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Submitted by Alan Dorschug, 4/13/08
Early History of Bourbon County and Paris by Laura Lilleston, 1939
"Frontier" has always been a magic word. It spells adventure and wonder.
To the colonists in Virginia it was the land beyond the mountains. It
meant hope and promise. It was the county of Kentucky. Dr. Walker and
Christopher Gist had explored this wilderness and brought back
enthusiastic accounts of its beauty, its fertility, its possibilities.
But it was Daniel Boone who really popularized this western paradise.
So the exodus began, at first companies of men, then entire families in
trains of pack horses by land, or on rafts and barges by water, into
this land of promise. It was but natural that they would seek out the
richest lands. Time has proven that Bourbon is the richest and most
productive of all the Bluegrass counties. In the counties that bound
Bourbon, their richest lands are invariably on the side toward Bourbon.
The quantity and quality of the Bluegrass seed from Bourbon is superior
to that of any other county, and Paris the leading Bluegrass market in
the world. So it was that Bourbon lands were soon taken up by the most
discriminating of the pioneers, the very cream from Maryland, Virginia,
Pennsylvania and North Carolina. As early as 1810 the population of
Bourbon was more than 18,000 and it is about that today. These were men
of vision-prophets who saw not only rich rolling lands well drained and
free from miasma that would preserve and insure health, but valuable
timber lands, an abundance of water for man and mills, roads already
surveyed by herds of buffalo who instinctively knew the shortest and
most advantageous routes, a climate most exhilarating, in short just the
place for a home land.
Before 1776 the State of Kentucky was part of Fincastle County,
Virginia. In that year the Virginia Legislature divided Fincastle County
and named what coincides with what is now all of Kentucky (Exclusive of
the Purchase) "Kentucky County." In 1780 Kentucky County was sub-divided
into Jefferson, Lincoln and Fayette. In 1785 most of the northern part
of Fayette was cut off and called Bourbon County and extended to the
Ohio river. In 1792 when Kentucky was admitted to statehood Bourbon was
one of the nine counties that made up the Commonwealth. From time to
time thirty-three (33) counties have been carved from the original
Bourbon County. Today with an area of about 183,000, acres and a
population less than 20,000, Bourbon's taxable property renders her, in
proportion to area, the richest county in the Commonwealth.
In the beginning of the county, the needs of the people were few, most
of which were supplied by their own efforts. The men tilled the soil and
there was plenty of wild game and fish; the women did the spinning,
weaving, sewing and knitting. Heirlooms of that early day are yet found
in many Bourbon homes. But by 1784 a blacksmith shop was needed; a grist
mill also, to take the place of mortar and pestle, and a tavern for the
occasional traveler. Where would these be located? Springs of water have
long been a determining influence in locating a stopping place. The old
homes of the county were invariably built near a spring. Lands, even
town lots were enhanced in value if a spring was near. So Hopewell
spring, fittingly marked by the Children of the American Revolution of
Bourbon, probably determined the location of Paris, then Hopewell. In
that early day all central Kentucky drew supplies from Limestone (now
Maysville) on the Ohio river. The road traveled was the old Buffalo
Trail, which was later to be known as the Old State Road and was the
first turnpike road in Kentucky. A turnpike road, as established by law,
was really a toll gate road, the toll collected being applied to the
upkeep of the road. This first macadamized road passes through the Main
street of Paris, and has had an interesting and eventful history.
Teamsters driving over this road tried to reach the Hopewell spring by
nightfall. Joseph Houston erected a block house or fortified cabin,
which furnished protection from the Indians. It was but reasonable that
a blacksmith shop, a mill and a tavern Would be built here, even a court
house was built in 1786 and a Presbyterian Church in 1787. This land
around Hopewell spring had been pre-empted in 1784 by John Reed of
Maryland. Later Lawrence Protzman bought a part of Reed's preemption. In
1789 when the Virginia Legislature granted a charter authorizing a town
to be called Hopewell, Protzman divided up this land into town lots
which he sold. It seems certain that for a time this settlement was
known as Bourbonton. At that time the nation was filled with gratitude
to the French for their assistance in our war for independence, so
Hopewell or Bourbonton became Paris.
>From the time of its organization in 1789, Paris seems to have been
dominated by men of vision, of culture and of character. A more
commodious court house soon replaced the log structure of an earlier
day. Its foundation was laid by "Old Stone-hammer" Metcalfe, later
Governor of Kentucky. A bridge was built at the confluence of Houston
and Stoner in 1795. More permanent buildings of brick began to replace
those of log by 1796. Religion and education early claimed the thought
and interest of its people. The Presbyterians had early established a
church in Paris as well as at Ruddell's Mills. The Methodists had built
a church on the old Buffalo Trail about two miles from Paris, and known
as Matheny's Meeting House, later called Gilead Church. This was claimed
by many as the first church in Bourbon. The Baptists too were early
established here. Perhaps as early as 1789, the Presbyterians had built
a log church at Cane Ridge. This church was later used by Methodists and
Baptists as well, a sort of union church. It became in a few years a
noted ground for camp meetings. By 1801 throngs by the thousands from
the neighboring states of Indiana, Ohio and Tennessee crowded all, roads
to the Cane Ridge Camp Grounds. At first perfect harmony prevailed and
Christian unity was its boast. But in time varying doctrines crept in,
and out of this grew the "Disciples of Christ Church," which
has grown and become a great agency for good throughout the nation. This
Cane Ridge Church was the "first to solve the baptism question by
immersing the first person, William Rogers upon a profession of faith in
Christ as his Savior."
Education and religion went hand in hand. Bourbon Academy was
established in 1799, and from it at a later day our public schools
evolved. The first academy for young ladies in the west, if not in the
nation was established in Paris in 1806 by Rev. John Lyle, and enrolled
nearly 300 young ladies. A library was established here by 1808, a
chartered institution. Among the notable teachers of that early date was
Wm. Holmes McGuffey, author of the famous series known as McGuffey's
Readers. This was the first attempt at systematizing textbooks and
adjusting them to the age grade of the child. It is doubtful if the
interest, the information and the psychology of this system has ever
been surpassed. The first newspaper in Paris was published in 1797, and
known as the "Kentucky Herald." This proved the forerunner of the
Western Citizen, established in 1807.
>From the foregoing facts, it is doubtful if any town in America can
boast a more cultural beginning.
In an earlier day hemp raising was a profitable industry. This crop
afforded a delightful odor from the growing plants. Throngs of doves and
other hard bills came for hemp seeds, the long rows of tent like shocks
so like an encamped army and after the hemp brakes and brakers, the
fires that arose from the burning refuse. But all this is gone in the
line of progress.
Bourbon in an early day drew a large population from Pennsylvania,
driven from there by the "Whisky Rebellion." Distilleries for the
manufacture of whisky were built throughout this section, and distilling
became one of the great industries. At first the pioneer built a small
log distillery with a small capacity, that he might find a market for
his extra grain. But the business grew, and for many years Bourbon
distillers put out brands of whisky that found a market in all parts of
the world. In Pennsylvania the whisky distilled was called for the
county "Monongahela" whisky, so these Pennsylvanians, who were the first
to make whisky here called it "Bourbon" whisky after this county. The
best brands were shipped everywhere, and known as "Bourbon" whisky.
Today there is not a distillery in the county.
