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History of the Cherokee Indians
and their legends and folklore.


Officers of The Cherokee Nation, September 9, 1809 to June 30, 1908.

The anomaly of a fully constitutional government with all of the concomitant expenses of executive, legislative, judicial and educational departments; being in existence for fifty-nine years, selfsustaining, without direct personal taxes, would seem at first thought, Utopian and impossible. But this was the condition presented by the Cherokee Nation from September 6. 1839 to July 1, 1898. A contented and satisfied communal government in which personal land titles were nonexistant; livestock, had free range, universally attended free schools with free text books, were the center of each annuities of the tribe was to be paid; two-thirds to the Cherokees living east Education was a shibbolath, extreme poverty unknown and individual efforts were often crowned with affluence.
The permanent funds for the maintenance of the Cherokee Nation was derived from the sale of portions of their tribal lands and had its inception in a provision of an indemnatory article in the United States-Cherokee treaty of October 24, 1804, which provided an annuity to the Cherokee Nation ,of three thousand dollars.
According to the sixth article of the treaty of February 27, 1819 the annuities of the tribe was to be paid; two-thirds to the Cherokees living east of the Mississippi River and one third to those that had emigrated to Arkansas and were known as Western Cherokees, in accordance with their estimated proportional population.
Article ten of the treaty of December 29, 1835, set aside the following amounts from the five million dollars sale price of the Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi River: two hundred thousand as a general fund, fifty thousand as an orphan fund and one hundred and fifty thousand as a school fund for the Cherokee Nation.
The permanent annuities that had accrued under the provisions of former treaties were commuted for an additional general fund of two hundred and fourteen thousand dollars. Under the provisions of article twelve it was primarily agreed that one hundred thousand dollars should be used to aid indigent parties who had previously emigrated west. This award was recinded by a supplementary article that added this sum to the general fund.
The apportionment of the disbursement of interest on the national fund was divided under the treaty of July 19, 1866, as follows: General fund, fifty per cent; school fund thirty-five per cent and orphan fund, fifteen per cent.
The general fund was used to meet the expenses of the national government, excepting those of education.
The only official census enumerations available are:
1838 – – 22,500.
1880 – – 21,920.
1890 – – 28,000.
1900 – – 32,376.
1910 – – 38,300.
State bonds purchased and held in trust by the United States for the Cherokees, under authority of the treaty of 1835, as shown by the Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the year 1839:
General Fund.
Kentucky 5%$ 94,000.00.
Tennessee5% 250.000.00.
Alabama 5% 300,000.00.
Maryland 6% 761.39.
Michigan 6% 64,000.00.
School Fund.
Maryland 5% $ 41,138.00
Missouri 5½% 10,000.00.
The interest on their invested funds that were paid to the general fund only as reported by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in his reports for the following years were given as:
1839 – – $36,085.65.
1850 – –
1860 – –   28,914.93.
1870 – –   53.445.01.
1880 – –   43,430.93.
1890 – –   30,958.31.
1898 – –   71,427.16.
The exact dates of the regular elections of the Cherokee Nation were on the first Monday of August of the odd numbered years, and were as follows:
September 9, 1839 Chiefs Election John Ross Elected
August 2 1841 " " "
" 7 1843 " " "
" 4 1845 " " "
" 2 1847 " " "
" 6 1849 " " "
" 4 1851 " " "
" 1 1853 " " "
" 6 1855 " " "
" 3 1857 " " "
" 1 1859 " " "
" 5 1861 " " " Died August 1, 1866
" 5 1867 " Rev. Lewis Downing "
" 2 1869 " " "
" 7 1871 " Rev. Lewis Downing " Died Nov. 9, 1872
" 4 1873 "

" 2 1875 " Rev. Charles Thompson

" 5 1877 " " "
" 4 1879 " Dennis Wolf Bushyhead "
" 1 1881 " " "
" 6 1883 " " "
" 3 1885 " " "
" 1 1887 " Joel Bryan Mayes "
" 5 1889 " " "
" 3 1891 " " " Died Dec. 14, 1891
" 1 1893 "

" 5 1895 " Samuel Houston Mayes "
" 2 1897 " " "
" 7 1899 " and Council Only. Thomas Mitchell Buffington "
" 5 1901
Council Only

" 3 1903
Council Only. William Charles Rogers

The courts of the Cherokee Nation were abolished by the act of congress of June 28, 1898, entitled ''An Act for the Protection of the People of the Indian Territory and for other purposes," effective July 1, 1898.
Rev. Lewis Downing was Principal Chief from August 1, 1866 to October 18, 1866. William Potter Ross was elected Principal Chief by council in October 19, 1866, vice John Ross deceased and was elected November 11, 1872 vice Reverend Lewis Downing, deceased. Assistant Chief Henry Chambers having predeceased Chief Joel B. Mayes by four days the succession descnded to Thomas Mitchell Buffington, President of the Senate, who held the office until Colonel Johnson Harris was elected and qualified on December 23, 1893 and Buffington was elected as Delegate to Washington.
William Charles Rogers, the last Chief of the Cherokees was elected in 1903 and under the provisions of the United States-Cherokee agreement made at Muskogee on July 1, 1902 this was the last election in the Cherokee Nationbut he was retained as Principal Chief of the Cherokees until his death on November 8, 1917, in order that he, as the properly authotized representative of the Nation, might sign the deeds transferring the title of the community lands of the Cherokee Nation to the individual allottees of the same.
Oochalata, who spoke very little English, was the son of a full blood Cherokee father and his mother was a white woman who spoke the Cherokee language only. Oochalata owned and operated a good sized mercantile establishment at his home on Spavinaw Creek. On being elected senator from Delaware District in 1867 he thought that he should have an English name and said that as Dr. Jeter Lynch Thompson had been senator for a long time and because he was taking his place he would adopt the name Thompson and taking the sound of Chala out of his Cherokee name, Oo-cha-la-ta, he called himself Chala or Charles Thompson. For some time before Charles Thompson had been elected Chief, he had been a deacon of the Baptist church and had been acting as the local preacher in the commodious frame church house that he had and maintained. The Baptist church had refused to ordain him, giving as their reason, the fact that he was a lawyer. Shortly after he was elected Chief he was ordained as a Baptist minister.
Chiefs John Ross and his nephew William Potter Ross belonged to the Ross party. Chief Dennis Wolf Bushyhead belonged to the National party which was formed in 1879 and became the successor to the Ross party and all of the other chiefs belonged to the Downing party.
Joseph Vann, who afterwards became a resident of Saline District was elected Assistant Chief on September 9, 1839. On June 26, 1840, Anderson Vann, an "Old Settler" was chosen to succeed his brother Joseph, who resigned as a result of the political compromise of that date. George Lowery who had been sponsor for Sequoyah was elected Assistant Chief in 1843 and 1847. Richard Taylor was elected in 1851. John or "Jack" Spears was elected in 1855. He was a full blood Cherokee; he had been left an orphan at an early age and took his name from a family that adopted him. A splendid intrepreter, he was a popular and able man. Joseph Vann of Saline District was again elected in 1859. Being a confederate sympathizer he was succeeded in the federal Cherokee government by Thomas Pegg in 1862. Pegg was a captain in Drew's confederate regiment, but on joining the federals in 1862 he was elected Major of the Second Indian Home Guards U. S. A. Captain James Vann, a cripple, magnanimous, brave and humane was elected in 1867. Robert Buffington Daniel was elected in 1871 and died on January 16, 1872. Captain James Vann was again elected, by the council on November 23, 1872 vice Daniels. David Rowe was elected in 1875. Colonel William Penn Adair, six foot and two inches in height, magnetic, logical and frankly agreeable, the ablest and most brilliant of all Cherokees, was elected in 1879 and did in Washington, D. C, on October 21, 1880. Rabbit Bunch was elected by council on November 5, 1880 and reelected in 1883. Samuel Smith was elected in 1887. Bunch and Smith were prosperous full bloods, spoke the Cherokee language only and were distinguished orators. Henry Chambers ,a quarter blood or less, noted for his integrity and genial philosophic nature was elected in 1891 and died during an epidemic of influenza on December 10, 1891. Stephen Teehee, a splendid type of the full blood Cherokee was elected by council on December 23, 1891. Reverand George Washington Swimmer, a full blood Cherokee and well to do merchant and farmer was elected in 1895 and 1899. David McNair Faulkner, a half blood Cherokee known best by his seasoned wisdom and earnest integrity. A master Mason in every sense of the term, was elected August 3, 1903. He was retained in the office until June 30, 1914. He died Angust 2, 1914.
Joseph Vann. George Lowery, Richard Taylor, John Spears were elected by the Ross party. Rabbit Bunch and Henry Chambers belonged to the National party. All of the other Assistant Chiefs were elected by the Downing party.
The constitution of the Cherokee Nation was formed and promulgated near the mouth of the Tahlequah Creek, under a brush harbor but within a few days thereafter the council moved to the present site of Tahliquah and thence forward until the civil war the capitol was at that town, but the location was not fixed specifically by act of council until October 19, 1841 which was as follows: "An Act Establishing the Seat of Government.
Be it enacted by the National Council, That the seat of the Cherokee Government is hereby established at Tahlequah.
Tahlequah, October 19th, 1841.
Approved A. M. Vann, Acting Chief.
The site was at that time a wooded valley with numerous springs, west of and adjacent of Rev. Youngwolf's farm which had up to the spring of 1831 been the home of Blackcoat. Third Chief of the Old Settler Cherokees. It was settled by a band of Natchez before Blackcoat's tenure.
The council passed an act prohibiting the destruction of timber within a quarter of a mile from Tahlequah, on October 4, 1839.
One hundred and sixty acres was platted into town lots and sold in 1844. Taleq, Tillico or Tahlequah had for years been a favorite town name with the Cherokees, although the origin of the name is unknown.
On November 10, 1847, council authorized the National Treasurer to contract for the erection of two hewed log buildings, each to be twenty feet square, a brick chimney, floored and ceiled overhead with plank, each crack to be stopped inside and out with mortar; shingle roof, one door and four windows, one story high and underpinned with stone. One for the use of the committee and the other for the council, to he completed by the first day of October 1848, at a cost not to exceed two hundred and fifty dollars each. Said buildings to be erected on the public square at or near the sites occupied by the cabins that had been used by the committee and council. These buildings were constructed by James Kell who was paid for them by act of council on October 5, 1848. On October 14, 1848 an appropriation of four hundred dollars was made by council to have two buildings similar to the committee and council houses built for offices of the Chief and Treasurer. They were built in a row on the east side of the square and were used as capitol buildings until the civil war when they were burned on Otcober 28, 1863 by Colonel Stand Watie.
Under authority of an act of council of December 9, 1867, the present county court house of Cherokee County, Oklahoma, which was the capitol building of the Cherokee Nation until its dissolution, was built.
According to the provisions of the constitution of 1839 a full complement of officers were elected by that body on or about September 1839.
On account of the vigorous protests of the "Old Settlers" and "Treaty Party," on the unequal representation a new alignment of officers was agreed upon by a joint committee of the factions at Fort Gibson on October 26, 1840.
The only members of this council whose names are available are: Committeemen; Thomas Fox, William Rogers, James Carey, Thomas Lewis Rogers. Captain William Dutch, John Duncan, Bluford West, George Washington Adair, Joseph Lynch Martin, John Drew, Thomas Pegg, Reverend Truth Fields, John Spears, George Washington Gunter, James Spears, Hair Conrad, William Shorey Coody, President of the Senate and Reverend Stephen Foreman, Clerk of the Senate.
Councilors; Ezekeal Starr, William Holt, Lame Glass, Charles Thornton vice William Thornton, Wind, Samuel W. Bell, James Rogers, Lovely Rogers, Rev. Youngwolf, Speaker of Council and David Carter, Clerk of Council.
The committee was provided. for by the twenty-two sections of the third article of the constitution of 1839. The first eight districts: Delaware Saline, Going Snake, Tahlequah, Illinois, Canadian, Skin Bayou and Flint were created by act of council of November 4, 1840. The name of the Committee was changed to the Senate in 1867 but the latter will be used here as a matter of convenience. The Salaries were at first fixed by article three, section ten of the constitution at three dollars per day, subject to change by council.
Senators from Delaware District.
1841. Joseph Martin Lynch and the other one unknown.
1843. Old Fields and Moses Daniel. The latter elected President of the Senate, vice Charles Coody, deceased.
1845. James Kell and Anderson Springston.
1847. James Kell and Robert Buffington Daniel.
1849. James Kell and Lewis W. Hildebrand. The former was elected President of the Senate.
1851. James Kell and Charles Landrum.
1853. James Kell and Charles Landrum. The former was elected President of the Senate.
1855. Dr. Jeter Lynch Thompson and Charles Landrum.
1857. Dr. Jeter Lynch Thompson and Jeffrey Beck.
1895. Dr. Jeter Lynch Thompson and John Daniel.
1861. Unknown.
1867. Charles Thompson and Alexander Hawk.
1869. Charles Thompson and Alexander Hawk.
1871. Charles Thompson and John Landrum.
1873. Charles Thompson and Benjamin Franklin Landrum.
1875. Lewis Ross Kell and Benjamin Franklin Landrum.
1876. February 4th, Moses Ridge, vice Lewis Ross Kell, deceased.
1877. Moses Ridge and Benjamin Franklin Landrum. The latter was elected President of the Senate and died February 18, 1879.
1879. Joseph Dirteater and Walker A. Daniel. Daniel died January 9, 1880.
1880. November 6, Aaron Tanner, vice Walker A. Daniel, deceased.
1881. David Dixon Landrum and William Wirt Buffington.
1883. Hiram Terrell Landrum and William Coffee Woodall.
1885. Lucien Burr Bell and William Penn Henderson. The former was elected President of the Senate.
1887. Lucien Burr Bell and Charles Thompson.
1889. Lucien Burr Bell and William Penn Henderson. The former was elected President of the Senate.
1891. Claude Lorraine Washburn and Thomas Mitchell Buffington. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1893. Claude Lorraine Washburn and Thomas Jefferson Monroe.
