Normans were superb builders and administrators and gave much to the infrastructure of Ireland at that time. They did not however, completely conquer the country but integrated into the local population. So much so that the English initiated Poynings' Law .In an attempt to frustrate integration into the local population the Normans were forbidden to marry Irish, adopt the customs, dress or traditions of the local gaels or to speak the language.

M1172.4 "Tiernan O'Rourke, Lord of Breifny and Conmaicne, a man of great power for a long time, was treacherously slain at Tlachtgha by Hugo de Lacy and Donnell, the son of Annadh O'Rourke, one of his own tribe, who was along with them. He was beheaded by them, and they conveyed his head and body ignominiously to Dublin. The head was placed over the gate of the fortress, as a spectacle of intense pity to the Irish, and the body was gibbeted, with the feet upwards, at the northern side of Dublin." Annals of the Four Masters

M1176.10 "The castle of Slane, in which was Richard Fleming with his forces, and from which he used to ravage Oriel, Hy-Briuin, and Meath, was plundered by Melaghlin, the son of Mac Loughlin, Lord of the Kinel-Owen, by the Kinel-Owen themselves and the men of Oriel. They killed five hundred or more of the English, besides women, children, and horses; and not one individual escaped with his life from the castle. Three castles were left desolate in Meath on the following day, through fear of the Kinel-Owen, viz. the castle of Kells, the castle of Galtrim, and the castle of Derrypatrick. Richard Fleming himself was slain on this occasion." Annals of the Four Masters

1366 "The Irish bishops in the province of Armagh were more often than not members of the local ruling secular dynasty, and their grasp of the responsibilities which episcopal office entailed was often tenuous. The most notoriously lax of Milo's suffragan's was Riocard Ó Raghallaigh, Bishop of Kilmore, whom Milo excommunicated in 1366 on charges of incest and adultery with his first-cousin. Enforcing such sentences in areas where English power did not hold sway was far from easy and in this case Milo eventually called upon the King of Breifne, Pilib Ó Raghallaig - a kinsman of Riocard's - to remove the Bishop. Riocard subsequently wrote to Milo to complain that he had been despoiled by Pilib, to which Milo replied that it was entirely his own fault as he had been living in mortal sin for years. "

M1376.1 "Teige O'Rourke, Lord of Breifny, a man full of hospitality and munificence, a man of fame and renown, the Bear of Breifny, and Lion of Leth-Chuinn, died. Tiernan, his son, assumed the lordship of Breifny after him. Annals of the Four Masters,

M1378.5 "Gilchreest O'Rourke, Lord of Breifny, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1380.5 "Rory, the son of Cathal, son of Hugh Breifneach O'Conor, set out to attack the O'Rourkes, but was killed by Manus O'Rourke." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1380.12 "An army was led by the Clann-Murtough and Philip O'Reilly into Breifny- O'Rourke, where they slew Thomas MacDorcy; but O'Rourke overtook them, and drove them forcibly from the territory, leaving behind some of their men and horses." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1381.1 "The Image of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Kilmore spoke after a wonderful manner." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1382.1 "Thomas O'Carmacan, Bishop of Thomond, and Matthew Mac Murray, Prior of Kilmore, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1384.11 "Ualgarg O'Rourke, worthy heir to the lordship of Breifny, was drowned in Lough Gamhna." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1385.7 "The men of Breifny and Tirerrill repaired to meet O'Conor Don, and made (p.701) an incursion against the people of Corcoachlann, where they burned many of their towns, and cut down many fields of corn" Annals of the Four Masters,

M1386.1 "Aine, daughter of Teige Mac Donough, and wife of Tiernan O'Rourke (Lord of Breifny), the most favoured of the women of Leth Chuinn, died at Tuaim Seancha, on Lough Finvoy, and was interred at Sligo." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1390.4 "Manus O'Rourke, who had been imprisoned by O'Reilly in the castle of Lough Oughter, made his escape from it, and went to the castle of Lough-an Scuir; but the Clann-Murtough, being informed of this by his betrayers, they slew him as he was coming ashore out of a cot." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1390.5 "A peace was concluded between O'Rourke and O'Reilly; and O'Reilly received great rewards for banishing and expelling from him the enemies of O'Rourke. Owen O'Rourke and the son of Cathal Reagh were delivered up as hostages for the payment of these considerations." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1390.6 "The Clann-Murtough and Teallach Dunchadha the Mac Kiernans of Tullyhunco emigrated, in despite of the O'Rourkes, into Fidh-ua-Finnoige, Slieve- Corrain, and Kinel-Luachain. But as soon as O'Rourke, who was at that time in Glenn-Gaibhle, received notice of this, he took his scouts with him to the upper part of Kinel-Luachain, where he made an attack on them, and forced them to fly before him, killing both cattle and people on their route from Beal-atha Doire-Dubhain to the summit of the Breifnian hills." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1390.7 "O'Reilly, i.e. Thomas, the son of Mahon, died; and John, the son of Philip O'Reilly, assumed the lordship." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1390.9 "Brian Mac Egan, Ollav of Breifny in judicature, died; and John (i.e. the Official Mac Egan),successor to this Brian, was slain four nights before Christmas Day." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1393.1 "John, son of Geoffry O'Reilly, Bishop of Breifny Kilmore, died. Annals of the Four Masters,

M1395.10 "Cobhlaigh Mor, daughter of Cathal, the son of Donnell O'Conor, King of Connaught, a rich and affluent woman, of good hospitality, died, after the victory of Penance, and was interred in the monastery of Boyle. It was she who {p.739}was commonly called Port na-d-Tri Namhat; for she was wife of O'Donnell, i.e. Niall, Lord of Tirconnell; of Hugh O'Rourke, Lord of Breifny; and of Cathal, the son of Hugh Breifneach O'Conor, Roydamna of Connaught. Annals of the Four Masters,

M1400.7 "John, son of Philip, son of Gilla-Isa-Roe O'Reilly, Lord of Breifny, the most hospitable and noble of his name, died of a sudden fit, in his bed at Tulach Mongain." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1400.11 "The sons of Flaherty O'Rourke were banished from Breifny; and they went to Tirconnell, and brought some of the Kinel-Connell with them into Breifny, where they committed great depredations on O'Rourke, and carried away the spoils into Tirconnell." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1402.5 "Farrell O'Rourke, heir to the lordship of Breifny, a powerful, energetic, comely, and truly hospitable man, was slain in his own house by the Clann- Caba, and was interred in the monastery of Sligo." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1402.11 "Cuconnaught, the son of Manus, who was son of Cuconnaught O'Reilly, Tanist of Breifny, died. Una, the daughter of Turlough O'Conor, was his mother." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1403.7 "A war arose between the Breifnians and the Clann-Donogh, in which Tomaltagh Oge, the son of Tomaltagh Mac Dorcy, the last Chief of Kinel- Duachain of that family, and Murtough Oge O'Healy, a wealthy brughaidh cedach, &c., were slain." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1403.8 "Maelmora, the son of Cuconnaught, son of Gilla-Isa Roe O'Reilly, became Lord of the Muintir-Reilly." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1407.2 "John, the son of Teige O'Rourke, heir to the lordship of Breifny, died in Moylurg, and was interred in Drumlane, in the county of Cavan." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1418.6 "Tiernan More, the son of Ualgarg O'Rourke, Lord of Breifny, the bravest and most puissant man that had come of the Hy-Briuin race, a man who had wrested his principality from his enemies by the strength of his arm, died at an advanced age, about the festival of St. Bridget, and was interred in the monastery of Sligo. Hugh Boy O'Rourke assumed his father's place." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1468.3 "O'Rourke, Tiernan Oge, the son of Teige, worthy Lord of the Hy-Briuin, and of all the race of Aedhe-Finn, died, after having overcome the world and the Devil; and Donnell, the son of Teige O'Rourke, was elected in his place by O'Donnell and his other friends. But the descendants of Tiernan, the son of Tiernan More, son of Ualgarg, unjustly rose up against him Donnell, the son of Tiernan More; and they themselves, and the people of Carbury, and the Clann-Donough, inaugurated Donough Losc, the son of Tiernan More. O'Don- nell, when he had heard of this, crossed the Erne with a numerous army, and destroyed Lower Connaught. He seized on great spoils in the east of Tir- Fiachrach of Cuil-Cnamha and Coillte-Luighne, which spoils he afterwards carried home. Mac William Oughter, i.e. Ulick, son of Ulick-an-Fhiona, and O'Conor Don, with the English and Irish forces of both, marched to the relief of Lower Connaught; and they burned the town of O'Rourke. But this was all the good they did; and they returned home without battle or booty.." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1470.10 "An army was led by O'Donnell and O'Rourke to go upon the hill of Cruachan-Ua Cuproin to inaugurate O'Rourke. O'Reilly, the English, and the people of Teallach-Dunchadha the Mac Kernans opposed them at Beal- atha-Chonaill, where Edmond, the son of Hugh O'Reilly, and the son of the Bishop O'Gallagher, were slain, and many men and horses wounded. O'Don- nell and his army returned, being prevented from going to Cruachan on this occasion." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1408.8 "Owen O'Rourke and the sons of Donn Magauran went into Tirconnell, to make war against the Breifnians." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1410.6 "The castle of Dun-Cremhthannain was demolished by the men of Carbury and Breifny." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1410.20 "An army was led by O'Donnell (Turlough) into Briefny-O'Rourke, and plundered and burned the country. The men of Breifny pursued and came up with him; and a battle was fought between both parties, in which the pursuers were defeated; and John, the son of Owen O'Rourke, and many others, were slain; and the Kinel-Connell bore off the prey." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1411.4 "Maelmora, the son of Cuconnaught, son of Gilla-Isa O'Reilly, Lord of Breifny, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1412.4 "Tiernan Oge, the son of Tiernan More O'Rourke, heir to the lordship of Breifny, died, in the sixty-third year of his age, in the month of April." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1416.13 "Another incursion was made by Hugh Boy and Teige O'Rourke, and by Mac Cabe, into Muintir-Pheodachain. The people of Fermanagh, dwelling west of Lough Erned, came up with them, as did also Cathal O'Rourke and Owen O'Rourke. The sons of O'Rourke sustained the attacks of the overwhelming numbers that pursued them, until they arrived at the place where they had left their gallowglasses in ambush; both parties then turned upon their pursuers, and slew Donough and John O'Rourke, and the two sons of Melaghlin, the son of Flaherty O'Rourke, together with forty-eight of the men of Fermanagh. " Annals of the Four Masters,

M1418.5 "Owen, the son of Tiernan More O'Rourke, Tanist of Breifny, was drowned shortly after Christmas, as he was going in a boat from Inis-na-d-torc, an island on Lough Finvoy, to visit his father, who was then lying ill of a mortal disease." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1418.6 "Tiernan More, the son of Ualgarg O'Rourke, Lord of Breifny, the bravest and most puissant man that had come of the Hy-Briuin race, a man who had wrested his principality from his enemies by the strength of his arm, died at an advanced age, about the festival of St. Bridget, and was interred in the monastery of Sligo. Hugh Boy O'Rourke assumed his father's place." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1418.8 "Richard, the son of Thomas O'Reilly, Lord of East Breifny, was drowned in Loch Silean; and with him were also drowned, his son, Owen O'Reilly, (p.837) Philip, the son of Gilla-Isa, son of Godfrey O'Reilly, Dean of Drumlane, and Vicar of Eanach-garbh, and many other distinguished persons. Finola, however, daughter of Mac Rannall, and wife of O'Reilly, escaped by swimming." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1419.5 "Hugh Boy O'Rourke, who was Lord of Breifny for one year and a half; died; and Teige O'Rourke was elected in his place by the O'Rourkes from Slieve-an-ierin West. But Art, son of Teige, son of Ualgarg, was elected in opposition to him from Slieve-an-ierin East, by the O'Reillys, the people of Teallach Donnchadha, and the descendants of Melaghlin Mac Rannall; so that the entire of Gairbhthrian Connacht was thrown into commotion by the contests between them." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1421.1 "Nicholas Mac Brady, Bishop of Breifny, a man distinguished for wisdom, piety, chastity, and purity, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1421.2 "Thomas Oge O'Reilly, a materies of a lord, who, of all the descendants of Aedh Finn, was the most distinguished for hospitality and prowess, died in his own house." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1424.4 "A great war broke out between the O'Rourkes after the death of Hugh Boy O'Rourke. Teige, the son of Tiernan O'Rourke, made peace with the O'Reillys, and with Owen, the son of John O'Reilly, whereupon the entire lordship of Breifny was given to Teige. But this was not until after he had made an incursion against Art into Magh-Angaidhe, and burned the town. Art made submission to him after they had been at variance with each other for a period of four years." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1424.5 "Melaghlin Mac Cabe, Constable of the two Breifnys, and also of Fermanagh and Oriel, died of the plague." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1426.14 "Bebinn, the daughter of Tiernan 0'Rourke, lord of Breifny, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1429.5 'A war broke out between O'Rourke (Teige) and O'Reilly (Owen). The descendants of Mahon O'Reilly and the English of Meath joined O'Rourke against O'Reilly, and burned O'Reilly's town, whereupon O'Reilly prevailed upon O'Neill to come to his relief; and O'Neill, with the forces of Oriel and Fermanagh, and his own creaghts, marched as far as Achadh-Chille-Moire. Thither they were pursued by O'Rourke, the sons of Mahon O'Reilly, the Baron of Delvin, and Mac Cabe; and O'Neill and his sons and gallowglasses, in conjunction (p.877) with the forces of Fermanagh, and O'Reilly and his kinsmen, then engaged, and defeated the enemy in the battle of Achadh-Chille-Moire, in which the Baron of Delvin, Mac Cabe, Henry Mac Cabe, Dermot O'Rourke, and many others, were taken prisoners or slain by O'Neill." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1429.8 "A great number of the men of Breifny were disabled and slain by Muintir- Feodachain, on the hill of Odhra, in Sliabh-da-Chon. They lost no less than forty men, together with Conor, the son of Donnell Mac Sweeny, who had gone on that incursion through folly and youth. Some of the men of Dartry, and others of the people of the Clann-Hugh Maguire, were slain there." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1429.12 "Matthew, the son of Thomas O'Cuirnin, Ollav of Breifny, and universally learned in history and music, died in his own house." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1430.10 "Art O'Rourke, heir to the lordship of Breifny, was treacherously slain in his own house, just one week before Easter, by his brother's son, i.e. Manus, the son of Conor O'Rourke." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1431.10 "Maguire, i.e. Thomas, proceeded with a great host into Teallach Eachdhach Tullyhaw, to take vengeance on the inhabitants for the death of his kinsman. He plundered, spoiled, and ravaged the territory, and slew many of the chiefs of it. He also burned Ballymagauran, and then he returned home in triumph." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1436.3 Conor, the son of John 0'Reilly, i.e. the son of the Lord of Breifny, a truly hospitable man, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1438.19 "Donough, the son of Siry O'Cuirnin, a learned historian; O'Daly of Breifny, Chief Poet to O'Reilly; and Conor Mac Egan, Ollav of Clanrickard in law, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1440.18 "The son of O'Rourke, i.e. Hugh, the son of Hugh Boy, heir to the lordship of Breifny, was treacherously slain by the son of Dermot-na-nGamhnach O'Rourke, at Druim-da-ethiar, the town of Donough Bacagh O'Rourke."" Annals of the Four Masters,

M1445.12 "Donough Bacagh O'Rourke died; and the people of West Breifny pro- claimed Donough, the son of Tiernan Oge, the O'Rourke, in opposition to Loughlin, the son of Teige O'Rourke." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1447.4 "Donnell Ballagh, son of Thomas, son of Philip Maguire, was slain by John, son of Philip Maguire, assisted by the sons of Art Maguire, the sons of Mac Oirghiallaigh Mac Errilly, and the sons of O'Davine, for this Donnell had been at enmity with Maguire, and with Philip, the Tanist of the territory; and on his return from Breifny O'Reilly to the town of Henry O'Neill, he was seized upon, and killed. He was interred in the monastery of Lisgool." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1447.6 "Felim, the son of John, son of Philip O'Reilly, worthy heir to the lordship of Breifny, by reason of his noble deeds and hospitality, went to Trim, to meet Lord Furnival, the then Deputy of the King of England, by whom he was taken prisoner. He afterwards died of the plague, after the victory of Unction and Penance, and was interred in the monastery of Trim." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1450.10 "A peace was made by John, the son of Owen O'Reilly, and Donnell Bane O'Reilly, with each other ; and Farrell, the son of Thomas O'Reilly, was de- posed of his lordship; and the chieftainship of all Breifny was conferred upon John, the son of Owen; and Farrell received wages from him." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1450.11 "Teige, the son of Philip, son of Thomas Maguire, was slain by the sons of Cormac Magauran, and interred in the monastery of Lisgool." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1455.15 "Maine, the son of Melaghlin Mac Cabe, materies of a Constable of the two Breifnies, of Oriel, and Fermanagh, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1457.3 "Philip, the son of Thomas Maguire, and his sons, marched with an army into Breifny O'Rourke; and O'Rourke, before their arrival, sent his cows into the fastnesses of the country. Philip advanced to O'Rourke's town, and burned it, as well as the entire country around it. O'Rourke however came up with Philip; and a battle was fought between them, in which Tiernan, the son of Teige O'Rourke, and the son of Manus Grumach, son of Cathal Bodhar O'Rourke, and many others, were slain by the men of Fermanagh." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1458.2 "A hosting was made by O'Donnell, Turlough Cairbreach ; and O'Neill, Henry, came to join his muster. They first went to Lower Connaught, and from thence they proceeded into Breifny; and they spoiled and burned that part of the territory lying from the mountain westwards; and they also burned O'Rourk's town, Druim-da-Ethiar Drumahaire. They obtained the hostages of Lower Connaught, who were given into the hands of O'Donnell; after which they returned home." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1458.4 "O'Rourke, i.e. Loughlin, the son of Teige Liath, Lord of Breifny, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1459.8 "The spoils of Magh Slecht were seized on by Maguire (Thomas Oge); and Ballymagauran was burned by him on this occasion."" Annals of the Four Masters,

