Ancient Ulster Connections in the Annals
Legend and History from the Annals of the Four Masters
In the Age of the World 3500 (perhaps 1700 BC) the sons of Milesius arrive
in Ireland to take it from the Tuatha De Dananns.
In the Age of the World 3502, the first year of the reign of Eremhon, son of
Milesius, over Ireland. He gave the province of Ulster to Emhear, son of Ir,
son of Milesius.
In the Age of the World 3668, The first year of the joint reign of
Sobhairce and Cearmna Finn, the two sons of Ebric, son of Emher, son of
Ir, son of Milidh, over Ireland. These were the first kings of Ireland of
the race of Ir.
In the Age of the World 3847. After Sedna, son of Airtri, son of Eibhric,
son of Emher, son of Ir; had been five years in the sovereignty, he fell
by Fiacha Finscothach and Muineamhon, son of Cas Clothach, at Cruachain.
In the Age of the World 3922, Ollamh Fodhla, after having been forty years
in the sovereignty of Ireland, died at his own house at Teamhair (Tara).
He was the first king by whom the Feis Teamhrach was established; and it
was by him Mur Ollamhan was erected at Teamhair. It was he also that
appointed a chieftain over every cantred, and a Brughaidh over every
townland, who were all to serve the King of Ireland.
In the Age of the World 3942. This was the twentieth year of the reign of
Finnachta son of Ollamh Fodhla over Ireland. He afterwards died of the
plague in Magh Inis, in Uladh.
In the Age of the World 4020. At the the battle of Aircealtair over the
Ultonians, it was this Sirna, son of Dian, that wrested
the government of Teamhair (Tara) from the Ulta, i.e. the race of Ir.
In the Age of the World 4452. The thirtieth year of Airgeatmhar, son of
Sirlamh [from the race of Ir], in the sovereignty of Ireland, when he fell
by Duach Ladhgrach and Lughaidh Laighdhe, son of Eochaidh.
In the Age of the World 4532 (perhaps 668 BC) it was Macha, daughter of
Aedh Ruadh, who brought the sons of Dithorba with her to Ulster to erect
the fort of Eamhain [Macha], that it might always be the chief city of
In the Age of the World 4539. Cimbaeth, son of Fintan, having been seven
years in the sovereignty of Ireland, after he had been taken to her as
husband by Macha, died at Eamhain Macha. This Cimbaeth was the first king
of Eamhain [Macha]. It was Cimbaeth and Macha that fostered Ugaine Mor.
In the Age of the World 4981. Rudhraighe, son of Sithrighe, son of Dubh,
son of Fomhor, son of Airgeatmar, after having been seventy years in the
sovereignty of Ireland, died at Airgeat Gleann. It was by this Rudghraighe
that these battles were won throughout Ireland: the battle of Cuirce; the
battle of Luachair; seven battles in Cliu; the battle of Gleannamhnach;
the battle of Sliabh Mis; the battle of Boirinn; the battle of Ren; the
battle of Ai; the battle of Cuil Silinne; the two battles of Fortrasc.
The Age of the World 5200, i.e. The first year of the age of Christ, and the
eighth year of the reign of Crimhthann Niadhnairg.
For 10 AD, Tibraide Tireach, from whom are the Dal Araidhe, being within
the womb of his mother Aine, daughter of the king of Saxony, escaped death
from Cairbre Conncait's massacre of the nobility.
For 37 AD, Fiatach Finn (a quo Dal Fiatach), son of Daire, son of Dluthach,
sovereign of Ireland.
For 56 AD, Elim, son of Conra, King of Ulster, along with other provincial
kings, killed Fiacha Finnfolaidh, sovereign of Ireland, to become sovereign
of IReland himself.
For 106 AD, Tuathal Teachtmhar, after having been thirty years in the
sovereignty of Ireland, was slain by Mal, son of Rochraidhe, King of
Ulster, in Magh Line, at Moin An Chatha, in Dal Araidhe, where the two
rivers, Ollar and Ollarbha, spring.
For 165 AD, Conaire, son of Mogh Lamha, after having been eight years in
the sovereignty of Ireland, fell by Neimhidh, son of Sruibhgheann. This
Conaire had three sons, Cairbre Musc, from whom the Muscraighe are called;
Cairbre Baschaein, from whom are the Baiscnigh, in Corca Baiscinn; and
Cairbre Riadal, from whom are the Dal Riada.