1895. William T. Davis and Elias McLeod Landrum'. The latter resigned on account of having accepted a position in Tahlequah.
1897. Thomas Jefferson Muskrat and John Rogers Hastings.
1899. Thomas Jefferson Muskrat and John Rogers Hastings.
1901 Thomas Jefferson Muskrat and John Rogers Hastings.
1903. Thomas Jefferson Muskrat and William T. Davis.
Senators from Saline District.
1841. James Vann McNair and Joseph Vann. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1843. Reverand Beavercarrier and Charles Coody. The latter was elected President of the Senate and died in May 1844.
Ti-se-ski elected, vice Charles Coody, deceased.
1845. Clement Vann McNair and John Chambers.
1847. Clement Vann McNair and Elijah Hicks. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1849. John Lucien Brown and Joseph Vann.
1851. Robert Daniel Ross and Reverand Lewis Downing.
1853. Dr. Robert Daniel Ross and Thomas Pegg.
1855. Dr. Robert Daniel Ross and Clement Neeley Vann.
1857. Dr. Robert Daniel Ross and Charles Landrum.
1859. Dr. Robert Daniel Ross and Reverend Lewis Downing.
1861. Not known.
1867. Reverend Ooo-you-su-ta and Tog.
1869. Reverend Oo-you-su-ta and William Penn Adair.
1871. Reverend Rope Campbell and William Penn Adair.
1873. Coffee Blackbird and William Penn Adair.
1875. Reverend Rope Campbell and George Washington Clark.
1877. Johnson Downing and Reverend Samuel Smith.
1879 Reverend Ooo-you-su-ta and George Sanders.
1881. Frog Sixkiller and Reverend Samuel Smith.
1883. Frog Sixkiller and Reverend Samuel Smith.
1885. George Sanders and Clark Goingwolf. The latter died December 23, 1886.
1887. March 15, Bird Jones elected, vice Clark Goingwolf, deceased.
1887. Henry Clay Ross and George Sanders.
1889. Henry Clay Ross and Reverend George Washington Swimmer.
1891. Daniel Redbird and George Sanders.
1893. Reverend Samuel Smith and George Sanders.
1895. Reverend Samuel Smith and Drift Hummingbird. The former was elected President of the Senate.
1897. George Sanders and John Reuben Leach.
1899. George Sanders and John Reuben Leach.
1901. Charles Teehee and Henry Clay Ross.
1903. Thomas Smith and Daid Welch Ragsdale.
Senators form Going Snake District.
1841. James Starr and Charles Reese.
1843. Thomas Foreman and Young Glass.
1845. Thomas Foreman and Reverend Lewis Downing.
1847. Jefferson Hair and Dr. John Thornton.
1840. Jefferson Hair and George Washington Scraper.
1851. John Murphy and Thomas Fox Taylor. The latter was electee President of the Senate.
1853. Aaron Wilkerson and James Foster.
1855. Aaron Wilkerson and Thomas Fox Taylor.
1857. George Hicks and Thomas Fox Taylor. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1859. Aaron Wilkerson and John T. Fosted. The latter was elected President of the Senate. Wilkerson died during this term and Henry Crittenden was elected as his successor.
1861. Not known.
1867. Frog Sixkiller and Bud Gritts. The latter was elected President of the Senate and died on December 1, 1867.
1869. Frog Sixkiller and Archibald Scraper. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1871. Tail Sixkiller and John Shell.
1873. Tail Sixkiller and Jesse Redbird.
1875. Johnson Robbins and Jesse Redbird.
1877. Johnson Robbins and Ezekial Proctor.
1879. Richard Murrell Wolfe and Adam Feeling.
1881. Johnson Robbins and Adam Feeling.
1883. Johnson Robbins and Joseph McMinn Starr.
1885. John Daniel Buffington and John Gritts.
1887. Eli H. Whitmirei and Richard Murrell Wolfe.
1889. Johnson Whitmire and Richard Murrell Wolfe.
1891. Ellis Ruftington Alberty and Richard Murrell Wolfe.
1893. Johnson Spade and Richard Murrell Wolfe. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1895. Simon Ross Walkingstick and Parker Morris.
1897. Simon Ross Walkingstick and Wolf Coon. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1899. David Hitcher and Ned Bullfrog.
1901. Lincoln England and Wolf Coon.
1903. Ezekial Proctor and Ellis Buffington Alberty.
Senators from Tahlequah District.
1841. Daniel McCoy. Resigned. Other Senator not known.
1842. David Carter, vice Daniel McCoy, resigned. 1843. John Spears and James Sanders.
1845. John Spears and James Sanders.
1847. John Spears and Thomas Fox Taylor.
1849. John Spears and William Potter Ross.
1851. Thomas Pegg and William Potter Ross.
1853. Nicholas Byers Sanders and William Potter Ross.
1855. David Carter and WilHam Potter Ross.
1857. John Thorne and William Potter Ross.
1859. Thomas Pegg and Johnson Foreman.
1861. Thomas Pegg. Elected President of the Senate. Other senator not known.
1867. Allen Ross and Lewis Anderson Ross.
1869. Allen Ross and Lewis Anderson Ross.
1871. Allen Ross and Choo-hoo-sta.
1873. Lewis Anderson Ross and Choo-hoo-sta.
1875. Eli Spears and William H. Hendricks.
1877. Ell Spears and Robert Bruce Ross.
1879. Eli Spears and William H. Hendricks.
1881. Eli Spears and Robert Bruce Ross.
1883. Jesse Sanders and Lacey Hawkins.
1885. Ned Grease and John Albion Spears. The latter died.
1887. May 5, Reverend Evans Price Robinson, vice J. A. Spears, deceased.
1887. William H. Hendricks and Lacey Hawkins. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1889. William Triplett and John Ross Meigs.
1891. Ned Grease and Caleb Wilson Starr.
1893. George Washinglon Benge and Robert Bruce Ross.
1895. William H. Hendricks and Daniel Gritts.
1897. Skake Manus and Michael Pritchett.
1899. William Thomas Harnage and Colonel Johnson Harris.
1901. Gideon Morgan- and George Washington Benge.
1903. William Thomas Harnage and Charles Lawrence Saunders.
Senators from Iillinois District.
1841. Moses Parris and Aaron Price.
1843. John Drew and William Drew. The latter resigned in December 1844.
John Brewer elected, vice William Drew, resigned.
1845. Alexander Foreman and Pheasant.
1847. Alexander Foreman and William Drew.
1840. Alexander Foreman and John Drew.
1851. Alexander Foreman and James W. Daniel.
1853. Alexander Foreman and Richard Fields.
1855. Alexander Foreman and James Mackey. The former was elected President of the Senate.
1857. Alexander Foreman and Richard Fields.
1859. John W. Brown and John Brewer.
1861. Not known.
1867. Roach Young and Pig Smith, The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1869. Samuel Houston Benge and William Potter Ross.
1871. Samuel Houston Benge and Pig Smith. The latter died October 1, 1871.
William Potter Ross elected, vice Pig Smith, deceased.
1873. Samuel Houston Benge and Daniel Hicks Ross.
1875. Samuel Houston Benge and Roach Young.
1877. Joseph Young and Roach Young.
1879. Samuel Houston Benge and Timothy Meigs Walker. The former was elected President of the Senate, vice John Porum Davis, deceased.
1881. George Oceola Sanders. and Roach Young. The latter was electof the Senate.
1883. Samuel Houston Benge and Roach Young.
1885. John Hildebrand Cookson and Connell Rogers.
1887. Samuel Houston Benge and Mortor Vann.
1889. William Potter Ross and Roach Young.
1891. Edley Levi Cookson and Martin Van Benge.
1893. Roach Young and Martin Van Benge.
1895. Roach Young and Edley Levi Cookson.
1897. Redbird Smith and Connell Rogers.
1899. Edley Levi Cookson and Connell Rogers.
1901. Edley Levi Cookson and John Lafayette Brown.
1903. Martin BtMige and John Lafayette Brown.
Senators from Canadian District.
1841. Captain William Dutch and the other one unknown.
1843. Captain William Dutch and Joseph Tally. Both resigned.
1844. John Shepherd and Nelson Riley, vice Dutch and Talley, resigned.
1845. James Mackey and William Shorey Coody. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1847. Captain William Dutch and William Shorey Coody. The latter died April 16, 1849.
1849. Josiah Reese and Lightninghug Bowles.
1851. Daid Boggs and Nelson Riley.
1853. David Boggs and Teesee Guess.
1855. John Drew and Lightninghug Bowles.
1857. John Drew and William Douhlehead.
1859. Joseph Ahalom Scales and Daniel Coody. The latter died. Oliver H. P. Brewer, vice Daniel Coody, deceased.
1861. Not known.
1867. John Brewer and John Porum Davis.
1869. James Madison Bell and Johnson Foreman.
1871. Richard Fields and Johnson Foreman. The latter died June 28, 1872.
1872. August 22, Levi Toney elected, vice Johnson Foreman, deceased.
1873. Richard Fields and John Porum Davis.
1875. Stephen Hildebrand and John Porum Davis. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1877. Joseph Martin Lynch and Calvin Jones Hanks. The latter was killed May 15, 1879.
1879. Pleasant Napoleon Blackstone and John Porum Davis. The latter was elected President of the Senate and died during this term of office.
1881. Pleasant Napoleon Blackstone and Colonel Harris.
1883. Abraham Woodall and Colonel Johnson Harris. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1885. Stand Watie Gray and Colonel Johnson Harris.
1887. Stand Watie Gray and Joseph Martin Lynch.
1889. Stand Watie Gray and Walter Scott Agnew.
1891. James Harris and William McLain.
1893. Stand Watie Gray and Charles Edward Vann.
1895. Henry Clay Lowrey and William Vaiin.
1897. Henry Clay Lowrey and William Vann.
1899. Henry Clay Lowrey and Wilson Girty.
1901. Henry Clay Lowrey and O. H. P. Brewer. The former died March 20, 1902.
1902. August 7, Robert Emmetl West elected vice Henry Clay Lowrey. deceased.
1903. Robert Enimett West and John Jay Sevier.
Senators from Skin Bayou District.
1841. Andrew Sanders and the other one not known.
1843. John Benge and James Brown.
1847. George Washington Gunter and George C. Lowrey. The latter died on October 22, 1848.
1840. George Washington Gunter and Sanders Choate.
1851. November 4. The name of the District was changed by act of council fronr Skin Bayou to Sequoyah.
1853. Joseph Proctor and Nicholas B. Byers.
1855. Archibald Lowrey and Alexander Alexander.
1857. James Brown anad Daniel Ross Nave.
1850. Picken M. Benge and Daniel Ross Nave.
1861. Not known.
1867. Joseph Coody and Mink Downing.
1869. Joseph Coody and Mink Downing.
1871. William Wilson and Thomas Ross.
1873. George Washington Wilson. The latter was elected President of the Senate.
1875. William Chambers and Bluford Baldridge. The latter died December 18, 1875. Rufus Bell Adair elected, vice Bluford Baldridge, deceased.
1877. Joseph Seabolt and John Childers.
1879. David McNaiir Faulkner and John Childers.
1881. David McNair Faulkner and Chee-chee.
1883. Charles Oliver Frye and Adam Lacey.
1885. Stephen Teehee and John Edward Gunter. The latter resigned and was elected a member of the Citizenship Court.
1887. May 5, Chee-chee elected, vice John E. Gunter, resigned.
1889. David McNair Falkner and Stephen Teehee.
1891. Charles Washington Starr and Charles Augustus Fargo.
1893. John Edward Gunter and Isaac Abraham Jacobs.
1895. David McNair Faulkner and Charles Foreman.
1897. John Edward Gunter and James Coleman.
1899. John Edward Gunter and James Coleman.
1901. David McNair Faulkner and Charles Oliver Frye.
1003. George Washington Baldridge and George Bradley.
Senators from Flint District.
1841. Ezekial Starr and the other one not known.
1843. Samuel Downing and Jesse Russell.
1845. James Pritchett and Jesse Russell.
1847. James Pritchett and Jesse Russell.
1849. James Pritchett and Glory.
1851. Jay Hicks and David Sanders.
1853. Reverend Walter Adair Duncan and Samuel Chambers.
1855. William Penn Adair and Richard Fields.
1857. William Penn Adair and William Penn Boudinot.
1859. William Penn Adair and J. A. Johnson.
1861. Not known.
1867. Eli Smith and Walter Christy.
1869. Eli Smith and Keith Wahlaneeta.
1871. Rabbit Bunch and George Keith.
1873. John R. Ross and Johnson Keith.
1875. John R. Ross and Jackson Christy.
1877. John R. Ross and Robert McLemore.
1879. Jackson Christy and John B. Teehee. The latter died and Ned Acorn was elected.
1881. Samuel E. Sanders and Cicero Leonidas Lynch.
1883. Ezekial Eugene Starr and Ned Acorn.
1885. John B. Tulsa and William Young.
1887. David Muskrat and Jackson Christy.
1889. James Christy and Rabbit Bunch.
1891. Ellis West Buffington and Adam Sevenstar.
1893. Ellis Starr and Jackson Christy.
1895. Andrew Taylor Paden and Charles Poorbear.
1897. Jackson Christy and David Muskrat.
1899. Benjamin Gilbreath Fletcher and Charles Scott.
1901. Benjamin Gilbreath Fletcher and Charles Smith.
1903. George Ferguson and Richard Lee Taylor.
Senators from Cooweescoowee District.