M1464.1 "Fearsithe Mac Duibhne, Bishop of the two Breifnys Kilmore, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1464.28 'Felim O'Rourke and Hugh were set at liberty on both sides, and a peace was concluded in Breifny." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1466.13 "An army was led by the English of Meath and Leinster into Offaly. O'Conor (p.1043) Faly, i.e. Con, the son of Calvagh, assembled his forces to oppose them; and, first of all, he slew John Mac Thomas, the best and most illustrious captain of the English, whose death was an omen of ill success to the English, for the Earl and his English were defeated next day, and the Earl himself was taken prisoner, and stripped of his arms and armour. Teige O'Conor conveyed the Earl, his own brother-in-law, and a great part of his army along with him, to Castle-Carbury. Christopher Plunket, and the Prior of the House of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Trim, William Oge Nugent, Barnwall, and many others along with them; but the English of Dublin came and carried off all that had, after this defeat, been sent unto the castle of Carbury, in despite of their ene- mies. After this, marauding parties from Offaly were in the practice of going northwards as far as Tara, and southwards as far as Naas; and the inhabitants of Breifny and Oriel continued for some time afterwards to devastate Meath in all directions, without opposition or pursuit." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1467.10 "Colla, the son of Manus Mac Mahon, and eleven of his people, were slain while in pursuit of a prey which the Breifnians were carrying off from him." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1467.13 "John, son of Edmond, who was son of Farrell O'Reilly, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1468.5 "Turlough, the son of John O'Reilly, was elected to the lordship of Breifny." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1469.4 "Richard Oge O'Reilly, Tanist of Breifny, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1475.12 "A circuitous hosting was made by O'Donnell, i.e. Hugh Roe, the son of Niall Garv, accompanied by Maguire, O'Rourke, and the chiefs of Lower Con- naught. They proceeded first to Beal-atha-Chonaill, to rescue Brian, the son of Felim O'Reilly, who was O'Donnell's friend and confederate, and to make peace between O'Rourke and O'Reilly. O'Reilly came to Beal-atha-Chonaill to O'Donnell, who reconciled O'Rourke and O'Reilly with each other, and also Brian, the son of Felim; and Philip O'Reilly was given up to O'Donnell, to be detained and kept by him as a hostage for the observance of this peace, besides such others as he himself wished to demand. After this O'Donnell marched to Fenagh-Moy-Rein, whither Mac Rannall came to him. From thence he went to Annaly, to assist the sons of Irial O'Farrell, who were his friends; and he spoiled and burned Annaly, excepting only that part of it which belonged to (p.1095) the sons of Irial, whom he left in power and might. He afterwards proceeded through Westmeath, and burned the castle-towns of Delvin, and all the circum- jacent country. He remained for one night encamped in Cuircne, in Meath; and the Dillons and Daltons came into his house, and made peace with him. He then proceeded to Offaly, at the request of O'Conor Faly, who was his rela- tive, i.e. Cahir, the son of Con, son of Calvagh, to take vengeance on the English for his father, Niall Garv. He remained for some time in Offaly, plun- dering and ravaging Meath on each side of him. He demolished and burned Castle-Carbury and Bally-Meyler; he also burned and plundered the territo- ries of Tir-Briuin and Fertullach, and obtained presents from the inhabitants of Mullingar, as a condition for sparing their town from pillage, the country on all sides of it having been already destroyed. Afterwards, at the instance of Colman O'Melaghlin, he proceeded to Coillte-an-rubha, and commenced spoiling Clann-Colman, i.e. O'Melaghlin's country; he burned the castle of Magh-Tamhnach, and the castle of Magh-Eille. It was on this occasion that O'Donnell gave O'Melaghlin, with all his muster and forces, the defeat of Garbh-Eisgir. This was otherwise called the defeat of Bealach-na-g-Corr-Ghad, from the gads or withes which the people of the country suspended about the necks of some of the army, in consequence of the narrowness of that passage. It was on the same day that O'Donnell gained the battle of Baile-Locha-Luatha, where the (p.1097) son of Magawley and many others were slain; and he remained encamped for a night there. The next day O'Donnell proceeded with his army to the Shan- non. Some of the O'Kellys, who accompanied him on this expedition, collected and brought together all the vessels they found in the neighbourhood, so that in these O'Donnell, with his army, crossed the Shannon into Hy-Many, and there he remained until he rested and recruited himself after his long expedi- tion. He then proceeded through Clanrickard, Conmaicne-Cuile, and Clann- Costello, and marched back again through Machaire-Chonnacht, and from thence to his own country, having received submission, and gained victory and triumph in every place through which he had passed." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1476.7 "Teige Oge, the son of Teige, son of Tiernan O'Rourke, Tanist of Breifny, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1480.13 "A war broke out between the sons of Hugh Roe Mac Mahon and the sons of Redmond Mac Mahon; and great depredations were committed on the sons of Redmond, and they were driven into Breifny to O'Reilly."Annals of the Four Masters,

M1486.24 "Owen, son of Loughlin O'Rourke, expectant Lord of Breifny, died."Annals of the Four Masters,

M1487.18 "Brian Roe, the son of Tiernan, son of Teige, son of Tiernan O'Rourke, Ta- nist of Breifny, was slain by a dart cast at him by the son of the O'Rourke, i.e. Owen, the son of Felim, son of Donough, son of Tiernan Oge. ln conse- quence of this death O'Donnell, i.e. Hugh Roe, marched into Breifny, and laid siege to O'Rourke's town, i.e. Caislen-an-Chairthe, which he took, and three of O'Rourke's people were slain; and Brian, son of Cathal, son of Tiernan O'Rourke, was slain by Godfrey, the son of Hugh Gallda O'Donnell, by the (p.1151) shot of a ball. The castle was demolished by O'Donnell; and O'Rourke, i.e. Felim, was banished from his country into Fermanagh; but O'Donnell after- wards permitted O'Rourke to come back into his country, and he made peace among the men of Breifny, and compelled the country to rebuild the castle."Annals of the Four Masters,

M1487.27 "An army was led by O'Donnell into Breifny O'Rourke. The cause of this hosting was: O'Rourke, i.e. Felim, the son of Donough, son of Tiernan, and (p.1153) his town, had been treacherously taken by his own kinsmen. Upon O'Donnell's arrival in Breifny, he pitched his camp around Caislen-an-Chairthe, and, after a siege of considerable length, finally took it; on which occasion he slew Tiernan Duv, the son of Donough, son of Tiernan Oge. And having recon- ciled the men of Breifny with one another, O'Donnell left O'Rourke, Felim, in Caislen-an-Chairthe. O'Rourke levied a protection tribute upon the territory of Breifny, to be paid to O'Donnell and his successors."Annals of the Four Masters,

M1487.28 "Tiernan Oge O'Rourke, Tanist of Breifny, was slain by the sons of Mulrony Mac Rannall and the sons of Rory Mac Dermot, at Ucht-na-n-Eangadh."Annals of the Four Masters,

1488 Cont. from The Nugent of Farren Connell Papers (D/3835); Title deeds, settlements, case papers, wills, leases etc., 1488-1872

. The title deeds and case papers comprise miscellaneous, mostly copy, title deeds to the Nugent estates, 1488-17th century; original title deeds, 18th and 19th centuries (including a George III patent to Robert Nugent of Bobsgrove [i.e. Farren Connell] empowering him to hold fairs and markets at Mount Nugent, 1762); three deeds relating to the former Manor of Carrick, Co. Cavan [where Farren Connell is located] and involving the original grantees and mortgagors of the manor, the Lambart family, Earls of Cavan; title deeds to lands in the parish of Kilbride, Co. Cavan near Farren Connell, leased by, and then bought by, the Nugents from the Hart family of Conlin, Co. Cavan, and of London, 1730-35 and 1750-66; title deeds and associated case papers etc., relating to the Nugents' part of Kilrue, Co. Meath, 1760-1849; case papers and lease relating to the estates and peerages of the heads of the Nugent family, the Earls of Westmeath, c.1700; case papers in the disputes between the Nugents and others and the Earls of Cavan over the manor of Carrick (see , No. 20), 1713-90; and case papers relating to the quit rent due from the Co. Roscommon estate of Oliver Nugent of Bobsgrove, 1784-94.

M1490.15 "O'Daly of Breifny, i.e. John, the son of William, who was son of Hugh, a learned poet; Rory and Hugh Magrath, the two sons of Donnell, son of Hugh Oge, the two principal learned men of the Clann-Crath; Thomas O'Lorcan, intended Ollav to O'Madden; and Finn O'Haugluinn, Chief Tympanist of Ire- land, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1492.27 "A depredation was committed by Owen O'Rourke in the territory of Hy- Briuin-na-Sinna, and he slew the son of O'Beirne (Cathal, the son of Murtough, who was son of Teige, son of Cormac)." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1493.12 "O'Donnell, i.e. Hugh Roe, and his sons, Con and Hugh, went with a great army to the chiefs of Lower Connaught; he was joined by O'Rourke, i.e. Felim, the son of Donough, son of Tiernan Oge; by Owen, the son of Tiernan, son of Teige, at that time heir to the lordship of Breifny; and by Donnell, the son of Owen O'Conor, Lord of Lower Connaught. And after they had collected their forces to one place, O'Donnell proceeded directly eastward into the pro- vince, until he arrived in Trian-Chongail. From thence he proceeded into Lecale, thence into Iveagh, and thence into Orior; and he ravaged and plun- dered Lecale, and every territory through which he passed that was hostile to him. While he O'Donnell was on this expedition, O'Neill, i.e. Henry Oge, the son of Henry, son of Owen, assembled his forces, and was joined by Mac Mahon, i.e. Hugh Oge, the son of Hugh Roe, son of Rury, and by Magennis, i.e. Hugh, the son of Art, son of Hugh, with all their forces, and a countless host of others besides them. This numerous army of O'Neill overtook O'Donnell at Beanna-Boirche, and encompassed him in the van and the rear; but O'Donnell sustained and withstood this overwhelnning force firmly and powerfully, until he led his army in safety through the difficulties of the pass. At length the chiefs of both armies, reaching a level plain, arranged and mar- shalled their forces for an engagement; and a fierce and obstinate conflict, and a furious and dreadful battle, was fought between them, in which they bore in mind all their own enmities and new hatreds to one another. O'Neill and his forces were finally routed. In this battle O'Donnell slew John Roe, the son of Donough Mac Mahon, and many others; and the darkness at the close of the day, and beginning of the night, prevented O'Donnell's forces from following (p.1207) up the pursuit as they wished. They, therefore, pitched their camp for that night at the place where they gained the battle, at Beanna-Boirche, and on the morrow proceeded to their homes, after having gained victory and sway in every territory through which they had passed." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1493.18 "Conor, the son of O'Daly of Breifny, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1495.7 "Con, son of Hugh Roe O'Donnell, and his forces, surrounded the town of Sligo, and continued to besiege it for some time. The descendants of Owen O'Conor mustered a very great force to relieve Sligo, namely, the sons of Rory Mac Dermot, the inhabitants of Tireragh of the Moy, the Clann-Donough, and the inhabitants of Coolavin; and they proceeded in a vast irresistible body towards the town. After Con had received intelligence that these forces were marching towards him, he rose up with his few troops, with Owen O'Rourke, Tanist of Breifny, and the descendants of Donnell Cam, the son of Mac Do- nough, and marched forth from their tents, vigorously and resolutely, to Bel- an-Droichit, to meet and oppose them; and they came within bow-shot of each other; and it was their wish not to give each other time or pause, but to come to attack each other without delay or respite. And now, when they had their weapons of valour ready for action, O'Donnell came up with them, for he had arrived from Scotland, and having heard at his own fortress of Donegal of the danger his son was in, he had stopped there only one night, and was now come to relieve him. Upon O'Donnell's arrival in the centre of his people, both (p.1217) armies gave each other a fierce and vigorous battle, in which the Lower Con- naught army was defeated by O'Donnell, as was often the case with him to see the backs of his enemies turned towards him. On this occasion were slain Teige, the son of Brian Mac Donough, Lord of Tirerrill; Owen Caech, the son of Rory O'Dowda, Lord of Tireragh; Brian Caech, the son of Teige, son of Owen; Teige, son of Donnell, son of Owen; and Kian, the son of Brian O'Gara. O'Gara himself; i.e. Dermot, the son of Owen, was taken prisoner. Besides these, many others of the nobles and plebeians of Connaught were slain, drowned, or taken prisoners in this defeat of Bel-an-Droichit. The son of O'Boyle, i.e. Teige, the son of Niall, son of Turlough, was slain in the heat of the battle. O'Donnell then plundered and preyed his enemies throughout the territory generally, until they became submissive to him." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1496.2 "Gilla-Patrick, the son of Mac Mahon (Hugh Oge, son of Hugh Roe, son of (p.1225) Rury), was treacherously slain by O'Hanlon (Melaghlin, the son of Felim) and his brother Ardgal. His brother Ever was taken prisoner on the same day. After this murder, Mac Mahon, with his creaghts and the sons of Manus Mac Mahon, went over to O'Reilly and the English. Brian, the son of Redmond, and the sons of Glasny, son of Redmond, went with their creaghts into Fearn- mhagh, upon the lands of Mac Mahon and Gilla-Patrick." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1496.3 "O'Donnell (Hugh Roe, the son of Niall Garv) went into Oriel to assist Brian, the son of Redmond Mac Mahon, and from thence they both marched into Breifny-O'Reilly, in pursuit of Mac Mahon; and they burned that part of the country through which they passed as far as Cavan, and O'Reilly's part of Cavan itself. On this occasion great depredations, spoliations, and destructions, were committed, and great booties obtained, by O'Donnell, in the English settle- ments in Machaire-Oirghiall in the county of Louth, and on Mac Mahon's adherents on his return back." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1497.7 "An army was led by O'Donnell (Con) against Mac Dermot of Moylurg, i.e. Teige, the son of Rory Mac Dermot. Only a few of the Connacians joined his army on that occasion, namely, Felim, the son of Manus O'Conor, Lord of Car- bury, and Owen O'Rourke, Tanist of Breifny, with their forces. A numerous body of forces was mustered by Mac Dermot, to oppose them at Seaghais the Curlieus, for the two O'Conors came with their tribes and chieftains to join his force and muster. A great part of O'Donnell's army made their way by force to the Bealach-Buidhe of Coirshliabh, under the conduct of Manus O'Conor, Owen O'Rourke, and Niall Garv O'Donnell, on which occasion Cathal O'Rourke and many others were slain in the pass of Bealach-Buidhe. The numerous host of the Sil-Murray rose up in the middle of the army, and de- feated O'Donnell. Felim O'Conor, Lord of Carbury, was taken prisoner there, as were also the two Mac Sweenys, namely, Mac Sweeny Fanad, i.e. Rory, and Mac Sweeny Connaughtagh, i.e. Mac Sweeny Baghaineach, Owen; Donough- na-nordog, the son of O'Donnell; the two sons of Tuathal O'Gallagher; John and Turlough, the two sons of Donnel Mac Sweeny Fanad; John and Donnell Oge, the two sons of Mac Sweeny Baghaineach; Niall and Owen Roe; Gerald, the son of Donnell, son of Felim O'Doherty; and O'Donnell's physician, the son of Owen Ultach. The Cathach of Columbkille was also taken from them; and Magroarty, the keeper of it, was slain. Many others also were slain and taken prisoners in this battle. Owen O'Rourke escaped being killed or taken in this defeat." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1510.5 "Mac Cabe of Breifny, i.e. Felim, and Mac Loughlin, i.e. Anthony, died." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1511.2 "Thomas, the son of Andrew Mac Brady, Bishop and Erenagh of the two Breifnys during a period of thirty years; the only dignitary whom the English and Irish obeyed; a paragon of wisdom and piety; a luminous lamp, that enlightened the laity and clergy by instruction and preaching; and a faithful shepherd of the Church---after having ordained priests and persons in every degree---after having consecrated many churches and cemeteries---after having bestowed rich presents and food on the poor and the mighty, gave up his spirit to heaven on the 4th of the Calends of March (or August), which fell on a Tuesday, at Druim-da-ethiar---having gone to Breifny to consecrate a church, in the sixty-seventh year of his age---and was buried in the monastery of Cavan, the day of the week being Friday. "Annals of the Four Masters,

M1511.3 "Cormac Magauran, who was called Bishop in Breifny, died before Christmas." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1514.6 "An army was led by the Earl of Kildare (Garrett Oge, the son of Garrett) into Breifny, and committed great havock in that country on that expedition, i.e. he slew O'Reilly (Hugh, son of Cathal), his brother Philip, a son of Philip, and Garrett, the son of Edmond, son of Thomas O'Reilly; in short, fourteen of the gentlemen and principal chieftains of the O'Reillys, with a great number of their people, were slain. Mac Cabe (Many, the son of Mahon) was, moreover, taken prisoner. Annals of the Four Masters,

M1522.4 "O'Donnell on the other hand assembled his own small, but truly faithful, forces in Kinel-Connell, namely, O'Boyle, O'Doherty, the three Mac Sweenys, and the O'Gallaghers, with his son Manus, at Port-na-dtri-namhad, a perilous (p.1355) pass, through which he supposed O'Neill would make his onslaught upon them. When O'Neill heard of this position of the enemy, the route he took was through Kinel-Owen; and he marched unperceived until he arrived at Termon-Daveog, and from thence to Ballyshannon. The son of Mac Sweeny of Tir-Boghaine (Brian of the Fleet), whom O'Donnell had left to guard the castle of Ballyshannon, defended the town against O'Neill as well as he was able; it was, however, at length taken by O'Neill, and the son of Mac Sweeny, with a great number of his people, was slain by him. There were also slain there two of O'Donnell's ollaves, namely, Dermot, the son of Teige Cam O'Clery, a learned historian and poet, a man who kept an open house of general hospipitality for the mighty and the indigent, and the son of Mac Ward (Hugh, the son of Hugh), with several others besides these. This was on the 11th day of June. Bundrowes and Beal-lice were also taken, and burned by O'Neill on this occasion. On his return from Bundrowes, a party of his forces slew Rory, son of Godfrey, who was son of Hugh Gallda O'Donnell, and the son of Mac Kelly of Breifny, near Sgairbh-innsi-an-fhraoich. Annals of the Four Masters,

M1523.17 "O'Donnell (Hugh Oge, the son of Hugh Roe), after having made peace with O'Neill, assembled the forces within his own territory, and those of his neighbourhood, and made an irruption into Breifny-O'Rourke. Spoils and goods of the country were conveyed by the men of Breifny into the wilds and fastnesses of the country, to guard and protect them against O'Donnell. The sons of O'Rourke, with all the forces which they had with them, were defending the country against O'Donnell. O'Donnell, however, overran the country on this occasion, burned its edifices and corn, and left nothing worth notice in it without burning. " Annals of the Four Masters,

M1524.18 "The son of O'Reilly (Cathal, the son of Owen, son of Cathal) was taken prisoner by the sons of John, son of Cathal O'Reilly, the consequence of which was, the desolation of all Breifny, between O'Reilly and the sons of John O'Reilly. O'Neill (Con, the son of Con) twice marched with an army into Breifny, to destroy that part of it which belonged to the sons of John; and the sons of John destroyed O'Reilly's part; and the young Prior, son of Cathal, son of Farrell, son of John, a distinguished captain, was killed by the shot of a ball at the castle of Tulach Moain. " Annals of the Four Masters,

M1528.1 "O'Rourke (Owen), Lord of Breifny, sustaining pillar of the hospitality, prowess, and nobility, of the race of Hugh Finn, died in the habit of St. Francis, after unction and penance." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1530.9 "An army was led by O'Donnell into the province of Connaught; he first passed through Coillte-Chonchubhair, and from thence proceeded through the Tanist's portion of Moylurg, by the Caradh-Droma-ruisc, across the Shannon, and burned and totally desolated the territory of Muintir-Eolais; some of his people were slain around the castle of Leitrim, among whom were Manus, the son of Ferdoragh Mac Sweeny, and the son of Mac Colin (Turlough Duv). He afterwards proceeded westwards across the Shannon, into Machaire Chonnacht, to the bridge of Ath-Mogha. He destroyed and devastated by fire the territory of Clann-Conway; he also burned Glinsce and Cill-Cruain, the towns castles of Mac David; and he obtained great spoil in these countries. He afterwards burned Ballintober also, and obtained his tribute from O'Conor Roe, namely, six pence on every quarter of land in his territory. After having destroyed Moylurg, he returned home by Bealach-buidhe Ballaghboy, without sustaining any injury. He afterwards went to Breifny, where his army burned (p.1401) the best wooden house in all Ireland, i.e. the house of Mac Consnava on Lough Allen. The whole of Breifny, from the mountain westwards, was destroyed and desolated by them on that expedition." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1540.7 "Another hosting was made by O'Donnell, and he was joined by Niall, the son of Art Oge, Tanist of Tyrone, and by Mac Donnell of Scotland (Colla, the son of Alexander), with many Scots along with him. O'Donnell and this army (p.1459) proceeded into Fermanagh, and they at first destroyed much in the country, until they obtained pledges and guarantees of submission. After that they marched through Breifny O'Rourke, and from thence to the Curlieu mountains, where they pitched their camp, and destroyed Bealach-Buidhe, and cleared every other difficult passage. Upon this the Clann-Mulrony came to them, and gave hostages to O'Donnell for the observance of his own conditions for the time to come. O'Donnell then returned safe to his house." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1540.12 'The castle of Leitrim was erected by O'Rourke (Brian, the son of Owen) while a great war was waged against him on every side, namely, in Moylurg, Muintir-Eolais, and Breifny-O'Reilly; and his own son and a party of the men of Breifny were also at war with him. He finished the castle in a short time, and destroyed a great portion of Moylurg on his opponents." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1542.12 "A hosting by O'Donnell and Calvagh in the summer of this year; and O'Rourke (Brian) and O'Kane (Manus, the son of Donough) joined their muster. After they had assembled together, they agreed to march against Mac (p.1471) Quillin (Rury, the son of Walter), and they did not halt until they arrived at the Bann. Here they divided the army into three portions, in order to cross the fords of the Bann, for they were prevented from using the boats of the river, because Mac Quillin, together with a strong body of English troops, was at the other side, to defend the river against them, and to prevent them from crossing it. The forces of O'Donnell, however, crossed the Bann in despite of them, though, in crossing it, they were in danger of being drowned, and encountered very great peril. Upon landing, they sent forth light scouring and terror-striking parties through the country, namely, one detachment eastwards to Cnoc-Lea, and another up along the Bann, and these seized upon heavy and substantial preys, and many great spoils, in every place through which they passed. But Calbhach O'Donnell, O'Rourke, and O'Kane, and their forces, obtained still greater and more numerous spoils than those seized upon by the other detachments. Each of these detachments encamped separately with their preys and spoils for that night. On the morrow O'Donnell ordered them to knock down, kill, hough, and break the bones of these immense spoils and preys, which they accordingly did; and it would be difficult to enumerate or reckon the number of cattle that were here struck down, besides more which the men of Breifny and the O'Kanes drove off to their own countries alive. After this Mac Quillin came to O'Donnell, and bestowed upon him great presents, consisting of horses, armour, and other beautiful articles of value, and made peace with him. O'Donnell, with his army, returned home safe and in triumph from that expedition." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1552.2 "Teige O'Rourke, Tanist of Breifny, was hanged by his own people. Some assert that Brian O'Rourke, his father's brother, had a part in causing this execution." Annals of the Four Masters,

1556 The plantation of Ireland from England began in 1556 in the province of Leinster after the Tudor conquest. Native landholders defended themselves but ultimately lost battles that resulted in the laying down of their arms by the beginning of the 17th century. Colonization in the province of Ulster beginning at this time was particularly oppressive as the best land was confiscated by Protestant planters from England and Scotland, with Catholics forming an increasingly large peasant class bereft of ownership and many rights. A rebellion of complex loyalties of both Irish and Old English (preTudor colonizers) and against the New English (postTudor) erupted in 1641, the war closing by 1652 with the help of Cromwell. With the land despoiled by war and famine, plantation accelerated, resulting in substantial new Protestant population and dominion of land-owning classes and commerce.

