The Treaty of Greenville
August 3, 1795
A treaty of peace
between the United States of America, and the tribes of Indians called
the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanees, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pattawatimas, Miamis,
Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias.
To put an end
to a destructive war, to settle all controversies, and to restore harmony
and friendly intercourse between the said United States and Indian tribes,
Anthony Wayne, major general commanding the army of the United States,
and sole commissioner for the good purposes above mentioned, and the said
tribes of Indians, by their sachems, chiefs, and warriors, met together
at Greenville, the head quarters of the said army, have agreed on the following
articles, which, when ratified by the President, with the advice and consent
of the Senate of the United States, shall be binding on them and the said
all hostilities shall cease; peace is hereby established, and shall be
perpetual; and a friendly intercourse shall take place between the said
United States and Indian tribes.
prisoners shall, on both sides, be restored. The Indians, prisoners to
the United States, shall be immediately set at liberty. The people of the
United States, still remaining prisoners among the Indians, shall be delivered
up in ninety days from the date hereof, to the general or commanding officer
at Greenville, fort Wayne, or fort Defiance; and ten chiefs of the said
tribes shall remain at Greenville as hostages, until the delivery of the
prisoners shall be effected.
general boundary line between the lands of the United States and the lands
of the said Indian tribes, shall begin at the mouth of Cayahoga river,
and run thence up the same to the portage, between that and the Tuscarawas
branch of the Muskingum, thence down that branch to the crossing place
above fort Lawrence, thence westerly to a fork of that branch of the Great
Miami river, running into the Ohio, at or near which fork stood Loromie's
store, and where commences the portage between the Miami of the Ohio, and
St. Mary's river, which is a branch of the Miami which runs into lake Erie;
thence a westerly course to fort Recovery, which stands on a branch of
the Wabash; thence southwesterly in a direct line to the Ohio, so as to
intersect that river opposite the mouth of Kentucke or Cuttawa river. And
in consideration of the peace now established; of the goods formerly received
from the United States; of those now to be delivered; and of the yearly
delivery of goods now stipulated to be made hereafter; and to indemnify
the United States for the injuries and expenses they have sustained during
the war, the said Indian tribes do hereby cede and relinquish forever,
all their claims to the lands lying eastwardly and southwardly of the general
boundary line now described: and these lands, or any part of them, shall
never hereafter be made a cause or pretence, on the part of the said tribes,
or any of them, of war or injury to the United States, or any of the people
And for the same
considerations, and as an evidence of the returning friendship of the said
Indian tribes, of their confidence in the United States, and desire to
provide for their accommodations, and for that convenient intercourse which
will be beneficial to both parties, the said Indian tribes do also cede
to the United States the following pieces of land, to wit:
1) One piece of land six miles square, at or near Loromie's store, before
2) One piece two miles square, at the head of the navigable water or landing,
on the St. Mary's river, near Girty's town.
3) One piece six miles square, at the head of the navigable water of the
4) One piece six miles square, at the confluence of the Auglaize and Miami
rivers, where fort Defiance now stands.
5) One piece six miles square, at or near the confluence of the rivers
St. Mary's and St. Joseph's, where fort Wayne now stands, or near it.
6) One piece two miles square, on the Wabash river, at the end of the portage
from the Miami of the lake, and about eight miles westward from fort Wayne.
7) One piece six miles square, at the Ouatanon, or Old Wea towns, on the
8) One piece twelve miles square, at the British fort on the Miami of the
lake, at the foot of the rapids.
9) One piece six miles square, at the mouth of the said river, where it
empties into the lake.
10) One piece six miles square, upon Sandusky lake, where a fort formerly
11) One piece two miles square, at the lower rapids of Sandusky river.
12) The post of Detroit, and all the land to the north, the west and the
south of it, of which the Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or
grants to the French or English governments: and so much more land to be
annexed to the district of Detroit, as shall be comprehended between the
river Rosine, on the south, lake St. Clair on the north, and a line, the
general course whereof shall be six miles distant from the west end of
lake Erie and Detroit river.
13) The post of Michilimackinac, and all the land on the island on which
that post stands, and the main land adjacent, of which the Indian title
has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the Frewnch or English governments;
and a piece of land on the main to the north of the island, to measure
six miles, on lake Huron, or the strait between lakes Huron and Michigan,
and to extend three miles back from the water of the lake or strait; and
also, the Island De Bois Blane, being an extra and voluntary gift of the
14) One piece of land six miles square, at the mouth of Chikago river,
emptying into the southwest end of lake Michigan, where a fort formerly
15) One piece twelve miles square, at or near the mouth of the Illinois
river, emptying into the Mississippi.