1857. James McDaniel and Eli Murphy.
1859. John Chambers and Jackson Tyner.
1861. Not known.
1867. James McDaniel and Robin Smith.
1869. James Conner and Robin Smith.
1871. John Chambers and Jesse Thompson.
1873. John Chambers and Jesse Thompson.
1875. Henry Chambers and James Horsefly.
1877. Henry Chambers and DeWitt Clinton Lipel
1879. Clement Vann Rogers^ and John Gunter Schrimsher.
1881. Clement Vann Rogers and John Mcintosh.
1883. Clement Vann Rogers and John Gunter Schrimsher.
1885. Samuel Houston Mayes and DeWitt Clinton Lipe. The latter resigned and was elected a member of the Citizenship Court.
1887. May 5, Francis Marion Musgrove elected, vice DeWitt Clinton Lipe. resigned.
1887. John Gunter Scrimsher and Riley Wise Liiidsey
1889. William Charles Rogers and Samuel Houston Mayes.
1891. James McDaniel Keys' and Joel Lindsey Baugh.
1893. William Edward Sanders' and George Washington Mayes
1895. William Charles Rogers and John Thomas Gunter.
1897. John Gunter Scrimsher and Joseph Martin LaHay.
1899. Ellis Bufiington Wright and Clement Vann Rogers.
1901. George Washington Mayes and John Franklin.
1903. Joseph Martin LaHay and Clement Vann Rogers.
Article three, section nine of the constitution vests the following right: "Each branch of the National Council shall choose its own officers." In accordance with an act of council of October 4, 1839 it was stipulated that "The Clerks of the National Committee and Council shall each receive three dollars per day while in service." The Clerks of the Senate were:
1841. Thomas Fox Taylor.
1843. William Potter Ross.
1845. Elijah Hicks.
1847. Dennis Wolf Bushyhead.
1849. Robert Buffington Daniel.
1851. William Penn Boudinot.
1853. William Penn Boudinot.
1855. William Penn Boudinot.
1857. Daniel McCoy Gunter.
1859. Hercules T. Martin.
1861. Joshua Ross.
1867. Rev. Stephen Foreman.
1869. George Washington Johnson.
1871. George Washington Johnson.
1873. Lucien Burr Bell.
1875. Lucien Burr Bell.
1877. Lucien Burr Bell.
1879. John Leaf Springston.
1881. Daniel Ross Hicks.
1883. John Taylor Drew.
1885. Robert Taylor Hanks.
1887. Marmaduke Daniel.
1889. Andrew Henderson Norwood.
1891. William Presley Thompson, resigned.
1893. Charles Worcester Willey.
1895. Richard Murrell Wolfe.
1897. Richard Murrell Wolfe.
1899. Lucien Burr Bell.
1901. Samuel Frazier Parks, resigned.
Edward Northup Washburn'.
1903. Joel Lindsey Baugh.
The Council or lower house of the Cherokee legislature was Provided for by the third section of article three of the constitution of 1830 and the salaries were at first fixed by article three, section ten at three dollars per day, subject to change by act of council.
Councilors from Delaware District.
1841. Rev. John Huss and the other two unknown.
1843. Goo-la-chi, Chu-wa-chu-kah and Hanging Charles. The latter died and was succeeded by Little Pot.
1845. James D. Wofford, William Tucker and Moses Pott.
1847. Moses Pott, William Tucker and Peter.
1849. Moses Pott, Laugh at Mush and James V. Hildebrand.
1851. Moses Pott, Laugh at Mush and James V. Hildebrand.
1853. Laugh at Mush, James V. Hildebrand and Stand Watie.
1855. Laugh at Mush, Pelican Tiger and Stand Watie. The latter was elected Speaker of the Council.
1857. Laugh at Mush, Henry Davis and Stand Watie. The latter was elected Speaker of the Council.
1859. Stand Watie, Pelican Tiger and James V. Hildebrand.
1861. Not known.
1867. Daniel Muskrat, Sequoyah Tanner and Aaron Tanner.
1869. Aaron Tanner. Daniel Hilder, William Adolphus Daniel and Jeter Thompson Cunningham.
1871. Daniel Hider, Moses Ridge, William Adolphus Daniel and Josiah Sutteeyah.
1875. Josiah Sutteeyah, Walker A. Daniel, William Coffee Woodall and Aaron Tanner.
1877. Walker A. Daniel, William Coffee Woodall, Jelfrey Beck and Alexander Hawk.
1879. John M. Miller, Thomas Fox Thompson, Rev. Charles Bluejacket and James Tuck Woodall.
1881. William Ballard. Aaron Tanner, Oo-so-wie, John Snell, George Washington Fields and Arleecher Ridge. The latter died.
1882-8-21. Daniel Chopper, vice Arleecher Ridge, deceased.
1883. Daniel Chopper, Benjamin Seth Landrum, John Martin Daniel. Alexander Hawk, Qualatah and George Washington Ward.
1885. Benjamin C. Chouteau, William Howell, John M. Miller, Joseph Lynch Thompson, Benjamin Franklin Lamar and Alexander Hawk. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1887. Francis Marion Conner, Joseph Lynch Thompson, John M. Miller, Thomas Bluejacket, Samuel Russell and James Sanford Fields.
1889. James Sanford Fields, Benjamin Franklin Lamar, John Hawkins, Simpson Foster Melton, Weatherford Beck and James Madison Monroe. The latter died November 10, 1890 and Beck died earlier in the same year.
1890-10-30. Samuel Nidiffer elected, vice Weatherford Beck, deceased. James Proctor Butler elected, vice James M. Monroe, deceased.
1891. William T. Davis, James Riley Copeland, Rev. Jesse Starr, Ezekial Fields, William Ballard and Samuel Nidiffer.
1893. William T. Davis, James Bonaparte Woodall, Percy L. Walker, Thomas Ballard, Daylight Chopper and James Sanford Fields.
1895. Benjamin Franklin Lamar, William Henry Doherty John li. Martin, T. Wyman Thompson John M. Miller and William Stover.
1897. James H. Hildebrand, Jellerson Dick, John Hamilton Gilison. Samuel Beck, Andrew Hyder and James Landrum McLaughlin. The latter died November 10, 1897. Benjamin Seth Landrum, vice James L. McLaughlin, deceased.
1899. Edward Northrup Washburn, Lee Bell Smith, Johnson Fawling. James Franklin McCullough, Benjamin Cornelius England and James Bonaparte Woodall, John Pawling, Daniel Tananeesie and Andrew Hider. The
1901. George Alexander Cox, Joseph Lynch Thompson, James Bonaparte Woodall, John Fawling, Daniel Tananeesie and Andrew Hider. The latter died. James Henry Daniel, vice Daniel Hider, deceased.
1903. William Wiley Ward, Johnson Fawling, John Hamilton Gibson. Walter Winchester Breedlove, James H. Hildebrand and Thomas Thomas.
Councilors from Saline District.
1841. Chu-wa-loo-ky, John W. West anad Brice Martin.
1843. Oo-soo-ya-duh, Chu-wa-loo-ky and Fishtail.
1845. Oo-soo-ya-duh, Ka-nee-ta and Standingdeer.
1847. Chu-wa-loo-ky. Willy Too-wa-ly and Standingdeer.
1849. Standingdeer, Springfrog and Whale.
1851. Chu-wa-loo-ky, Jesse Cochran and Sunday.
1853. Rev. Lewis Downing, Springfrog and Standingdeer.
1855. Rev. Lewis Downing, Standingdeer and John Chambers.
1857. Standingdeer, Archibald Vann and Walker.
1859. Charles Wicklirte, Springfrog and Adam Laeey.
1861. Not known.
1867. Stand Whirlwind, Necooie Thompson and Daniel Redbird.
1869. Moses Sixkiller and the other two not known.
1871. Chun-he-ne-tah. Lacey Hawkins and Collee Blackbird.
1873. Daniel Redbird, Oo-you-su-ta and George Washington Clark.
1875. Oo-you-su-ta, Cofi'ee Blackbird and Lacey Hawkins. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1877. Daniel Redbird, Youngwolf and Youngbird.
1881. Johnson Bigacorn, Bird Jones and Benjamin Franklin Adair.
1883. Goingsnake and Oo-you-su-ta.
1883-9-10. Bird Jones. Probably on a tie. He was elected speaker at Council. Oo-you-su-ta died July 6, 1884.
1885. Johnson Bigacorn, George Washington Swniimer and Frank Consene.
1887 Osceola Powell Benge, William Batt and Frank Consene.
1889. James Wicklirte, Frank Consene and Frog Sixkiller. The latter died in April 1891.
1891 Frank Consene, Wilson Cummings and Eli Batt.
1893. William Batt, Jackson Ross and Bird Jones. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1895. Frank Consene, William Batt and Stephen Boney.
1897. Johnson Bigacorn, Jackson Ross and Eli Batt.
1899. Lucullus Rowe, Jesse Drywater and Daniel Squirrel.
1901. William Standingwater, David Hair and Daniel Squirrel.
1903. James Lovely Bumgarner, George Bluford Downing and Cicero Johnson Howard.
Councilors from Going Snake District.
1841. Robert Parris and the other two unknown.
1843. De-nah-lah-whi-stah. Sixkiller and William Proctor.
1845. De-nah-lah-whi-stah, Sixkiller and William Proctor. 1847. George Hicks, Sixkiller and Archibald Vann.
1849. John Young, George Hicks and Sixkiller. The latter elected Speaker of Council.
1851. Richard Wilkerson, Sixkiller and William Proctor.
1853. Joseph McMinn Starr, Sixkiller and James Hair.
1855. John T. Foster, John Young and George Washington Scraper.
1857. Too-nah-na-la Foster, George Washington Scraper and John Young.
1859. George Washington Scraper. Cricket Sixkiller and Bird Gritts.
1861. Not known.
1867. Archibald Scraper, Tail Sixkiller and John Shell.
1869. Tail Sixkiller, Corn Silk and John Shell.
1871. Nee-tah-kee-kah, Soldier Sixkiller and Walter Feeling.
1873. Archibald Scraper, Eli Wright, John Wright Alberty and Soldier Sixkiller.
1875. Walter Christy, John Shell, Ellis Hogner and John Williams.
1877. Tail Sixkiller. Charles Augustus Rider, Walter Christy and Cornsilk.
1879. Peacheater Sixkiller, John Sanders, George Washington Crittenden and James Crittenden.
1881. George Washington Crittenden, John Sanders, Tail Sixkiller and John Walking-stick.
1883. George Washington Crittenden, Wolf Coon, John.son Spade and Joseph Chooie.
1889. Johnson Spade, William Mitchell Ned Bullfrog and Nelson Terrapin.
1891. John Daniel Buffington, Wolf Coon, Coming Snell and Jeflerson Tickaneesky.
1893. Lincoln England, Ned Bullfrog, Thomas Still and Carselowy Terrapin.
1895. Aaron Goingwolf, David Blackfox. William Wolf and Edward D. Foreman.
1897. Lincoln England, Abraham Sixkiller, James Russell and William Wolf.
1899. Lincoln England, John Sanders, Jack Soap and Walter Scott Whitmire.
1901. Francis Clark Adair, Benjamin Mocker. John Sanders and Thomas Still.
1903. Thomas Welch, Francis Clark Adair, Edward Adair Clyne and Alexander Corntassel.
Councilors from Tahlequah District.
1841. John Riley and the other two not known.
1843. John Riley, Archibald Campbell and Hair Conrad. The latter died November 2, 1844. John Riley died February 14, 1845.
1845. Joseph Spears, John Young and Archibald Campbell. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1847. Rev. John Fletcher Boot, John Young and Archibald Campbell. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1849. Samuel Downing, James Sanders and Joseph Spears.
1851. Daniel Colston, Johnson Keith and Looney Riley. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1853. Jesse Sanders, Johnson Keith and John Thorne. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1861. Not known.
1867. Peach Watts, Choo-hoo-stah and Osceola Hair.
1869. Nathaniel Fish, Osceola Hair and the other one unknown.
1871. William H. Hendricks, Osceola Hair, Nathaniel Fish, French and Rufus O. Ross.
1873. William H. Hendricks, John Hendricks, Samuel Osage, Rabbit Downing and Columbus Baldridge.
1875. James Shelton, Robert Bruce Ross, Ned Grease, Rabbit Downing and Joseph Brown. The latter a Negro. Rabbit Downing died October 31, 1876.
1876-11-20. Osceola Hair, vice Rabbit Downing, deceased.
1877. William Triplett, Ned Grease, Yartunnah -Vann, Osceola Hair and John Hendricks.
1879. Ellis Johnson, Columbus Baldridge, Ned Grease, John Hendricks and Osceola Hair. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1881. Osceola Powell Daniel, Osceola Hair, Yartunnah Vann, Bug Tucker and John Parris. The latter died July 26, 1882.
1882-8-21. Samuel Houston Downing, vice John Parris, deceased.
1883. John Proctor, George Swimmer, Bug Tucker, John Hendricks and Ned Grease.
1885. George Downing, Calib Starr Thompson, Thomas Hendrick, Benjamin Kitcher and Hunter Brown. The latter died April 25, 1886.
1886-6-11. Phillip Osage, vice Hunter Brown, deceased.
1887. Mankiller Kitcher, Return Robert Meigs, Johnson Fields, Michael Pritchett and Benjamin Kitcher. The latter died December 8, 1887.