M1566.5 O'Rourke (Hugh Boy, the son of Brian Ballagh) was slain by the Kinel-Connell, at Baile-an-tochair, in order that the son of the daughter of Manus O'Donnell, namely, Brian, the son of Brian, son of Owen (O'Rourke), might enjoy the lordship of Breifny." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1574.7 "The son of Teige, son of Teige O'Rourke, was slain by some of the inhabitants of Breifny, on the Green of Dromahaire." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1581.23 "John Oge and Con, two sons of John, son of Con Bacagh, son of Con, son of Henry, son of Owen O'Neill, proceeded with an army into Breifny O'Reilly, and plundered and totally devastated every part of Breifny through which they passed. The son of O'Reilly, i.e. Philip, the son of Hugh Conallagh, son of Maelmora, son of John, and a large muster of the forces of the country, who had come in pursuit of the spoils, overtook them. The Kinel-Owen were not the better of that day's attack for many years, for the Reillys recovered the booty, and defeated them. Con, the son of John O'Neill, was taken prisoner; and, as John Oge would not yield himself a prisoner to the heroic bands, he was speedily slaughtered, and unsparingly slain. The fate of this good man was afflicting, for there was not one man of the race of Milesius to whom this John was not worthy to have succeeded as heir." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1581.24 "A hosting was made by O'Neill (Turlough Luineach), to take vengeance on the Reillys for this battle. He pitched a warlike, extensive, well-fortified camp in the very centre of Breifny O'Reilly, and then proceeded to destroy the country, including cattle, corn, and mansions. O'Reilly then made peace with him, and set Con at liberty without a ransom, and agreed to settle by adjudication the reparation to be made for the death of John and his people." Annals of the Four Masters,

M1581.28 "Calvagh, the son of Donnell, son of Teige, son of Cathal Oge, son of Donnell, son of Owen, son of Donnell, son of Murtough O'Conor, the only son of O'Conor Sligo, died. He was the more lamented in the territories, because the noble couple from whom this free-born shoot sprang had no hope or expectation of any other child after him. That tract of territory from Magh gCeidne to Ceis-Corainn, and from the River Moy to the boundary of Breifny, was awaiting him as its only inheritor and coarb, if he should survive his father. Annals of the Four Masters,

M1581.29 "Cathal Oge, the son of Teige, son of Cathal Oge O'Conor; Maelmora, the son of Mulmurry, son of Owen; and Fearganeagla, his kinsman, with a great number of the chief men of the territory, were slain in Lower Connaught by some Scots who happened to be traversing the country, at the instance of Nicholas Malby. And the constable of these Scots was Alexander, the son of Donnell (p.1771) Ballagh, the son of Mac Donnell; and there were no two in Ireland among those that had not attained to their estates, who were more renowned in name, the one as gentleman and the other as a constable, than Cathal Oge and Maelmora. The son of O'Conor Don, i.e. Hugh, the son of Dermot, son of Carbry, was taken prisoner by the Scots on that day; and they refused to give him up to the captain, but proceeded with him to join O'Rourke; and O'Rourke ransomed Hugh from the Scots, so that O'Rourke and Hugh afterwards became confederated on the one side. The Alexander already mentioned left O'Rourke in the autumn of this year, and went to Sir Nicholas Malby, who received him with great welcome; and he was billeted with his followers, about Allhallowtide, throughout Hy-Fiachrach of the Moy. When O'Conor Sligo (Donnell, the son of Teige, son of Cathal Oge) and the people of Sir Nicholas, had received intelligence that they were thus situated, they attacked them while sleeping in their beds and couches, and slew Alexander, and a great number of his people along with him. O'Conor committed this slaughter in just revenge of the death of his brother, Cathal Oge. Annals of the Four Masters,

M1583.21 "O'Reilly (Hugh Conallagh, the son of Maelmora, son of John, son of Cathal), a man who had passed his time without contests or trouble, and who had preserved Breifny from the invasions of his English and Irish enemies as long as he lived, died, and was buried in the monastery of Cavan. His wife, Isabella Barnewall, died about the same time. The son of this O'Reilly, namely, John Roe, then exerted himself to acquire the chieftainship of the territory, through (p.1807) the power of the English, in opposition to Edmond, the son of Maelmora, who was the senior according to the usage of the Irish. In consequence of {p.1809}this, the country and the lordship were divided between the descendants of Maelmora. Annals of the Four Masters,

1584 The boundries of the county of Cavan were established by the English in 1584, and the county devided into baronies. Most of these baronies were given to different branches of the O'Reilly, with two baronies controlled by the McKernons and McGowans (often anglicized as Smith). During the late sixteenth century the O'Reillys and their Cavan alies joined the rebellion of O'Neill against the English.

M1585.4 "Brian, son of Teige, son of Brian, son of Owen O'Rourke, made an incursion into Dartry Mac Clancy in the very beginning of the month of January, and dispatched marauding squadrons through the fastnesses of Dartry to collect preys; and they obtained great spoils. Mac Clancy, with a numerous body of Scots and Irishmen, pursued and overtook him. Brian proceeded to resist them; and they continued fighting and skirmishing with each other as they moved along, until they came face to face at Beanna-bo, in Breifny. When the men of Breifny and O'Rourke's people heard that Brian had gone to Dartry, they assembled together, to meet him at a certain narrow pass, by which they thought he would come on to them. They perceived him approaching at a slow pace, and with great haughtiness, sustaining the attacks of his enemies; and although they as his own true followers should have succoured him on such an emergency, (p.1827) it was not so that they acted, but they gave their day's support, in battle to his enemies, so that the heroic soldier was attacked on both sides; he was met by shouts before and behind; and he was so surrounded on every side, that he could not move backwards or forwards. In this conflict many men were slain around him; and among the rest was cut off a company of gallowglasses of the Mac Sheehys, who were the surviving remnant and remains of the slaughter of the gallowglasses of the Geraldines, who were along with Brian on that day, and who had gone about from territory to territory, offering themselves for hire, after the extermination of the noblemen by whom they had been employed previously; and they would not have been thus cut off, had they not been attacked by too many hands, and overwhelmed by numbers. The men of Breifny and O'Rourke's people gave protection to Brian in this perilous situation, and carried him off under their protection, to be guarded. On the third day afterwards, however, they came to the resolution of malevolently and maliciously putting him to death, he being under their clemency and their protection. O'Rourke was accused of participating in this unbecoming deed. Annals of the Four Masters,

M1586.4 "A Scotch fleet landed in Inishowen, O'Doherty's country, in the north-eastern angle of Tirconnell. These were the gentlemen and chief constables of that fleet: Donnell Gorm and Alexander, the two sons of James, son of Alexander, son of John Cahanagh, son of Mac Donnell; and Gillespick, the son of Dowell, son of Donough Cam, son of Gillespick Mac Ailin Campbell; with many other gentlemen besides. Their name and fame were greater than their appearance. (p.1851) They pitched camps in that part of the country where they landed, where they had much flesh meat. The haughty robbers, the plunderers, the perpetrators of treacherous deeds, and the opponents of goodness, of the neighbouring territories, flocked to join them there; so that there was nothing of value in Inishowen, whether corn or cattle, which they did not carry off on this occasion. They afterwards passed along by the River Finn and the Mourne to Termon-Magrath, to the territory of Lurg, and to Miodhbholg, until they arrived at the borders of the Erne. When the Burkes, who were engaged in plundering and insurrection as before stated, namely, Richard Burke, the son of Deamhan-an-Chorrain, the sons of Edmond Burke, and the Clann-Donnell-Galloglagh, had heard the news of the arrival of these Scots, they expeditiously sent messengers, inviting them to their assistance, and stating that they would obtain many spoils and a territory worthy of them in the province of Connaught, should they themselves succeed in defending it against the people of the Sovereign. The Scots, upon receipt of these messages, proceeded across the Erne by the first march, until they arrived in the district lying between the Rivers Duff and Drowis; and they proceeded to plunder Dartry and Carbury, where they were met by Richard and the sons of Edmond Burke. The Governor proceeded to Sligo to oppose them, upon which the Scots departed from that district, and passed southwards through Dartry, and by the side of Beanna-bo in Breifny. They remained three nights in Dromahaire, from whence they proceeded to Braid-Shliabh; and they never halted until they arrived at Kilronan, (p.1853) where they stopped, in the vicinity of Breifny, Moylurg, and Tirerrill. The Governor went from the west to Ballinafad in Tirerrill; and both parties remained in those places without coming in contact with each other. The Scots at length began to move from that place in the beginning of a wet and very dark night; and they proceeded north-westwards through Tirerrill, with the intention of crossing the bridge of Cul-Maoile; but three companies of the Governor's people were guarding the bridge on that night. The Scots advanced to them, and a fierce conflict was fought between them. The Scots were obliged to abandon the bridge, and to cross the ford on the west side of it. After this they went on the same night as far as Sliabh-Gamh, and on the following day to Ardnarea. The Governor departed from Ballinafad on the following day, as though he had no intention of pursuing them ; and he went through Connaught for fifteen days, collecting forces as he could; and during that time he had people employed to spy and reconnoitre the Scots. When he had the requisite number ready, he marched from the monastery of Bannada in Leyny of Connaught, in the beginning of a very dark night in autumn, and stopped neither day nor night until he arrived at Ardnarea, about the noon of the day following, without giving any warning to the Scots. The way the Scots were on his arrival was, sleeping on their couches, without fear or guard, just as though that strange country into which they had come was their own without opposition. They were first aroused from their profound slumbers by the shrieks of their military attendants, whom the Governor's people were slaughtering throughout the town. The Scots then arose expertly, and placed themselves as well as they were able in order and battle-array, to (p.1855) engage the Governor's people. But this was of no avail to them, for they had scarcely discharged the first shower of darts before they were routed by the Governor's people, and driven towards the river which confronted them, namely, the loud-sounding, salmon-full Moy. On their way towards the river many were laid low; and when they arrived at the river they did not stop at its banks, but plunged without delay into its depths, for they chose rather to be drowned than be killed by the Governor's people. In short, near two thousand of them were slain on this occasion. The sons of Edmond Burke were not present at this onslaught, for on the day before that defeat they had gone forth with three hundred men, in quest of booty for the Scots; but, hearing the news of this disaster of the Scots, they kept aloof from them, and remained in the fastnesses of their own country. Such of the Scots and Ulstermen as were with them i.e. with the sons of Edmond Burke attempted to effect their passage into Ulster; but they were almost all hanged or slain in the several territories through which they passed, before they could cross the Erne. The father of the sons already mentioned, namely, Edmond, the son of Ulick, son of Edmond, son of Richard O'Cuairsci, was hanged by the Governor after this defeat. He was a withered, grey, old man, without strength or vigour, and they were obliged to carry him to the gallows upon a bier ! Annals of the Four Masters,

1586 Cont from The Nugent of Farren Connell Papers (D/3835) The c.75 leases, mainly of the Nugent estate in Co. Cavan, include: a copy lease from Queen Elizabeth I to Christopher Nugent, Baron of Delvin, of the monastery of Holy Island in Cos Westmeath and Longford, 1586; a lease from Thomas Nugent, Earl of Westmeath, to Christopher Nugent, Lord Delvin, of all his part in the rectories and impropriate tithes in Co. Cavan, 1716; and an undated but pre-1673 (according to the 'Nugent Registry') memorandum of the Earl of Cavan to the effect that Oliver Nugent has forfeited his lands by rebelling in 1641, and that his sons, Nicholas and Robert, in order to thwart the officers in 1649, had fraudulently conveyed the lands to Walter Pollard of Castlepollard, Co. Westmeath.

M1590.3 "In the month of March a very great army was mustered by the Governor against O'Rourke. This army was no numerous, that he sent a vast number of his captains and battalions to Sliabh-Cairbre to oppose the inhabitants of (p.1887) Muintir-Eolais; and another party of the chiefs of his army to the west of the Bridge of Sligo, to invade Breifny; and these troops proceeded to burn and devastate, kill and destroy, all before them in the country, until both met together again. By this excursion O'Rourke was banished from his territory; and he received neither shelter nor protection until he arrived in the Tuatha, to Mac Sweeny-na-dTuath (Owen Oge, the son of Owen, son of Owen Oge, son of Owen, son of Donnell); and with him he remained until the expiration of this year; and such of his people as did not go into exile came in and submitted to the Governor. Donnell, the son of Teige, son of Brian O'Rourke, and Hugh Oge, the son of Hugh Gallda, assisted the English in expelling and banishing O'Rourke. The whole territory, both waste and inhabited, was under the power of the Governor until the ensuing Michaelmas, when Tiernan Bane, the son of Brian, son of Owen O'Rourke, and Brian-na-Samhthach, i.e Brian Oge (the son of that O'Rourke who had been expelled), came into the territory. These and the tribes of Breifny, and of Muintir-Eolais, and of the other O'Rourkes who remained in the country, opposed the Governor, and continued spoiling every thing belonging to the English, to which they came, until the end of this year. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1593.3 "A warlike dissension arose in the month of May in this year between Sir George Bingham of Ballymote and Brian-na-Samhthach, i.e. Brian Oge, the son of Brian, son of Brian, son of Owen O'Rourke. The cause of this dissension was, that a part of the Queen's rent had not been received out of Breifny on that festival, Brian O'Rourke asserting that all the rents not paid were those demanded for lands that were waste, and that he Bingham ought not to (p.1937) demand rent for waste lands until they should be inhabited. Sir George sent soldiers into Breifny to take a prey in lieu of the rent; and the soldiers seized on O'Rourkes own milch cows. Brian went to demand a restoration of them, but this he did not at all receive. He then returned home, and sent for mercenaries and hireling troops to Tyrone, Tirconnell, and Fermanagh; and after they had come to him, he set out, and he made no delay by day or by night until he arrived at Ballymote. On his arrival in the neighbourhood of the town, he dispersed marauding parties through the two cantreds of the Mac Donoughs, namely, Corann and Tirerrill; and there was not much of that country which he did not plunder on the excursion. He also burned on that day thirteen villages on every side of Ballymote; and he ravaged Ballymote itself more than he did any other town. Their losses were of little account, except the son of Coffey Roe Magauran, on the side of Brian; Gilbert Grayne, a gentleman of Sir George's people, who was slain on the other side. The son of O'Rourke then returned back to his own territory loaded with great preys and spoils. This was done in the first month of summer. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1593.4 " A hosting was made by Maguire (Hugh, the son of Cuconnaught), to emulate that excursion of Brian O'Rourke. He proceeded first through the eastern part of Breifny, keeping Lough Allen to the left; then through the upper part of Tirerrill, through Corran, and across the bridge at the monastery of Boyle, into Machaire Connacht. Early in the day he dispatched marauding parties through the country around. This night the Governor, Sir Richard Bingham, happened to be on a hill near the gate of Tulsk, in the barony of Roscommon, watching the surrounding country; and a party of his cavalry went forth to scour the hills around the hill on which he was stationed; but they noticed nothing, in consequence of a thick fog of the earIy morning, until they and Maguire's cavalry met face to face. The Governor's cavalry turned their backs to them, and they were hotly pursued by Maguire and his people, who continued to lash and strike them until they arrived at the camp and fortification where the Governor was. They again turned upon Maguire, and pursued him back by the same road, until he had reached the middle of his forces. When the Governor saw that he had not an equal number of men with them, he returned (p.1939) back, he himself and all his people having escaped scathless from that conflict, except only William Clifford, a distinguished gentleman, and five or six horsemen, who were slain on that occasion. On the other side were slain, Edmond Magauran, Primate of Armagh, who happened accidentally to be along with Maguire on this occasion; the Abbot Maguire, (Cathal, son of the Abbot); Mac Caffry (Felim), and his brother's son. These were slain on the third day of July. Maguire was not pursued any more on that day; and, having carried away the preys and great spoils of that country, he proceeded steadily and slowly, from one encampment to another, to Fermanagh. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1593.8 "The Governor of the province of Connaught and the Earl of Thomond (Donough, the son of Conor, son of Donough O'Brien) came to meet them at (p.1945) the other side of the Erne. They effected nothing worthy of note, except that the Governor returned with the rising-out of Connaught to the Abbey of Boyle, where he remained for some time, plundering Muintir-Eolais and the west of Fermanagh. The men of Connaught then dispersed for their homes. The Earl of Tyrone and the Marshal also returned to their houses, after destroying much in Fermanagh. They left companies of soldiers in the country to assist Conor Oge, the son of Conor Roe Maguire, who was at strife with the Maguire. Unhappy and disturbed was the state of the entire extent of country from Clogher Mac Daimhene in Tyrone to Rath-Croghan in Connaught, and from Traigh-Eothuile to Breifny O'Reilly, at this time. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1594.7 "When Maguire heard that the Lord Justice had returned back, he assembled the greatest number of forces that he was able, and beleaguered the same castle, and dispatched messengers to O'Donnell (Hugh Roe), requesting him to come to his assistance. This request was promptly responded to by him O'Donnell, for he went to join him with his forces; and they laid siege to the fortress from the beginning of June to the middle of August. During this time these forces plundered and laid waste all that that was under the jurisdiction (p.1951) of the English in the territory of Oriel, and in Breifny O'Reilly; and they gave their cows and flocks as provision stores to their soldiers. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1594.9 "When the Lord Justice, Sir William Fitzwilliam, had received intelligence that the warders of Enniskillen were in want of stores and provisions, he ordered a great number of the men of Meath, and of the gentlemen of the Reillys and the Binghams of Connaught, under the conduct of George Oge Bingham, to convey provisions to Enniskillen. These chieftains, having afterwards met together, went to Cavan, O'Reilly's town, for provisions; and they proceeded through Fermanagh, keeping Lough Erne on the right, until they arrived within about four miles of the town. " Annals Of The Four Masters