Bourbon is rich in interest to the archaeologist as well as to the
historian. The surface is dotted here and there with fortifications,
graves, and sites of a prehistoric race, a history of whose entry and
exit can never be written. It is noticeable that this prehistoric race
chose the best lands of this region. Scarcely a farmer boy in Bourbon
has failed to pick up arrow heads, axes, flints, hoes and scrapers, and
even pottery-as he roams over his own fields. At Ruddell's Mills is a
circular earthwork seventy-five feet in
diameter of some pre-historic people. At various places over the county
are Indian mounds. it has been variously conjectured that they may have
been signal stations, burial, ceremonial or sacrificial mounds.
This pre-historic race was followed by the Indians, who found this a
rich hunting ground. The coming of the "pale faces" was opposed with
vigor and bloodshed. The history of Bourbon County is stained with many
encounters with the Indians, and scarcely a pioneer family escaped some
tragedy or treachery at the hands of the red men who wanted possession
of their hunting grounds. The passing of the Indians left the settlers
free to establish homes. So roads, villages, churches and schools as
well as homes sprang up, and today we boast a citizenry unsurpassed in
Daniel Boone and his wife spent the winter of 1795 on Hinkston Creek in
Bourbon County. Edward Boone, a brother of Daniel, is buried in Bourbon,
having been killed by Indians. in the first book of the Bourbon County
Court is found a note in Daniel Boone's own handwriting dated "3 day of
febury 1786." There is a summons for Simon Kenton, on the back of which
is written, "To dangerous to go where Kenton is." Michael Stoner, famous
frontiersman and companion of Boone, pre-empted land and lived in this
county in 1775. Beautiful Stoner Creek is named in his honor.
The famous portrait painter, Chester Harding, lived in Paris for a time.
He painted the only known portrait from life of Daniel-Boone, as well as
of Clay, Calhoun, and Webster. Joel T. Hart, the noted sculptor, lived
for many years in Bourbon. Hart's masterpiece, "Woman Triumphant," was
destroyed in 1897 in the burning of the Lexington court house. Governor
James Garrard was a member of the Virginia Legislature, and later of the
Legislature of Kentucky-before he became Governor of Kentucky-from 1796
to 1804. He lived in Bourbon, and is buried at his home place Mt.
Lebanon. The shaft over his grave was erected by the State Legislature
in 1822. George Bedinger was a member of the Legislature from Bourbon in
1792. He was a Major in the Battle of Blue Licks in 1782. Judge Robert
Trimble of Bourbon became a member of the United States Supreme Court.
Jesse Bledsoe and Benjamin Mills went to the Kentucky Court of Appeals.
Garret Davis and John Edwards were members of the United States Senate
from Kentucky. Thomas Corwin, born and reared in Bourbon, went to Ohio,
where he was a Representative in Congress, and later Governor of Ohio.
Joel R. Lyle was an early editor and publisher. John McKinney, known as
"Wildcat," was one of the fathers of education in Kentucky. He moved to
Bourbon, which he represented in the first Constitutional Convention in
1792, and was a member of the first Kentucky Legislature. William Garth,
the great benefactor of education, is one of Bourbon's honored citizens.
John Fox, the famous author, is a son of Bourbon.
So Bourbon and Paris pass in panoramic view. A prehistoric race whose
only history is written in earthworks. Then came the Indian in search of
game, but in his tracks left pipes, arrowheads, and his crude stone
implements. On his heels came the explorer, trapper, and hunter. Then
came the settler, who transformed the wilderness into a home land, a
paradise. This is the Bourbon of yesterday. But the blood of these
pioneers surges in the veins of her people today, and the achievements
of the past but foreshadow greater things for tomorrow in our rich and
beautiful county and city.
Four Great Pioneers Resided in Bourbon County
In the spring of 1795 Colonel Daniel Boone and wife, and son Nathan,
descended the Ohio River, landing at Limestone-thence to Bourbon County,
and settled on a tract of unimproved land belonging to Daniel M. Boone,
on the waters of Brushy Fork of Hinkston, about six miles nearly east of
Millersburg-and in the fork between Brushy Fork and Hinkston, in what is
now Nicholas County-and about twelve miles from Lower Blue Licks (their
spring ran into Brushy Fork). "Bought provisions for the first year-a
few deer, and occasionally killed one both by Colonel and Nathan
Boone-lived mostly on mutton. Colonel Boone and his son Nathan cleared
some 10 acres and raised two crops there-1796 and 1797. First fall and
winter preparing for crop." Ref. Extract from interview with Colonel
Nathan Boone in 1851, Draper Mss. 6S205.
In 1796 Daniel Boone wrote Governor Isaac Shelby requesting that he
answer by Post at the first opportunity and "he will lodge it at Mr.
John Miller's on Hinkston fork." Ref. Ky. Historical Register, vol. 32.
Boone's cabin still stands near the farm of Dr. and Mrs. Eslie Asbury,
Colonel James Smith whose name in all fairness should be linked with
Walker, Gist, Boone, Kenton and Stoner, as contributing to an expanding
knowledge of the Western country, lived on Cane Ridge and, with Joseph
Luckey, helped organize the Cane Ridge Church. Author of the Treatise of
Mode of Indian Warfare, he was the first white man to explore southern
and western Kentucky in 1767. In a petition to the Virginia Assembly he
stated he had improved on Licking as early as 1773. The only land he
owned at that time, 1790, was located at Cane Ridge in Bourbon County.
He had served as a member of the Assembly of New Jersey and a militia
officer; he had fought against the Indians on the frontiers and in
expeditions against the Indian towns. Colonel Smith distinguished
himself in early times as an enemy to the tyranny of Britain. He was one
of the "Black Boys" of the Sideling Hill Expedition in Pennsylvania. "At
the age of 80 years, hearing of the surrender of Hull, his patriotic
soul could not rest until he threw his mite for defense of his country,
for whose liberty he had devoted his life. He again enlisted in the War
of 1812." Colonel Smith
brought his family to Bourbon County from Jacob's Creek, Westmoreland
County, Pennsylvania, in 1786. It has been incorrectly stated he died in
Washington County, Kentucky. He probably joined his children in Ohio.
Ref. Filson Club Publications; Draper Mss.; Bourbon County Court
records; Collins History; Nile's Weekly Register (Baltimore) 1812.
Simon Kenton, who perhaps suffered the hardest fate of those who
pioneered the march of civilization to the West, lived during a winter
at the encampment of William Miller "on a branch about one mile from
Hinkston on the right fork of the branch that makes in opposite to
Millersburg." Here he said he "remained until the winter broke." Kenton
came to "Kain-tuck-ee" as early as 1771 with George Yeager and John
Strader in search of cane lands. The story of his life is one of the
most thrilling and tragic in all Kentucky history. Many times he was
forced to run the gauntlet but by a divine providence his life was
spared. Once when he was tied to a stake and a fire built around him
rain came from a cloudless sky and miraculously put out the flames.
Simon Kenton was born in Virginia April 3, 1755, died April 30, 1836, in
Logan County, Ohio. At the age of 60 years he embraced religion and
joined the Methodist Episcopal Church. His remains were removed to
Oakdale Cemetery, Urbana, Ohio, Nov. 30, 1865. Thousands of persons
joined the procession. He married first Martha Dowden, and the marriage
bond is filed in Bourbon County, he married second Elizabeth Jarboe
March 27, 1798 in Mason County, Ky. Ref. Kenton Family Register;
Collin's History; Bourbon suits.