1889. Charles Tehee, Wilkerson Hubbard Parris, Philip Bennett. Daniel Gritts and Osceola Dew.
1891. Daniel Gritts, Thomas Shade. John R. Gourd, Skake Manus and John Hendricks.
1893. Michael Pritchett, Thomas Horn, Rev. Leonidas Dobson Joseph Downing and Stick Ross. The latter a negro.
1895. Michael Pritchett, Key Ketcher, Return Robert Meigs, David Tipton and Ned Irons. The latter a Negro.
1897. David Downing, Wilkerson Hubbard Parris, Key Ketcher, Boot Pigeon Jack Roberson.
1899. Wilkerson Hubbard Parris. John Franklin Wilson, Joseph Downing, Ross Taylor Daniel and Jesse Pigeon.
1901. Wilkerson Hubbard Parris, Benjamin F. Johnson, Robert Colburn Fuller, Philip Osage and Charles Lawrence Saunders.
1903. Willes Taylor Richards, William Wallace Ross, Noah Parris and Wilkerson Hubbard.
1903-9-21. Ross Taylor Daniel. Elected on this date on account of a tie in the regular election.
Councilors from Illinois District.
1841. Richard Drew, William Drew and Archibald Fields. The lattewas elected Speaker of Council.
1843. Richard Drew, Archibald Fields and William Drew. The latter resigned in December 1844 and Archibald Fields died in September 1844.
1844. John Brewer, vice Archibald Fields, deceased.
1845. Robert Lovett, John Brewer and Allen Ratley.
1847. Da-gah-sta-sca, John Brewer and James Mackay.
1849. Pheasant, Allen Ratley and Richard Benge.
1851. Allen Ratley, James Souiekiller and Joseph Duval.
1853. Allen Ratley, John W. Brown and Moses Parris.
1855. John Brewer, George Chambers and Joseph Duval.
1853. Allen Ratley, John W. Brown and Moses Parris.
1855. John Brewer, George Chambers and Joseph Duval.
1857. Ellis Fox Phillips, Edward Smith and Singer Justice.
1859. Allen Ratley, John Boston and George Chambers. The latter died and was succeeded by Diver Glass.
1861. Not known.
1867. John Rogers Duval, Daniel Backbone and John Young. The latter elected Speaker of Council. Daniel Backbone died October 25, 1867.
1867. Joseph Cornsilk vice Daniel Backbone, deceased.
1869. Thomas Fox Brewer and the other two unknown.
1871. Lewis Hicks, Wallace Vann, Robin Crawford and John Rogers Duval. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1873. Robin Crawford, John Mussel, Daniel Kedbird and John Rogers Duval. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1875. William Young. John Mussel, Richard Boggs and John Rogers Duval. The latter two died. Wallace Vann, vice John R. Duval, deceased.
1876-4-3. Daniel Hicks Ross, vice Richard Boggs, deceased.
1877. James RaincTow, William Snow Brewer, Bushyhead Sevier and Wallace Vann.
1879. Simon Girty, Dekinney Waters, George Drum and Henry Clay Starr. The latter died November 16. 1879.
1879-12-4. Joseph Young, vice Henry C. Starr, deceased.
1881. John Hildebrand Cookson, Lawson Runyan, Charles Washington Starr and John Young. The latter died.
1882-8-2 1. John Bean Johnson, vice John Young, deceased.
1883. John Benge, Joseph Topp, Dekinney Waters and Collumbus Baldridge.
1883-9-10. John Raincrow.
1885. George Bulleth Foreman, John Walker, Dekinney Waters and Jack Brown.
1887. Lawson Runyan, Redbird Smith, Joseph Topp, John Raincrow and Frank Vann. The latter was a Negro. John Raincrow died and was succeeded by George McDaniel.
1889. Redbird Smith, Morgan West, Joseph Tapp, John Glass and George McDaniel. The latter died and was succeeded by Stephen Hildebrand.
1891. Wallace Thornton, Lorenzo Dow Chambers, Wallace Vann. Cabin Miller and Fox Glass.
1893. John Wesley Sharp, Jesse Hair, John Walker, Charles Fodder and George Benge.
1895. John Wesley Sharp, John Stearns, Creek Sam, Charles Bark and Samuel Stidham. The latter was a a Negro.
1807. John Terrell. George Waters, Alexander McCoy, John Thompson and Charles Percival Pierce.
1899. Moses Frye Sanders, Dekinney Waters, George Bulleth Foreman, Richard Martin Walker and Samuel Stephen Sanders.
1901. Richard Martin Walker, Alexander Ballard, Alexander McCoy, Moses Frye Sanders and Martin Van Benge. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1903. Samuel Stephen Sanders, Charles Harris Sisson, Walter Scott. William Frank Sanders and Frank Gonzales.
Councilors from Canadian District.
1841. Joseph Talley, Wind and Wrinklesides.
1843. Lightningbug Bowles, Dahlahseenee and Oosoody. Bowles would not qualify and Lewis Riley was elected. Dahlahsunee died October 26, 1844 and Oosoody died November 29, 1844.
1845. Lewis Riley, John Shepherd and Jetferson Nivens.
1847. Lightningbug Bowles, Jacob Thorne and Wiliam Doublehead.
1840. Leggings, David Boggs and William Arnold.
1851. Charles Chambers, John Porum Davis and third party unknown.
1853. Leggings, Lightningbug Bowles and Duqulilu Wagon Bowles.
1855. Dempsey Fields, Lightningbug Bowles and Duqulili Wagon Bowles.
1857. Lightningbug Bowles, William Rees and William Arnold.
1859. Lightningbug Bowles, Cabin Smith and John Porum Davis.
1861. Not known.
1867. James Christopher McCoy. Calvin Jones Hanks and Sand Choate
1869. Rev. John Sevier, Charles Drew and other party unknown.
1871. Franklin Gritts, James Christopher McCoy and other party unknown.
1873. Stephen Hildebrand, John Q. Hayes and Franklin Gritts.
1875. Rev. John Sevier, Snake Grity and Thomas Watts.
1877. Rev. John Sevier, Thomas Watts and George Teehee.
1879. Robert Tavlor Hanks, Henry Clay Lowrey and James Muskrat.
1881. Robert Taylor Hanks, Thomas Watts, Wilson Girty and Rev. John Sevier. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1883. Wilson Girty. Thomas Watts, George Downing and Richard Crossland.
1885. Franklin Gritts, George Downing, Richard Crossland and Henry Clay Lowrey.
1887. Richard Neal, Walter Scott Agnew, Charles Jones and Richard Crossland.
1889. Isaac Groves, Richard Crossland, William Shepherd and William Henry Barker. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
William Shepherd died January 23, 1890.
1801. Thomas Fox Woodall. Isaac Groves, Thomas Fields and John Dimar Jordan.
1893. William Vann, Isaac Groves, John Dimar Jordan and Thomas Watts.
1805. Jesse Bushyhead Raymond, Thomas Jefferson Whisenhunt, Duncan Leader and William Billingslea Beck.
1897. Jesse Bushyhead Raymond, Thomas Jefferson Whisenhunt, William Billingslea Beck and John Alexander Sevier. The latter died June 5, 1898.
1898-8-8. McCoy Smith, vice John A. Sevier, deceased.
1899. Robert Emmett West, McCoy Smith, David Downing and Jesse Bushyhead Raymond. The latter died October 28, 1900.
1900-12-3. James Jay Sevier, vice Jesse B. Raymond, deceased.
1901. James C. Grooves, Walter Scott Agnew, McCoy Smith and John Ross Fields.
1903. John Ross FieldS James C. Groves, Thomas Fox Woodall and Anderson Pierce Lowrey.
Councilors from Skin Bayou District.
1841. John Lowrey McCoy, Sawnee Vann and the other one not known.
1843. Tobacco Will, Hunter Langley and James Madison Payne. The latter was elected Speaker of Council. Hunter Langley died in September, 1844.
1845. James Brown Jr., Oganstota Logan and Young Elders. The latter died October 2, 1845.
1847. Wrinklesides, Nicholas B. Byars and Andrew Sanders.
1849. Young-puppy, Andrew Sanders and Nicholas Porter.
1851. Andrew Sanders. Thomas Sanders and Nicholas Porter.
The name was changed from Skin Bayou District to Sequoyah District by an act of National Council on November 4, 1851. See page 227, Cherokee Laws of 1852.
Councilors from Sequoyah District.
1853. Black Fox, Dutsasa and Walter Lee.
1855. Dutsasa, Bat Puppy and Step.
1857. Black Fox, William Benge and Samuel Houston Benge.
1859. Crapgrass, Walter Lee and William Benge.
1861. Not known.
1867. Joseph Seabolt, Stephen Teehee and Cheechee.
1869. Richard Benge. John Crossland and David McNair Faulkner.
1871. Richard Benge, Thomas Pettit and Cheechee.
1873. John Blalock, John Childers and John Choate.
1875. Joseph Seabolt, John Walkingstiek and Jesse Baldridge. The latter died December 13, 1876.
1877. David McNair Faulkner, Lorenzo Dow Chambers and Columbus Baldridge.
1879. Joseph Starr, Cheechee and Frank Mayo Morgan.
1881. Charles Augustus Fargo, Columbus Benge and Adam Lacey.
1883. Josiah Seabolt, Joseph Starr and William Holt.
1885. William Holt, Josiah Seabolt and Thomas Blair.
1887. Edward Everett Adair, George Washington Gunter and Davia M. Lee.
1889. Joseph Starr, William Holt and Calvin Fargo.
1891. William Chuculate, Thomas Blair and John Roastingear.
1893. George Washington Swimmer, William Bethel and James Coleman.
1895. Obediah Martin Benge, Isaac Abraham Jacobs and Edward Everett Adair.
1807. James Madison Seabolt. George Chuculate and William Charles Dumont Patton.
1809. David Jesse Faulkner, James Wllloughby Breedlove and John Roastingear.
1901. William Nucholls Littlejohn Andrew Jackson Rogers and Ellis Starr.
1903. Tandv Walker Adair, Daniel Holt and Gideon Jay Patton.
Councilors from Flint District.
1841. Samuel Chambers, Oganstota Logan and one other.
1843. Chu-noo-luh-hus-ky, Bark Flute and David Downing.
1845. Chu-noo-luh-hus-ky, John Key and Bark Flute.
1847. Bark Flute, William Grimmett and George Chambers.
1840. Charles Downing. John Keith and George Chambers.
1851. George Chambers, Charles Downing and Eli Smith.
1853. George Chambers, John Keith and George Blair.
1855. Charles Downing, Ellis Sanders Harlan and John Glass.
1857. Charles Downing, William Gritlin and John Glass.
1859. William Griffin, James Vann and Tsa-la-tee-hee.
1861. Not known.
1867. Wah-lah-nee-tah, Alexander Scott and Chicken Christy.
1869. Not known.
1871. Oo-squa-luke, Chicken Christy and Poorbear.
1873. Oo-squa-luke. Chicken Christy and John B. Tulsa.
1875. Charles Poorbear, James Christy and Richard Glory.
1877. Nicholas B. Byers, John Shell and John Batt.
1879. David Muskrat, Charles Sanders and Samuel E. Sanders.
1881. French Rowe, Robert McLemore and James Teehee.
1883. John Justice, Dirtthrower Vann and Sundaychair.
1885. French Rowe, Lewis Cochran and Sundaychair. The latter died.
1885-10-1-5. Rev. Isaac Sanders, vice Sundaychair, deceased.
1887. Charles Smith, Johnson Simmons and Robert McLemore. The latter died and Taylor Duncan was elected in his stead.
1889. James Christy, Charles Poorbear and James Starr.
1891. Lewis Cochran, John Justice and Candy Adair.
1893. Chulio Liver, George Scott and Rufus Cochran.
1895. Hoolie Sanders, Dirtthrower Vann and Johnson Simmons. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1897. Oo-squa-luke, Wiley Bolin and Peter Bird.
1899. Dirtthrower Vann, Andrew Otterlifter and George Deer-in-the-water.
1901. James Starr, George VVashington Ferguson and William Taylor.
1903. Thomas Colbert Buffington, Martin Hopper and Thomas Sanders.
Councilors from Cooweescoowee District.
1857. John Chambers, Robin Smith and John Lucien Brown.
1859. Lewis Melton, James Hair and Oo-soo-ya-ta.
1861. Not known.
1867. Jesse Thompson, Writer and John Glass.
1869. Jesse Thompson, John Chambers and Juniper Mills. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1871. John Lucien Brown, John Pawling, Hiram Terrell Landrum and Writer.
1873. Hiram Terrell Landrum, Samuel Houston Downing, Joseph Thompson and Thomas Hatchett.
1875. Thomas Hatchett, Looney Riley, Jesse Thompson and Joseph Thompson.
1876-2-28. John Bullette, vice Joseph Thompson, deceased.
1877. William Henry Mayes, William McCracken, Bear Timpson and Jesse Thompson. The latter was elected Speaker or Council.
1879. Rev. Dempsey Fields Coker, George Swannock, William Sunday and John H. Secondyne.
1881. Francis Marion Musgrove, James Horsefly, Joe Parker, William Charles Rogers, Josiah Henry, Johnson Fisher and John R. McNair.
1883. William Charles Rogers, John Young, Washington White, Albert Morris, John Glass, John Martin Thompson and John Lucien Brown. The latter died April 12, 1884.
1884-7-14. Nelson Foreman, vice John L. Brown, deceased.
1885. James Walker, Nelson Foreman, Albert Morris, Austin Lowrey, Marmaduke Daniel, George VVashington Bible and George Washington Mayes.
1887. Edward Sunday, William Winter Chambers, James Chambers, George Washington Walker, Arthur Armstrong, Daniel Webster Vann and Henry Rogers. The latter died.
1888-1-24. Francis Marion Musgrove, vice Henry Rogers, deceased.
1889. George Washington Walker, Ezekial Taylor, William Winter Jerry Alberty. The latter a Negro.
1891. John M. Tucker, William Richard Mills, John Ross Carter, Joseph Benson Cobb, George Washington Mayes, Alexander Lewis McDaniel and George Washington Clark. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1893. Joseph Benson Cobb, Coocoodigesky, Valentine Gray, Samuel Tiblow, Kollin Kirk Adair, John Sarcoxie and James Monroe Crutchtield. The latter died.