M1594.10 "When Maguire (Hugh) received intelligence that these forces were marching towards the town with the aforesaid provisions, he set out with his own forces and the forces left him by O'Donnell, together with Cormac, the son of the Baron, i.e. the brother of the Earl O'Neill; and they halted at a certain narrow pass, to which they thought they the enemy would come to them. The ambuscade was successful, for they came on, without noticing any thing, until they fell in with Maguire's people at the mouth of a certain ford. A fierce and vehement conflict, and a spirited and hard-contested battle, was fought between both parties, till at length Maguire and his forces routed the others by dint of fighting, and a strages of heads was left to him; and the rout was followed up a great way from that place. A countless number of nobles and plebeians fell in this conflict. Many steeds, weapons, and other spoils, were left behind in that place by the defeated, besides the steeds and horses that were loaded with provisions, on their way to Enniskillen. A few fugitives of Meath and of (p.1953) the Reillys escaped from this conflict, and never stopped until they arrived in Breifny O'Reilly. The route taken by George Oge Bingham and the few who escaped with him from the field was through the Largan, the territory of the Clann-Coffey Magauran, through Breifny O'Rourke, and from thence to Sligo. The name of the ford at which this great victory was gained was changed to Bel-atha-na-mBriosgadh, from the number of biscuits and small cakes left there to the victors on that day. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1595.8 "An army was led by Maguire (Hugh, the son of Cuconnaught, son of Cuconnaught, son of Cuconnaught), and by Mac Mahon (Brian, the son of Hugh Oge, son of John Boy), into Breifny O'Reilly, and they quickly plundered and ravaged that country; and they left not a cabin in which two or three might be sheltered in all Cavan which they did not burn, except the monastery of Cavan, in which English soldiers were at that time. " Annals Of The Four Masters

M1595.11 "A hosting was made by O'Donnell (Hugh Roe), to march into Connaught. He first crossed the Erne, on the third day of March, and moved on, keeping the lake of Melge, the son of Cobhthach, on his right, until he arrived at Ballaghmeehin, where he stopped that night. He then proceeded on through Breifny, until he came to Braid-Shliabh, where he stopped for one night. It was difficult for him at that time to get an advantage of or surprise the province of Olnegmacht, because the English held their abode and residence throughout the country in general, and especially in its chief towns and impregnable fortresses. In the first place, Sir Richard Bingham, the Governor of the province of Connaught, was stationed at Roscommon; another large party of the English was stationed in a monastery which is situated on the bank of the Boyle; another in Tulsk, in the very centre of Moy-Ai, to the north-east of Rathcroghan; another in the fort, a fortress erected by the English themselves between Lough Key and Lough Arrow; another at Ballymote; and a great party at Sligo. News having reached the Governor at Roscommon, that O'Donnell was on his march into the country, he made no delay until he arrived at the monastery of Boyle, and ordered all the English of the towns above mentioned to come to him at that place, for he thought that it should be by that way that O'Donnell would pass with his forces. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1595.14 "Another hosting was made by O'Donnell (Hugh Roe) into Connaught, on the eighteenth day of the month of April. He first crossed the Erne, and marched on, keeping Lough Melvin on the right, until he arrived at Ros-inbhir, where he stopped for that night. From thence he went to Cill-Fhearga, where he waited for the coming up of the rear of his army. Upon their arrival they proceeded through Breifny to Braid-Shliabh, and from thence into Machaire-Chonnacht; and such part of it as had escaped being plundered on the former expedition was plundered now; and they collected the preys together to him. After this he proceeded onward with these preys and spoils, and arrived the same night in Leitrim in Muintir-Eolais. Now his enemies thought that he would return into Ulster; this, however, he did not do, but privately dispatched messengers to Maguire (Hugh), requesting that he would come to hin, in Annaly; and he sent spies before him through the country, and ordered them to meet him at a certain place. He himself then marched onwards, secretly and expeditiously, and arrived with his troops at the dawn of day in the two Annalys (these were the countries of the two O'Farrells, though the English had some time before obtained sway over them); and one of the English, Christopher Browne by name, was then dwelling in the chief mansion-seat of O'Farrell. The brave troops of O'Donnell and Maguire marched from Sliabh-Cairbre to the River Inny, and set every place to which they came in these districts in a blaze of fire, and wrapped it in a black, heavy cloud of smoke. They took the Longford, for they had set fire to every side and corner of it, so that it was only by the help of a rope that they conveyed Christopher Browne and his brother-in-law, and both their wives, out of it. Fifteen men of the hostages of that country (who had been in the custody of the aforesaid Christopher Browne) were burned to death, who could not be saved, in consequence of the fury and violence that prevailed. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1595.15 "Three other castles were also taken by O'Donnell on the same day; and on those occasions many persons were slain and destroyed, of whom one of the freeborn was Hubert, the son of Fergus, son of Brian O'Farrell, who was accidentally slain by Maguire. The son of the Prior O'Reilly was taken prisoner by others of the army. As much of the property of the country as they wished to have was collected and gathered, and brought to them from every quarter. They then proceeded with their preys and spoils, and pitched their camp that night in Teallach-Dunchadha. On the next day they sent marauding parties to the monastery of Cavan, to see whether they could get an advantage of the English who were quartered in it; but as they did not find any of the English about the town, they carried off every thing of value belonging to them to which they came. They marched that night to Teallach-Eachdhach, west of Bel-atha-Chonaill; and from thence they returned home, after the victory of expedition on that occasion." Annals Of The Four Masters

M1596.3 "O'Reilly, i e. John Roe, the son of Hugh Conallagh, son of Maelmora, son of John, died. And though, by a composition made some time anterior to this period, by the Queen's authority, it was ordained that each of the descendants of Maelmora O'Reilly should exclusively possess the lordship of his own territory, yet O'Neill (Hugh, the son of Ferdorcha) nominated Philip, son of Hugh, the O'Reilly over all Breifny; but he did not live long after being styled Lord, for he was accidentally slain by O'Neill's people (by whom he had been inaugurated); and then Edmond, the son of Maelmora, who was senior to the other two lords, was styled the O'Reilly." Annals Of The Four Masters

M1597.1 "O'Donnell (Hugh Roe, the son of Hugh, son of Manus) encamped in Breifny of Connaught, to the east of Sliabh-da-en, after having plundered, as we have (p.2009) said before, the faithful people of O'Conor. He was awaiting the arrival of his forces and muster from every quarter where they were; and when they had all assembled, which was at the end of the month of January, they marched into the territory of Tirerrill, from thence into Corran, through Machaire-Chonnacht, and into Clann-Conway and Hy-Many. Having reached the very centre of Hy-Many, he sent forth swift-moving marauding parties through the district of Caladh, and the upper part of the territory; and they carried off many herds of cows and other preys to O'Donnell, to the town of Athenry; and though the warders of the town attempted to defend it, the effort was of no avail to them, for O'Donnell's people applied fires and flames to the strongly-closed gates of the town, and carried to them great ladders, and, placing them against the walls, they recte, some of them ascended to the parapets of the wall. They then leaped from the parapets, and gained the streets of the town, and opened the gates for those who were outside. They all then proceeded to demolish the storehouses and the strong habitations; and they carried away all the goods and valuables that were in them. They remained that night in the town. It was not easy to enumerate or reckon the quantities of copper, iron, clothes, and habiliments, which they carried away from the town on the following day. From the same town he sent forth marauding parties to plunder Clanrickard, on both sides of the river; and these marauders totally plundered and ravaged the tract of country from Leathrath to Magh-Seanchomhladh. The remaining part of his army burned and ravaged the territory, from the town of Athenry and Rath-Goirrgin Westwards to Rinn-Mil and Meadhraige, and to the gates of Galway, and burned Teagh-Brighde, at the military gate of Galway. O'Donnell pitched his camp for that night between Uaran-mor and Galway, (p.2011) precisely at Cloch-an-Lingsigh. On the following day O'Donnell proceeded to Mainistir-an-chnuic, at the gate of Galway, and communicated with the inhabitants of the town, requesting traffic and sale of their various wares and rich raiment for some of the preys. He then resolved upon returning back; and were it not for the burden of the collected preys, the multiplicity of the plunders, and the vastness of the spoil, it is certain that he would have not stopped on that route until he had gone to Gortinnsi-Guaire in Kinel-Aedha-na-hEchtge. O'Donnell, with his forces and their preys, returned by the same road, through the very middle of the province of Connaught, and never halted until he pitched his camp in Calry, to the east of Sligo; and he sent his calones and the unarmed part of his people to convey some of the preys northward, across the River Samhaoir. Annals of the Four Masters,

M1598.5 "Mac Donough of Tirerrill (Maurice Caech, the son of Teige-an-Triubhis) was slain in Breifny-O'Rourke, as he was carrying off a prey from thence; upon which Conor Oge, son of Melaghlin, from Baile-an-duin, was appointed the Mac Donough." Annals of the Four Masters,

1600 Cont from The Nugent of Farren Connell Papers (D/3835) The c.1600 documents and 23 volumes of genealogical and historical writings, c.1775-1890, both pre-date and include the writings of Richard Nugent of London and subsequently of Farren Connell, the family historian, who succeeded his nephew Edmond Robert in 1876 and died in 1891. Included here is Richard Nugent's volume entitled 'Nugent Registry', from which Ainsworth quoted extensively, and which draws heavily on Probate and other Irish Public Records destroyed in 1922. Also included are Richard Nugent's transcriptions of State Papers, Home Office papers, Hatfield House papers etc., together with drafts for essays or books on historical subjects connected with the Nugent family.

 M1600.5 "A hosting was made by O'Neill (Hugh, the son of Ferdorcha, son of Con Bacagh) in the month of January in this year, and he proceeded to the south of Ireland, to confirm his friendship with his allies in the war, and to wreak his vengeance upon his enemies. When O'Neill left the province of Ulster, he passed along the borders of Meath and Breifny, and through Delvin-More, and did great injuries throughout the territory, and continued to waste it, until the Baron of Delvin (Christopher, the son of Richard, son of Christopher) came and submitted to O'Neill on his terms. He also totally spoiled Machaire-Cuircne, and all the possessions of Theobald Dillon. O'Neill afterwards marched to the gates of Athlone, and along the southern side of Clann-Colman, and through Kinel-Fiachach, into Fircall. In this country he remained encamped nine nights; and the people of Fircall, of Upper Leinster, and Westmeath, made full submission to him, and formed a league of friendship with him." Annals Of The Four Masters

M1601.11 "O'Reilly, i.e. Edmond, the son of Maelmora, son of John, son of Cathal, died (p..2243) in the month of April. He was an aged, grey-headed, long-memoried man, and who had been quick and vivacious in his mind and intellect in his youth. He (p.2245) was buried in the monastery of St. Francis at Cavan; and his brother's son, namely, Owen, the son of Hugh Conallagh, was elected in his place." Annals Of The Four Masters

M1600.40 "As for O'Donnell, when he perceived that they were not in the habit of going outside their encampments, through fear and dread, he made no account of them, and assembled his forces, to proceed into the south of Connaught, to plunder the countries that lay on both sides of Sliabh-Echtge, and especially Thomond. He had good reason for this, indeed, for it was these Earls, namely, the Earl of Clanrickard and the Earl of Thomond, who had requested the Lord Justice and the Council to send over this great army, to keep him in his own (p.2195) territory, away from them, for they deemed it too often that he had gone into their territories. Having adopted this resolution, he left O'Doherty, chieftain of Inishowen, i.e. John Oge, the son of John, son of Felim O'Doherty, to watch the foreigners, that they might not come to plunder his territory. He also left Niall Garv O'Donnell, and some of his army, encamped against them on the west side, between them and the cantred of Enda, son of Niall. He then mustered his forces, to proceed westwards across the River Erne. He took with him on this hosting, in the first place, all those who were under his jurisdiction in Ulster; and the Connacians, from the River Suck to the Drowes, and from the west of Tirawly to Breifny O'Reilly, were expecting and awaiting his arrival at Ballymote, whither they were gone at his summons. Among the Connaughtmen who awaited him there were O'Rourke (Brian Oge, the son of Brian, son of Brian Ballagh, son of Owen); O'Conor Sligo (Donough, the son of Cathal Oge, son of Teige, son of Cathal Oge), together with the people of the districts which lie from Coirrshliabh northwards to the sea; O'Conor Roe (Hugh, the son of Turlough Roe, son of Teige Boy, son of Cathal Roe), with all his muster; Mac Dermot of Moylurg, i.e. Conor, son of Teige, son of Owen, son of Teige, with his people; and Mac William Burke, i.e. Theobald, the son of Walter Kittagh, son of John, son of Oliver, with his muster. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1603.4 "The people of Rury O'Donnell repaired to Tirconnell with all their property, cattle, and various effects, in the first month of spring. But Rury himself, with his gathering and muster of Irish and English, with Captain Guest, went (before his people had removed from the west) to revenge and get satisfaction of O'Rourke (Brian Oge), for the insult and dishonour he had some time before offered him (as he had in contemplation some time before); so that they plundered and ravaged Breifny, both its crops and corn, and all the cattle they could seize upon, for the greater part of them had been driven into the wilds and recesses of the territory. A few persons were slain between them, among whom were Owen, the son of Ferdorcha O'Gallagher, and Turlough, the son of Mac Loughlin, who fell by each other on that occasion. A party of the English were left in garrison at Dromahaire, for the purpose of plundering the country (p.2343) around them. O'Rourke was thenceforward obliged to remain with a few troops in the woods or precipitous valleys, or on the islands in the lakes of his territory. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1604.1 "O'Rourke (Brian Oge, the son of Brian-na-Murtha, son of Brian Ballagh, son of Owen) died at Galway on the 28th of January, and was buried in the monastery of Ross-Iriala, with the Franciscan Friars. The death of the person who departed here was a great loss, for he was the supporting pillar and the battle-prop of the race of Aedh-Finn, the tower of battle for prowess, the star of the valour and chivalry of the Hy-Briuin; a brave and protecting man, who had (p.2351) not suffered Breifny to be molested in his time; a sedate and heroic man, kind to friends, fierce to foes; and the most illustrious that had come for some time of his family for clemency, hospitality, nobleness, firmness, and steadiness. Annals Of The Four Masters

M1605.2 "O'Rourke (Teige, son of Brian, son of Brian, son of Owen), Lord of Breifny, a man who had experienced many hardships and difficulties while defending his patrimony against his brother, Brian Oge; a man who was not expected to die on his bed, but by the spear or sword; a man who had fought many difficult battles, and encountered many dangers, while struggling for his patrimony and the dignity of his father, until God at length permitted him to obtain the lordship, died, and was interred with due honour in the Franciscan Monastery at Carrickpatrick." Annals Of The Four Masters

1607 "After James became King of England, he appointed as Lord Deputy of Ireland, Sir Arthur Chichester, who desired to see the country colonized with men of his own race and religion.5 It was reported that he intended to seize the earl of Tyrconnell and the earl of Tyrone, both of whom had been in rebellion against the Government. But these two chieftains, with many of their friends, fled from the country in 1607, and never returned. All their estates, embracing the six counties of Colerain (now Londonderry), Tyrone, Armagh, Cavan, Fermanagh, and Donegal, were immediately confiscated by the Crown, and became available for purposes of plantation." THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA,

1607 "The Plantation of Ulster was without a doubt the most significant event affecting our modern provincial history. It brought thousands of settlers from England, and particularly Scotland to these shores. They in turn brought with them a new culture and sense of identity, the legacy of which remains strong today. The Plantation occurred because of the need of the authorities to introduce order into Ulster, which was regarded as a turbulent province. There was also the hope that the spread of the Protestant Reformation would help maintain political uniformity. The Elizabethian Wars and subsequent land confiscation, and the Flight of the Gaelic Earls from Lough Swilly for Europe in 1607 laid clear the way for the plantation scheme to take place. The Plantation Scheme operated through three main groups of people. These were

a) the English and Scottish Undertakers, who had chief responsibility for the Plantation. The Chief Undertaker in an area (precinct or barony) was allocated up to 3,000 acres of land, others were allowed no more than 2,000 acres. The main Scottish Undertakers included Michael Balfour of Kinross (Knockninny, Fermanagh), Sir John Home/Hume of North Berwick (Magheraboy, Fermanagh), Sir James Douglas and Sir Alexander Hamilton, both of Haddington near Edinburgh (Armagh and Cavan), James Hamilton, Earl of Abercorn, from Renfrew (Strabane) and the Duke of Lennox from Stirling (Donegal).

b) Servitors, comprised the second group and were Crown servants, men such as Sir John Davis, Sir Thomas Ridgeway and Lord Deputy Arthur Chichester.

c) Native Irish freeholders, the Gaelic chieftains also received - 20% of the Plantation or escheated lands, in fact. The main group to benefit were the O'Neills, who received 9,900 acres at the Fews in South Armagh, also the O'Reillys, O'Cahans, Maguires and McSweeneys. All those who participated in the Plantation scheme had to undertake to build bawns (fortified farms), castles, and/or stone or brick houses. Other criteria which were set down included that the Undertaker had to bring 24 men aged 18 years or over from 10 different families to each 1000 acres of land. This is a summary of a lecture by our chairman, Dr. David Hume, to the Regimental Association of the Ulster Defence Regiment, Drumadd, Armagh, last week, on the subject of the Ulster Plantation: Ballycarry Community Association produces a historical journal which reflects Ulster-Scot history in its localised aspects to our area. If you are interested in receiving a copy please send three dollars (which includes postage) to Ballycarry Community Association, The Village Centre, 37 Main Street, Ballycarry, Carrickfergus, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK, BT38. Email : Website :

summer 1608 "That only some had been disloyal was not to prevent the almost complete confiscation of the territory of the lords of Ulster West of the Bann; the summer assizes of 1608 judged that almost all of Tyrconnell, Coleraine, Tyrone, Armagh, Fermanagh, and Cavan were in the King's hands" A History of Ulster 0-85640-476-4

1609 Following the defeat of the rebels, James 1 of England expropriated 300,000 acres of Ulster land from native Irish Catholics and gave it to English and Scottish Settlers. This was done by granting portions of the county to adventurers (such as Auchmuty) who, in return, undertook to settle and agreed number of English or Scotish families. Pynnar's Survey of the progress of the Ulster Plantion during its early stages shows that 286 families were planted in Cavan. The native population retained large parts of the county, however, as there were not enough settlers willing to come to the county.