For 240, the battle of Magh Techt, and the fleet of Cormac (mac Artt) sailed across
Magh Rein (i.e. across the sea), this year, so that it was on that
occasion he obtained the sovereignty of Alba (Scotland).
For 262, the battle of Crionna Fregabhail was fought by Cormac (mac Artt) against the
Ulstermen, where fell Aenghus Finn, son of Fearghus Duibhdeadach i.e. the
Black Toothed, King of Ulster, with the slaughter of the Ulstermen about
For 326, the fourth year of Colla Uais, in the sovereignty of Ireland,
when Muireadhach Tireach expelled him and his brothers into Alba (Scotland)
with three hundred along with them.
For 331 AD, the battle of Achadh Leithdheirg, in Fearnmhagh, was fought by
the three Collas against the Ulstermen, in which fell Fearghus Fogha, son
of Fraechar Foirtriun, the last king of Ulster who resided at Eamhain
[Macha]. They afterwards burned Eamhain, and the Ulstermen did not dwell
therein since. They also took from the Ulstermen that part of the province
extending from the Righe and Loch nEathach westwards. Colla Meann fell in
For 356, After Muireadhach Tireach had been thirty years in the
sovereignty of Ireland, he was slain by Caelbhadh, son of Crunn, King of
Uladh, at Portrigh, over Dabhall.
For 457, Ard Machab (Armagh) was founded by Saint Patrick, it having been
granted to him by Daire, son of Finnchadh, son of Eoghan, son of Niallan.
Twelve men were appointed by him for building the town. He ordered them,
in the first place, to erect an archbishop's city there, and a church for
monks, for nuns, and for the other orders in general, for he perceived
that it would be the head and chief of the churches of Ireland in general.
For 464, Conall Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages (from whom are
descended the Cinel Conaill), was slain by the old tribes of Magh Slecht,
he having been found unprotected, and was buried at Fidhnach Maighe Rein,
by Saint Caillin, as the Life of the aforesaid saint relates.
For 465, Eoghan, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages (from whom are
descended the Cinel Eoghain), died of grief for Conall Gulban, son of
Niall of the Nine Hostages, and was buried at Uisce Chain, in Inis
For 548, The death of Eochaidh, son of Connlo, son of Caelbhadh, son of Crunn
Badhrai, King of Ulidia, from whom are the Ui Eathach Uladh.
For 557, The battle of Moin Doire Lothair was gained over the Cruithnigh
(Cruithne of Ulster), by the Ui Neill of the North, i. e. by the Cinel
Conaill and Cinel Eoghain, wherein fell seven chieftains of the Cruithnigh,
together with Aedh Breac; and it was on this occasion that the Lee and
Carn Eolairg were forfeited to the Clanna Neill of the North
For 558, After Diarmaid, the son of Fearghus Cerrbheoil, had been twenty
years in sovereignty over Ireland, he was slain by Aedh Dubh, son of
Suibhne, King of Dal Araidhe, at Rath Beag, in Magh Line.
For 572, Conall, son of Comhgall, King of Dal Riada, died. It was he that
granted Hy Iona to Colum Cille (St. Columba).
For 597, The battle of Cuil Cael, by Fiachna, son of Baedan, against
Fiachna, son of Deman; and the battle was gained against Fiachna, son of
For 622, the battle of Lethed Midinn, at Drung, was fought by Fiachna, son
of Deman, Lord of Dal Fiatach, against Fiachna, son of Baedan, King of
Ulidia. The battle was gained over Fiachna, son of Baedan, and he fell
For 634, The battle of Magh Rath was gained by Domhnall, son of Aedh, and
the sons of Aedh Slaine, over Congal Claen, son of Scannlan, King of
Ulidia, where fell Congal, and the Ulidians and foreigners along with him.
For 665, Maelcaeich, son of Scannal, chief of the Cruithne of Dal Araidhe
of the race of Ir, died. Eochaidh Iarlaidh, King of the Cruithne, also
For 679, Dunghal, son of Scannal, chief of the Cruithni, and Ceannfaeladh,
son of Suibhne, chief of Cianachta Glinne Geimhin, were burned by Maelduin,
son of Maelfithrigh, Lord of the Cinel Eoghain, at Dun Ceithirn.