1894-9-25. Caldean Ward, vice James M. Crutchtield, deceased.
1895. Jesse Bean Burgess, Daniel Webster Vann, Bluford West Rider. Cyrus Cicero Cornatzer, Job Parker, William Johnstone and John R. Gourd.
1897. John Sanders, Benjamin Hildebrand, George Washington Walker, Josiah Henry, Ellis Buffington Wright and John Ross Mslntosh. The latter was elected Speaker of Council.
1899. Benjamin Hildebrand, Bluford West Starr, Cyrus Cornatzer, Ellis Manchell Eaton, Frederick McDaniel, Edward Alexander Adair and James Sanford Davenport. The latter was elected Speaker of Council. He was the only White man that was in the constitutional succession to the office of Principal Chief of an Indian tribe.
1901. Samuel Houston Mayes, Henry Cirkham Walkey, George Pumpkin, William Lafayette Trott, Teesee Chambers, Ellis Manchell Eaton and Emmett Starr.
1903. John Zollicoffer Hogan, Virgil Harvey Adair, John Henry Shufeldt, John Young, John Lewis Denbo, Francis Alexander Billingslea and William Joel Walker.
Delaware District was named from a town or settlement of Delaware Indians on the south side of Spavinaw Creek, near Eucha from about 1820 to 1839.
Saline District was named for the salt spring at Grand Saline, one mile east of Salina.
Going Snake District was named for Goingsnake, a noted Cherokee orator and Speaker of Council in 1828.
Tahlequah District was named for the town of Tahlequah, capita! of the Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1898.
Illinois District was named from Illinois River, which was named by the early French "courier du bois."
Canadian District was named from Canadian River. This district always nominated only one ticket for election.
Skin Bayou District was named from the stream of that name. Thname was changed to Sequoyah in honor of the inventor of the Cherokee syllabary.
Flint District was named tor its predominent geological formation.
Cooweescoowee was Chief John Ross' Cherokee name.
Clerks of the Council.
See Article three, section nine of the constitution for authorization of ollice and act of Council of October 4, 1839 for salary.
1841. Rev. Jesse Bushyhead.
1843. Jonathan Mulkey.
1845. Rev. David McNair Foreman.
1847. Hercules T. Martin.
1849. Hercules T. Martin.
1851. Thomas B. Wolf.
1853. Thomas B. Wolf.
1855. Hercules T. Martin.
1857. Hercules T. Martin.
1859. Thomas B. Wolf.
1861. Thomas B. Wolf.
1867. Thomas B. Wolf.
1869. Clement Neeley Vann.
1871. Ellis Sanders.
1873. George Osceola Sanders.
1875. Allen Ross.
1877. John Francis Lyon. Resigned.
Daniel Ross Hicks, vice John F. Lyon, resigned.
1879. Daniel Ross Hicks.
1881. Joel Bryan Mayes. Resigned.
Joel B. Mayes, resigned.
1883. Seaborn Cordery.
1885. Clark Charlesworth Lipe.
1887. Richard Baxter Choate.
1889. William Presley Thompson.
1891. Walter Goss Fields.
1893. John Henry Dick.
1895. John Reuben Leach.
1897. William Wallace Ross.
1899. Claude Stull Shelton.
1901. Claude Stull Shelton.
1903. Martin Rowe.
Judges of Delaware District.
Office authorized by the Constitution of 1839.
Salary one hundred dollars per annum. Act of Council October 4, 1839.
Benjamin B. Wisner 1841; James Kill 1843; James V. Hildebrand 1845; David Kell 1847; Peter 1849 and I85l; George Owen 1853 and 1855; Luther Rice 1857 and 1859; Elowie Butler 1867 and 1869; William Coffee Woodall 1871; Unknown 1873; Isaac Turner 1875; Robert Fletcher Wyley 1877, 1879, 1881 and 1883; Joseph Lynch Ward 1885 and 1887; Thomas Mitchell Buffington 1889, having been elected senator he resigned in November 1891 and Dudley H. Tucker was appointed; Joseph Lynch Ward 1891; Elias McLeod Landrum 1803; Joseph Lynch Ward 1895 and James Bonaparte Woodall in 1897.
Judges of Saline District. Bluford West 1841; Bird Doulileliead 184i and 1845; John Mclnlosh 1847; Benjamin B. Wisner 1849; Joseph V. Chugan' I85l; Archibald Vann 1853; Daid Rowe 1855 and 1857; Andrew Ross 1859; Not known 18()l; Charles Wicklitie 1867 and 1869; Saturday Vann 1871, suspended; Redbird Sixkiller, June 6, 1872, vice Saturday Vann; Saturday Vann 1873; Elowie 1875; Not known 1877; Coffee Blackbird 1879; George Washington Scraper 1881; Carter Daniel Markham 1883; Henry Clary Ross 1885; ColTee Black- bird 1887, he died January 26, 1888, Charles Wickliffe, appointed vice Cotlee Blackbird, deceased, Charles WicklilVe died August lo, 1888, George Feeliii.< appointed August 14, 1888 ice Charles Wicklille, deceased; David Welch Ragsdale 1889; Henry Clay Ross 18<)i, is')^ and 1895 and Edward Svlvesler Adair 1897.
Judges of Going Snake District.
Joseph McMinn Starr 1841 ; Moses Downing 1843, he died September 9, 1845; John T. Foster 1845; Benjamin Vann 1847; Eli Murphy 1849; E. G. Smith 1851; Eli Murphy 1853; John D. Paxton 1855; Johnson Reese 1857; Johnson Robbins 1859 and 1867, Wiley Glover Thornton 1869; Henry Crittenden 1871; Johnson Whitmire 1873; Nelson Terrapin 1875; Joseph McMinn Starr 1877; James Lafayette Bigby 1879, 1881 and 1883; Jesse Redbird 1885; John Virgil McPherson 1887; Edward D. Foreman 1889: Adam Lacey I89i; Joseph McMinn Starr 189^, he died and Pleasant H. Holland was appointed; John R. Crittenden 1895, he died in July 1896 and John W. Holland was appointed; Joseph Smallwood 1897.
Judges of Tahlequah District.
David Carter 1841; Riley Keys 1843; Thomas B. Wolf 1845; Mose Hildebrand 1847; David Hildebrand 1849; Thomas Davis 1851 and 1851; Jay Hicks 1855; David Hildebrand 1857; Thomas Davis 1859; Jackson R. Gourd 1867; Unknown 1869; Jackson R. Gourd 1871; James R. Hendricks 1873 and 1875, he was suspended and Henry Dobson Reese, appointed; William H. Turner 1877; Mankiller Ketcher 1879; Lord Wellington Shirley 1881; Osceola Hair 1883; John Wesley Wolf 1885 and 1887; Benjamin King 1889; Lord Wellington Shirley 1891; John Wesley Wolf 1893; Jefferson Robertson 1895 and William Triplett 1897.
Judges of Illinois District.
James Mackay 1841; James Souiekiller 1843 and 1845; John Thompson 1847; Smith Thornton 1849; Unknown 1851; George Washington Gunter 1853; Rev. Walker Carey 1855; James Mackey 1857; James Souiekiller 1859; Unknown 1861; Amos Thornton 1867; Jacob Bushyhead l80O; Amos Thornton 1871 and 1873; George Osceola Sanders 1875 and 1877; Amos Thornton 1879; Timothy Meigs Walker 1881; George Osceola Sanders 1883; John Silversmith 1885, he died and Thomas Ballard was appointed on December 29, 1886. Ballard died March 12, 1887 and George Osceola Sanders was appointed March 23, 1887; Wallace Ratley 1887; George Bullette Foreman 1889 and 1891, he died July 4, 1892 and Richard Martin Walker was appointed; Edley Levi Cookson 1893; Henry Clay Meigs 1895 and William Thompson 1897.
Judges of Canadian District.
John Brewer 1841; Robert G. Anderson 1843; Nelson Riley; George Washington Campbell 1847; William Reese. 1849; Lewis Riley I85l; William Reese 1853; Star Deer in the water 1855; Dempsey Fields 1857; William Doublehead 1859; James Ore 1861; Joseph Martin Hiidebrand 1867 and 1869; Abraham Woodall 1871, 1873, 1875, 1877, 1879 and 1881; Stephen Hildebrand 1883 and 1885; Henry Clay Lowrey 1887 and 1889; Herman Johnson Vann 1891 and 1893; Walter Scott Agnew 1895 and Herman Johnson Vann 1897.
Judges of Skin Bayou District.
William Wilson 184!; Michael Waters 1843, he died April 6, 1845, George Washington Gunter 1845; Felix Riley 1847 and 1849; Unknown 1851.
Judges of Sequoyah District.
George Washington Gunter 1853 and 1855; William Wilson 1857; Dah-lah-see-nee Foster 1859; Unknown l86l; Samuel Adair 1867; Ezekial Starr 1869; Franklin Faulkner 1871; Ezekial Starr 1873 and 1875, he died and Franklin Faulkner was appointed; Franklin Faulkner 1877, 1879, 1881 and 1883, he died and John Childers was appointed April 4, 1885; Oscar Fitzaland Adair 1885 and 1887; Isaac Abraham Jacobs 1889 and 1891, he was elected Senator and resigned in November 1893, George Vann was appointed; Lacey Lasley 1893; Andrew Jackson Russell 1895 and 1897.
Judges of Flint District.
Eli Sanders Harlan 1841; Eli Smith 1843; George Washington Candy 1845; Jay Hicks 1847; Thomas Jefierson Pack 1849; Unknown 1851; Eli Sanders Harlan 1853; Samuel Adair 1855 and 1857; Eli Smith 1859; Samuel Adair 1867; Jackson Christy 1869 and 1871; Samuel Adair 1873, 1875 and 1877, he died February 18, 1879 and Jackson Christy was appointed March 24, 1879; Robert Wesley Walker 1879; Benjamin Franklin Paden 1881, John B. Tulsa 1883; Benjamin Franklin Paden 1885, suspended May 7, 1886 and George Cochran, appointed, Benjamin Franklin Paden, reinstated November 11, 1886; John B. Tulsa 1887; Johnson Swimmer 1889; Benjamin Franklin Paden 1891; Charles D. Patterson 1893; R. W. Johnson 1895 and Richard Baxter Choate 1897.
Judges of Cooweescoowee District.
Not known 1855; John Lucien Brown 1857; Charles Coody Rogers 1857; Jackson Tyner 1861; Daniel Ross Hicks 1867 and 1869; Charles Coody Rogers 1871, 1873 and 1875; Clement Vann Rogers 1877; Alexander McCoy Rider 1879; James Cristopher McCoy 1881; John Anthony Foreman 1883; Walter Adair Starr 1885, 1887, 1889 and 1891; Jolin Gunter Scrimsher 1893; Walter Adair Starr l«os and 1897.
Sheriffs of Delaware District.
Jesse Cochran 1841 and 1843; Choo-wa-chu-kuh 1845; Charles Landrum 1847 and 1849; Jesse Buffington 1851; Choo-wa-chu-kuh 1853; Archibald Ballard 1855 and 1857; suspended and Choo-wa-chu-kuh apppionted; Archibald Ballard 1859; Thomas Jefferson McGhee 1867; William ???????? 1869; Stand Suagee 1871; John Martin Daniel 1875; James Tincup 1875 and 1877; Andrew Cummings Johnson 1879; David Suagee 1881; Joseph D Muskrat 1883; Benjamin Seth Landrum 1885; William Penn Henderson 1887; Percy Wyley 1889; Thomas Jefferson Monroe 1891; Thomas Jefferson Muskrat 1893; John Lafayette Dameron 1895 and Benjamin Cornelius England 1897.
Sheriffs of Saline District.
John Lucien Brown 1841, 1843 and 1845; George Cochran 1847; Hiram Terrell Landrum 1849; George Cochran 1851; Jefferson Hicks 1853 and 1855; Joseph V. Clingan 1857 and 1859; George Downing 1867; Backwater 1869; John Leaf Springston 1871, suspended and Frank Consene, appointed; Jackson Rope 1873 and 1875, he died and John Wickliffe, appointed; Henry Clay Ross 1877, 1879 and 1881; Osceola Powell Benge 1883 and 1885; Edward Sylvester Adair 1887; Jesse Sunday 1889, he died and William Smith was appointed February 11, 1890; John North West 1891 ; Napoleon Bonaparte Rowe 1893; John Henry Ross 1895, he died and George Downing was appointed September 23, 1897; David Ridge 1897, he died and James Lovely Bumgarner was appointed.
Sheriffs of Going Snake District.
George Washington Scraper 1841 and 1843; Benjamin Vann 1845, Aaron Wilkerson 1847 and 1849; Eli Sanders 1851; Cornelius Wright 1853; Eli Sanders 1855; Cornelius Wright 1857; Eli Sanders 1859; Ezekial Proctor 1867; Daniel Webster 1869; John R. Wright 1871, 1873 and 1875; John Walking-stock 1877; Nelson Foreman 1879; George Washington Lee 1881; Andrew Taylor Akin 1883; John Walkingstick 1885; Lincoln England 1887; Benjamin Knight 1880; Thomas Welch 1891; Isaac Walkingstick 1893, killed May 4, 1894 and Ezekial Proctor appointed; John Sanders 1895 and 1897.
Sheriffs of Tahlequah District.