[p.499]It is asserted by Hill, that as a result of the flight of the earls and of an act of Parliament known as the 11th of Elizabeth, no less than 3,800,000 acres in Tyrone, Derry, Donegal, Fermanagh, and Cavan were placed at the disposal of the Crown, and made available for plantations. The earls had now rebelled against the king and been proclaimed traitors, and their lands were therefore "escheated" to the Crown. Estates were constantly changing hands in this way in Scotland during the sixteenth century. The more important of the chiefs had gone into voluntary exile with Tyrone; against the rest it was not difficult for the Crown lawyers to find sufficient proof of treason. Thus all northern Ireland--Londonderry, Donegal, Tyrone, Cavan, Armagh, and Fermanagh--had passed at one fell swoop into the hands of the Crown; while, as we have seen, Down and Antrim had been already, to a great extent, taken possession of and colonized by English and Lowland Scotch. The plan adopted by King James for the colonization of the six "escheated" counties was to take possession of the finest portions of this great tract of country, amounting in all to nearly four millions of acres; to divide it into small estates, none larger than two thousand acres; and to grant these to men of known wealth and substance. Those who accepted grants were bound to live on their land themselves, to bring with them English and Scottish settlers, and to build for themselves and for their tenants fortified places for defence, houses to live in, and churches in which to worship. The native Irish were assigned to the poorer lands and less accessible districts; while the allotments to the English and Scots were kept together, so that they might form communities and not mix or intermarry with the Irish. The errors of former Irish "plantations" were to be avoided--the mistakes of placing too much land in one hand, and of allowing non-resident proprietors. The purpose was not only to transfer the ownership of the land from Irish to Scot, but to introduce a Scottish population in place of an Irish one; to bring about in Ulster exactly what has happened without design during the last half-century in New Zealand, the introduction of an English-speaking race, the natives being expected to disappear as have perished the Maori." THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA

 Aug. 6, 1610 "COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF TULLOCHONCO (NOW TULLVHUNCO) 4. 1000 acres to John Achmootie (brother of said Alexander). Sold to James Craig, 6th August, 1610." Precincts or baronies set apart for servitors (Scottish and English)and for natives, with the allotments to each individual, for which grants were issuedTHE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA

Aug. 14, 1610 " "COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF TULLOCHONCO (NOW TULLVHUNCO) 3. 1000 acres to Alexander Achmootie (or Achmouty), Fifeshire (probably). Sold to James Craig, 14th August, 1610. 5. 1000 acres to John Browne of Gorgeemill, gent. Sold to Archibald" THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA

1610 The Plantation of Ulster was implemented in 1611, after the flight of the Earls in which the main Ulster Gaelic chiefs, the O’Neills and O’Donnells fled to the continent. The English Government had spent 9 years (1594 -1603) and a lot of money reducing the Gaelic chiefs of Ulster to submission and they were intent on insuring it would not have to be done again.

The solution was to remove the natives from their land and replace them with English and Scottish settlers. The scheme included 6 Ulster counties and was influenced by English settlement plans for the East coast of America. The colony of Virginia in America and the town of Virginia in Cavan were both founded at around the same time and named after the virgin Queen, Elizabeth I.

The Plantation is an event that echoes to the present day. It did not have the success its instigators hoped for in Cavan and its effects were swept away in the 1641-53 civil war. But in North-East Ulster it planted very deep roots and within a generation many parts of NE Ulster were as English (and Scottish) as the land the settlers had left.

{Letter from Sir John Davies to Robert, Earl of Salisbury, concerning the state of Ireland in 1610 and outlining plans for the Plantation of British settlers in Ulster.}

My Most Honourable Good Lord:

Though I perform this duty of advising your Lordship how we proceed in the plantation of Ulster very late, yet I cannot accuse myself either of sloth or forgetfulness in that behalf; but my true excuse is the slow despatch of Sir Oliver Lambert from hence, into whose hands I thought to have given these letters more than a month since.

In the perambulation which we made this summer over the escheated counties in Ulster we performed four principal points of our commission.

1. First, the land assigned to the natives we distributed among the natives in different quantities and portions, according to their different qualities and deserts.

2. Next, we made the like distribution of the lands allotted to the servitors.

3. Thirdly, we published by proclamation in each county what lands were granted to British undertakers, and what to servitors, and what to natives; to the end that the natives should remove from the precincts allotted to the Britons, whereupon a clear plantation is to be made of English and Scottish without Irish, and to settle upon the lands assigned to natives and servitors, where there shall be a mixed plantation of English and Irish together.

4. Lastly, to the British undertakers, who are for the most part come over, we gave seizing and possession of their several portions, and assigned them timber for their several buildings.

We began at Cavan, where, as it falleth out in all matters of importance, we found the first access and entry into the business the most difficult. Of our proceeding here my report to your Lordship shall be the larger, because the best precinct in the county fell to your Lordship's lot to be disposed; and the undertakers thereof do still expect to be by your Lordship countenanced and protected. The inhabitants of this country do border upon the English Pale, where they have many acquaintances and alliances; by means whereof they have learned to talk of a freehold and of estates of inheritance, which the poor natives of Fermanagh and Tyrconnel could not speak of, although these men had no other nor better estate than they; that is, only a scrambling and transitory possession at the pleasure of the chief of every sept.

When the proclamation was published touching their removal (which was done in the public session house, the Lord Deputy and Commissioners being present), a lawyer of the Pale retained by them did endeavour to maintain that they had estates of inheritance in their possessions which their chief lords could not forfeit, and therefore, in their name, desired two things: first, that they might be admitted to traverse the offices which had been found of those lands; secondly, that they might have the benefit of a proclamation made about five years since, whereby the persons, lands, and goods of all His Majesty's subjects were taken into his royal protection.

To this the King's attorney, being commanded by the Lord Deputy, made answer, that he was glad that this occasion was offered of declaring and setting forth His Majesty's just title, as well for His Majesty's honour (who, being the most just Prince living, would not dispossess the meanest of his subjects wrongfully to gain many such kingdoms) as for the satisfaction of the natives themselves and of all the world; for His Majesty's right, it shall appear, said he, that His Majesty may and ought to dispose of these lands in such manner as he hath done, and is about to do, in law, in conscience, and in honour.

In law; whether the case be to be ruled by our law of England which is in force, or by their own Brehon Law, which is abolished and adjudged no law, but a lewd custom.

It is our rule in our law that the King is Lord Paramount of all the land in the kingdom, and that all his subjects hold their possessions of him, mediate or immediate.

It is another rule of our law that where the tenant's estate doth fail and determine, the lord of whom the land is holden may enter and dispose thereof at his pleasure.

Then those lands in the county of Cavan, which was O'Reilly's country, are all holden of the King; and because the captainship of chiefry of O'Reilly is abolished by Act of Parliament by Statute second of Elizabeth, and also because two of the chief lords elected by the country have been lately slain in rebellion, which is an attainder in law, these lands are holden immediately of His Majesty.

If, then, the King's Majesty be immediate chief lord of these lands, let us see what estates the tenants or possessors have by the rules of the Common Law of England.

Either they have an estate of inheritance or a lesser estate. A lesser estate they do not claim; or if they did, they ought to show the creation thereof, which they cannot do.

If they have an estate of inheritance their lands ought to descend to a certain heir; but neither their chiefries nor their tenancies did ever descend to a certain heir; therefore they have no estate of inheritance.

Their chiefries were ever carried in a course of tanistry to the eldest and strongest of the sept, who held the same during life if he were not ejected by a stronger.

This estate of the chieftain or tanist hath been lately adjudged no estate in law, but only a transitory and scambling possession.

Their inferior tenancies did run in another course, like the old gavelkind in Wales, where the bastards had their portions as well as the legitimate; which portion they held not in perpetuity, but the chief of the sept did once in two or three years shuffle and change their possessions by new partitions and divisions; which made their estates so uncertain as that, by opinion of all the judges in this kingdom, this pretended custom of gavelkind is adjudged and declared void in law.

And as these men had no certain estates of inheritance, so did they never till now claim any such estate, nor conceive that their lawful heirs should inherit the land which they possessed, which is manifest by two arguments: - (1) They never esteemed lawful matrimony, to the end they might have lawful heirs; (2) they never did build any houses, nor plant orchards or gardens, nor take any care of their posterities. If these men had no estates in law, either in their mean chiefries or in their inferior tenancies, it followeth that if His Majesty, who is the undoubted Lord Paramount, do seize and dispose these lands, they can make no title against His Majesty or his patentees, and consequently cannot be admitted to traverse any office of those lands; for without showing a title no man can be admitted to traverse an office.

Then have they no estates by the rules of the Common Law; for the Brehon Law, if it were a law in force and not an unreasonable custom, is abolished; yet even by that Irish custom, His Majesty, having the supreme chiefry, may dispose the profits of all the lands at his pleasure, and consequently the land itself; for the land and the profit of the land are all one. For he that was O'Reilly, or chieftain of the country, had power to cut upon all the inhabitants, high or low, as pleased him; which argues they held their lands of the chief lord in villeinage, and therefore they are properly called natives; for nativus in our old register of writs doth signify a villein; and the writ to recover a villein is entitled De nativo habendo; and in that action the plaintiff doth declare that he and his ancestors, time out of mind, were wont tallier haut et bas upon the villein and his ancestors; and thence comes the phrase of cutting, used among the Irish at this day.

Thus, then, it appears that, as well by the Irish custom as the law of England, His Majesty may, at his pleasure, seize these lands and dispose thereof. The only scruple which remains consists in this point, whether the King may, in conscience or honour, remove the ancient tenants and bring in strangers among them.

Truly, His Majesty may not only take this course lawfully, but is bound in conscience so to do.

For, being the undoubted rightful King of this realm, so as the people and land are committed by the Divine Majesty to his charge and government, His Majesty is bound in conscience to use all lawful and just courses to reduce his people from barbarism to civility; the neglect whereof heretofore hath been laid as an imputation upon the Crown of England. Now civility cannot possibly be planted among them but by this mixed plantation of civil men, which likewise could not be without removal and transplantation of some of the natives and settling of their possessions in a course of Common Law; for if themselves were suffered to possess the whole country, as their septs have done for many hundred of years past, they would never, to the end of the world, build houses, make townships or villages, or manure or improve the land as it ought to be; therefore it stands neither with Christian policy nor conscience to suffer so good and fruitful a country to lie waste like a wilderness, when His Majesty may lawfully dispose it to such persons as will make a civil plantation thereupon.

Again, His Majesty may take this course in conscience, because it tendeth to the good of the inhabitants many ways; for half their land doth now lie waste, by reason whereof that which is habited is not improved to half the value; but when the undertakers are planted among them, there being place and scope enough both for them and for the natives, and that all the land shall be fully stocked and manured, 500 acres will be of better value than 5000 are now. Besides, where before their estates were altogether uncertain and transitory, so as their heirs did never inherit, they shall now have certain estates of inheritance, the portions allotted unto them, which they, and their children after them, shall enjoy with security.

Again, His Majesty's conscience may be satisfied, in that his Majesty seeks not his own profit, but doth suffer loss by this plantation, as well in expense of his treasure as in the diminution of his revenue; for the entertainment of Commissioners here and in England, and the extraordinary charge of the army for the guard of the Lord Deputy and Council in several journeys made into Ulster about this business only, hath drawn no small sum of money out of His Majesty's coffers within these three years; and whereas Tyrone did the last year yield unto His Majesty .2000, for four years to come it will yield nothing; and afterwards the fee-farm of the undertakers will not amount to .600 per annum.

Again, when a project was made for the division of that country about twenty years since, Sir John O'Reilly being then chief lord and captain, they all agreed, before divers Commissioners sent from the State to settle that country, that Sir John O'Reilly should have two entire baronies in demesne, and ten shillings out of ever poll in the other five baronies; which is much more than His Majesty, who hath title to all the land in demesne as well as to the chiefry, hath now given to undertakers or reserved to himself.

Lastly, this transplantation of the natives is made by His Majesty rather like a father than like a lord or monarch. The Romans transplanted whole nations out of Germany into France; the Spaniards lately removed all the Moors out of Grenada into Barbary, without providing them any new seats there. When the English Pale was first planted all the natives were clearly expelled, so as not one Irish family had so much as an acre of freehold in all the five counties of the Pale; and now, within those four years past, the Graemes were removed from the borders of Scotland to this kingdom, and had not one foot of land allotted unto them here; but these natives of Cavan have competent portions of land assigned unto them, many of them in the same barony where they dwelt before, and such as are removed are planted in the same county, so as His Majesty doth in this imitate the skilful husbandman, who doth remove his fruit trees, not with a purpose to extirpate and destroy them, but that they may bring better and sweeter fruit after the transplantation.

Those and other arguments were used by the attorney to prove that His Majesty might justly dispose of those lands both in law, in conscience, and in honour; wherewith the natives seemed not unsatisfied in reason, though they remained in their passions discontented, being much grieved to leave their possessions to strangers, which they had so long after their manner enjoyed. Howbeit, my Lord Deputy did so mix threats with entreaty, precibusque minas regaliter addit, as they promised to give way to the undertakers, if the sheriff, by warrant or the Commissioners, did put them in possession, which they have performed like obedient and loyal subjects. Howbeit, we do yet doubt that some of them will appeal unto England, and therefore I have presumed to trouble your Lordship with this rude discourse at large, that your Lordship may understand upon what grounds we have proceeded, especially in that county where your Lordship's precinct doth lie.

The eyes of all the natives in Ulster were turned upon this county. Therefore, when they saw the difficulty of the business overcome here, their minds were the better prepared to submit themselves to the course prescribed by His Majesty for the plantation; and the service was afterwards performed in the rest of the counties with less contradictions. The British undertakers are preparing their materials for the erection of their buildings the next spring; the servitors and natives are taking out their Letters Patent with as much expedition as is possible. The agents for London have made better preparation for the erection of their new city at Coleraine than expected; for we found there such store of timber and other materials brought in places, and such a number of workmen so busy in several places about their several tasks, as methought I saw Dido's colony erecting of Carthage in Virgil -

"Instant ardentes Tyrii: pars ducere muros,

Molirique arcem, et manibus subvolvere saxa:

Pars optare locum tecto, et concludere sulco.

Thus, craving pardon, and presenting my humble service to your Lordship, I leave the same to the Divine preservation, and continue your Lordship's in all humble duties,

Jo: Davies.

Dublin, 8th November 1610.

1610 "Then came James's great scheme of colonization in 1610, which threw open the other six counties, for English and Scottish settlers. In some of these counties, and in some parts of them, the settlements were successful; in others they failed to take root. In Armagh, the British colony took firm hold, because, as soon as the county was opened up, settlers flocked into it across the borders from Down, and in even greater numbers from the English colony in Antrim. On the other hand, the "plantation" of Cavan was, comparatively speaking, a failure." THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA, page 503

 July 29, 1611 "In the Carew Manuscripts, I603-1624, published by the British Government, may be found a series of reports made by commissioners who were appointed by the king at different periods to visit the various landlords in Ulster to whom allotments had been made, and take account of their progress. The first party to make such an inspection consisted of five commissioners, among whom was the Lord Deputy for Ireland, Sir Arthur Chichester, who had himself been allotted the district now occupied by the city of Belfast. This visit was made in the summer of 1611, and the commissioners' report is as follows: A Relation of Works done by Scottish Undertakers of Land in the Escheated Counties of Ulster certified bv the Governors, Sheriffs and others; and some seen and surveyed by us in one journey into that Province begun the 29th July, 1611

Precinct of Tullaghchinko [County of Cavan]. Sir Alexander Hamilton, Knt., 2000 acres in the County of Cavan; has not appeared, his son Claude Hamilton took possession and brought two tenants, three servants and six artificers; is in hand with building a mill, trees felled, hath a minister but not yet allowed by the bishop; has raised stones and hath competent arnls in readiness. Besides the above named there are arrived upon that proportion since our return from the journey (as we are informed), twelve tenants and artificers who intend to reside there and to build and plant upon the same. John Auchmothy and Alexander Auchmothy, 1000 acres, have not appeared. James Craige is their deputy for five years, who has brought 4 artificers of divers sorts with their wives and families and [p.522]2 other servants. Stone raised for building a mill and timber felled, a walled house with a smith's forge built, four horses and mares upon the ground with competent arms. Sir Claude Hamilton, Knt., 1000 acres; has not appeared, nor any for him, nothing done. John Browne, 1000 acres, sent au agent to take possession, who set the same to the Irish, returned into Scotland, and performed nothing.

Precinct of Clanchie. The Lo. Obigny, 3000 acres; in the county of Cavan; appeared not nor any for him, nothing done, the natives still remaining. William Downebarr, William Baylye, and John Rolestone, 1000 acres apiece; the like. Since our return from the north, one Mr. Tho. Creighton arrived here and presented himself as the agent for the Lo. Obigney and William Downebarr, William Bayley and John Rolestone, who informed us that he brought with him sundry artificers and tenants, with cattle, horses and household provisions for the planting and inhabiting of that precinct, and is gone thither with intent to providen materials; and it is said that Downebarr, Bayley, and Rolestone are arrived themselves in the north and gone to their portions. Likewise, one Mr. John Hamilton arrived and presented himself as agent for Sir Claud Hamilton, undertaker, of 1000 acres in the county of Cavan; who informed us that he brought with him people to plant and is gone thither with resolution to provide materials to go in hand with buildings upon that proportion. Likewise, George Murey, Lo. Broughton, undertaker of 1500 acres, in the precinct of Boylagh appeared before us here at Dublin and returned to his land. Since our return one John Fullerton hath arrived at Dublin, who presented himself before us as agent for James Dowglasse who informed us that he brought 15 families with him to plant upon that land with artificers and workmen.

 Precinct of Loughtie. Sir John Davys, Knt., 2000 acres; has made over his proportion to Mr. Richard Waldron who sold his estate to Sir Nicholas Lusher, Knt., nothing done Sir Hugh Worrall, Knt., 1500 acres; was here in the summer [1610] took possession and returned into England. His lady and family came over about the 20th of July last. Three freeholders resident, 1 is building on his freehold; 20 artificers and servants, or thereabout, resident, most of whom lived there all last winter. He has built a fair house at Bealturberte after the English manner, and three other dwelling houses, with a smith's forge. Between Sir Worrall and Mr. Stephen Butler were built at Bealturberte five boats of several burthens, one of them will carry 12 or 14 tons. Timber prepared for building. Arms for 10 men of all sorts, and burnt by mischance in a house as much as would furnish 12 more. John Taylor, 1500 acres; came over in the summer of 1610, took possession and remained most part of the following winter, went into England about Shrovetide last, left his deputy with some 7 or 8 tenants. Came back about May last with provisions, but went back again and is not yet returned. Brought over 3 freeholders, whereof 2 are gone into England for their wives and families, the other, resident, is Taylor's deputy. One copyholder placed upon the land and 8 artificers, able men and servants. A timber house with a chimney furnished where he means to erect his dwelling house. Materials for building ready, but not drawn home. Competent arms of all sorts to furnish 12 men. John Fish, 2000 acres; came over in the summer, took possession, went back again, and left his deputy here, returned with his wife and family about May last. Brought with him 4 freeholders, 2 whereof returned for their families, none of them yet settled. Brought with him artificers and servants of all sorts, 33 or there about. [Preparations for building detailed.] Two English teams of horses, with English carts continually employed in drawing materials, oaks felled and carpenters employed in the woods of Fermanagh, felling more. Arms of all sorts for 35 men or thereabout, a barrel of powder with match and lead proportionable. William Snow, 1500 acres; never came, nor any for him. Passed over his proportion to William Lusher, son to Sir Nicholas Lusher, done nothing. Since our return from the North, William Lusher, son to Sir Nicholas, who bought William Snowe's proportion of 1500 acres in that precinct, came over with his father, took out warrants of possession, and is gone down to his land.

.--Sir Oliver Lambert, 2000 acres as servitor in Clanma[p.530]hon, is providing materials but has built nothing. Captain William Lyons and Lieut. Joseph, 1500 acres as servitors, have done no work. Lieut. At-kinson and Lieut. Russen, 500 acres apiece, have done nothing but taken possession.