16) One piece six miles square, at the old Piorias fort and village near
the south end of the Illinois lake, on said Illinois river. And whenever
the United States shall think proper to survey and mark the boundaries
of the lands hereby ceded to them, they shall give timely notice thereof
to the said tribes of Indians, that they may appoint some of their wise
chiefs to attend and see that the lines are run according to the terms
of this treaty.
And the said Indian
tribes will allow to the people of the United States a free passage by
land and by water, as one and the other shall be found convenient, through
their country, along the chain of posts hereinbefore mentioned; that is
to say, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid, at or near Loromie's
store, thence along said portage to the St. Mary's, and down the same to
fort Wayne, and then down the Miami, to lake Erie; again, from the commencement
of the portage at or near Loromie's store along the portage from thence
to the river Auglaize, and down the same to its junction with the Miami
at fort Defiance; again, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid,
to Sandusky river, and down the same to Sandusky bay and lake Erie, and
from Sandusky to the post which shall be taken at or near the foot of the
Rapids of the Miami of the lake; and from thence to Detroit. Again, from
the mouth of Chikago, to the commencement of the portage, between that
river and the Illinois, and down the Illinois river to the Mississippi;
also, from fort Wayne, along the portage aforesaid, which leads to the
Wabash, and then down the Wabash to the Ohio. And the said Indian tribes
will also allow to the people of the United States, the free use of the
harbors and mouths of rivers along the lakes adjoining the Indian lands,
for sheltering vessels and boats, and liberty to land their cargoes where
necessary for their safety.
consideration of the peace now established, and of the cessions and relinquishments
of lands made in the preceding article by the said tribes of Indians, and
to manifest the liberality of the United States, as the great means of
rendering this peace strong and perpetual, the United States relinquish
their claims to all other Indian lands northward of the river Ohio, eastward
of the Mississippi, and westward and southward of the Great Lakes and the
waters, uniting them, according to the boundary line agreed on by the United
States and the King of Great Britain, in the treaty of peace made between
them in the year 1783. But from this relinquishment by the United States,
the following tracts of land are explicitly excepted:
1st. The tract
on one hundred and fifty thousand acres near the rapids of the river Ohio,
which has been assigned to General Clark, for the use of himself and his
2nd. The post
of St. Vincennes, on the River Wabash, and the lands adjacent, of which
the Indian title has been extinguished.
3rd. The lands
at all other places in possession of the French people and other white
settlers among them, of which the Indian title has been extinguished as
mentioned in the 3d article; and
4th. The post
of fort Massac towards the mouth of the Ohio. To which several parcels
of land so excepted, the said tribes relinquish all the title and claim
which they or any of them may have.
And for the same
considerations and with the same views as above mentioned, the United States
now deliver to the said Indian tribes a quantity of goods to the value
of twenty thousand dollars, the receipt whereof they do hereby acknowledge;
and henceforward every year, forever, the United States will deliver, at
some convenient place northward of the river Ohio, like useful goods, suited
to the circumstances of the Indians, of the value of nine thousand five
hundred dollars; reckoning that value at the first cost of the goods in
the city or place in the United States where they shall be procured. The
tribes to which those goods are to be annually delivered, and the proportions
in which they are to be delivered, are the following:
1st. To the Wyandots,
the amount of one thousand dollars.
2nd. To the
Delawares, the amount of one thousand dollars.
3rd. To the
Shawanees, the amount of one thousand dollars.
4th. To the
Miamis, the amount of one thousand dollars.
5th. To the
Ottawas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
6th. To the
Chippewas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
7th. To the
Pattawatimas, the amount of one thousand dollars, and
8th. To the
Kickapoo, Wea, Eel River, Piankeshaw, and Kaskaskia tribes, the amount
hundred dollars each.
if either of the said tribes shall hereafter, at an annual delivery of
their share of the goods aforesaid, desire that a part of their annuity
should be furnished in domestic animals, implements of husbandry, and other
utensils convenient for them, and in compensation to useful artificers
who may reside with or near them, and be employed for their benefit, the
same shall, at the subsequent annual deliveries, be furnished accordingly.
prevent any misunderstanding about the Indian lands relinquished by the
United States in the fourth article, it is now explicitly declared, that
the meaning of that relinquishment is this: the Indian tribes who have
a right to those lands, are quietly to enjoy them, hunting, planting, and
dwelling thereon, so long as they please, without any molestation from
the United States; but when those tribes, or any of them, shall be disposed
to sell their lands, or any part of them, they are to be sold only to the
United States; and until such sale, the United States will protect all
the said Indian tribes in the quiet enjoyment of their lands against all
citizens of the United States, and against all other white persons who
intrude upon the same. And the said Indian tribes again acknowledge themselves
to be under the protection of the said United States, and no other power
any citizen of the United States, or any other white person or persons,
shall presume to settle upon the lands now relinquished by the United States,
such citizen or other person shall be out of the protection of the United
States; and the Indian tribe, on whose land the settlement shall be made,
may drive off the settler, or punish him in such manner as they shall think
fit; and because such settlements, made without the consent of the United
States, will be injurious to them as well as to the Indians, the United
States shall be at liberty to break them up, and remove and punish the
settlers as they shall think proper, and so effect that protection of the
Indian lands herein before stipulated.
said tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, shall be at liberty to
hunt within the territory and lands which they have now ceded to the United
States, without hindrance or molestation, so long as they demean themselves
peaceably, and offer no injury to the people of the United States.
shall be opened with the said Indian tribes; and they do hereby respectively
engage to afford protection to such persons, with their property, as shall
be duly licensed to reside among them for the purpose of trade; and to
their agents and servants; but no person shall be permitted to reside among
them for the purpose of trade; and to their agents and servants; but no
person shall be permitted to reside at any of their towns or hunting camps,
as a trader, who is not furnished with a license for that purpose, under
the hand and seal of the superintendent of the department northwest of
the Ohio, or such other person as the President of the United States shall
authorize to grant such licenses; to the end, that the said Indians may
not be imposed on in their trade.* And if any licensed trader shall abuse
his privilege by unfair dealing, upon complaint and proof thereof, his
license shall be taken from him, and he shall be further punished according
to the laws of the United States. And if any person shall intrude himself
as a trader, without such license, the said Indians shall take and bring
him before the superintendent, or his deputy, to be dealt with according
to law. And to prevent impositions by forged licenses, the said Indians
shall, at lease once a year, give information to the superintendent, or
his deputies, on the names of the traders residing among them.
the firm peace and friendship now established, should be interrupted by
the misconduct of individuals, the United States, and the said Indian tribes
agree, that for injuries done by individuals on either side, no private
revenge or retaliation shall take place; but instead thereof, complaint
shall be made by the party injured, to the other: by the said Indian tribes
or any of them, to the President of the United States, or the superintendent
by him appointed; and by the superintendent or other person appointed by
the President, to the principal chiefs of the said Indian tribes, or of
the tribe to which the offender belongs; and such prudent measures shall
then be taken as shall be necessary to preserve the said peace and friendship
unbroken, until the legislature (or great council) of the United States,
shall make other equitable provision in the case, to the satisfaction of
both parties. Should any Indian tribes meditate a war against the United
States, or either of them, and the same shall come to the knowledge of
the before mentioned tribes, or either of them, they do hereby engage to
give immediate notice thereof to the general, or officer commanding the
troops of the United States, at the nearest post.
*See, in relation to this licensed trade, the "first explanatory article"
of the treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, between the United States
and Great Britain, of the 19th of November, 1974.
And should any
tribe, with hostile intentions against the United States, or either of
them, attempt to pass through their country, they will endeavor to prevent
the same, and in like manner give information of such attempt, to the general,
or officer commanding, as soon as possible, that all causes of mistrust
and suspicion may be avoided between them and the United States. In like
manner, the United States shall give notice to the said Indian tribes of
any harm that may be meditated against them, or either of them, that shall
come to their knowledge; and do all in their power to hinder and prevent
the same, that the friendship between them may be uninterrupted.
other treaties heretofore made between the United States, and the said
Indian tribes, or any of them, since the treaty of 1783, between the United
States and Great Britain, that come within the purview of this treaty,
shall henceforth cease and become void.
whereof, the said Anthony Wayne, and the sachems and war chiefs of the
before mentioned nations and tribes of Indians, have hereunto set their
hands and affixed their seals.
Done at Greenville,
in the territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio, on the
third day of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety five.
Tarhe, or Crane, his x mark L.S.
J. Williams, jun. his x mark, L.S.
Teyyaghtaw, his x mark, L.S.
Haroenyou, or half king's son, his x mark, L.S.
Tehaawtorens, his x mark, L.S.
Awmeyeeray, his x mark, L.S.
Stayetah, his x mark L.S.
Shateyyaronyah, or Leather Lips, his x mark, L.S.
Daughshuttayah, his x mark L.S.
Shaawrunthe, his x mark L.S.
Tetabokshke, or Grand Glaize King, his x mark, L.S.
Lemantanquis, or Black King, his x mark, L.S.
Wabatthoe, his x mark, L.S.
Maghpiway, or Red Feather, his x mark, L.S.
Kikthawenund, or Anderson, his x mark, L.S.
Bukongehelas, his x mark, L.S.
Peekeelund, his x mark, L.S.
Wellebawkeelund, his x mark, L.S.
Peekeetelemund, or Thomas Adams, his x mark, L.S.
Kishkopekund, or Captain Buffalo, his x mark, L.S.