Benjamin Downing 184 1 and 1843; Daniel (irasshopper 1845; Nicholas Byars Sanders 1847, 1849 and 1851; Benjamin Downing 1853; Wah-la-nee-ta 1855; Nicholas Byars Sanders 1857; Brushwood 1859; Eli Spears 1867, 1869 and 1871; Robert Bruce Ross 1873: Henry Clay Barnes 1875. suspended and John Ross Meigs appointed March 18, 1876, Henry Clary Barnes was reinstated by council and again suspended March 17, 1877 and Harrison Williams, appointed; Henry Clay Barnes 1877; Madison Sanders 1879 and 1881; Aaron Turrell 1883 and 1885, he was suspended August 13. I8S7 and John Ross Meigs appointed on same day; George Roach 1887; Jay T. Clark 1889; Ezekial Proctor Parris in I89i; Charles Proctor 1893; Leonard Williams 1895, he was suspended and Philip Osage was appointed on March 20, 1897; Andrew Bell Cunningliam 1897.
Sheriffs of Illinois District.
Alexander Foreman 1841 and 1843; George Fields 1845; Samuel McDaniel Taylor 1847; Robert Brown 1849; Tatnall Holt Post 1851; Cornsilk 1853; John W. Brown 1855; George Washington Brewer 1857; Martin McCoy 1859; Bear Brown 1867; William Young 1869; Lovely Rogers 1871, 1873 and 1875, he died and Emory Linder was appointed January 5, 1877 Dekinney Waters 1877, he was elected to council and resigned and Edward Adair Walker was appointed on November 3, 1879; Redbird Smith 1880, Samuel McCoy 1881; Thomas R. Gourd 1883; John Lafayette Brown 1885; John Benge 1887; John Lafayette Brown 1889, 1891 and 1893; Henry Ganoe Adair 1895 and Joseph J. Cookson 1897.
Sheriffs of Canadian District.
James Mackey 1841 and 1843; James Ore 1845; Josiah Reese 1847; John Shepherd Vann 1849; James Starr 1851; Nelson Riley 1853; Joseph M. Reese 1855; John Porum Davis 1857; Charles Drew 1859; Unknown 1861; Charles Drew 1867; John Q. Hayes 1869 and 1871; Stand Watie Gray 1873; Thomas Jefferson Bean 1875 and 1877, he was suspended and Henry Clay Lowrey was appointed April 16, 1879; McCoy Smith, 1879, William Mosley West 1881; Stand Watie Gray 1883, he was suspended and William Vann, appointed June 20, 1884; William Vann 1885, 1887, 1889 and 1891; John Calhoun West 1803; Robert Emmett West 1895 and Thomas Graves 1807.
Sheriffs of Skin Bayou District.
George C. Lowrey 1841, 1843 and 1845; Daniel Ross Nave 1847 and 1849; William Benge 1851.
Sheriffs of Sequoyah District.
Carter Daniel 1853; Bluford Baldridge 1855 and 1857; Bat Puppy; Jesse Baldridge 1867; Rufus Bell Adair 1869; Samuel Gunter 1871, he died and Bluford Baldridge was appointed; Richard Benge 1873; John Edward Gunter 1875 and 1877; Albert M. Johnson 1879 and 1881, he was killed May 5, 1882 and Robert Faulkner was appointed; Thomas Blair 1883, George Washington Baldridge 1885; Thomas Blair 1887; Josiah Seabolt 1889; Robert Czarnikow 1891; John Faulkner 1895; Mitchell Ellis 1895 and George Washington Baldridge 1897.
Sheriffs of Flint District.
William Griffin 1841, 1843 and 1845, he was suspended December 4, 1845; William Foreman 1847; Isaac Proctor 1849; William Chambers 1851; Runabout Scraper 1853, 1855 and 1857; Samuel Adair 1859; Unknown 1861; Jackson Christy 1867; Unknown i860; John B. Tulsa 1871; Lewis Quinton 1873; Cicero Leonidas Lynch 1875 and 1877; John Bell Adair 1870; Ellis Starr 1881; Thomas Tail 1883 and 1885, he died September 18, 1886 and Charles Smith was appointed; Richard Lee Taylor 1887 and 1889; John Bell Adair 1891; Richard Lee Taylor 1893; Charles Smith 1895 and John Bell Adair 1897.
Sheriffs of Cooweesccowee District.
John W. T. Spencer 1855; John Lucien Brown 1857; Daniel Ross Hicks 1859; Unknown IS6I; John Gunter Schrimsher 1867; John W. T. Spencer 1869 and 1871, he was suspended for attempting to destroy election returns and John M. Smith was appointed December 2, 1872; William McCracken 1873 and 1875; John Gunter Scrimsher 1877; Jesse Cochran 1879; Samuel Houston Mayes 1881; Jesse Cochran 1883; William Edward Sanders 1885 and 1887; Edward Alexander Adair 1889; William Edward Sanders 1891; James Tandy Musgrove 1893, he was killed June 3, 1895 and Joel Bryan Cornelius Ward was appointed; Joel Bryan Cornelius Ward 1895 and 1897.
Solicitors of Delaware District.
"Be it enacted by the National Council, That a Solicitor or Attorney be chosen by a joint vote of both houses of the National Council for each District, whose term of service shall be one year; and such Solicitor or Attorney, before he enters on the duties of his oflice, shall be commissioned by the Principal Chief.
Be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of such Solicitor or Attorney, to prosecute, in behalf of the Nation, all persons charged with criminal offenses. * * * See Laws of the Cherokee Nation, 1852. Pages 52, 84, 107, 132, 170 and 219. Anderson Springston 1841, 1842, 1843 and 1844. William Wilson 1845 and 1846; Chuwachukah 184 7 and 1848; Isaac Newton Hildebrand 1849, 1851 and 1853; Horsefly 1855; Joel Tucker 1857, Isaac Newton Hildebrand 1859; Moses Sixkiller 1867; Unknown 1869; Runabout Six 1871; Lome Seven 1873; Joseph Dirteater 1875; Dumplin O'Fields 1877, he died on December 7, 1878 and Samuel Melton was appointed December 25, 1878; Cyrus Cornatzer 1879; Surry Eaton Beck 1881; Joseph Lynch Thompson 1883; Surry Eaton Beck 1885; Charles Ewing Snell 1887 and 1889; James Bonaparte Woodall 1891; Joseph D. Muskrat 1893; James Franklin Crittenden 1895 and Simpson Monroe Melton 1897.
Solicitors of Saline District.
Clement Vann McNair 1841 and 1842; James Shepherd Vann 1843 and 1844; Isaac Springton 1845 and 1846; Black Haw 1847 and 1848; George Cochran 1849; Isaac Dick 1851; Rope Campbell 1853; DeWitt Clinton Duncan 1855; Levi Toney 1857; Rope Campbell 1859; James Smith 1867; Unknown 1869, 1871 and 1873; Fallingpot 1875; George Washington Clark 1877; Tan-yu-nee-sie 1879; James Chuleowa 1881; John Wickliflfe 1883 and 1885; Walter Adair West 1887; MiU-ird Filmore Hicks 1889; Jesse Drywater 1891; Rider Fawling 18O?; Ju;»es Keener l8g5 and Daniel Squirrel 1897.
Solicitors of Going Snake District.
Unknown 1841, 1842, 1843 and 1844; Joseph A. Foreman 1845 and 1846; James Madison Payne 1847 and 1848; Thomas Johnson 1849; Thomas Wilkerson 1851 and 1853; Gu-le-stu-ee-ski 1855; John Alexander 1857; John Dougherty 1859; Aaron Goingwolf 1867; Unknown 1860. 1871 and 1873; John Gritts 1875, he was suspended and George Washington was appointed August 16, 1876; Unknown 1877; Joseph Smallwood 1879, Ellis Hogner I881; Joseph Smallwood 1883; David Hitcher 1885; Nick- Snip 1887; Samuel England 1889; Mark Bean I8OI; David Hitcher 1893; Mark Bean 1895 and Newton Morton 1897.
Solicitors of Tahlequah District.
Leroy Kevs 1841 and 1842; Thomas B. Wolfe 1843 and 1844; Henry Dobson Reese 1845 and 1846; Huckleberry 1855; Brushwood 1857; Huckleberry 1859; Nelson Terrapin 1867; Unknown 1869, 1871 and 1873; William Triplett 1875, he was suspended and Henry Dobson Reese was appointed: Lewis Hawkins 1877, he was suspended and Bark Nugen was appointed April 17, 1879; Ezekial Tucker 1879; William Triplett 1881; Daniel Gritts 1883; George Washington Benge 1885; Daniel Gritts 1887; Wilson Sanders 1889; John Henry Dick 1891; Daniel Gritts 1893; Charles Deer in the Water 1895 and 1897.
Solicitors of Illinois District.
Alexander Foreman 1841 and 1842; Daniel Spencer 1843 and 1844; George Washington Parris 1845 and 1846; Robert Brown 1847 and 1848; Tatnall Holt Post 1849; Unknown 1851; James Souiekiller 1853; David Rat 1855; James Souiekiler 1857; John Kickup 1859 and 1867; Unknown 1869; Charles R. Gourd 1871, he resigned and Lewis Ross Thornton was appointed November 13, 1872; Unknown 1873; Joseph Young 1875; Soldier Tolen 1877; Lewis Ross Thornton 18 79; Soldier Tolen 1881; Martin Van Benge 1883, 1885, 1887 and 1889; George McDaniel 1891, he was killed and Charles Percival Pierce was appointed July 15, 1893; Edward Adair Walker 1893, 1805 and 1807.
Solicitors of Canadian District.
Lewis Riley 1841 and 1842; David Boggs 1843 and 1844; Robert G. Anderson 1845 and 1846; David Boggs 1847 and 1848; George Washington Campbell 1849; Unknown 1851; Star Deerinthewater 1853; John Porum Davis 1855; Charles R. Gourd 1857; Gah-luh-do-la-duh 1859; Levi Toney 1867; Charles Edwin Watie 1869; Snake Girty 1871 ; Unknown 1873, William Penn Payne 1875, suspended for incest, John Taylor Drew appointed; Johnson Blythe 1877; he died July 3, 1878 and James Halfbreed appointed, he died January 13, 1879 and Snake Girty was elected February 3, 1879; Robert McDaniel 1879; Isaac C. Groves 1881; Snake Girty 1883: David Downing 1885; James Jay Sevier 1887; Claude Hanks McDaniel 1889 he resigned and William Wilson Harnage was appointed; James Jay Sevier 1891, 1893, 1895 and 1897.
Solicitors of Skin Bayou District.
James Madison Payne 1841 and 1842; Joseph Blackbird 1843 and 1844; Daniel Ross Nave 1845 and 1846; Robert Brown Jr. 1847, 1848 and 1849; Unknown 1851.
Solicitors of Sequoyah District.
Sut-tee-yah 1853 and 1855; Ellis Sanders 1857; Samuel Houston Benge 1859; John Lee 1867; Unknown 1869 and 1871; Rider Swimmer 1873, he died and Lacey Lasley was elected November 12, 1874; Chee-chee 1875, he was suspended and Arthur Austin was appointed in March 1876; Rluford Baldridge 1877, Lacey Lasley, appointed vice Bluford Baldridge and Chee -chee was elected; Lacey Lasley 1879; Robert B. Patton 1881; Bluford Sittingdown 1883; Eli Carselowry 1885; Lacey Lasley 1887; Andrew Jackson Jeremiah 1889; James T. Stewart 1891; Eli Sanders 1893, Jeremiah M. Seabolt appointed Au,s:ust 8, 1895 vice Eli Sanders; Smith Baldridge 189? and Clement C. Morton 1897.
Solicitors of Flint District.
Ellis Sanders Harlan 1841 and 1842; Brushheap 1843 and 1844; William H. Foreman 1845. 1846, 1847 and 1848; David Sanders 1S49; Unknown 1851; Jesse Owen 1853; John Cochran 1855; Jumper Duck 1857, Alexander Dollar 1859; Jesse Redbird 1867; Unknown 1869, 1871 and 1873; Robert McLemore 1875; Yellowbird Adair 1877, he resigned and John Batt was appointed September 15, 1879; John E. Welch 1879 and 1881; David Muskrat 1883; Ellis Starr 1885, 1887 and 1889; Charles Lawrence Saunders 1891; Taylor Duncan 1893; Charles Gettingdown 1895 and James Lee Walker 1897.
Solicitors of Cooweescoowee District.
Unknown 1857 and 1858; Charles Bushyhead 1859; John Mcintosh 1867; Unknown 1869, 1871 and 1873; John Mcintosh 1875, he was suspended and Josiah Henry was appointed; Rev. Dempsey Fields Coker 1877; James McDaniel Keys 1879; Bryan Ward 1881; James McDaniet Keys 1883; Jese Cochran 1885 and 1887; James Eliott 1889; Elias Cornelius Alberty 1891 and 1893; John Bullette 1S"5 and James Lincoln Taylor 1897.
District Clerk of Delaware District.
Article V. Section 68 Cherokee Code of 1875, page 55. "There shall be one clerk for each of the several districts of this Nation, who shall be a resident of the district for which he may be elected, and who shall be elected by the qualified ellectors thereof, and commissioned as provided by law." The first election occurred in each District on Janury 21, 1874.
Joseph Miller Ross 1874, 1875, 1877 and 1879; John Henry Covel 1881; Joseph Miller Ross 1883, 1885 and 1887; Robert Emmett Adair 1889, July 29, 1890; aJmes Robert Garrett 1891; William Walter Wright 1893, 1895 and 1897.
Clerks of Going Snake District.
Benjamin Franklin Goss 1874 and 1875; Unknown 1877; William Covington Ghormley 1879, 1881 and 1S83; John R. Wright 1885, 1887 and 1889, he died April 27, 1800 and James Robert Garrett was appointed July 29 1890; James Robert 1891; William Walter Wright 1893, 1895 and 1897.
Clerks of Tahlequah District.