GEORGE MICHAEL STONER
George Michael Stoner was born near what is now Philadelphia, Pa., in
1748. When he reached the age of 16 years he left his home in Berks
County and went to New River, Va., where he became acquainted with
Daniel Boone, the beginning of a friendship which lasted throughout
their lives. As early as 1767 Michael Stoner with James Harrod came into
Kentucky when they had been to Tennessee on a hunting trip and camping
Stoner and Boone planned a scouting trip to. Kentucky and getting a
small party together arrived at Cumberland Gap; they were fired upon by
the Indians, and all but Boone and Stoner turned back. In 1774 Governor
Dunmore of Virginia commissioned Boone and Stoner to warn a surveying
party in Kentucky of Indian outbreaks. They made the trip from Clinch
River in Virginia to the Falls of the Ohio, now Louisville, Ky., a
distance of 800 miles in 62 days.
In 1775 Stoner joined Boone in marking and cutting the road to Fort
Boonesborough, which fort he helped to build and defend. At the siege of
Boonesborough be was wounded. In 1780, he took part in the Battle of
Kings Mountain. He was wounded at the Battle of Blue Licks and fell from
his horse, lying concealed in the bushes until the following day, when
he was found by General Logan's forces. He was present at the taking of
Vincennes by General Clark and in all his campaigns. He went out with
Hardin and also with Logan in 1786. It is also thought he was in
Harmer's campaign. About 1786 he was married to Frances Tribble,
daughter of Rev. Andrew Tribble.
Stoner's Fork of Licking was named for Michael Stoner because he made
his pre-emption and settlement on that stream, about five miles
southwest of Paris in Bourbon County. After his marriage Stoner and his
wife settled in Clark County, about five miles from Winchester. In 1797
he moved to Cumberland River, Pulaski County, and eventually to Wayne
County, near Monticello. About 1810 Daniel Boone sent for Stoner
inviting him to come to Missouri to visit him. Stoner accepted the
invitation and when he arrived the two started up the Missouri River
hunting and trapping. Boone, becoming exhausted, turned back, but Stoner
pushed on. He went up the river 1,600 miles above any habitation, most
of the time alone, and once for about five months saw no white man.
Returning he went again to visit Boone, and after an absence of two
years returned to Kentucky from his last long hunting trip. He died
September 3, 1815, in Wayne County, Ky. Three of his eight children
married Boone descendants.
Because Stoner Creek bears the name of this famous soldier and patriot
the Jemima Johnson Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution,
placed a bronze tablet on the bridge which spans this stream:
MICHAEL STONER MEMORIAL BRIDGE"
The inscription is as follows: Dedicated To GEORGE MICHAEL STONER Famous
Frontiersman and Indian Fighter. Companion, Friend and Co-Worker of
Marked By Jemima Johnson Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution, 1933
These pathfinders blazed the trail for the settlers of the wilderness.
Many were killed in the undertaking.
The State of Virginia in May, 1779, passed a series of land laws which
applied to all the Western Territory, including Kentucky. These new laws
controlled the method by which most of the land was taken up. The first
act was concerning land to soldiers, sailors and marines. Then followed
an act to adjust titles of all who claimed unpatented lands prior to the
establishing of Virginia's Land Office. This provided that surveys of
unappropriated lands on the Western Waters before 1778 when executed by
a comissioned surveyor in furtherance of Treasury Warrants or Military
rights were validated. Virginia also recognized and gave rights to those
settlers who prior to January 1st, 1778, had made a crop of corn or had
resided in the country upon the Western Waters for at least a year,
usually 400 acres. If prior to January 1, 1778, settlers had marked out
or chosen unappropriated lands, built a cabin or made other
improvements, preemption rights were allowed for any reasonable quantity
of land not to exceed 1,000 acres. It was because of such inducements
these improvers, traveling in companies for safetys sake, pushed their
way into the rich lands of Bourbon (then Fincastle) County. Most of them
came by way of the Ohio River from Redstone, which was the most
dangerous route into Kentucky.
The majority of these companies became locaters or early settlers and
obtained claims for land in their own names in this section of the
JOHN HINKSTON'S COMPANY from Westmoreland and adjoining counties in
Pennsylvania was the first company to improve on Hinkson's fork of
Licking. In March, 1775, these men came down the Ohio and up Licking in
canoes. Hinkston (Hinkson) and Townsend Creeks, Cooper's Run, also
Martin's and Hinkston's Stations were named for members of this party.
John Townsend and John Cooper raised corn in 1775 and supplied seed to a
number of improvers in the same region in 1776. John Hinkston built
Hinkston's Station on the north side of Licking about one mile below the
mouth of Townsend. He remained for fifteen months and a small community
was growing up around his encampment, but because of Indian atrocities
it was abandoned in 1776 when Hinkston and a company of settlers left
for Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), Pa. In April, 1779, Isaac Ruddell rebuilt
the old station and fortified it, and it was thereafter known as Ruddles
Matthew Fenton (killed by Indians)
References: Depositions filed in Harrison County suits; True Kentuckian
Oct. 24, 1874.
JOSEPH HOUSTON'S COMPANY from Cumberland and Westmoreland counties,
Pennsylvania, was the second company to improve on Hinkson's fork of
Licking. In April, 1775, Joseph Houston, for whom Houston Creek was
named, brought his company down the Ohio River and up Licking, landing
at Blue Licks. Here they met up with Hinkston's company. Separating into
small groups they explored the country and made marks and spent the
first night on the branch near Summit's Station. After making marks they
cast lots for locations and most of them built cabins, then left the
country and returned home in June 1775. Joseph Houston built Houston's
Station and became entitled to a vast amount of land. He did not return
to this country, however, as he served in the Revolution and died in
Westmoreland county where his will is recorded, Feb. 21, 1779. His
eldest son, William, to whom he bequeathed his "regmental coat," visited
this section the following year when he was about twenty-two years of
age. John and Joseph Houston later settled on a part of the land
acquired by their father. John later moved to Miami, Ohio, and Joseph
returned to Fayette County, Pennsylvania.
In 1805, William McClintock, who came in Houston's company of 1775
stated he did not return to Kentucky the following year when a number of
this party returned but came in 1784; that at that time (1805) William
Nesbit, Alexander Pollock and he believed Henry Hartly were dead, that
James Thompson was in Pennsylvania and William Flinn had moved to
Cumberland River, but the others of this company were living in the
neighborhood. John Miller stated that John Shearer and Patrick Logan
were also dead (1805).
Wm. Flinn (Flennard)
References: Suits (two) Withers vs. Miller.
JOHN MILLER'S COMPANY - June, 1776, John Miller, founder of Millersburg,
Bourbon county, brought a company from Cumberland and adjoining counties
in Pennsylvania to the neighborhood of the lots drawn the year before by
Houston's company and visited the old improvements. They brought with
them some corn and potatoes. According to depositions of those in this
company they heard of many outrages committed by the Indians. James
Cooper had been killed, Andrew McConnell's sons had been taken
prisoners, a man was killed near Upper Blue Licks and another at
Leesburg and, after consulting with John Haggin and hearing from him
that John Hinkston and 20 of his men had left the country, they
concluded to return to Pennsylvania July, 1776. Before going, however,
they visited Boonesborough where they "found upwards
of 30 men." They told these men of provisions they had hidden in the
loft of Miller's cabin and returned to Pennsylvania.