Sir William Tathe, Knt., 1000 acres as servitor in B. Castle Rame, has taken possession, but done nothing. Sir Edmond Fetiplace, 1000 acres, has taken possession, done nothing else. Captain John Ridgway, 1000 acres. [Preparations described.] 120 great oaks have been brought from Fermanagh 30 miles from here, and more ready framed, being 280 gar-ron loads from Bealturbert; has made a watercourse for mill in stormy and rocky ground which cost him 25 L as he says. Has agreed for 500 barrels of lime in Meath to be brought him upon demand. Has removed five Irish houses near his castle and built two other Irish houses in the Great Island. Has an English millwright, smith, and farrier with their wives and families and necessary tools, and an English and Irish house carpenter with their wives and families, 2 or 3 other families of several trades, and has contracted at Bealturbert for a boat for use at Lough Rawre. Lieut. Carth, 500 acres as servitor, and has taken possession, but done nothing else.

Sir Thomas Ashe, Knt., and his brother John, 750 acres in the Barony of Tullaghgarvy are building a bawn of sods and earth with a good large ditch at a place called Dromhyle, and intend to draw water from the lough adjoining to compass the same; have drawn a watercourse two miles long to a place where they purpose to make a mill. Have made preparations for building a good house, and will have their materials ready next spring. Mr. Brent Moor and Mr. Arthur Moor, 1500 acres; have taken possession but done nothing.

Sir George Graemes and Sir Richard Graemes, 1000 acres apiece in the Barony of Tolehagh as servitors, have taken possession but done nothing. Captain Hugh Colme and Walter Talbot, 1500 acres as servitors, have built a strong timber house and two other wattled houses, felled 40 timber trees, no other work. [Progress of natives in County Cavan detailed.]

PRECINCT OF TULLOHONCO 1. 2000 acres, Jane Hamilton, guardian of Francis Hamilton (grandson of Sir Alexander Hamilton): strong castle and bawn built; 6 freeholders [in 1629 George Griffin, Francis Cofyn, Stephen Hunt, and Richard Lighterfoote were among the freeholders]; 25 lessees. [The inquisition of 1629 names four of these: Stephen and Susan Hunt, Adam Maunderson, John McVittye, and John Acheson.] 2. 1000 acres, Jane Hamilton, widow of Sir Claude Hamilton: no castle built, but a town consisting of 22 houses. 3. 000 acres,} James Craig (grantee of Alexander and John Ach-4. 1000 acres,} mootie): stone castle and bawn; 5 freeholders, 7 lessees, 21 cottagers; able to produce 100 men. 5. 1000 acres, Archibald Acheson (grantee of John Brown): stone bawn; 2 freeholders, 19 lessees; able to produce 28 men. Total in Tullohonco Precinct, 13 freeholders, 51 lessees; able to produce 180 men.

 PRECINCT OF CLANCHY 1. 3000 acres, Sir James Hamilton (grantee of Esme Stuart): a very large, strong castle 28 x 50, five stories high, and stone bawn 80 feet square; 8 freeholders [Richard Hadsor John Kennedie, John Hamilton, Richard Lighterfoote, Edmond Stafford, and three others]; 8 lessees [Edward Bailie, John Hamilton, John Loch, William Price, George Steele, James Stewart, and two others]; 25 cottagers; able to produce 80 men with arms. 2. 1000 acres, William Baillie: stone bawn; castle building; 2 freeholders [Edward and James Baillie], 4 lessees [in 1629 they were John Steivinson, John Baillie, James Teate, David Barbour, Gilbert Cuthbertson, John Hamilton, William Rae, and Walter Miller], 4 cottagers; able to produce 28 men with arms. 3. 1000 acres, John Hamilton (grantee of John Ralston); stone house [p.537] and 2 bawns, one 100 feet square; village of 8 houses; water-mill with 5 houses adjoining; 2 freeholders [David Barber and David McCullagh], 6 lessees [Alexander Davyson, 1618; Alexander Anderson [Henderson] 1619; John Wyllie, 1627; John Musgrave, 1618; John and Patrick Fenlay (Finlay), 1620; Robert Taillor, 1619; John Deanes, 1620; Oliver Udney, 1621], 7 cottagers; able to produce 40 men with arms 4. 1000 acres, William Hamilton: stone house and bawn; village of 5 houses; 2 freeholders, 6 lessees, 6 cottagers; able to produce 30 men. Total in Clanchy Precinct, 14 freeholders, 24 lessees, 42 cottagers; able to produce 178 men

PRECINCT OF LOUGHTY 1. 2000 acres, Thomas Waldron (heir to Sir Richard Waldron, deceased): bawn of sods, stone castle, windmill; town of 31 houses; 5 freeholders, 17 lessees, 31 cottagers; able to produce 82 men with arms. 2. 2000 acres, John Fish: very strong castle and bawn; 2 villages of 10 houses each, built of stone; 4 freeholders, 18 lessees, 14 cottagers; able to produce 60 men with arms. 3. 2760 acres, Sir Stephen Butler: very strong castle and bawn; one fulling mill; two corn mills; the town of Belturbet building; 15 freeholders, 76 lessees; able to produce 139 men with arms. 4. 2000 acres, Sir George Mainwaring (grantee of Sir Nicholas Lusher): brick house, stone bawn; village of 7 houses; 3 freeholders [Henry Ches-man, 1612; John Taylor, 1613; Walter Bassett, 1615,] 21 lessees [Nicholas Lysley, 1622; Thomas Jackson, 1616; Robert Gamble, 1617: Richard Castledine, 1618; Edward Lockington, 1618; Thomas Guye, 1627; John Broadhurst, 1616; Richard Nutkin, 1616; John Reley, 1616; Robert Newton, 1616; Bartholomew Jackson, 1616; Roger Moynes, 1629]; able to produce 48 men. 5. 1500 acres, Sir Hugh Wyrrall: stone house, no bawn; 3 freeholders, 5 lessees, 8 cottagers; able to produce 26 men. 6. 1500 acres, John Taylor: castle and bawn built; village of 14 houses; 7 freeholders, 7 lessees, 10 cottagers; able to produce 54 men with arms. 7. 1500 acres, Peter Ameas: stone house and bawn; a village of 7 houses; 4 freeholders, 7 lessees; able to produce 30 men. Total for Loughty Precinct: 41 freeholders, 101 lessees, 63 cottagers; able to produce 439 men with arms.

PRECINCT OF TULLAGHAH 1. 2000 acres, Sir George and Sir Richard Grimes: a stone bawn built, containing a little house. 2. 1500 acres, Captain Hugh Culme and Waiter Talbott: a strong bawn built, surrounding a stone castle. 3. 1000 acres, William Parsons: no buildings.

COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF CLONMAHONE 1. 2000 acres, Sir Oliver Lambert: stone house and large stone bawn; 1 English family. 2. 1000 acres, Sir Oliver Lambert (grantee of Joseph Jones): stone bawn 200 feet square; small house; 4 English families. 3. 500 acres, Captain Fleming: a stone bawn and house built, very strong. 4. 1000 acres, Archibald Moore (grantee of John Russell and Anthony Atkinson): a strong sod bawn built containing an Irish house.

PRECINCT OF CASTLE RAHEN 1. 400 acres, Sir John Elliott: stone bawn and small house; all inhabited by Irish. 2. 1000 acres, Captain Hugh Culme (grantee of John Ridgeway): stone house and bawn; town of 8 houses; 12 English families. 3. 1000 acres, Sir Thomas Ashe (grantee of Sir William Taaffe): an old castle new inended; all the land inhabited by Irish. 4. 500 acres, Sir Thomas Ashe (grantee of Roger Garth): sod bawn; all inhabited by Irish 5. 1000 acres, Sir Thomas Ashe (grantee of Edmund Fettiplace): stone bawn; all inhabited by Irish.

 PRECINCT OF TULLAGHGARVY 1. 750 acres, Sir Thomas Ashe and John Ashe: bawn of clay and stone; all inhabited by Irish.2. 1500 acres, Archibald Moore and Captain Hugh Culme (grantee of Brent Moore): bawn and house; 4 English families. 3. 2000 acres, Captain Richard Tirrell: strong stone bawn built

Pynnar's Brief of the General State of the Plantation for Persons Planted in the Several Counties. [p.544]COUNTY OF CAVAN Freeholders 68 Lessees for lives 20 Lessees for years 168 Cottagers 130 Families 386 Bodies of men

July 30, 1611 "THE allotments of lands by King James to the Scottish, English, and native 'undertakers" in the six escheated counties of Tyrone, Armagh, Cavan, Londonderry, Fermanagh, and Donegal are shown in the tabulations given below. Where transfers or reconveyances of the estates were made prior to 1620, that fact is also noted.

COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF TULLOCHONCO (NOW TULLVHUNCO)--first Duke of Lennox), Dumbartonshire.Sold to Sir James Ham-ilton, 3oth July, 1611.2. 1000 acres to William Baillie, Esq 6000 ACRES" Precincts or baronies set apart for servitors (Scottish and English)and for natives, with the allotments to each individual, for which grants were issued THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA

1612 "COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF TULLOCHONCO (NOW TULLVHUNCO) Acheson about I612. COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF CLANCHY (NOW CLANKEE)--6000 ACRES 1. 3000 acres to Esme Stuart, Lord Aubigny (son of Esme Stewart, the"COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF LOUGHTEE--I3,260 ACRES 1. 2000 acres to Sir Richard Waldron, Knt. 2. 2000 acres to John Fishe, Esq., Bedfordshire. 3. 2760 acres to Sir Stephen Butler, Bedfordshire. 4. 2000 acres to Sir Nicholas Lusher, Knt., Bedfordshire. 5. 1500 acres to Sir Hugh Wyrral1, Knt., Middlesex. 6. 1500 acres to John Tailor, gent., Cambridgeshire. 7. 1500 acres to William Snow. Transferred to Peter Ameas. Precincts or baronies set apart for servitors (Scottish and English)and for natives, with the allotments to each individual, for which grants were issued. THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA

COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF TULLAGHAH--59OO ACRES 2000 acres to Sir George and Sir Richard Graeme [Graham], Knts. 2. 1500 acres to Huge Coolme, Devonshire, and Walter Talbott. 3. 1000 acres to Nicholas Pynnar. 4. 1200 acres to Edward Rutlidge and Bryan McPhilip O'Reyly, gents. 5. 200 acres to Thomas Johnes, gent.

COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF CLONMAHONE--45OO ACRES 2000 acres to Sir Oliver Lambert, Knt., Privy Councillor, London. 2. 1500 acres to Joseph Johnes, gent. 500 acres to John Russon, gent. 4.500 acres to Anthony Atkinson, gent.

 PRECINCT OF CASTLE RAHEN--39OO ACRES 400 acres to Sir John Elliot, Knt., Baron of the Exchequer. 2.1000 acres to John Ridgeway, Esq., [brother of Sir Thomas]. 3.1000 acres to Sir William Taaffe, Knt., Louth. 4.500 acres to Roger Garth

PRECINCT OF TULLAGHGARVY--4250 ACRES; 750 acres to Sir Thomas Ashe, Knight, and John Ashe, gent., Meath. 2.1500 acres to Archibald and Brent Moore, gents., Kent. 3.2000 acres to Capt. Richard Tirrell.

PRECINCT OF TULLAGHAH. 3oo acres to John and Connor O'Reily, gents. 2.100 acres to Cahir McOwen, gent. 3.300 acres to Cahell McOwen O'Reyly, gent. 4.150 acres to Donell McOwen, gent. 5.200 acres to Owen O'Shereden, gent. 6.100 acres to Cahill McBrien O'Reily, gent.

PRECINCT OF CASTLE RAHEN1.2300 acres to Walter, Thomas, and Patrick Bradie, gents.2.300 acres to Cahire McShane O'Reily of Cornegall, gent.3.150 acres to Barnaby Reily of Nacorraghes, gent.4.475 acres to Shane McHugh O'Reily of Ballaghana, gent.5.50 acres to Thomas McJames Bane of Kilmore, gent.6.300 acres to Philip McBrien McHugh O'Reily, gent.7.200 acres to Owen McShane O'Reily, gent.8.400 acres to Bryan O'Coggye O'Reily.9.200 acres to Mulmorie McOwen O'Reily.10.200 acres to Hugh Roe McShane O'Reily.11.300 acres to Philip and Shane O'Reily, brothers.12.900 acres to Shane McPhilip O'Reily, gent.13.50 acres to Shane Bane O'Moeltully, gent.14.100 acres to Edward Nugent, gent.15.500 acres to Owen McMulmorie O'Reily, gent.16.100 acres to Hugh McGlasney, gent.17.25 acres to Shane McPhilip O'Reily.

 PRECINCT OF TULLAGHGARVY 1.3000 acres to Mulmorie Oge O'Reylie, gent.2.1000 acres to Mulmorie McPhilip O'Reilie, Esq.3.1000 acres to Hugh O'Reilie, Esq.4.150 acres to Terence Braddy, gent.5.300 acres to Morish McTully, gent.6.150 acres to Thomas Braddy, gent.7.150 acres to Connor McShane Roe [O'Bradie], gent.8.262 acres to Henry Betagh, gent.

The servitors being charged by us with backwardness in having done so little, answered for the most part that they had not taken out their patents until the end of Candlemass term last, and that by reason the British do yet retain natives (who ought to be their tenants) they are disabled to put things forward as otherwise they would, but they will go roundly in hand with their works this next spring as they have promised us. Signed, Arthur Chichester, G. Carew, Th. Ridgeway, R. Wingfelde, O1. Lambart. A Perfect Relation and Report of the Works, Buildings, and Fortifications done by the English, surveyed by us in most places, and the rest certified by the governors, sheriffs, and others employed by us in our journey in the Province of Ulster begun the 29th of July, 1611.

1614 "Robert M.Young, in Belfast and the Province of Ulster in the 20th Century (Brighton, 1909), describes Ballybay and the Leslies as follows: 'Ballybay House, the seat of Edward Henry John Leslie, J.P., near the town of Ballybay, ... is a fine mansion, surrounded by a well wooded park of some 600 acres, on the banks of one of two lakes, a mile from the town.

 The Leslies of Ballybay are descended from James Leslie, fourth son of the 4th Earl of Rothes of Leslie House, Fifeshire ... . He married a daughter of Sir James Hamilton of Evendale; their eldest son, born at Aberdeen, settled in Ireland in 1614. He was chaplain to Charles I, and in 1635 was made Bishop of Down and Connor, and afterwards translated to Meath. He was the owner of the property and castle of Kilclief (now a ruin), on the shore of Strangford Lough, Co. Down, which has remained in the Leslie family ever since.

His eldest son, the Rt Rev. Dr Robert Leslie, was Bishop of Raphoe and Clogher, and married a daughter of Sir Francis Hamilton, Bt, of Castle Hamilton [Killashandra, Co. Cavan]. His second son, James, married a daughter of John Echlin of Ardquin [Co. Down], and from their eldest son, Henry, Archdeacon of Down, who married the heiress of Peter Beaghan of Ballybay, is descended the present owner.' The Martin & Brett Archive (D/3406 on which is The Leslie of Ballybay papers (D/3406/D) Barbara Pederson

ca 1616 "We have pointed out before, that the Ulster plantation of James I was a scheme under which the lands stolen from the natives were given to certain Crown favourites and London companies, and that the rank and file of the Protestant English and Scottish armies were only made tenants of these aristocrats and companies. Tyrone, Derry, Donegal, Fermanagh, Armagh and Cavan were entirely confiscated. The Re-Conquest of Ireland. [tract] (Author: James Connolly)

June 10, 1618 "Besides the foregoing reports of Chichester and Pynnar the following brief muster returns have been preserved, which indicate the growth of the British settlements in Ulster during the first twenty years of the "plantation." George Alleyne was appointed Muster Master of Ulster, July 10, 1618, and the summary of his muster of men between the ages of eighteen and fifty made in that year is given in the Calendar of State Papers for Ireland, 1615-I625, pp. 220-230:

There be in the six escheated counties 197,000 acres. There appeared in all 1964 men. There ought to have appeared, according to the proportion or rate of 24 men to every 1000 acres within these six escheated counties 4728 as follows: Armagh, population 528--number appearing 238; Tyrone, population 1116--number appearing 393; London-derry, population 864--number appearing 610 (county 410; city, 100; Colerain, 100); Cavan, population 588--number appearing 539; Fermanagh, population 744--number appearing 184; Donegal, population 888--number appearing 0.


early 17th cent. Cont. from; The Gosford Papers (D/1606 AND D/2259) In addition, the family owned from the early 17th century the manor of Corrowdownan (in and round the town of Arvagh), Co. Cavan, which had a rental of 2,700 in 1817 and comprised c.6,500 acres and the following townlands: Arvagh, Brankill, Castlepoles, Corduff, Carrinainey, Corron, Corhanagh, Cardownan, Corlisbrattan, Cordonaghy, Drumshinny, Drumhillagh, Drumyouth, Drumlarney, Drumcrow, Drumberry, Forthill, Woodland, Gartylouth, Ticosker, Dunaweel, Lackin, Drumalt.

1618 "In 1618 the Irish Government instructed Captain Nicholas Pynnar to inspect every allotment in the six "escheated" counties, and to report on each one, whether held by "natives" or" foreign planters." The report presents a very exact picture of what had been done by the settlers in the counties inspected --Londonderry, Donegal, Tyrone, Armagh, Cavan, and Fermanagh. Pynnar points out that many of the undertakers had altogether failed to implement the terms of their agreement. On the other hand, he reports the number of castles, "bawns," and "dwelling-houses of stone and timber built after the English fashion," and mentions the number of tenants, and the size and conditions of their holdings. He states that "there are upon occasion 8000 men of British birth and descent for defence, though a fourth part of the lands is not fully inhabited." Of these, more than half must have been Scots; and if there be added the great colonies in Down and Antrim, there must have been an imigration from Scotland of between 30,000 and 40,000 in these ten years." THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA, page 504

July 20, 1621 "COUNTY OF CAVAN: PRECINCT OF TULLOCHONCO (NOW TULLVHUNCO) 1. 2000 acres to Sir Alexander Hamilton of Endervicke in Scotland, Knt., Renfrewshire. Granted to Sir Francis Hamilton (grandson of Alexander), 20th July, 1621. 2. 1000 acres to Sir Claude Hamilton (his son), Knight, Renfrewshire." THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA

1631 O'Clery's Book of Genealogies

Ms. 23 D 17 Royal Irish Academy

Thought to have been written by Cu Choigcriche O Cleirigh, one of the Four Masters, head of the Tirconnell sept of the O'Clerys (O'Donovan); held the lands of Coobeg and Doughill in the barony of Boylagh and Banagh, Co. Donegal, from 1631 to 1632, at which date he was dispossessed of his lands and removed, with other Tirconnell families, to Ballcroy, Erris barony, Co. Mayo, under the guidance of Rory O'Donnell, son of Col. Manus O'Donnell, slain at Benburb, 1646. Carried with him his books, his most treasured possession, and later bequeathed them to his sons, Diarmait and Sean. Cu Choigcriche's son Diarmait had a son Cairbre, who removed to the parish of Drung, Co. Cavan, and was the father of Cosnahach (1693-1759). His only son Patrick O'Clery had six sons, one of whom, John O'Clery, removed to Dublin in 1817 bringing with him the Leabhar Gabhala, the Book of Genealogies, the Life of Hugh Roe O'Donnell and the Topographical Poems of O'Dugan and O'Heerin, all in the handwriting of his ancestor, Cu Choigcriche. Later briefly in the possession of Mr. Patrick Lynch (d. 1817) and Patrick Vincent FitzPatrick of Capel St. Dublin, bookseller. Purchased by the Royal Irish Academy at the auction sale of Edward O'Reilly's Books and Irish MSS., Nov. 1830 (6pds). Printed in the Analecta Hibernica, No. 18, 1951 Abstracted from notes by the editor, Seamus Pender, M.A.