Osceola Powell Daniel 1874; Daniel Ross Hicks 1875; Allen Ross 1877, 1879, 1881, 1883, 1885, 1887 and 1889, he died April 21, 1891 and Elias Cornelius Boudinot Jr. was appointed on April 22, 1891; Thomas William Triplett 1891, 1893 and 1895; Benjamin F. Johnson 1897.
Clerks of Illinois District.
George Osceola Sanders 1874; George Washington Benge 1875; Richard Martin Walker 1877 and 1879; Martin Ross Brown 1881; Thomas Jefferson Thornton 1883; Richard Martin Walket 1885; Thomas Jefferson Thornton 1887; Nicholas McNair Thornton 1889 and 1891, he died July 21, 1892 and Bluford Wilson was appointed on July 30. 1892; Henry Clay Meigs 1893; William Thompson 1895 and Andrew Griffin Cookson 1897.
Clerks of Canadian County.
Robert E. Blackstone 1874; Herman Johnson Vann 1875, 1877, 1870 and 1881; John Smith 1883 and 1885; Herman Johnson Vann 1887; Charles Edward Vann 1889 and 1891; George Jennings 1893; 1895 and 1897.
Clerks of Sequoyah District.
Ready Taylor 1874; Joseph Hall Alexander 1875; Charles Oliver Frye 1877, 1879 and 1881; John Edward Gunter 1883; Edward Everett Adair 1885; Walter Adair Frye 1887; John Harrell Adair 1889; Wilson Otho Bruton 1891; William E. Whitsett 1893; Robert Fargo 1895 and Henry Benge 1897.
Clerks at Flint District.
Unknown 1874; Sanders Choate 1875, he died March 23, 1877 and Samuel Adair Bigby was appointed: Samuel Adair Bigby 1877 and 1879, William Nucholls Littlejohn 1881; George Washington Choate 1883; William J. McKee 1885 and 1887; William Nucholls Littlejohn 1889; Benjamin Gilreath Fletcher 1891; Richard Baxter Choate 1893; John Bell Lynch 1895 and 1897.
Clerks at Cooweescoowee District.
DeWitt Clinton Lipe 1874 and 1875, Clark Charlesworth Lipe 1877 and 1879; John Bullette 1881; Archibald McCoy 1883; William Vann Carey 1885 and 1887; Henry Hardin Trott 1889 and l89l; Joseph Martin LaHay 1893 and 1895; William H. Fry 1897.
Treasurers of the Cherokee Nation.
The office of treasurer was provided for by article four, section twenty one of the constitution, as follows: "The treasurer of the Cherokee Nation shall be chosen by a joint vote of both branches of the National Council for the term of four years." The annual salary was fixed on October 4, 1839 at five hundred dollars.
David Vann 1839, 1843, 1847 and 1851; Lewis Ross 1855 and 1859: Springfrog 1867, he died and Clement Neeley Vann was elected in November 1870; Dennis Wolf Bushyhead 1871 and 1875; De Witt Clinton Lipe November 11, 1879; Henry Chambers 1883; Robert Bruce Ross January 19, 1888; Colonel Johnson Harris, November 6, 1891, he was elected Principal Chief on December 23, 1891 and Ezekial Eugene Starr was elected as his successor on the same day; DeWitt Clinton Lipe November 14, 1895; Joseph Martin LaHay, November 17, 1800 and Dr. Jesse Crary Bushyhead 1903.
Supreme Court of the Cherokee Nation.
The powers and prerogatives of the judiciary of the Cherokee Nation is given in the thirteen sections of article five of the constitution and "The Judges of the supreme court shall each be allowed three dollars per day, while in service in holding court."
1839. John Martin, Chief Justice, Reverend Jesse Bushyhead and four other unknown associates. Elected by Constitutional convention.
1844. Rev. Jesse Bushyhead, Chief Justice, vice John Martin, died October 17, 1840, and Judge Bushyhead died July 17, 1844. George Hicks elected Chief Justice October 11, 1844 vice Bushyhead. Associated Justices. Thomas Pegg, Moses Parris and David Carter, the latter resigned and John Thompson Adair was elected. Rev. Stephen Foreman, elected October 11, 1844.
1847. David McNair Foreman, elected Chief Justice October 3. 1847. Associate Justices: Joseph Vann, James Sanders, John Thorne, Nichols Hyars McNair and John Thompson Adair.
1851. David Carter, Chief Justice. Associate ustices: Lewis W. Hilldebrand, Riley Keys, Rev. Isaac Sanders, Clement Vann McNair and John Thompson Adair.
1855. Richard Fields, Chief Justice. Associates: Riley Keys, Jesse Russell and Nicholas Byars McNair.
1857. Riley Keys, Chief Justice. Associate Justices: David Carter, John Thompson Adair, Jesse Russell, Thomas Pegg and Louis W. Hildebrand.
1876. John Thompson Adair, Chief Justice. Associate Justices: J. A. Johnson and George Washington Scraper.
1869. John Porum Davis, Chief Justice. Associate Justices: Thomas Teehee and Thomas B. Wolf.
1872. Riley Keys, Chief Justice. Associate Justices: John Shepherd Vann and Redbird Sixkiller.
1875. John Thompson Adair, suspended April 10, 1876, Charles Wickliffe, appointed Chief Justice, then George Washington Scraper appointed Chief Justice, John Landrum, appointed Chief Justice November 10, 1876 and John Thompson Adair was reinstated as Chief Justice by Council on November 18, 1876 and he was again suspendend on October 11, 1877. This was part of the wholesale suspendings at the instance of W. L. G. Miller.
1877. Ephriam Martin Adair, Chief Justice. Associate Justices: Samuel McDaniel Taylor and John Landrum. The latter died November 7, 1880 and George Washington Parks was elected in his place. Rufus Bell Adair was elected Associate Justice in 1880.
1881. Richard Murrell Wolfe was elected in November 1881 vice Rufus Bell Adair, deceased. David Dixon Landrum and O. H. P. Brown were Associate Justices in 1881. Samuel Adair succeeded O. H. P. Brewer.
1882. May 17, Samuel Adair Bigby, elected Chief Justice vice Ephriam Martin Adair, deceased. Joseph Abalom Scales was elected Chief Justice, November 15, 1882. Associate Justices: Joel Bryan Mayes and Samuel Adair Bigby.
John Wright Alherty was elected Chief Jusitce in 1883. John Taylor Drew was one of his Associate Justices. Jackson Christy was elected Chief Justice, March 2, 1885. James McDaniel Keys was elected Chief Justice in November 1885 and Roach Young was one of his Associate Justices. Joseph Absalom Scales succeeded Keys as Chief Justice. John Edward Gunter succeeded Scales as Chief Justice. John Young, Eli H. Whitmire and Bluford West Alberty were Aassociate Justices. John Wickliffe succeeded Gunter as Chief Justice. Associate Justice Samuel Adair Bigby died July 29, 1892 and Jeter Thompson Cunningham was appointed on August 4, 1892. Bluford West Alberty succeeded John WicklifTe as Chief Justice on November 15, 1892. Robert Wesley Walker was elected Justice in November 1893 and the last supreme court elected November 13, 1897 was John Mcintosh, Chief Justice, Jesse Redbird and Cicero Leonidas Lynch, Associated Justices.
Circuit Judges, Northwestern Circuit
Article five, section five of the constitution, specifics 'The Judges of the Supreme and Circuit Courts shall be elected by the National Council." By act of October 4, 1839 "The Circuit Judges shall be allowed each a salary of two hundred dollars per annum." By act of November 28, 1850 stipulated the same salary.
Unknown 1831; Thomas Jefierson Pack 1843, he resigned and Riley Keys elected, vice Pack; Unknown 1845; Thomas B. Wolf 1847; Riley Keys 1849; Thomas Jefierson Pack 1851; Unknown 1853; Samuel McDaniel Taylor 1855 and 1857; Leroy Keys 1859; David Rowe 1867 and 1871; Joel Bryan Mayrs 1875; George Washington Clark 1879 and 1883; George Washington Benge 1887; Hiram Terrell I.andrum 1891 and Thomas Mitchell Buffington 1895.
Circuit Judges, Southern Circuit.
John Thorne 1841 and 1843; Unknown 1845; Aaron Hicks 1847; Moses Parris 1849; John Thorne 185 1; Unknown 1853; Moses Alberty 1855 and 1857; James Mackey 1859; David Duval 1867; Samuel McDaniel Taylor 1871; John Shepherd Vann 1875, he died May 22, 1876 and Levi Toney was appointed, he died and Robert Taylor Hanks was appointed on May 3, 1876 and was elected August 5, 1878; John Brewer 1879; Joseph Martin Lynch 1883; W. H. Shomake 1887; William Henry Barker 1891 and William McLain in 1895.
Circuit Judges, Middle Circuit.
Timothy Meigs Walker 1867; Jacob Bushyhead 1871, Kinick Sixkiller appointed in 1872 to try Ezekial Proctor; Timothy Meigs Walker 1875; Stephen Teehee 1879; Cicero Leonidas Lynch 1883 and 1887; William Nicholls Littlejohn 1891, he resigned August 26, 1895 and Benjamin Goss was appointed August 27, 1895; Martin Van Benge 1895, he resigned and Charles Harris Sisson was appointed May 1, 1897.
National Medical Board.
Appointed December 11, 1890.
Northern District: Drs. Bartow Francis Fite, Benjamin Franklin Faulkner and Austin Worcester Foreman.
Southern District: Drs. Charles Harris, George Albert M. Bride and William W. Campbell. Middle District: Drs. Richard Lafayette Fife; George Washington Waters and Walter Thompson Adair.
Executive Councilors.
The office of Executive Councilor was provided for by article four, sections eighteen and nineteen of the Constitution. Number reduced to three on October 9 ,1845. Per diem pay fixed on October 4, 1839 at three dollars and reduced to two dollars on November 28, 1850.
Five unknown 1839; Five unknown 1841; Five unknown 1843; Three unknown 1845; Richard Taylor, Rev. Stephen Foreman and Thomas Foreman 1847; Richard Taylor, Rev. John Fletcher Boot and Archibald Campbell 1849; Unknown 1851; James Brown, Joseph Vann and Archibald Campbell 1853; Joseph Vann, Rev. Stephen Foreman and Archibald Campbell 1855; Joseph Vann, Rev. Walter Adair Duncan and Archibald Campbell 1857; James Brown, John Drew and Daniel Colston 1859; Moses Alberty, Samuel Smith and Smith Christy 1867, the latter died on Novemlvr 27, 186? and Huckleberry Downing was elected in his place; Jesse Henry and two unknown 1869; Jesse Henry died November 25, 1870; Daniel Redbird, James Vann and James Baldridge 1871, the latter died and John Lynch Adair was appointed and Daniel Ross Hicks was elected on November 13, 1872 vice James Baldridge; John T. Beamen and two unknown 1873.
Johnson Spader, John Hildebrand Cookson and James Vann 1875, the latter died and Rabbit Bunch was elected on November 10, 1876. He resigned and Arleicher Ridge was appointed.
Huckleberry Downing, George Downing and John Chambers 1877, the latter two resigned, Stephen Teehee was appointed, vice John Chambers and James Tuck Woodall was appointed, vice George Downing, Jesse Redbird was elected November 29, 1878 vice George Downing and Lewis Rogers of Cabin Creek was elected on the same date vice John Chambers.
Charles Henry Armstrong, Johnson Spade and Daniel Redbird 1879; Coocoodigesky, Johnson Downing and Nelson Terrapin 1881; Johnson Downing, Walter Adair Starr and Adam Feeling 1883; David Muskrat, Daniel Redbird and Ned Christy 1885; William Eubanks, Daniel Redbird and Stout Locust 1887; John Batt, Johnson Downing and George Teehee 1889; the latter died November 24. 1889 and Moses O'Fields was elected November 30. 1889; Aaron Corntassel, George Waters and John Batt 1891; Oosqualuke, David Blackfox and David Tadpole 1893; William Young, Hunter Poorbear and George Sanders 1895; Daniel Watt, John Batt and Jesse Pigeon 1897; Thomas Smith, Walter Goss Fields and George Washington Baldridge 1899; Walter Goss Fields, Samuel Campbell Foster and George Washington Baldridge 1901; George Waters, Samuel Houston Adair and Charles Smith 1903.
Delegates to Washington.
Authorized by article six, section three of the Constitution.
1839. John Ross, William Shorey Coody, Archibald Campbell, George Hicks, Edward Gunter, Richard Taylor, Joseph Martin Lynch, John Looney, Elijah Hicks, Looney Price and Rev Jesse Bushyhead.
1843. John Ross, John Benge, David Vann, Elijah Hicks and William Potter Ross, Secretary.
1845. John Ross, Richard Taylor, John Looney, Carter Walker, Moses Daniel, William Shorey Coody, Joseph Vann, Aaron Price and John Spears.
1846. John Ross, William Potter Ross, Clement Vann McNair and David Vann.
1847. John Ross, Robert Bulfington Daniel and Richard Taylor.
1849. John Ross, William Potter Ross, David Vann and John Drew.
1851. John Ross, Joseph Vann, James Kell, Thomas Pegg and Rev. Lewis Downing.
1853. John Ross and John Thompson Adair.
1859. John Ross, John Drew, Pickens M. Benge and Thomas Pegg.
1863. John Ross, Lewis Downing, James M. Daniel and Rev. Evan Jones.
1864. John Ross, Thomas Pegg, George Washington Scraper and Smith Christy.
1866. (Federal Delegates). John Ross, Whitecatcher, Smith Christy, Daniel Hicks Ross, Samuel Houston Benge and John Buttrick Jones. John Ross died August 1, 1866. Whitecatcher died at Pleasant Hill, Missouri, August 17, 1866.
1866. (Southern Cherokee Delegates). John Rollin Ridge, Richard Fields, William Penn Adair, Saladin Watie and Elias Cornelius Boudinot.