Amenahehan, or Captain Crow, his x mark, L.S.
Queshawksey, or George Washington, his x mark, L.S.
Weywinquis, or Billy Siscomb, his x mark, L.S.
Moses, his x mark, L.S.
Misquacoonacaw, or Red Pole, his x mark, L.S.
Cutthewekasaw, or Black Hoof, his x mark, L.S.
Kaysewaesekah, his x mark, L.S.
Weythapamattha, his x mark, L.S.
Nianysmeka, his x mark, L.S.
Waytheah, or Long Shanks, his x mark, L.S.
Weyapiersenwaw, or Blue Jacket, his x mark, L.S.
Nequetaughaw, his x mark, L.S.
Hahgoosekaw, or Captain Reed, his x mark, L.S.
Augooshaway, his x mark, L.S.
Keenoshameek, his x mark, L.S.
La Malice, his x mark, L.S.
Machiwetah, his x mark, L.S.
Thowonawa, his x mark, L.S.
Secaw, his x mark, L.S.
Mashipinashiwish, or Bad Bird, his x mark, L.S.
Nahshogashe, (from Lake Superior), his x mark, L.S.
Kathawasung, his x mark, L.S.
Masass, his x mark, L.S.
Nemekass, or Little Thunder, his x mark, L.S.
Peshawkay, or Young Ox, his x mark, L.S.
Nanguey, his x mark, L.S.
Meenedohgeesogh, his x mark, L.S.
Peewanshemenogh, his x mark, L.S.
Weymegwas, his x mark, L.S.
Gobmaatick, his x mark, L.S.
Chegonickska, an Ottawa from Sandusky, his x mark, L.S.
Pattawatimas of Huron
Thupenebu, his x mark, L.S.
Nawac, for himself and brother Etsimethe, his x mark, L.S.
Nenanseka, his x mark, L.S.
Keesass, or Run, his x mark, L.S.
Kabamasaw, for himself and brother Chisaugan, his x mark, L.S.
Sugganunk, his x mark, L.S.
Wapmeme, or White Pigeon, his x mark, L.S.
Wacheness, for himself and brother Pedagoshok, his x mark, L.S.
Wabshicawnaw, his x mark, L.S.
La Chasse, his x mark, L.S.
Meshegethenogh, for himself and brother, Wawasek, his x mark, L.S.
Hingoswash, his x mark, L.S.
Anewasaw, his x mark, L.S.
Nawbudgh, his x mark, L.S.
Missenogomaw, his x mark, L.S.
Waweegshe, his x mark, L.S.
Thawme, or Le Blanc, his x mark, L.S.
Geeque, for himself and brother Shewinse, his x mark, L.S.
Okia, his x mark, L.S.
Chamung, his x mark, L.S.
Segagewan, his x mark, L.S.
Nanawme, for himself and brother A. Gin, his x mark, L.S.
Marchand, his x mark, L.S.
Wenameac, his x mark, L.S.
Miamis and Eel Rivers
Nagohquangogh, or Le Gris, his x mark, L.S.
Meshekunnoghquoh, or Little Turtle, his x mark, L.S.
Eel River Tribe
Peejeewa, or Richard Ville, his x mark, L.S.
Cochkepoghtogh, his x mark, L.S.
Shamekunnesa, or Soldier, his x mark, L.S.
Weas, for themselves & the Piankeshaws
Wapamangwa, or the White Loon, his x mark, L.S.
Kickapoos and Kaskaskias
Amacunsa, or Little Beaver, his x mark, L.S.
Acoolatha, or Little Fox, his x mark, L.S.
Francis, his x mark, L.S.
Delawares of Sandusky
Keeawhah, his x mark, L.S.
Nemighka, or Josey Renard, his x mark, L.S.
Paikeekanogh, his x mark, L.S.
H. De Butts, first A.D.C. and Sec'ry to Major Gen. Wayne,
Hawkinpumiska, his x mark, L.S.
Peyamawksey, his x mark, L.S.
Reyntueco, (of the Six Nations, living at Sandusky), his x mark, L.S.
Wm. H. Harrison, Aid de Camp to Major Gen. Wayne,
T. Lewis, Aid de Camp to Major Gen. Wayne,
James O'Hara, Quartermaster Gen'l.
John Mills, Major of Infantry, and Adj. Gen'l. Caleb Swan, P.M.T.U.S.
Gen. Demter, Lieut. Artillery,
P. Frs. La Fontaine,
ers. H. Lasselle,
lls, Js. Beau Bien,
lle, David Jones, Chaplain U.S.S.
Bt. Sans Crainte,
Abraham Williams, his x mark
Isaac Zane, his x mark
NOTE: April 2002 this page was within the original Quapaw
ITGenWeb directory. No source for the information was documented.