James McCraw (McGraw)
Note: Of this company John and William Miller were brothers; Henry
Thompson and William McClintock, the latter of Houston's company, were
brothers-in-law of John Miller; William Houston was the eldest son of
Joseph Houston. William Miller built Miller's Station and had many
distinguished guests to visit him there, including Simon Kenton, Michael
Stoner, John Martin and others. The will of John Miller is recorded in
PATRICK LOGAN'S COMPANY-April, 1776, Patrick Logan piloted a company
into this section. This party arrived at Blue Licks and traveled the
"Middle Trace" and visited the cabins of Hinkston, Cooper and Haggin.
They made their headquarters at Hinkston's Station and while there they
saw Kenton, Kennedy (a Scotchman) and John Fleming, known as Captain
Fleming. Patrick Logan had been one of Houston's company of 1775.
JOHN LYON'S COMPANY-On May 3rd, 1776, a company from Fayette County,
Pennsylvania, and nearby counties, known as John Lyon's company, came to
John Hinkston's improvement where persons had resided for nearly a year
past. William Hoskins conducted them to some rich lands which had been
taken up some miles to the east, probably on Houston Creek. Townsend
Creek and Cooper's Run were between their improvements on Hinkston.
These men covered John Lyon's cabin which was 14 by 16 feet, inclosed
ground, made their "Station Camp," planted corn, peach stones and apple
seed and remained there until June when seven of the company and soon
after two others returned up the Ohio River to Redstone. William Garden,
in the summer of 1777, was killed by the Indians at Shawnee Spring. Some
of these men had improved in Monongohela county, some were associated
with Berkeley county, Virginia.
The land of John Lyon was located on Houston fork of Licking. His will
is filed in Bourbon county-written March 23, 1793-probated September,
References: Collins' History and court records.
WILLIAM STEELE AND OTHERS-Company from Pennsylvania: In 1780 William
Steele, who was of Houston's and Miller's companies, came to Kentucky
from Pennsylvania with a company "to the amount of thirty-three boats
and canoes." This company started from Wheeling, coming down the Ohio
River for Kentucky. Four boats landed at Limestone (Maysville) and the
others went to the falls of the Ohio (Louisville). William Steele stated
in a deposition, filed in Bourbon county (501), that he in company with
others came to Ruddle's Station about six or seven miles down Hinkson
below the improvement of John Miller, and from thence they went to
Martin's Station about six or seven miles from said improvement of
Miller, in order to obtain men to guard their families up from Limestone
(now Maysville), that not being able to obtain more than fourteen men
from said stations he departed with his company for Limestone where the
Indians stole from them about twenty horses which rendered them unable
to remove their families up into this country. They then went down the
river to the Falls of the Ohio for safety, that he in the year 1780 met
John Miller with his family, and the following winter he with Miller
came to the neighborhood of the lots they had drawn in 1775, etc.
William Steele, Jr. (nephew)
Note: In 1802 McDonald stated he was 78 years of age and had previously
come with James Cooper and others in 1776. Ref.: Complete Rec ords
Bourbon County and suits.
JOHN KELLER AND OTHERS: John Keller stated in a deposition dated 1806 he
came in the year 1776 with a party including Patrick Jordon, Reuben Wats
(Waits), James Thompson, John Irvin and others. He made an entry for his
brother, Jacob Keller. He stated that Abraham Keller was the son of
Jacob Keller, deceased. Ref.: Complete Records, Bourbon County.
GEORGE MICHAEL BEDINGER and Others from Berkeley County, Virginia. About
March 1st, 1779, a company of explorers left Shepherdstown following the
"Boone's Trace" into the Kentucky territory, probably bringing a guide
who had been over the dangerous route at an earlier date. These were:
George Michael Bedinger (surveyor)
Ralph Morgan (son of William)
Thomas Swearingen (eldest son of Thomas)
Most of these men served with distinction in the Revolution. George
Michael Bedinger served in the Revolution as Lieutenant, Captain and
Major. He was Adjutant in Bowen's Expedition against the Indian town of
Chillicothe, Ohio. Major Bedinger served in the battle of Blue Licks in
Ref.: Historic Shepherdstown by Dandridge, and established records in D.
COL. JAMES McMILLAN: Came to Bourbon June, 1776, from Boonesborough in
company with his brothers, John and Robert McMillan who had been in the
Kentucky Territory in 1775. They spent several days at William Miller's
Station. Later they visited the station sundry times with Simon Kenton,
Jonathan McMillan, one Cooper and John Fleming. Ref.: Bourbon County
COL. JOHN FLOYD: In 1775 Col. John Floyd came into Bourbon to make
surveys with Patrick Jordon, Jacob Boughman, Spottswood Dandridge and
Thomas Carpenter. In 1776 Colonel Floyd, being assistant surveyor to
William Preston of Fincastle county, surveyed for Walter Stewart (bond
held by Jones) for conveyance of claim for the service of Stewart as a
sergeant in His Majesty's 44th Regiment of foot and agreeable
to the Royal Proclamation of 1763. Most of the land on which the city of
Paris now stands was in this military grant. This land was also a part
of John Reed's pre-emption of 1000 acres who claimed with James
Galloway. Samuel Lyon claimed a portion as heir of Daniel Lyon. A suit
was filed by Walter Stewart against the Trustees of Hopewell 1797, to
recover it. John Floyd's first mark was made on a tree immediately in
front of the Duncan home (Old Burr House).
OTHER COMPANIES: Many others came into Bourbon in small companies in
1775 and 1776: Enoch Smith, John Field, Lewis Lunsford (1776), Jacob
Sodowsky, David Williams (1773), Nathaniel Randolph, Peter Higgins,
Robert Shanklin, David Williams (1775), Joseph Robinette, James Douglas,
Thomas Gist, John Douglas (1775), James Galloway and Moses Kirkpatrick
(1776), Thomas Kennedy, John Kennedy (son of Daniel), John Kennedy (son
of John), Joseph Kennedy (1776), Jameq Galloway (1774), and others.
Built 1779 by Isaac Ruddell one mile from Lair Station near Bourbon
County line, now Harrison County.
The following list of persons resided at Ruddle's Station at the time
that fort was taken by Captain Bird and his British and Indian warriors.
Ref.: Draper Mss. and Depositions filed in suits.
Capt. Isaac Ruddell
Elizabeth Bowman Ruddell
John Ruddell, son of Isaac
Isaac Ruddell, Jr., son of Isaac
Stephen Ruddell, aged 8, son of Isaac
Elizabeth Ruddell, small child
Capt. John Hinkson
Lieut. ____ Ravenscraft
Capt. John James Trabue
Samuel VanHook (later at Martin's)
Mrs. John McFall
Mrs. Robert McDaniel
Six Toffelmire Children
Anna Maria-his fiancee
Mrs. John Long
Rhoda Long. young child
Four other Long children
Mrs. John Conway
Seven Conway children
Sarah Ruddle Davis
Capt. John Duncan
Nellie Sharp Duncan
Master Duncan, son
Frank Berry tradition
Nelly Sharp Berry
Patrick Mahan, taken to Detroit
Miss Mahan-married Wilson
Wm. Mahan, youth, kept journal at Wilson station when he returned from
Montreal, about 18 years old
Isabella Mahan Morrow James Mahan
Mrs. Agnes Mahan Mrs. Lapost
Master Lapost Judy Lapost
Mrs. Samuel Conway
Two Misses Conway
Mr. and Mrs. Lail
Capt. Charles Gatliffe
Five Gatliffe children
Robert (or Charles) Knox
*Gasper Casner, 1780
George Finley, 1780
Benj. Harrison, 1780
McGEES STATION, or Cove Spring-Was located near Georgetown Road, between
McGee's fork and McClure's run, a branch of Cooper's run in Bourbon
county. (Location from Historical Map of Mrs. William Blanton.) It was
built about 1776. Among those in this station were:
Abijah Woods (1776)
Roger Clements (1781)
Ralph Rayborne (1781)
Joseph Proctor (1782)
Dawson Wade and Son James Wade, from Greenbrier Co., Va. (1784)
John McGuire (soon after 1779)
Nicholas Proctor (brother of Joseph) to Ky. 1788, at Boonesborough
Strouds and McGees
Ref.: Depositions in suits.