1867. Samuel Smith, James McDaniel, Archibald Scraper, Joseph Absalom Scales, Henry Dobson Reese, John Porum Davis, William Penn Adair and John Brewer.
1868. John Porum Dais, Henry Dobson Reese, Archibald Scraper, William Penn Adair, Samuel Smith and Lewis Downing.
1869. John Porum Davis, Samuel Smith, Archibald Scraper, Lewis Downing, Clement Neely Vann and Samuel Houston Benge.
1870. Samuel Smith, George Washington Scraper, Lewis Downing, Clement Neely Vann and William Penn Adair.
1871. William Potter Ross, William Penn Adair, Samuel Houston Benge and Clement Neely Vann.
1872. Joseph Vann, William Penn Adair and William Potter Ross.
1873. Rufus O. Ross, William Penn Adair, John Buttrick Jones and William Potter Ross.
1874. Dennis Wolf Bushyhead, Rufus O. Ross, William Penn Adair and John Buttrick Jones.
1875. Rufus O. Ross, Daniel Hicks Ross, John Lynch Adair and William Penn Adair.
1876. William Potter Ross and Hiram Terrell Landrum.
1877. William Penn Adair and Daniel Hicks Ross.
1878. William Penn Adair, William Potter Ross, Samuel Smith and Daniel Hicks Ross.
1879. William Penn Adair, Richard Murrell Wolfe, John Lynch Adair and Rabbit Bunch.
1880. George Sanders and Pleasant Napoleon Blackstone.
1881. Daniel Hicks Ross and Richard Murrell Wolfe.
1882. Robert Bruce Ross and Richard Murrell Wolfe.
1883. Lucien Burr Bell and John Gunter Schrimsher.
1884. Richard Murrell Wolfe and Hiram Terrell Landrum.
1885. William Penn Boudinot, John Chambers and John Schrimsher.
1886. Colonel Johnson Harris and Hiram Terrell Landrum.
1889. Dennis Wolf Bushyhead and John Lynch Adair.
1891. Elias Cornelius Boudinot and Thomas Mitchell Buffington.
1892. William Wirt Hastings and Martin Van Benge.
1895. Colonel Johnson Harris, Roach Young, George Washington Benge and Rev. Joseph Smallwood.
1900. Lucien Burr Bell, Percy Wyly, Benjamin Hildebrand and Jesse Cochran.
The Cherokee Phoenix.
Owned and published by the Cherokee Nation at New Echola, Georgia.
VoUime 1, Number 1 was issued on February 2 1, 1882. The last issue Volume 5, Number 52 was issued on May 31, 1834.
Editors of the Cherokee Phoenix.
February 21. 1828, Elias Buudinot resisgned August 1, 1832 and Elijah Hicks was immediately appointed by Chief Ross.
Cherokee Advocate
Owned and published by the Cherokee Nation at Tahlequah.
First series; September 26, 1844 to September 28, 1853. Stopped for lack of funds. Second series; April 26, 1870 to December 26, 1874. Entire office destroyed by fire. Third series; March 4, 1876 to March 3, 1906. Discontinued by the United States government. A new office was built and entire new press, type and accessories were purchased at the beginning of each series. The full equipment for the third series was purchased for the Nation in St. Louis, Missouri by Assistant Chief David Rowe.
Editors of the Cherokee Advocate.
Elected every two years by National Council.
William Potter Ross 1844; James Shepherd Vann; [Javid Carter; William Penn Boudinot 1870; John Lynch Adair 1873; William Penn Boudinot 1876; George Washington Johnson 1877; Elias Cornelius Boudinot 1879; Daniel Hicks Ross 1881 and 1883; Elias Cornelius Boudinot 1885; William Penn Boudinot 1888; Robert Fleetcher Wyly 1889; Hugh Montgomery Adair 1891; George Oliver Butler 1893; Waddie Hudson 1895; Joseph R. Sequitchie 1879; William Leoser 1899; George Oliver Butler 1901 and Wiley James Melton 1903.
National Auditors.
Authorized by act of Council of November 19, 1851.
William P. Mackey 1851; Unknown 1853, 1855, 1857 and 1859; Charles R. Gourd 1867; Lewis Anderson Ross 1869; Richard Halfbreed 1871 and 1875; Stand Watie Gray 1875; Heman Lincoln Foreman 1877; Connell Rogers 1879; George Washington Benge 1881 and 1883; Lewis Anderson Ross 1884; Samuel D. Love 1888; Isaac Bertholf 1889; Stand Watie Mayfield 1891; Simon Ross Walkingstick 1893; John Calhoun Danenburg 1895; Albert Andrew Taylor 1897 and Thomas Martin Knight 1899.
Townsite Commissioners.
1871. William L. Gordon Miler, Rev. Joseph F. Thompson and J. Woodard Washburn. The latter resigned and John Ross Vann was appointed.
1881. Lucien Burr Bell, James McDaniel Keys and Elizer Butler Sanders.
1884. William Potter Ross, William McCracken and Henry Hardin Trott.
1885. William McCracken and William Henry Drew.
1886. William Henry Drew, Lucien Webster Beflington and Henry Hardin Trott.
1888. Lucien Webster Buttington, Marion Muls and Rollm Kirk Adair.
1890. Lewis Ross Thornton, Nathan Baron Danenburg and Francis Marion Conner.
1892. Ellis Buffington Wright, William Goodlet Nelms and Francis Marion Conner.
1893. Mannie Garrett Butler.
1895. Thomas Albert Chandler.
Committee to Dispose of the Cherokee Outlet.
1891. Joseph Absalom Scales, Elias Cornelius Boudinot, Rev. Joseph Smallwood, Roach Young, George Downing, Thomas Smith and William Triplett.
Committee to negotiate With the Commissioners to the Five Civilized Tribes.
Clement Vann Rogers, Percy Wyly, George Sanders, Wolf Coon, John Edward Gunter and Robert Bruce Ross.
Committee to Build the National Jail.
Riley Keys, John Lynch Adair and John Francis Lyon. The appropriation of six thousand dollars was authorized in November 1873 and the building was to be completed by November 1, 1874.
High Sheriffs of the Cherokee Nation.
This was the title of the jail wardens.
Samuel Sixkiller 1875 and 1877; Robert Mosby French 1879; Charles Washington Starr 1883; John Hawkins 1886, William McCracken 1888, he died and was succeeded by Jesse Bushyhead Mayes; Caleb Wilson Starr George Washington Mayes and John Ellis Duncan.
Attorneys for the Cherokee Naltion Before the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes
, which was acting as a Citizenship Court.
William Wirt Hastings and Charles Percival Pierce.
Solicitor Generals for the Cherokee Nation.
1875. Joseph Absalom Scales.
1877. John Taylor Drew.
Attorney Generals for the Cherokee Nation.
William Wirt Hastings, elected November 25, 1891, Robert Wesley Walker temporarily appointed December 20, 1892. Hastings resumed office; Robert Fletcher Wyly 1897.
Revenue Collector on Alien Property.
Leroy Ladd Crutchfield 1889. He was reappointed as Collector in 1890 but his territory was only Cooweescoowee District to which the Cherokee Outlet was added in 1891. The other collectors appointed in 1890 were: James Jay Sevier for Canadian, Benjamin Franklin Adair for Saline, Blue Housebug for Flint, John W. Holland for Going Snake, Robert J. Thompson for Tahlequah and Robert W. Tittle for Delaware District. Tittle was succeeded in 1891 by Thomas Albert Chandler.
Citizen Courts.
1879. Roach Young, Chairman, William Harnage and George Washington Mayes. Joel Bryan Mayes, clerk and John Francis Lyon, Attorney for the Cherokee Nation.
1881. Alexander Wolf, Thomas Fox Thompson and Thomas Teehee, Chairman. DeWitt Clinton Duncan, Clerk and Wilson Sanders attorney for the Cherokee Nation.
1886. DeWitt Clinton Lipe, John Edward Gunter and John Thompson Adair, Chairman. Robert Fletcher Wyly, attorney for the Cherokee Nation.
In the period of the war, from July 1862 to November 1867, both the federal and confederate Cherokees maintained a government. The federal government, as well as can be traced is as follows:
Principal Chief: John Ross, he died August 1, 1866 and was succeeded by Lewis Downing.
Assistant Chief: Thomas Pegg and Smith Christy.
Executive Council: Nathaniel Fish, Wareagle and Anderson Springston. elected October 18, 1863. Daniel Hicks Ross, Moses Catcher and Redbird Sixkiller, elected October 5, 1865.
Treasurer: Lewis Ross.
Auditor: Allen Ross and Spencer S. Stephens.
Superintendent of Education: Albert Barnes and Henry Dobson Reese.
Chief Justice: Wiley Glover Thornton; Associate Justices, Riley Keys, Thomas Pegg, James Shelton and Nicholas Byers Sanders. Riley Keys elect Cihef Justice October 5, 1865.
Judge, Northern Circuit: David Rowe.
Judge, Southern Circuit: Joseph Duval.
Delegates to Washington, elected on Cowskin Prairie, February 20, 1863: Rev. Lewis Downing, James McDaniel and Rev. Evan Jones.
Delegates elected October 18, 1864: John Ross, Thomas Pegg, Smith Christy and George Washington Scraper.
Delegates elected November 3, 1865: Smith Christy, Whitecatcher. Daniel Hicks Ross, Samuel Houston Benge, James McDaniel, John Buttrick Jones and Thomas Pegg.
Delaware District:
Saline District: Lewis Downing, Charles Wickliffe and Toostoo.
Going Snake District: Archibald Scraper, Bud Gritts and Redbird Sixkiller.
Tahlequah District: Whitecatcher.
Illinois District: Charles R. Gourd, William Potter Ross and Joshua Ross.
Canadian District: Flute Foxskin.
Sequoyah District: Smith Christy, Cheechee and James Vann, President of Committee.
Flint District: Eli Smith.
Cooweescoowee District: James McDaniel and Robin Smith.
Clerk of Committee: John Buttrick Jones and Robert Bruce Ross.
Delaware District: Luther Rice, James D. Wofford, Big Robin, Robert Guess, Ezekiel Blackfox and Ben Snail, Speaker of Council.
Saline District: Lacey Mouse, Chuwachukah and Springfrog, Speaker of Council.
Going Snake District: George Washington Scraper, Alexander Love, Eli Sanders, Redbird Sixkiller, Johnson Robbins, and Joe Chooie.
Tahlequah District: Tarcheche and Jack Downing.
Illinois District: Bark Scruggs, Moses Price and John Young, Speaker of Council.
Canadian District: James Hammer and Whitewater.
Sequoyah District:
Flint District: Chalateehee, Walter Christy and Talala.
Cooweescoowee District: Jumper Mills, John Glass, Josiah Stealer and Writer, Speaker of Council.
Clerk of Council: William Scraper and Henry Dohson Reese.
District Judges.
Delaware District: Luther Rice, Oochalata and Johnson Long Charles.
Saline District: George Beamer and Charles Wickliffe.
Going Snake District: Frog Sixkiller and Johnson Robbins.
Tahlequah District: Jackson R. Gourd.
Illinois District: Robin Crawford.
Canadian District: Franklin Gritts and William Doublehead.
Sequoyah District: Mink Downing and George Blair.
Flint District: Johnson Bolin, Chalateehee and Wesley Gritts.
Cooweescoowee District: Stop Sconatee and Daniel Ross Hicks.
Delaware District.
Saline District: Samuel Smith.
Going Snake District: Ezekial Proctor.
Tahlequah District: Eli Spears.
Illinois District:
Canadian District: Coming.
Sequoyah District: Jesse Baldridge.
Flint District:
Cooweescoowee District: William Sunday and Dick Duck.
Delaware District: Allen Tanner and Robert Guess.
Saline District: Alexander Hawk and Isaac Dick.
Going Snake District: John T. Beamer and Aaron Killanigger.
Tahlequah District: Nelson Terrapin and George Pumpkin.
Illinois District: Daniel Backbone and Mussel.
Canadian District: Youngpuppy and Ned Baldridge.
Sequoyah District: Jackenny.
Flint Distirct: Jesse Redbird and Wesley Gritts.
Cooweescoowee District: Jack Gobbler.
The first Confederate Cherokee "convention" was in session for eleven days during August 1862 at Tahlequah; the second and final session was from May 22nd to June 1, 1863 near the mouth of Coody Creek in Canadian District. The officers were:
Principal Chief: Stand Watie.
Assistant Cheif: Samuel McDaniel Taylor.
Members of Convention.
Delaware District: Charles Edwin Watie, L. E. Mush, E. G. Smith died and was succeeded by Luclen Burr Bell.
Saline District: James M. Bell, Joseph Lynch Martin and Dr. Walter Thompson Adair.
Going Snake District: Joseph McMinn Bean, L. Foster, George Harlan Starr, died and was succeeded by George Washington Mayes.
Tahlequah District: Smallwood, W. Benge and Johnson Foreman.
Illinois District: Richard Fields, John Brewer, John W. Brown and Alexander Foreman, President of Convention.
Canadian District: J. A. Scales, Walker Carey and O. H. P. Brewer.
Sequoyah District: Daniel Ross Nave, Moses C. Frye, John Walker Starr, died and was succeeded by Samuel Gunter.
Flint District: Walkingwolf and William Griftin.
Cooweescoowee District: Leroy Keys, Clement V. Rogers and John G. Scrimsher.
William Penn Boudinot, Secretary of Convention; Joel Bryan Mayes Assistant Secretary.
Jack Spears, Executive Councilor.
Elias Cornelius Boudinot, Delegate to the Confederate Congress.
Richard Carter, Judge of Cooweescoowee District.
Lucien Burr Bell, Sheriff of Deleware District.
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