For 689, Fearghus, son of Lodan, King of Ulidia, was slain by the Ui
Eachdhach, people of Iveagh.
For 706, Cucuaran, King of the Cruithni and of Ulidia, was killed by
Finnchu hUa Ronain.
For 732, The battle of Fochart, in Magh Muirtheimhne was fought by Aedh
Allan and the Clanna Neill of the North, against the Ulidians, where Aedh
Roin, King of Ulidia, was slain
For 754, The battle of Eamhain Macha was gained by Fiachna, son of Aedh
Roin (king of Ulidia), over the Ui Neill, wherein were slain Dunghal Ua
Conaing and Donnbo.
For 756, The battle of Ath Dumha was fought between the Ulidians and Ui
Eathach (people of Iveagh), in which Ailill, son of Feidhlimidh, lord of
Ui Eathach, was slain.
For 771, A battle was fought between the Dal Araidhe themselves at
Sliabh Mis, in which Nia, son of Cucongalt, was slain. Another battle
was fought between the Dal Araidhe, by Eochaidh, son of Fiachna, and
Tomaltach, son of Innreachtach, where Cinaedh Ciarrge, son of Cathasach,
and Dunghal Ua Fearghusa, and others besides them, were slain.
For 781, A battle was fought between the Ui Eachach (people of Iveagh) and
the Conaille, in which Cathrae, chief of Mughdhorna Cremorne, and Rimidh,
son of Cearnach, were slain.
For 787, Tomaltach, son of Innreachtach, King of Ulidia, was slain by
Eochaidh, son of Fiachna. Breasal, son of Flathrai, was lord of Dal Araidhe.
For 796, A battle between the Ulidians and the Ui Eathach Cobha, wherein
Eochaidh, son of Ailell, lord of Cobha (Iveagh), was slain.
For 803, Cinaedh, son of Conchobhar, was slain at Magh Cobha, by the
Cruithni of Dal Araidhe.
For 823, A battle was gained in Magh Inis (Lecale) by the Ulidians over
the foreigners (Vikings), wherein many were slain.
For 825, the battle of Leithi Cam, in Magh Enir between the the races of
Conall and Eoghan (northern Ui Neill), and the Airghialla and the Ulidians.
The Airghialla were defeated, cut down, and pursued to Craebh Caille, over
the Callainn, to the west of Ard Macha; and the battle was gained over the
Ulidians and Airghialla, and a slaughter made of them.
For 830, Ard Macha was plundered thrice in one month by the foreigners,
and it had never been plundered by strangers before. The plundering of
Daimhliag and the tribe of Cianachta, with all their churches, by the
For 835, Gofraidh, son of Fearghus, chief of Oirghialla, went to Alba, to
strengthen the Dal Riada, at the request of Cinaeth, son of Ailpin.
For 847, Flannagan, son of Eochaidh, lord of North Dal Araidhe, was slain
by the Cinel Eoghain.
For 851, Cathmal, son of Tomaltach, half king of Ulidia, was killed
by the foreigners.
For 862, A great victory was gained by the king, Aedh Finnliath, and
by Flann, son of Conang, over Anbhith, son of Aedh, King of Ulidia, with
the Ulidians, in the territory of Conaille Cerd.
For 864, A complete muster of the North was made by Aedh Finnliath, so
that he plundered the fortresses of the foreigners, wherever they were in
the North, both in Cinel Eoghain and Dal Araidhe;
For 879, A battle was gained by the Conaille Muirtheimhne, with their lord
Gibhleachan, over the Ulidians, wherein fell Ainbhith, son of Aedh, King
of Ulidia; and Conallan, son of Maelduin, lord of Cobha; and other nobles
along with them.
For 885, Eremhon, son of Aedh, King of Ulidia, was slain by Eloir, son of
Iargni, one of the Norsernen.
For 892, A battle was grained at Rath Cro by Maelfinnia, son of Flannagan,
over Aiddeidh, son of Laighne, and over the Dal Araidhe, in which were
slain Muireadhach, son of Maeleitigh, lord of Dal Araidhe, and Ainniarraidh,
son of Maelmoicheirghe, son of Innreachtach, lord of Leath Chathail, with
three hundred along with them.