About twenty families were at McGees.
Aside from the foregoing stations there were many other stations and
blockhouses in Bourbon county built to protect the first settlers from
the Indians. Many of these were located within the present bounds of
Bourbon county and others were established in counties that were later
formed from the original boundary.
Among those located within the present boundary of Bourbon were:
Grant's Fort was built in 1779 by Col. John Grant and Capt. William
Ellis, the military leader of the Traveling Church, for the use of
twenty or thirty families who had come to Bryan Station. A group of
sixty Indians from Byrd's war party attacked it in June, 1780 and burned
the fort -without taking prisoners. Forty men from Bryan's went to their
relief and found two men named Stucker and a woman named Mitchell
killed. James Ingels, Jr., was born here in November, 1779. The fort was
rebuilt in 1784 but the Grant family sold to Ingels and moved away. The
site is about 1 1/2 miles from Antioch Christian Church near the border
of Fayette County. Timothy Peyton was shot by Indians about one half
mile away. James Stark carried him to the fort where he soon died. His
name is preserved in "Peyton's Run."
In a letter written by John Grant, founder of Grant's Station, dated
April 24, 1780, to Col. John Todd, delegate at Harrodsburg, he told of
those persons who at that time were living in the fort. A list of the
John Van Cleave
Wm. Van Cleave
George Stucker (son)
John Van Cleave (sons)
There were six more at the station that he could not "properly call
effective,"and about seven he daily expected. List supplied by Mr.
George Summitt later (1784) of Summitt's Station, was living at Grant's
in 1780, visited Sturgus Station on Bear Grass, 1780, and raised a crop
of corn there. Ref., Bourbon Suits.
Martin's Fort was built in 1779 by Capt. John Martin on an improvement
which he had made in 1775. He was assisted by William Whitsett. Samuel
Van Hook was captured at Martin's. The pioneers who made settlements in
his immediate neighborhood at that time and who must have been in the
fort were: Reuben Searcy; Edmund Fear; John Mehan; William Morris;
Catherine Edelman; Francis Berry; John Davis; Solomon Letton; Benj.
Cooper; John McKenny; James Heath; John Dumpard, killed July, 1779;
probably John Fields, John Townsend, Thomas Whitledge; possibly William
and Thomas Hall, and James and Micajah Calloway. The Fort was taken
during Byrd's invasion, June, 1780, and never rebuilt. The site of the
Fort is where Gov. Garrard built "Fairfield."
BUILDERS OF LEXINGTON FORT
Many of Whom Were Later Residents of Bourbon County.
Ref.-Ill Historical Collection-George Rogers Clark Papers, p.
521-Commonwealth of Virginia
April 13, 1781 for expenditures for work on the Fort at Lexington.
James W. Gentry
Benj . Brigg
Francis McDurmed, Jr.
McMILLAN'S-Built by Samuel McMillan in 1779.
HOUSTON'S-Built by Joseph Houston, on the present site of Paris, near
SANDUSKY'S STATION-Built by James Sandusky (Sodowsky) after his removal
to Cane Ridge from Washington county, Kentucky, 1783 or earlier.
WILSON'S FORT-Near Jackstown Creek, branch of Hinkston, in direction of
Bath county, erected by Henry Wilson 1798.
SWINNEY STATION-On the present site of North Middletown.
THOMAS STATION-Erected by William Thomas between 1789-92 on Stoner Creek
near Spears Mill Road.
COOPER'S FORT-Built by John Cooper in 1775 who raised the first corn in
Bourbon county, located on Cooper's run.
CARTWRIGHT'S STATION-On Clintonville Road near Clark county line.
CLARK'S STATION-Erected by Robert Clark in 1784, on Hume Bedford Road,
farm of Misses Clark.
McCONNELL'S STATION-Built by William McConnell, four miles from Paris,
on farm of Lafe Ardery, Lexington Road. Note: Another William McConnell
built station at Lexington.
MILLER'S STATION-Built by William Miller near present site of
Millersburg, just over the line in Nicholas county, 1776.
SUMMITT'S STATION-Where George Summitt resided in direction of Blue
*NOTE from Bob Francis: Recent research has uncovered a much more
accurate listing of the residents of Ruddell's and Martin's Forts. In
the past two years, an organization based in the Blue Grass region of
Kentucky and known as the Ruddell's and Martin's Stations Historical
Association (RAMSHA), has been instrumental in furthering the research
of these sites for the current generation of researchers. Consequently,
the above sketches of Martin's and Ruddell's forts are now outdated.]
(p. 15—skipped because it is the DAR listing of the names on the
Revolutionary War plaque on the Bourbon County Courty House. This list
was posted recently on this list.)
Fellow Bourbon Co. Researchers
This the final updated list of Revolutionary Soldiers on the tablet at Bourbon Co. Courthouse. This is a combined list of what I have, what was posted earlier and a list that was sent to me by Ms. Kenny Roseberry at the Fox Library at Duncan Tavern. I have listed the names exactly as they appear on the tablet. I checked and double checked the list and I am sure all spellins be correct. There was a few names that were spelled different on the list I got from Duncan Tavern and what is actually on the tablet. I have put the spelling that was different on the Duncan Tavern list in parenthesis. ( just in case the tablet was made wrong ????) I will leave it to you to decide which is correct.
Note the new names at the bottom.
In memory of the Patriots
Soldiers of the American Revolution Who Died Citizens of Bourbon County
Erected 1927 by Jemima Johnson Chapter D.A.R.
Nicholas D. Amos
Henry Banta (Bonta)
Elizemond Basye (Bayse)
William B. Branham
William Coon (Cook)
Samuel Curtright (Courtwright)
Peter Forgueran (Ferguson)
Rev. Andrew McClure
John Miller of PA.
John Miller of S.C.
Joseph L. Stephens
Henry Talbert (Talbott) Note : These are my ancestor's and it is not unusual to see
John Talbot (Talbott) these variation in the spelling.
Henry Wiggington (Wiggins)
Names added since the tablet was unveiled. On a small tablet to the left of the main tablet.
This the list as I received it from the:
John Fox, Jr. Memorial Library
Duncan Tavern Historic Center
323 High Street
Paris, Kentucky 40361
D.A.R. TABLET ERECTED IN MEMORY OF REVOLUTIONARY PATRIOTS
Marker Topped by Semi-Circle bearing Emblem American Eagle and Inscription, "In Memory of The Patriots."
Across Top of Marker Title Line--"Soldiers of the American Revolution Who Died Citizens of Bourbon County."
Figure at Left in Relief--Typical Revolutionary Soldier.
Figure at Right in Relief--Typical Kentucky Pioneer.
Three Center Columns Contain Names of Patriots of Whom Official Record Has Been Completed.