1641 "The Gaelic lords of Ulster found it hard to adapt to British methods of estate management and most were in dire financial straits by 1641. ......These descendants of 'deserving natives' loathed Wentworth's regime; at a time when they had been impovershed by the harvest failures of 1629-32 the lord deputy levied 'recusancy fines' to the letter of the law for non-attendance at Established Church services and drasticly lowered the value of their estates by questioning their land titles. The OReillys of Cavan told the Dublin administration that they were oppressed with "grievous vexations, either to the captivating of oure consciences, our looseinge of our lawfull liberties, or utter expulsion from our native seates, without any just grounds given" A History of Ulster 0-85640-476-4

1641 In 1641 the Catholics in the county, again led by an O'Reilly, joined the Catholic Confederacy in rebellion against England.

 Oct. 22, 1641 "So far under the direction of native Irish gentry the insurgents had shed comparativley little blood 'I protest that no Scottsman should be touched,' Sir Phelim's brother declared, while Philip O'Reilly in capturing Cavan ordered his men 'not to meddle with anie of the Scotishe natioun, except they give cause'. A History of Ulster 0-85640-476-4

Aug. 7, 1649 "To the amazement of both friends and foes, ()wen Roe O'Neill, in consequence of a private treaty with Coote, came on the 7th of August to relieve the city. Montgomery was compelled to raise the siege and return to his quarters in Antrim and Down. O'Neill became ill before he left the neighborhood, and soon afterwards died in county Cavan." The Scots-Irish

1649 The Catholic Confederacy was defeated by Cromwell and led to further confiscation and granting of Cavan lands to English soldiers and others.

1650's "Brefny or Briefne was the Irish territory ruled by the O'Rourke and O'Reilly clans up to the time of Cromwell in the mid 17th century. It extended from Kells in Meath to Drumcliff in Co. Sligo and was part of the Kingdom of Connaught until the time of Queen Elizabeth I, when it was split into the Cos. Cavan and Leitrim. When it was done, Cavan was redesignated as part of the Province of Ulster. O'Rourke was the Prince of West Brefny, which corresponds roughly to the present day Co. Leitrim."

c1650 cont. from The Annesley estate archive proper, D/1503, comprises c.1,000 documents, c.1650-c.1900, relating to the various estates of the Annesley family. For the most part, the papers consist of title deeds, leases, legal papers, etc, and relate to the Castlewellan, Newcastle, Bannfield and Dunlady estates in Co. Down (the last of which was acquired via the marriage of the Hon. Richard Annesley, later 2nd Earl Annesley, in 1771 to the heiress of the Lambert family of Dunlady, near Dundonald), the Cavan, Ballyconnell and Clonervy estates, Co. Cavan, the Tankardstown estate, Queen's County, and the Killallon estate, Co. Meath. The estates in Co. Cavan were divided up as follows. The Ballyconnell estate comprised: Carrowmore, Gortoorlan, Moher, Mullanacre, and Snugborough. The Clonervy estate comprised: Corfeehone, Clonervy, Latt, and Pottle. The Cavan estate was larger and more complex. It comprised premises in the town of Cavan and Ardglushin, Ardonan, 'Ballynecarrig', 'Bealbally', Bleancup, 'Carmaflinn', 'Carradabegg', 'Carmaclean', 'Caravad', 'Cariva', 'Caramaught', Cavanarainy, Clonloskan, Coppanaghbane, Coppanaghmore, 'Cordaggan', Corraweelis, Corlea, Creea, 'Decassun', Derries, Derrintinny, Derrynananta, Derrygeeraghan, Derryvehill, 'Derindiff', 'Derrinannan', Derrylahan, 'Donakiever', 'Dromaora' [Dromore?], 'Dromanagh', Drumcon, Drumaraw, Drumhillagh, Garvalt, 'Glinskey', Gowlat, 'Gortneleckin' [Gortnaleck?], 'Greaghahollea' [Greagh], Kilnacranagh, 'Knockmullelagh', 'Latvon ', Legnaderk, Legnagrow, Legatraghta, Lisclone, Lislea, Lisnamandra, Moneensauuran, Milltown, Slanore, 'Terrynowna', Trinity Island, Tullytiernan, Tully, and 'Urreran'.

1655 "William Edmundson had now gained more experience as a minister, and traveled continually, preaching in public places and in churches. Other meetings sprang up, and “People more and more were convinced, insomuch that the Priests and Professors still raged, many tender people leaving them; and to revenge themselves they cast William [p.19] Edmundson into prison,” at Armagh.1 He was soon liberated, however, and came forth with even greater zeal than before. Soon after his liberation, he felt a religious calling to leave shopkeeping and to rent a farm in order that he might set the example of bearing testimony against tithes, for as yet no one had borne that testimony in Ireland. With this in view, he and several other Friends and their families, leaving Lurgan Meeting well-settled, removed into the County of Cavan in the southern part of Ulster, where they rented land and began farming. Cavan Meeting was founded and many converts were made in that neighborhood. It was not long before these Friends experienced the sufferings they had anticipated. Many of them, for non-payment of tithes and other non-conformities, had their goods taken from them and were imprisoned.2 "Immigration of the Irish Quakers into Pennsylvania THE BEGINNINGS OF QUAKERISM IN IRELAND page 19

1658 "The following enumeration of the population of Ulster was reprinted in Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxiv. The date of this census is not certainly known but it is supposed to have been taken about 1658, or a few years before the Restoration: County Antrim, Scotch and English, 7074; Irish, 8965; total, 16,039. Armagh, Scotch and English, 2393; Irish, 4355; total, 6748. Cavan, Scotch and English, 6485; Irish, 8218; total, 14,703. Donegal, Scotch and English, 3412; Irish, 8589; total, 12,001. Down, Scotch and English, 6540; Irish, 8643; total, 15,183. Fermanagh, Scotch and English, 1800; Irish, 5302;" THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA CHAPTER XXXVIII LONDONDERRY AND ENNISKILLEN

1660 "In the migration of the Irish Quakers to Pennsylvania, there were represented only five surnames with the Celtic prefix Mc—McCool, [p.34] McMollin, or McMillan, McClum, McNabb, and McNice; but, as this prefix is common to both Irish and Scotch surnames, it is unsafe to use it as a means of distinction. The McCool and McMollin families were from Ballinacree Meeting, near Ballymoney, County Antrim, in the midst of the “Scotch country,” hence if any distinction can be made, it lies in favor of the Scotch or Scotch-Irish descent. The McClums were from County West Meath; the McNabbs from County Meath, and the NcNices from County Cavan, localities in which the Scotch had also settled, although not in such great numbers as in the more northern counties. The only Quaker family with a distinctively Irish name, that came over to Pennsylvania, was that of the O'Mooneys, who came from Ballinacree Meeting, and settled at Sadsbury, Lancaster County. " Immigration of the Irish Quakers into Pennsylvania RACIAL ORIGIN OF THE FRIENDS OF IRELAND page 34

1660 "Thomas Parke,1 of Ballean contra Ballylean, County Cavan, born about 1660, was married, 10 Mo. 21, 1692, at New Garden Meeting, County Carlow, to Rebecca Warr or Ward, of Ballyredmond. She was born about 1672. Thomas Parke2 was a farmer in Ireland, and in 1720 owned some land in Ballilean, Ballaghmore and Coolisnacktah. In May, 1723, he sold his stock of cattle and prepared to leave Ireland. On May 21, 1724, with all his family except Mary and Susanna, he took passage at Dublin on the ship Sizargh, of Whitehaven, Jeremiah Cowman, master, and after a rough voyage, as his son Robert notes in his journal, they arrived within Delaware Bay on August 21st.3 Thomas leased from Mary Head (an Irish Friend) a property near Chester, as a temporary home, but on December 2d purchased from Thomas Lindley 500 acres of land in the Great Valley on the west side of what is now Downingtown, Chester County. He was an elder of [p.306] Caln Meeting and well esteemed by Friends. He died 1 Mo. 31, 1738, and his widow, 6 Mo. 21, 1749. Children were: I. Mary Parke, b. 7 Mo. 18, 1693, at Ballintrain.

II. Robert Parke, b. 1 Mo. 23, 1694, at Ballintrain, had been a storekeeper in Dublin, in 1720-1, but on his arrival in Pennsylvania he became a clerk and conveyancer in Chester. For some years he served as Recorder of Deeds in Chester County. In 1727, he made a voyage to Bristol, England, and to Dublin, a ship companion on the voyage being Elizabeth Whartenby, a minister of the Society. In 1728, he made the return voyage bringing over six indented servants. He died Feb. 9, 1736-7, unmarried.

III. Susanna Parke, b. 10 Mo. 22, 1696, at Ballintrain; remained in Ireland, unmarried.

IV. Rebecca Parke, b. 11 Mo. 27, 1698, at Ballintrain; m. Hugh Stalker. Came over on the Sizargh with Thomas Parke.

V. Rachel Parke, b. Dec. 26, 1700; m. Aug. 17, 1727, William Robinson, who came from County Wicklow to Chester Monthly Meeting about 1722.

VI. Jean Parke, b. April 6, 1703; died Apr. 12, 1705; buried at Ballikelly.

VII. Thomas Parke, b. March 13, 1704-5; d. Oct. 17, 1758; m. 2 Mo. 26, 1739, Jane, daughter of Jacob and Sarah Edge. He became the owner and landlord of the “Ship” tavern in East Caln. Children were Robert, m. Ann Edge; Sarah, m. Owen Biddle, of Philadelphia, and had a son Clement Biddle, who m. Mary Canby; Rebecca, m. William Webb; Hannah, m. Benjamin Poultney; Thomas, b. Aug. 6, 1749, m. in 1775, Rachel, daughter of James Pemberton, and became a distinguished physician of Philadelphia; Jane; Jacob.

VIII. Abel Parke, b. Feb. 22, 1706-7; d. July 21, 1757; m. Deborah ——. In 1735, he built the “Ship” tavern on the main road from Philadelphia to Lancaster.

IX. Jonathan Parke, b. April 18, 1709; d. April 5, 1767; m. 2 Mo. 29, 1731, Deborah, daughter of Abiah and Deborah Taylor, and settled on 200 acres of land in East Bradford, Chester County, conveyed to him by his father-in-law. Children: Joseph; Deborah, m. Samuel Cope; Abiah; Rebecca, m. James Webb; Alice, m. Col. John Hannum; Jonathan; Mary.

X. Elizabeth Parke, b. Oct. 5, 1711; d. April 16, 1746; m. John Jackson. " Immigration of the Irish Quakers into Pnnsylvania In Delaware County. Established in 1681. page 306

1665 "County: Cavan Collection: CAV Number:18 Organisation: Clements, Nesbitt and Borrowes estates Description: Includes records of banking house of Nesbitt and Stewart, rentals of Nesbitt estates, labour sheets and legal documents Covering Date: 1665 -1950 Business Type: Estate Access Cond.: Open Town/Village:"

17th cent. "In the 17th century the cathedral church of Bishop Andrew MacBrady at Kilmore was confiscated and handed over to the Protestant Church and its Canons scattered."

17th cent. Clerical Income and Lifestyle cont; "The custom of taking up a collection for the support of the clergy on the occasion of a death dates back to the 17th century. Funeral offerings constituted between thirty-five and fifty percent of clerical income from before the Famine until 1975 when they were abolished. After the priest had read the funeral prayers at the house the relatives of the deceased stood behind a table and called out the names of the people as they came forward and paid their offerings. In this way their presence was recorded and acknowledged. In addition to dues and funeral offerings there were also 'requiem offerings' or November offerings for Masses for the dead and an 'oats collection' for the upkeep of the priest's horse. In the Manorhamilton deanery (North Leitrim) there was also a 'butter collection' or 'summer dues' . Also included in the priest's revenue were the usual stipends for marriages, baptisms or for giving letters of freedom to marry outside the parish. Priests insisted on their dues. The practice of reading the names of contributors from the altar on a particular Sunday, sometimes with embarrassing comment on those who didn't pay enough or didn't pay at all, went back a long way in the diocese. Few would risk the embarrassment of being absent from the priest's list."

1681 James Beaghan, (from) Rathmuch, Diocess of Kildare, a yoeman is listed in the Index to Interstate Administrations. DA995, K38, C3

Nov. 6, 1685 "[p.309] John Fred, of Parish of Drumlane, County Cavan, was married 11 Mo. 6, 1685, at Belturbet to Catherine Starkey, of County Cavan. Children of John and Catharine Fred, of Drumlaine, County Cavan: Benjamin, b. 9 Mo. 5, 1687; Mary, b. 8 Mo. 2, 1691, d. 11 Mo. 27, 1704, buried at New Garden; Nicholas, b. 1 Mo. 2, 1694; Abigail, b. 2 Mo. 4, 1696, buried 6 Mo. 28, 1697; Rachel, b. 5 Mo. 29, 1698; Sarah, b. 7 Mo. 15, 1700, at Coolattin [Cooladine]; John, b. 12 Mo. 20, 1703, at Coolattin. (Records of Carlow Monthly Meeting.)" Immigration of the Irish Quakers into Pennsylvania In Delaware County. Established in 1684. page 309

April 28, 1689 "It was difficult to catch the Jacobites unawares as the local Irish maintained an effective intelligence network. Nevertheless military parties from Enniskillen plundered the camp at Trillick to the Northeast on 24 April; burned Augher Castle to the East on 28 April; raided Clones and much of Monaghan and Cavan to the Southest at the end of April." A History of Ulster 0-85640-476-4

1701 Maurice Beaghan, (from) Maudlins, Diocess of Kildare, is listed in the index to Interstate Administrations. DA995, K38, C3

1703 birth year of " Edward / Cusick who died / October ye 31st 1767 / aged 64". "Inscriptions in stone 23, Magherintemple Cemetery situated near Monaghan border in Bunnoe half of Drung Parish. Breifne Vol 2 No 6 1963, Janet Ruddy.

 1707 Birth year of John Cusick who died March 5,1767. "Inscriptions in Magherintemple Cemetery situated near Monaghan border in Bunnoe half of Drung Parish. Breifne Vol 2 No 6 1963, Janet Ruddy.

1708 Birth year of "James Biggan who departed / Apr 6th 1777 / aged 60 years". "Inscriptions in Magherintemple Cemetery stone 43, situated near Monaghan border in Bunnoe half of Drung Parish. Breifne Vol 2 No 6 1963, Janet Ruddy.

1708 The birth year of “I.H.S. / Pray for the / Soul of Philip Beggan / who died December 1748 / Aged 40 years of age” Inscription in Crosserlough Old Cemetery (Co. Cavan) Janet Ruddy

1713 Cont. from The Armagh Diocesan Registry Archive (DIO/4, T/729, T/848, T/1056, T/1066-7, T/3123 and MIC/2) There is also a bundle of papers about individual parishes within the dioceses, as follows: Belturbet, 1713; Killina, 1775, Kilbixy, N.D.; Ardcarne and Drumcliffe, 1849; and Rathaspic, 1855. Of architectural interest are two papers, 1804 and 1829, about improvements and dilapidations to the see house of Kilmore, Co. Cavan.

Sept. 30, 1716 "St. James, September 30, His Majesty has been pleased to appoint Theophilus Butler, Esq; Baron Butler of Newtown-Butler in the County of Cavan." Boston News-Letter

Nov. 1718 "Townland of Drumoro, "Patrick Bolon 22-00-00" A Rent Roll for Bebhecan or Belehecan Estate for half a year ending Nov. 1718" Rent Rolls 1718 - 1760, MS11491, National Lib. of Ireland

1729 "Dear Mr. Beagan, I have been researching the Huguenot family of DeLappe (Delap) who apparently settled in County Cavan sometime in the late 17th or early 18th century. Five members of this family sailed on the ship Georege and Ann to America in 1729. Only the son, James, survived the voyage and settled in Barnstable, MA. My interest arose as the result of an article I'm writing for a children's magazine and the fact that I descend from Rose Delap, James' daughter. I am also planning a historical fiction novel about this voyage. I want to begin the story in Cavan and, although it is fiction, am trying to get a "feel" for the country and the Delappe family. Your name came up in a search for this information. I live close by, in Duxbury, and was raised in Osterville, so I'm practically a neighbor. Any input on this subject would be appreciated! Thanks, Valerie Kerzner

Nov. 14, 1731 "Hampton Court, aug. 4. An humble Address from the Protestant Dissenting Ministers of the Counties of Monaghan, Cavan, Longford, Fermanagh, and part of Tyrone, in their own name and in the name of the Gentleman and people of their persuasion, having been transmitted to his Grace the Duke of Dorset Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, has been presented to his Majesty: Which Address his Majesty was pleased to receive very graciously." The Boston News-Letter;

1733 " In Cavan, the proportion of Catholics to Protestants was as five to one; of the Protestants a very great majority were Presbyterians. " THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA CHAPTER XXXVIII LONDONDERRY AND ENNISKILLEN

April 21, 1735 "Instructions for the Cultivating and raising of Flax and Hemp; In a better Manner, than generally Practis'd in Ireland. By Lionel Slator of Gabragh, in the County of Cavan, Flax and Hemp Dresser to the Hon. Thomas Coote of Coote-hill, in the said County. And Likewise, Observations made by Richard Hall, of the City of Dublin, Hemp and Flax Dresser; on the Methods used in Holland, in Cultivating or Raising of Hemp and Flax; with Remarks on Mr. Slater's Book. And now Published for the benifit of the Inhabitants of New-England, & recommended to their Perusal. Sold by Daniel Henchman in Corn-hill." New England Weekly Journal

1735 Cont. from he Nugent of Farren Connell Papers (D/3835) In addition, there are c.400 miscellaneous estate papers, 1735-c.1870, including a 1765 survey of Bobsgrove, maps, valuations, drawings, schedules and inventories, together with rent receipt books, rentals and agents' accounts.

1742 The birth year of " Michael Cusack / who departed this life / June ye 7th 1797 aged 55." "Inscriptions in stone 24, Magherintemple Cemetery situated near Monaghan border in Bunnoe half of Drung Parish. Breifne Vol 2 No 6 1963, Janet Ruddy.

1742 "In addition to those just mentioned, the following were some of the immigrants to this region: Thomas McClun or McClung, from County West Meath; William McNabb, from Oldcastle, County Meath; Neal O'Moony, John Boyd and sons William and Samuel, James Hunter, Samuel Wilkinson, and William Courtney, from Ballinacree, County Antrim; William Evans, from County Wicklow; John Griffith and son Christopher, from Grange near Charlemont; Jonas Chamberlin, from King's County; James Love and Thomas Nevitt, from County Cavan; Isaac Steer and sons John [p.161] and Nicholas, from County Antrim; James Smith, from County Armagh; Thomas Bulla and Lawrence Richardson, from Grange, probably near Charlemont; and Thomas Lindley (son of James Lindly), a representative to the Provincial Assembly. " Immigration of the Irish Quakers into Pennsylvania PLACES OF SETTLEMENT page 161

 1744 Fairs; The crown did not penalize those who held fairs without patents. It is not surprising then that fairs sprang up in new locations to cater for local needs. In the isolated, mountainous barony of Tuilagbagh in the north-west of the county, fairs had appeared at Ballymagauran and Swanlinbar before 1744, then at Largy or Red Lion on the main droving route between Sligo and Enniskillen, with Bawnboy. and Kilsob, Dawra and Doobally developing early in the nineteenth century. -These were collecting points for store cattle, the major marketable commodity for the region. The Heart of Briefne DA990, C29, H42

1744 The birth year of "Bridget Kelly Beggen, later recorded living in House 10, Townlands of Muornery Upper, Parish of Kilmore, Baroney of Upper Loughtee, Co, Cavan. The townland contains 106 people living in 19 houses. Census of 1821, Vol. 16, PRO 1A 45 16, LDS S-27353, 0597157.