For 1177, An army was led by John De Courcy and the knights into Dalaradia
and to Dun da leathghlas; they slew Donnell, the grandson of Cathasach,
Lord of Dalaradia. Dun da leathghlas was plundered and destroyed by John
and the knights who came in his army. A castle was erected by them there,
out of which they defeated the Ulidians twice, and the Kinel-Owen and
Oriels once, slew Conor O'Carellan, chief of Clandermot, and Gilla-Macliag
O'Donnelly, chief of Feardroma; and Donnell O'Flaherty now Laverty was so
wounded by arrows on this occasion, that he died of his wounds in the
church of St. Paul at Armagh, after having received the body and blood of
Christ, and after extreme unction and penance. Many other chieftains were
also slain by them besides these. During the same expedition, John De Courcy
proceeded with his forces to Hy-Tuirtre and Firlee; before his arrival,
however, Cumee O'Flynn had set Armoy on fire; but they burned Coleraine
and many other churches on this incursion.
For 1178, John De Courcy with his foreigners repaired to Machaire Conaille,
and committed depredations there. They encamped for a night in Glenree,
where Murrough O'Carroll, Lord of Oriel, and Cooley Mac Donslevy, King of
Ulidia, made a hostile attack upon them, and drowned and otherwise killed
four hundred and fifty of them. One hundred of the Irish, together with
O'Hanvy, Lord of Hy-Meith-Macha, fell in the heat of the battle.
John De Courcy soon after proceeded to plunder Dalaradia and Hy-Tuirtre;
and Cumee O'Flynn, Lord of Hy-Tuirtre and Firlee, gave battle to him and
his foreigners, and defeated them with great slaughter, through the miracles
of Patrick, Columbkille, and Brendan; and John himself escaped with
difficulty, being severely wounded, and fled to Dublin.
For 1181, Donnell, the son of Hugh Mac Loughlin, and the Kinel-Owen of
Tullaghoge, made an incursion into Ulidia, and defeated the Ulidians,
the Hy-Tuirtre, and the Firlee, together with Rory Mac Donslevy, and Cumee
For 1189, Armagh was plundered by John De Courcy and the English of Ireland.
For 1196, Rory Mac Donslevy, with the English, and the sons of the
chieftains of Connaught, marched an army against the Kinel-Owen and Oriors.
For 1197, John De Courcy and the English of Ulidia marched, with an army,
to Eas-Creeva, and erected the castle of Kilsanctan, and wasted and
desolated the territory of Kienaghta.
For 1197, Flaherty O'Muldory, Lord of Kinel-Connell, Kinel-Owen, and
Oriel, defender of Tara, heir presumptive to the sovereignty of all
Ireland, died on the thirtieth year of his reign. Eachmarcach O'Doherty
(i.e. Gilla Sron-mael) immediately after assumed the chieftainship of
Kinel-Connell. A fortnight afterwards John De Courcy, with a numerous army,
crossed Toome into Tyrone, thence proceeded to Ardstraw, and afterwards
marched round to Derry-Columbkille. The English then plundered Inishowen,
and carried off a great number of cows from thence, and then returned.
For 1199, The English of Ulidia made three great incursions into Tyrone, and
on the third incursion they pitched their camp at Donaghmore-Moy-Imclare,
and sent forth a large body of their troops to destroy and plunder the
country. Hugh O'Neill set out to oppose this host; and they came to an
engagement, in which the English were slaughtered, and such as escaped
from him fled secretly by night, tarrying nowhere until they had passed
For 1203, An army was led by the son of Hugo de Lacy and a party of the
English of Meath into Ulidia; and they banished John de Courcy from thence,
after they had defeated him in a battle fought at Dundaleathglas
(Downpatrick), in which many had been slain.
For 1236, O'Donnell (Donnell More) marched with an army to Iubhar Chinn
Choiche in Ulidia, and destroyed every territory through which he passed:
he also obtained hostages and submission from most of the Ulidians.
For 1238, An army was led by Mac Maurice, Lord Justice of Ireland, and
Hugo de Lacy, Earl of Ulster, into Tyrone and Tirconnell. They deposed
Mac Loughlin (Donnell), and gave the government of Tyrone to the son of
O'Neill, and they themselves obtained the hostages of the north.
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