Inscription Across Bottom--"Erected By Jemima Johnson Chapter, D. A. R., and the
Marker Measures 6 Feet 4 Inches by 6 Feet. Weight 750 Pounds and Made of Bronze. Cost $1,650.
Unveiled on Bourbon County Court House, With Appropriate Dedicatory Ceremonies, Paris, Saturday, June 4, 1927.
Soldiers Who Are Honored
David Allen, John Allen, Philip Ament, Nicholas D. Amos, John Ardery, Nicholas Arnold, John Baird, Henry Bonta, Elijah Barbey, Alexander Barnett, Elizamond Bayse, Samuel Batterton, Walker Baylor, Archibald Beal, David Bowles, William Bourne Brantlam, John Brannon, John Breast, Alexander Breckinridge, Alexander Brown, James Brown, James Busby, Hugh Campbell, Wm. Campbell, Wm. Caldwell, Samuel Courtwright, John Champe, Robert Clarke, John Clay, Samuel Clay, Isaac Clinkenbeard, Andrew Cochran, Thomas Conn, John Constant, Wm. Cook, Lewis Corbin, Henry Crose, James Davis, Wm. Dawson, John Debruler, Daniel Delaney, Clementinus Dawson, George Edwards, John Edwards,Moses Endicott, Henry Ewalt, Reuben Fields, Wm. Fisher, Hugh Fogey, Peter Ferguson,James Garrard, Nathaniel Gist, Jacob Ham, Nathaniel Harris, Wm. Harris, Thomas Hayes, Jos. Hedges, Benj. Hennis, David Hickman, Robert Hill, John Hinlison,' Ezekiel Hopkins, Thomas Hutchcraft, Jos. Jackson, David Jameson, John Jameson, James Jones, Thos. Jones, Isaac Keller, Thos. Kelley, Benj. Hendrick, Benoni Kendrick, Thos. Kennedy, James Ken-ney, Chas. Lasder, Henry Leer, Samuel Lock-wood, George Loyl, Robert Luckie, Edmund Lyne, Thos. McClanahan, Wm. McClelland, Daniel Mc-Clintock, John McCloud, Andrew McClure, James McClure, Wm. McConnell, Daniel McDowell, David Marshall, John Miller (of Pa.), John Miller (of S. C.), Wm. Miller, Benj. Mills, Jos. Mitchell, Edward Nelson, Jeremiah Nesbit, Wm. Nesbitt, Jos. Palmer, Acquilla Parker, Thomas Parker, John Parks, Robert Porter, Wm. Paton, Jos. Penn, James Prichett, Jos. Pugh, Jas. Purrlance, Nathanlei Raine, George Reading, Nathaniel Rogers, Thos. Rodgers, Archibald Ruddell, Isaac Ruddell, James Sandysky, Benj. Schooler, John Shaw, Abner Shropshire, Thos. Smith, Weathers Smith, Hezekiah Speakes, Christian Spears, Jacob Spears, Jas. Stark, William Steele, Jos. Lawrence Stephens, John Stipp, Henry Talbott, John Talbott, John Terrill, Moses Thomas, Wm. Thomas, Anthony. Thornton, Thos. Thornton, George Trimble, John Varnon, Edward Waller, John Whittington, Henry Wiggins, Robert Wilmort, Hubbard Williams, Henry Wilson, James Wright, Thomas Wright, William Wright.
Names added since this tablet was unveiled. Samuel Brice, Isaac Darnell, James Duncan, James Hughes, James Hutchinson, John Luekie, Alexander Mitchell, John Moore, Robert Purdy, William Turner, Benjamin Whaley, John Whitledge.
Note: The Revolutionary records of others who died in Bourbon county have been established since this tablet was unveiled. Recognition will be given these heroes at a later date.
ORIGINAL BOUNDARIES OF BOURBON COUNTY
In 1772 Fincastle County became the Frontier County of Virginia.
Dec. 31, 1776, Fincastle was dissolved by legislative enactment, at
which time a portion became Kentucky County, Virginia.
May, 1780, Kentucky County was subdivided into three counties: Fayette,
In 1784 Nelson County was formed from Jefferson County.
May 1, 1785, Bourbon County was set off from Fayette. Fayette was
divided into two counties, the northern portion being called Bourbon and
the southern portion retaining the name of Fayette. Bourbon County was
the fifth county formed and from it thirty-three later counties were
carved. It embraced nearly one fifth of all the Kentucky Territory.
THE LIMESTONE TRAIL
(Historic Highway 68)
NOTE: Paris, the county seat of Bourbon County, is located in the
central part of the courty about equal distance from the county seats of
all the adjoining counties (from sixteen to eighteen miles) on U. S.
Highways Nos. 27, 227 and 68 and State Highway No. 40.
Historic Highway 68 is rich in history. It winds its way through the
fertile fields of Bourbon county, passing through Paris, the county
seat. It has been named the "Road of Opportunity, of Yesterday, Today
Marked by Boone and his brave comrades, it has been traveled many times
by famous people, including Simon Kenton and Michael Stoner. Boone is
usually regarded as the epitome of all pioneers in his love of solitude
and as an understanding child, not only of the wilderness but of all
nature's manifestations of grandeur. Kenton rejoiced in seeing new faces
come to the wilderness. He was the official greeter who met the
flatboats on the banks of the Ohio at Limestone, now Maysville. He
rejoiced at the growing population of Bourbon and Kentucky. While Stoner
is most closely identified with the present Bourbon county, both Boone
and Kenton spent winters here, close to the present city of Paris. Over
this highway rode President Andrew Jackson, Aaron Burr, President
Monroe, Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.
During the campaign of Clay against Jackson, the latter was misdirected
by the supporters of Clay, causing him to turn right to Washington and
become mired in the mud. Because of this indignity Jackson vetoed an
appropriation for this road which was eventually passed.
Historic Trail No. 68 is a continuation of Zane's Trail of the long ago,
across the Ohio River.
Upon leaving Maysville (Limestone) it winds through marvelously
beautiful country, passing the old home of Col. Thomas Marshall, the
House on the Hill; at the little town of Washington, once the county
seat of Mason county, it passes the home where Harriet Beecher Stowe
stayed, and the home of General Albert Sidney Johnston. It passes the
Blue Licks Battlefield where the last battle of the Revolution was
fought and the State Museum, and on to Forest Retreat once the home of
Governor Thomas Metcalfe.
On the outskirts of the old town of Millersburg settled by John Miller
and his companions who came in 1775, the highway leaves the old Bourbon
county of 1785 and enters the present boundary.
Across the beautiful Michael Stoner Bridge which spans the creek bearing
his name, this highway passes through the town of Paris, the largest
bluegrass seed market m. the world.
>From Paris it stretches southward over the Joseph Houston Memorial
Bridge; past ancestral manor houses built on tracts of land granted by
the Royal Proclamation of 1763, where blueblooded thoroughbreds graze in
This magnificent road so rich in history and which was traveled by the
earliest settlers who came into the western wilderness from Fort Pitt or
Washington, D. C., at Limestone, passes through Lexington and
Harrodsburg; it goes past the Battlefield of Perryville, through
Bardstown and on to Nashville and Natchez, Mississippi. It became the
first macadam highway in America. The following court order of October,
1783, marked the beginning of the road that culminated in Historic Trail
Highway No. 68, or Limestone Trail, that found its opening at what is
now Maysville. In 1784 when the Limestone Road was cleared it went
almost exactly by the same route as the Old Buffalo Trail but in certain
places it deviated slightly. This beautiful highway traverses the
natural Bluegrass region of Bourbon county.
