Welcome to the website for the Wichita and Caddo Nation of the OK/ITGenWeb, a part of the USGenWeb Project. Related research is also on the Caddo County site. I hope you find the site informative and useful in your genealogical research. I appreciate anything of interest that I could add to the site. If you have any comments, or know of resources that are available, please e-mail me at Cindy Neal.
George Washington (Sho-we-tat, Little Boy)
History Before Formation of the Wichita Agency
The Wichita Indians, of Caddoan stock, had separated from the Caddos proper about 1500 B.C., but the two peoples maintained close ties. In 1846, the various Indian tribes of Texas signed a far-reaching treaty with the United states. Both tribes were forced further westward, until in 1854 the Wichita were settled together with the Caddos, Wacos and Tawakonis on the Brazos Reserve (now Young County, Texas). This location proved to be doomed, because of hostile Northern Comanches who competed for hunting land and white settlers who competed for farm land.
At that time large numbers of the three Caddo confederacies (Kadohadacho, Natchitoches and Hasanai) joined the Whitebead village near Fort Arbuckle in the Indian Territory. Here they were successfully raising crops, and began making attempts to adopt to the white ways, shown by the leader Showetat, when he took the name George Washington.
The Tonkowas who were living in Texas with the Caddo and Wichita joined with the Republic of Texas against the Peneteka Comanches, Wichitas and Caddos, thus dooming any trust with those tribes. A common leader was accepted here who was called Iesh. Unsettled Northern Comanches were raiding both the Brazos Reserve and white settlements, resulting in white settlers becoming opposed to the Reserve Indians as well, and to oppose their existence. By 1859 many of the Wichita abandoned their village in the Reserve and joined the Whitebead in Indian Territory.
Later that year a treaty was made to move the entire population to the Leased District of Indian Territory. On July 31, 1859, the remaining tribes gathered together to begin their journey , leaving forever their traditional homes south of the Red River. In the party were 1,049 Indians - 462 Caddos, 344 Wichitas and 243 Tonkawas. There were also at least 1,000 horses and 500 head of cattle, and all were accompanied by U.S. troops, provided for protection from hostiles. They traveled over 150 miles in 17 days, with 6 deaths on the trail, one birth, and transportation of the tribes' livestock and property without damage.
An agency, called the Wichita Agency, was constructed in the new settlement. Military protection was again provided, because of fears from hostile Comanches and Kiowas. New villages were set up, all between three and 10 miles from the agency. The Wichita set up two villages near Fort Cobb. One was Isadowa's Taovayas, and Kichais joined Acaquash's Wacos and Ocherash's Tawakonis. The Caddos all moved near the mouth of Sugar Creek, and the chiefs of the three bands - Iesh of the Nadacos, Tinah of the Kadohadachos, and George Washington of the Whitebeads - had log cabins built for them. Also living in this area were the Shawnees and Delawares.
The outbreak of the Civil War in 1862 forced the Caddos (all except Washington's Whitebeads) and Wichitas to flee to Union-controlled Kansas, where they spent 5 years depending on rations from Union forces, because they were unable to raise crops or hunt buffalo. Hunger, exposure and disease caused both tribes to experience great population losses. By 1866, the 200 Washington's Whitebeads had also joined the Kansas party, along with 300 Penateka Comanches. The 5 miserable years the Caddos and Wichitas spent together in Kansas worked to tighten the bonds between them, ensuring that their fates would be intertwined for many years to come.
The return to the Wichita Agency occurred
in 1867, and the tribes' reservation experience was begun, to last another 34 years.
Join the Caddo Mailing List
Clicking on one of the shortcut links below should work, but if your browser doesn't understand them, try these manual instructions: to join NA-CADDO-L, send mail to NA-CADDO-Lemail@example.com with the single word subscribe in the message subject and body. To join NA-CADDO-D, do the same thing with NA-CADDO-Dfirstname.lastname@example.org.
Native American Links
All County Courthouse address are available in the Vital Records link at the top of the OK Resources. If you have resources, books, records, or any documentation, and would volunteer to do lookups for researchers, please contact one of the hosts to be listed here.
In March and April, 1996, a group of genealogists organized the Kentucky Comprehensive Genealogy Database Project - The KYGenWeb Project. It began as a discussion on the Internet mailing list, KYROOTS-L. (Hosted at the University of Kentucky, and is coordinated by Roseann Hogan of Frankfort, Ky. the author of "Kentucky Ancestry".)
The idea was to provide a single entry point for all counties in Kentucky, where genealogical data about each county could be easily found. In addition, the data on all county sites would be indexed and cross-linked, so that a single search in the master index could locate all references to a given surname across all pages and databases associated with the project. The discussion quickly turned into a reality, and the project snowballed so quickly that by mid-July all the Kentucky counties had pages.
In June, as the Kentucky Project was coming to completion it was decided to extend the concept to all of the United States and the UsGenWeb Project was established. Volunteers were found who were willing to coordinate the collection of county pages for a state page. As of 31 December, 2,239 out of 3,109 or 72% of the counties in the US had a USGenWeb page up and running! There are now about 2,000 volunteers contributing their time to this project. Queries are coming in at the rate of about 5,000 per week and approximately two million names have been indexed. The Archives now contain more than 50,000 pages of primary documents. You can visit the USGenWeb Archives and see what's there, and maybe get a better idea of what is desired. If you would like to contribute your data or create a county page within a given state, please contact the person responsible for maintaining your state page. Volunteers were found who were willing to host the State Projects and coordinate the County pages. The Indian Territory GenWeb Project has evolved from these roots. If you would like to contribute your data or host a Nation page in Oklahoma IT, please contact State Coordinator Ron Henson.
Volunteers are recruited to either donate their existing transcribed documents, or to actually commit to transcribing data, such as census records, marriage bonds, wills, etc. This project will also help preserve the information stored in musty old courthouse basements and attics on fading, crumbling paper. NO GEDCOMS, but things like wills, cemetery records, census records, basically anything of interest to the general public. Public domain records that are in courthouses or not anywhere sometimes, like the occupants of that old cemetery down the road. Military rolls, you name it. Anything but personal family history.
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Copyright 1998-2009 by ITGenWeb
Wichita and Caddo Tribes
Coordinator: Cindy Neal
This page last updated 08/23/2009
Send Comments or Suggestions to Cindy Harvey Neal