1746 The birth year of "Mary Beggan, later recorded living in the household of Pat M'Guire, a farmer and wood ? working six and a half acres. pat's family consists of his 28 year old wife Bridget, 3 year old son Edward, 2 year old dau Catherine and Mic'l Monaghan father in law age 80. Sect.63, house 12, Townlands of Drumbrolish in the Drung half of the United Parishes of Drung and Larah, Baroney of Tullygarvey, Co. Cavan. 1821 Census.

1748 "I.H.S. / Pray for the / Soul of Philip Beggan / who died December 1748 / Aged 40 years of age” Inscription in Crosserlough Old Cemetery (Co. Cavan) Janet Ruddy

Oct. 15, 1748 Birth year of "The founder of this branch of the American family was originally Scotch but removed to Ireland where the immediate ancestor Christopher WATSON was b. in County Cavan, Ireland, as also his wife Margaret BOURLAND. Josiah WATSON, gd. son of Christopher and Margaret (BOURLAND) WATSON who was of Pennsylvania and Virginia, was b. 15th October, 1748, and d. June, 1828, in Washington, D. C. A memorandum in his handwriting states his paternal grandparents were Christopher and Margaret (BOURLAND) WATSON, and his maternal grandparents were Robert and Jane (ROBERTS) COUCH, but does not give the names of his father and mother. Colonial Families of the United States of America: Volume 6 ISSUE page 483

June 29, 1750 Birth year of " III. Martha, b. 29th June, 1750; m. 6th April, 1779, William ARNOLD, of Slatswood, Isle of Wight, Collector of Customs at Cowes, son of Matthew ARNOLD, of Lowestofft. One of her children, Lydia m. the Earl of Cavan. Another was the celebrated Thomas ARNOLD, Master of Rugby, father of Matthew ARNOLD and gd. father of Mrs. Humphrey WARD. Colonial Families of the United States of America: Volume 5 ISSUE

18th cent. "The first post-Penal Catholic church in Cavan town was built sometime in the second half of the 18th century on the banks of the Kinnypottle river at a place called Skelton's Ford."

Actual Surname used in Search : BEAGAN


Standard Surname used in Search : BIGGANE


Range of Years used in Search : All


Surname Firstname Source Year Source* Centre

BEGGAN ANNE 1752 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN MARY 1763 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN CATHERINE 1775 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN THOMAS 1776 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN PATRICK 1776 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN ELEANOR 1776 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN THOMAS 1818 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN TERENCE 1820 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN JAMES 1833 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN WILLIAM 1840 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGEN ELISABETH 1842 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGIN JOANNA 1843 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGEN MARIA 1845 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGIN ANNE 1847 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGIN PATRICK 1847 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre

BEGGAN ELLEN 1849 B Co. Cavan Genealogical Research Centre


1754 Cont. from The Verner/Wingfield Papers (D/2538) Pre-1858 wills

Because a very large number of different estates and properties, some of them small, and located all over the place, are documented in the archive, an unusually large number of pre-1858 wills crop up as part of the title to some of them. These include: copy will of Francis Annesley of Ballyshonon, Co. Kildare, nephew of Mrs Elizabeth Paul of Ballyraggon, Co. Kildare, 1707; original of the will of the Rev. Benjamin Neale, Archdeacon of Leighlin, 1716; 3 copies of the will of Jeffry Paul of Ballyraggon, Co. Kildare, husband of Elizabeth Paul, 1720; copy will of Francis Neville of Belturbet, Co. Cavan, Collector of the Revenue in the district of Cavan, 1726; copy will and probate of Henry Clarke of Annasamry, Co. Armagh, 1728; copy will of Jean Trapaud of Dublin, 1733; will of George Bond of 'Syra', Co. Armagh, 1747; copy will, probate and letters of administration of George Ker of Tullydraw, Co. Tyrone, 1749-1750; copy will of Thomas Clarke of Ardress, Co. Armagh, 1751; copy will of Edward Dawson of Newtowncorry, Co. Monaghan, 1754; original and 2 copies of the will of Hannah Neale, otherwise Paul, widow of Archdeacon Neale and mother of Martha, Countess of Aldborough, 1764; copy will of Henry Clarke of Summer Island [Annasamry], Co. Armagh, 1769; copy will of Samuel Dawson of Rockcorry, Co. Monaghan, 1776; and will of Thomas Verner of Church Hill, Co. Armagh, 1786.

1764 cont; "Fairs were held in every month throughout the year somewhere in Cavan but in some months they were much more frequent than in others. Since the major commodity was cattle, by far the commonest month for fairs in the early eighteenth century were May and November. Out of 87 fairs in that year in Cavan, 15 were in May and 16 in November followed by August with I0 while January only one and April four. In May cattle were purchased when the new grass began to grow, dry cattle were sold in August for fattening and November marked the last opportunity to sell stock before the onset of winter. The remaining months of year were relatively quiet. The number of fairs continued to grow throughout the following century. There were two main causes. Many towns and villages increased the number of fairs that they held annually while fairs ‘were also established in new locations. Several of the older market towns did take the trouble to obtain new patents to hold additional fairs, notably Ballyjamesduff in 1764 The Heart of Briefne DA990, C29, H42

1764 Year of birth of "Mich’l Beggan , late recorded living in house #16 in the townlands of Island, parish of Lurgan Munterconaght, Baroney of Castleraghan, Co. Cavan. LDS film #T-17458 0597158 Census Returns of 1821, Vol. 19, PRO 1A 45 19

1764 Year of birth of "Rose, later the wife of Mic’l Beggan of house #16 in the townlands of Island, parish of Lurgan Munterconaght, Baroney of Castleraghan, Co. Cavan. LDS film #T-17458 0597158 Census Returns of 1821, Vol. 19, PRO 1A 45 19


Canon law in the 18th century allowed a parish priest to appoint his own curate and as there were so few curates available the bishop left the employment of curates at the discretion of parish priests who could afford to maintain one. As a result of this manner of appointment, which continued into the 19th century, the parish priest' s authority over his curate was absolute. He determined what his duties would be and what salary he was paid. In general curates were poorly treated. Their income amounted to between £10 and £15 a year with the exception of a few instances where the curate got a third of the parish income. The unfortunate curates had few rights but could do little about it because they were in a minority. But the hope of early promotion to a parish on average after five years made their lot more tolerable.

March 5,1767 "Here lyeth ye / body of John Cusick who died Mar / ch ye 5th aged 60 years." [Inscriptions in Magherintemple Cemetery situated near Monaghan border in Bunnoe half of Drung Parish. Breifne Vol 2 No 6 1963, Janet Ruddy.

Oct.31,1767 "Here lieth / ye body of Edward / Cusick who died / October ye 31st 1767 / aged 64". "Inscriptions in stone 23, Magherintemple Cemetery situated near Monaghan border in Bunnoe half of Drung Parish. Breifne Vol 2 No 6 1963, Janet Ruddy.

1770 "In all about twenty-nine Franciscans worked in the diocese during the 18th and early 19th centuries. One of them, Denis Maguire, a native of Killesher, was bishop from 1770 to 1798."

1771 The birth year of Pat Beggan , who is later recorded living in the household of Thady Granas, a 40 year old farmer. His family consists of his wife Mary Granas age 30 and son Thos Granas, age 1. Sect.62, house 27, Townlands of Drumcun in the Drung half of the United Parishes of Drung and Larah, Baroney of Tullygarvey, Co. Cavan. 1821 Census.

1773 Fairs cont.; , and Belturbet in 1773, but the majority seem to have held their extra fairs without any authority. For its part the Dublin government appears to have turned a blind eve. Only when an existing fair felt itself threatened by a proposed new fair, might the injured party have recourse to the crown which could then require the sheriff of the county to summon a jury to determine the threat of the new fair and, if necessary, persuade the newcomer to adopt another date. The Heart of Briefne DA990, C29, H42

April 6,1777 "This stone was erected by Edward Biggan in memory of his father James Biggan who departed / Apr 6th 1777 / aged 60 years". "Inscriptions in Magherintemple Cemetery stone 43, situated near Monaghan border in Bunnoe half of Drung Parish. Breifne Vol 2 No 6 1963, Janet Ruddy.

Oct. 26, 1777 "Love, William, Boston (also given Ireland).List of men raised to serve in the Continental Army from 14th co., Col. Jonathan Holman's (Worcester Co.) regt.; residence, Boston; engaged for town of Sturbridge; joined Capt. Robert Allen's co., Col. Alden's regt.; also, list of men mustered by Nathaniel Barber, Muster Master for Suffolk Co., dated Boston, Oct. 26, 1777; Capt. Allen's co., Col. Alden's regt.; also, Private, 6th co., Col. Brooks's regt.; Continental Army pay accounts for service from Sept. 8, 1777, to Dec. 31, 1779; reported as belonging to Ireland; also, Lieut. Col. William Stacy's co., (late) Col. Ichabod Alden's (6th) regt.; muster roll for March and April, 1779, dated Fort Alden and sworn to at Cherry Valley; reported reenlisted April 4, 1779, for the war; also, Corporal, Capt. Day's co., Col. Brooks's regt.; Continental Army pay accounts for service from Jan. 1, 1780, to Dec. 31, 1780; reported as serving 7 mos. as Private, 5 mos. as Corporal; also, same co. and regt.; muster rolls for Jan.-May, 1781, dated West Point; reported on command at Albany in April, 1781; also, muster rolls for June-Aug., 1781; reported on command at West Point; also, muster roll for Sept., 1781, sworn to at Continental Village; also, muster rolls for Oct., 1781-Jan., 1782, dated York Hutts; also, muster roll for Feb., 1782, dated Hutts; also, descriptive list dated Feb. 20, 1782; Capt. Luke Day's co., Lieut. Col. John Brooks's (7th) regt.; rank, Corporal; age, 28 (also given 26 and 29) yrs.; stature, 5 ft. 4 (also given 5 ft. 6) in.; complexion, dark; hair, dark; occupation, leather dresser; birthplace, Cavan, Ireland; residence, Boston; enlisted April -, 1778 (also given April -, 1779, by Lieut. Curtis); enlistment, during war; also, Corporal, Capt. Day's co., Lieut. Col. Brooks's regt.; register of furloughs granted subsequent to Jan. 1, 1781; leave given said Love by Col. Jackson, Feb. 3, 1783, to go from N. Windsor to Albany for 12 days; also, return of men belonging to 7th Mass. regt. in service in Jan., 1783, who had not been mustered but who were entitled to pay by order of the Commander-in-chief of Feb. 22, 1783; 1st co.; also, Capt. Day's co., Lieut. Col. Brooks's regt.; list of men who died or were discharged subsequent to Jan. 1, 1781; said Love discharged June 8, 1783, by Gen. Washington, term of enlistment having expired; also, list of men who received honorary badges for faithful service; said Love served from June 13, 1779; entitled to 1 stripe" Volume 9 page 990 Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolution (17 Vols.)

1779 The birth year of Pat Beggan of Sect.16, house 17, Townlands of Coroneenmore in the Larah half of the United Parishes of Drung and Larah, Baroney of Tullygarvey, Co. Cavan. 1821 Census.

1780 The birth of Catherine Beggan, later to be wife of Patrick Beggan of Sect.16, house 17, Townlands of Coroneenmore in the Larah half of the United Parishes of Drung and Larah, Baroney of Tullygarvey, Co. Cavan. 1821 Census.

1785 " County: CavanCollection: CAV Number: 17 Organisation: Allen and Halpin Description: Letter books, case books, day books, cash books, cash books (estate), cash/rent book, rates ledger, garage account books, map of Cavan, leases, wills, legal agreements.. Covering Date: 1785 - 1962 Business Type: Solicitors/garage/estate Access Cond.: Open Town/Village: Cavan"

July 12, 1783 REGISTRY OF DEEDS, DUBLIN Page 27

41 NEWBURGH, WILLIAM PERROT'T, Ballyhaise, Co. Cavan, Esq. 12 July 1783. Full 5 1/2 pp. 3 Dec. 1788.

My dearly beloved cousin Alexr. Saunderson, Cloverhill, Esq., and Rev. Doctor James Cottingham, Cavan trustees. My sister Mrs. Mary Hamilton; my sister Mrs. Letitia Burroughs; my cousin Broghill Newburgh; my cousin Ann Sarah Newburg. My servant Robert Magee. My cousin Mrs. Martha Moore. My aunt Mrs. Dodd.

  Broghill Newburgh, late secretary to the Linen Board, to hold during his life the manor of Aughateeduff otherwise Ballyhaise with the mansion and lease of the lands of Curkish and Conoho, Urney, Drung, Clissom [? all Co. Cavan], etc. which I hold under the See of Kilmore, Maghera [? Co. Cavan] excepted, and then to his heirs, and in default to Arthur Newburgh of Derry, Esq., and his heirs, and then to Thos. Newburgh, late ensign in the 15th Regt., and in default of his heirs to my cousin Alexander Saunderson and in default of his heirs to my right heirs for ever. No trees to be felled for the space of thirty years after my decease, and thereafter three trees of the same kind to be planted for each tree cut.

  The mansion house of Ballyhaise, and the market house and town clock (from the rent of the crane tolls or customs of the markets of Ballyhaise) to be kept repaired.

  I confirm the charge made by my grandfather for the repair of the church of Ballyhaise.

  Arthur Newburgh, Derry, to receive the rents of Drumcarn, Mullycraghery, Coolkennedies (Coolkennedy) and Maghera [? all Co. Cavan], for life subject to payment of £150 per annum to the person who shall inherit my manor of Aughteeduff, and then to the heirs previously recited.

  To my sister Mrs. Mary Hamilton the rents and profits of the manor of Castlebagshaw for life and to her heirs and in default to my sister Letitia Burroughs and her heirs and in default to my cousin Broghill Newburgh and his heirs and in default to my right heirs for ever. The rents and profits of the town and lands of Ballymacanrue, which I hold under a fee farm lease, to my cousin Ann Sarah Newburgh for life and then for her heirs and in default to my right heirs for ever, she also to receive £385 per (Rest of document missing) Registry of Deeds, Abstracts of Wills CS482, R44, 1954, V. 3, NEHGS

1789 Birth year of “In / memory of / Patrick McGuirk / who imigrated from Co. Cavan / to Prince Edward Island / in the year 1839 / died / may 15,1855 / AET 66 yrs. / Alice / his wife / died / May 20, 1868 / AET 66 yrs / Isabella Curran / died / 1865 / Henry McQuirk / 1876 ? / / Michael McGuirk / 1821 ? - 1901 / his wife Ellen Mcmanus / 1832- 1901 / RIP // Owen / aged 8 yrs / Catherine aged 4 years / John / 1 yr 6 months / All died in 1862 / Ellen / infant died 1867 / Michael / died 1879 / aged 2 years / children of Michael & Ellen McGuirk / Henry / died / Mar.6,1890 / aged / 20 yrs / RIP //”. Lot 36, Cmt 2, Stone 233, St. Patrick’s, Master Name List, Reel 38.

1792 "In Cavan, the proportion of Catholics to Protestants was as five to one; of the Protestants a very great majority were Presbyterians. Edward Wakefield in his Statistical and Political Account of Ireland (London, 1812), vol. ii., p. 684, fixes the total number of families living in Ulster, in the year 1733, at 101,079, of whom 62,620 were estimated to be Protestant families, and 38,459 Catholic families

Jan. 24, 1793 "On January 24, 1793, another correspondent tells how a battle took place between Bailieborough and Kingscourt, Co. Cavan, ‘between those deluded persons styling themselves Defenders and a part of the army’, when eighteen labourers were killed, five badly wounded, and thirty taken prisoners ‘and lodged in Cavan gaol’." Labour in Irish History. [Tract] (Author: James Connolly)

1793 "In the Reports of the Secret Committee of the House of Lords, 1793, speaking of the Defenders (who, as we have stated before, were the organised labourers striving to better their condition by the only means open to them), it says ‘they first appeared in the county Louth’, ‘soon spread through the counties of Meath, Cavan, Monaghan and parts adjacent’, and ‘their measures appear to have been concerted and conducted with the utmost secrecy and a degree of regularity and system not usual to people in such mean condition, and as if directed by men of a superior rank’. Labour in Irish History. [Tract] (Author: James Connolly)

May 1, 1795 "Townland of Poloreagh, # 18 Andrew Boylan and Partners. to be sold pursurant to the will of Robert, Late earl of Farnham. Date of Lease May 1st, 1795. tenure 3 lives" National Lib. Of Ireland, Hayes Manuscripts

1795 The birth year of Owen Beggan, later recorded living in the household of James McEntee, a farmer working 10 acres with his family cosisting of James' wife Mary, age 37, and step children; Ann Carmel, 16; Mary Carmel, 14; Catherine Carmel, 12; Francis Carmel, 1; Patrick, a son age 1; Cicily M'Grimis, a servant, age 18, and Eleanor M'Entee age 2. Sect. 92 house 12 in the Townlands of Minolty, in the United Parish of Drung and Larah in the Baroney of Tullygarvey, Co. Cavan. 1821 Census of Co. Cavan.

1795 PRIESTLY FAMILIES cont; "From the foundation of St Patrick's College, Maynooth, in 1795 seminary training became more accessible. In future the majority of Kilmore priests would be educated there and fewer went to the continent. Patrick O'Reilly, Killann (Bailieboro) and John O'Reilly, Cran, Drumgoon (Cootehill), both of whom had been already ordained in Antwerp, were the first two Kilmore priests to study in the college the year it opened.

 1796 The following Beagans are the only of record in the Spinning Wheel premium entitlement list of Ireland;   -County - Parish or Barony

  Andrew Beagan, Monaghan Aughnamamullin

  Felix Beagan, Monaghan Dunnamine

  Henry Beagan, Monaghan Dunnamine

  Peter Beagan, Monaghan Dunnamine

  Peter Beaghan, Kings Gallen

  Daniel Beggan, Monaghan Kilmore

  Felix Beggan, Fermanagh Cloness

  Thomas Beggan, Fermanagh Drummully

  Widow Beggan, Cavan Kilsherdney

  James Beghan, West Meath Street

March 12, 1796 Birth year of "Rev. James Brady Born: 12 March 1796 (Gravestone, St. Joachim’s)

Place Born: Lapinbaun, Parish of Drung, County Caven, Ireland (Gravestone, St. Joachim’s)

Ordained: 8 July 1838 (Gravestone, St. Joachim’s)

Siblings: Patrick, John (deceased by 1862), Daniel, Thomas, Ellenor

Other relatives: (From wills of Rev. Brady and his brother Patrick Brady)

Niece Mary Smith, her children Patrick, John, and Catherine

Niece Bridget Fay,

Nephew Philip Fay

Niece Anne McKenna

Nephew John Smith

June 7,1797 "Here lieth the body / of Michael Cusack / who departed this life / June ye 7th 1797 aged 55." "Inscriptions in stone 24, Magherintemple Cemetery situated near Monaghan border in Bunnoe half of Drung Parish. Breifne Vol 2 No 6 1963, Janet Ruddy.

 1798 The birth of Anne Beggan , later recorded living in the household of Philip McEntee age 30 a farmer with 8 acres. His family consists of his wife Catherine age 30, dau Elean'r age 6, son Mic'l age 4, son James age 1, and Thomas Roan age 12 Leruel ?. Sect.21, house 8, Townlands of Lismaduff in the Drung half of the United Parishes of Drung and Larah, Baroney of Tullygarvey, Co. Cavan. 1821 Census.

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