Colonel Logan and his army of 500 men traveled this road in August,
1782, when they went to bury the dead at Blue Licks. They "crossed
Stoner Creek where Paris stands then across Hinkson fork (Millersburg)
thence by the Buffalo Road."
Court order Oct., 1783, Fayette County, ordered that Daniel Boone, Eli
Cleveland, Robert Johnson, Thomas Herndon, John Constant, Robert
Patterson, William McConnell Senn, Christopher Greenup, Thomas
Swearingen, Cave Johnson, Jacob Stucker, John Craig, John Williams,
Richard Masterson and Andrew Steel, do view and mark out the most
convenient way from
Lexington by the lower blue licks to the mouth of Limestone or the most
convenient place for a landing on the Ohio between the mouth of Lawrence
Creek and Salt Lick and make report to the next court, etc.
At following court-or court dated June, 1784, the report was made-should
run by Bryants Station-old way to lower blue licks straightening the
bends as convenient, thence along upper Buffalo road passing Mays Spring
to where the Wagon road leaves the old War road, thence along the said
old road to the mouth of Limestone, etc. Signed:
Court ordered the same be established.
FIRST PETITION BY THE CITIZENS OF BOURBON COUNTY
MADE THE VIRGINIA ASSEMBLY, OCT. 27, 1788
For Inspection of Tobacco on Licking Creek, It Being the Chief Medium of
Exchange in Early Days.
To the Honorable the General Assembly of Virginia-The Petition of Sundry
Inhabitants of the county of Bourbon Humbly sheweth that every other
County in the District of Kentucky has been Indulged with the advantages
of Publick warehouses for the reception of Tobacco and that your
Petitioners Living near the Courthouse and on Licking Creek in the most
Populous part of said County, too far remote from either of the other
Inspections to remove their Tobacco by land without much labour and
expense and your petitioners fully sensible of the Disposition of your
Honorable House to do Justice upon all occasions to afford relief to
such of the community as you conceive intitled to your patronage we your
petitioners therefore pray that an inspection for the reception of
Tobacco may be Established on the South fork of Licking Creek and in the
fork near Isaac Ruddles Mill which your petitioners conceive will be of
Great Utility and of Singular advantage to them provided the article of
Tobacco should continue to be of value and your petitioners as in duty
Bound will ever pray.
Daniel (Mauk ?)
Ts. L . Stephens
Jacob Livingstone (Langslord)
William ---- dall
John Minties (?)
William M ------
H. T. (?) Routt
Robert Sewill (Serrill)
John Machin (Watchin?)
Dated July 1788-I do Certify that the within Petition has been legally
advertised at the Courthouse the several days required by Law under my
hand-John Edwards, Clerk of Bourbon County.-Petition Oct. 27,
1788-Refered to Propositions-reasonable-on Isaac Ruddle's Land.
PETITION NO. 2277, ARCHIVE DEPT., VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY
Copied From Original Record by Mrs. W. H. Whitley
The following petition of October 27, 1790, is of interest since it
lists the citizenry of Bourbon county soon after the founding of the new
To the Honourable and general Assembly at the Town of Richmond in the
State of Virginia;
The petition of Sundry of the Inhabitants of the County of Bourbon
Humbly prays your Honours to Grant your Petitioners and Inspection for
Tobacco on Stoner at the Town of Hopewell and your Petitioners in are in
Duty your Humble Servts.
James Matson, Senr.
James Matson, Junr.
Chas. Smith, Jr.
James Gray, Jr.
James P. Freser
George Shortridge, Jr.
The earliest record of the land on which Paris, Kentucky, stands was
uncovered in an old suit over a military grant to one Walter Stewart for
service as a sergeant in his Majesty's 44th Regiment of foot and
agreeable to the Royal Procla
mation of 1763, for 200 acres in Fincastle (later Bourbon) County. Col.
John Floyd, who was the principal surveyor of the Transylvania Company
and delegate to the Assembly that met at Boonsborough May 24, 1775, to
make laws for the infant
colony, acting as deputy surveyor to William Preston of Fincastle,
surveyed this grant for Stewart in 1776. He made his first location
immediately in front of what is now the entrance ~o the old Duncan Home
(Burr House) on a tree in the then wilderness. Overlapping land was
preempted by John Reed of Maryland and James Galloway and Samuel Lyon,
who claimed as heir Of Daniel Lyon.
Lawrence Protzman (also spelled Sprotzman, Prutzman, etc.) bought a part
of Reed's preemption and laid it off into town lots, calling the town
Hopewell. In accordance with a request of Protzman the Virginia Assembly
passed the following Act October, 1789:
"Be it enacted, That two hundred and fifty
acres of land, at the Court House in Bourbon county, as are laid off
into town lots and streets by Lawrence Protzman, the proprietor thereof,
shall be established a town by the name of Hopewell, and that Notley
Conn, Charles Smith Jr., John Edwards, James Garrard, Edward Waller,
Thomas West, James Lanier, James Littell and James Duncan, gentlemen,
are hereby constituted trustees thereof."
This was three years before Kentucky became a state and the great county
of Bourbon embraced within her vast boundary thirty-three later Kentucky
counties. Hence the little town of Hopewell (changed to Paris in 1790)
was the county seat of the fifth county formed in the western territory.
PETITION FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF HOPEWELL BY CITIZENS OF BOURBON
Signed September 2, 1789
"To the Honorable the Virginia Assembly:
The petition of the Inhabitants of Bourbon County Sbeweth that the Land
whereon our present Courthouse now stands to the amount of two hundred
and fifty acres is laid off in Lotts by the Proprietor, for the purpose
of settling a Town which Lotts are principly bought up by those who are
now living on and improving them
and have erected a number of very convenient buildings-on sd Lotts we
your petitioners conceiving it really necessary that sd Town be
established by Law pray your Honorable body that a Law pass for the
establishment of a Town agreeable to the manner the Lotts are now laid
off and that the Trustees be appointed for the purpose of superintenCing
and Regulating of the Building of said Town and in duty Bound we pray-"
Charles Smith Jr.
Isaac E. Gano
William Routt Senr.
J. J. Flournoy
Daniel Shawhan Junr.
Jno. Lighter Senr.
John Lighter Junr.
Thos. Allen Oved Boone
PETITION FOR CHANGING THE NAME OF HOPEWELL TO PARIS
September 2nd 1789 1 do hereby certify that a petition for the
Establishment of a Town at Bourbon Courthouse was advertised according
to Law. Test John Edwards Clerk Bourbon County Court.-John Edwards.
Endorsed on back of petition. Octo. 28th 1789 Refd. to props.
(reasonable) (repd)-The request was granted-Trustees Notly Conn, Charles
Smith Jr., John Edwards, James Garrard, Edward Waller, Thomas West,
James Lanier, James Little, James Duncan.
"We the Trustees of the Town of Hopewell in the County of Bourbon Humbly
sheweth that doubts have arisen with the purchasers of the Lots in said
Town, whether Lawrence Protzman may be found the real proprietor at a
future day of the Lands laid off for said Town, your petitioners
together with said purchasers having been notified of claims to said
Lands obtained from the Court of said County under an Act of Assembly
authorizing and vesting said Court with powers of Commrs. to hear and
determine all disputes between claimants for Land, by right of
settlement and for lands by right of preemption on improvement etc. for
granting certificates to all those who had been detained in the Service
of this Commonwealth and also that a part of the Lots or lands laid of
for said Town is yet unsold. Therefore your petitioners conceive they
have not a power vested in them to sell or make conveyance of said lots
or any part thereof, and that the Good people of said Town may be
secured for future claimants And that every encouragement may be given
to the population of said Town, which will be of public utility, by
reason of its situation on navigable water and the only stream by which
the Inhabitants of said County could Export their produce. We your
petitioners therefore pray your honorable house will take the same in
consideration and condemn said Land, vesting the same in trustees so as
to give Security to the holders and purchaser's of said Lots, as also
the Laying of and making conveyance of such lots as yet remain unsold
and that you will devise such ways and means for the good of said
holders as in your wisdom you may think best reserving to the real
Proprietor the value of said lands as unimproved and your Petitioners
further pray that said Town may no longer retain the name of Hopewell,
but may be changed and known by
the name of Paris and your Petitioners shall ever pray, etc."
Endorsement on back of petition 25th of Oct.
1790-Refd. to Courts of Justice-ReasonableBill. Request was granted-An
Act to amend the Act establishing the town of Hopewell in the county of
Bourbon and for altering the name.
Chas. Smith Junr.
25th Oct. 1790-Marked "Reasonable."
Ref.: Petition filed Archives Dept., Virginia State Library, Richmond,
Lawrence Protzman, proprietor of the town of Hopewell (now Paris) served
in the Revolution from Frederick, Maryland. He was a member of the 4th
company raised 1775, under Captain Benjamin Ogle. His brother, John
Protzman, to whom he sold all remaining interest in his Hopewell lots
also rendered service in that war as a member of the 3rd company of
Frederick county. Apparently they were both men of wealth, though
Lawrence met with reverses while a resident of Bourbon County. The will
of John Protzman filed in Washington County, Maryland, and records filed
in old suits, show he owned property in Virginia, Kentucky and the North
Lawrence Protzman in establishing his town at the confluence of Stoner
and Houston creeks was diligent in his efforts to attract to this
community men of prominence and ability. In 1788 when James Lanier was a
citizen of Davidson County, North Carolina, he was besought by Protzman
to remove with him to the State of Kentucky and become a partner with
him in a Tavern about to be erected at the court house of Bourbon
County. At one time one of Protzman's boats loaded with tobacco was
grounded "in Licking near the forks which left Hopewell, now Paris, some
time before where it remained for several months to the great damage of
his crop." After this Protzman left the county and did not return until
he came on a visit in 1811 or 1812. In 1792 Protzman was interviewed by
Thomas Conn of Bourbon County, in Rockingham County, Virginia. It is not
known where he died.
Ref.: Western Maryland by Scharf, vol. I, p. 183; Suits filed in Bourbon
County Lanier vs. Protzman and Others.
Senator John Edwards was the son of Hayden Edwards and wife, Penelope
Sanford, who accompanied him to the Kentucky territory in 1780 from
Prince William or Stafford County, Virginia. Hayden Edwards died in
Bourbon County, Kentucky, 1803, aged 87 years and his widow removed to
Logan County, where she passed her remaining years at the home of her
grandson, Amos Edwards. Her will is filed there in Book I, under date
1809. Her wedding dress is still in the possession of her descendants.
As early as 1781 we find in the early order books of Lincoln County
Kentucky that John Edwards was recommended for one of the commissioners
of the peace and in 1783 he was recommended as Lieutenant Colonel of the
Militia. In Bourbon County he was commissioned Colonel in the Militia
and the first county clerk in 1785. He was a member of the Virginia
Assembly. He was a member of the Conventions held at Danville May and
August, 1785; represented Bourbon County at the Convention of 1787 and
1788; was a member of the Virginia Convention that ratified the
Constitution of the United States; member of the Convention of 1792,
which formed the first Constitution of Kentucky, held at Danville and
that same year he was elected the first United States Senator from
Kentucky, serving until 1795. At this time he returned to the State
Legislature and continued a member of that body until 1800, when he
retired to private life.
Senator John Edwards, who was born 1748 and was married in Virginia to
Susanna Wroe, born May 1, 1748, who died in this county about 1834.
Susanna was the daughter of Original Wroe II by his wife, Jane Lyne, of
Westmoreland County, Virginia. The home of John and Susanna (Wroe)
Edwards stood where Liberty Hall (home of Mr. Ben Ardery) now stands.
John Edwards was in the state of Missouri at the time of his death.
Governor James Garrard was born in Stafford County, Virginia, to Colonel
William Garrard and wife, Mary Lewis, January 1, 1747. William Garrard
owned the plantation on a part of which the Court House is now located.
Old Acquia Church was not far distant, and it was doubtless here he held
James Garrard rendered service as a Colonel in the Militia during the
Revolutionary War. While in service he was elected to the Virginia
Legislature, where he was a staunch supporter of the bill to establish
universal religious liberty.
After he moved to Kentucky in 1783, he was ordained as a Baptist
minister and served for a time as minister of the nearby Coopers Run
Church. In 1791, he with the Rev. Augustine Eastin and the Rev. Ambrose
Dudley formed a committee that presented to the Elkhorn Association a
memorial and remonstrance in favor of excluding slavery from the
Commonwealth by constitutional enactment.
James Garrard was a member of the conventions held in Danville in May,
1785 to discuss a constitutional separation from Virginia and again in
August, 1785, 1787 and 1788. He was a member of the convention of 1792
which formed Kentucky's Constitution, and several times a
representative. In 1796 he was elected the second Governor of Kentucky,
defeating Gen. Benj. Logan, founder of St. Asaph's Fort, an able
statesman, one of the most popular military officers in the State.
Garrard was re-elected in 1800, the only Governor before 1898 to succeed
himself. He died in 1822 and was buried in the yard of his home, "Mt.
Lebanon" where the Kentucky Legislature erected a handsome monument to
his memory. "Mt. Lebanon" is owned and occupied by his descendant,
William Garrard Talbot.
Notley (Notly) Conn was the son of Thomas and Sarah (Mattox) Conn. He
served as a member of the House of Representatives of Kentucky in
1793-94. His father, Thomas Conn, was born in Ireland in 1733 and died
in Bourbon County 1821-he was a Captain in the Revolution. Both Thomas
and his son, Notley, had been granted land in the district of Ohio for
Revolutionary service. Thomas Conn first settled in Maryland, later
moving to Culpepper County, Virginia. Upon coming to Bourbon he settled
on the farm now the home of Mr. Robert Ferguson. Notley Conn died a
number of years before his father's death, probably in Pendleton County,
having been one of the original Trustees of Falmouth. He left no issue.
Ref.: Court records; established D. A. R. record; Revolutionary Soldiers
of Virginia by Brumbaugh.
Charles Smith, Jr., was the son of Charles Smith and Patsey (Jones)
Smith, who moved with all their children to Bourbon County at an early
date from Orange County, Virginia. Charles Smith, Sr., was born April
15, 1735, and died October 26, 1821, in Harrison County, Kentucky. His
wife was born in 1738 in Culpepper County, Virginia, and died October
14, 1817. Charles Smith, Jr., and wife Elizabeth, moved to Christian
County, Kentucky prior to 1823. One of his brothers, Elijah, is said to
have married a sister of Lord Percy of England and settled in Miss.
Ref.: Court records of Bourbon; Bourne Collection Mss. C-4-8.
Edward Waller who from time to time in published records has been listed
as Edward Walker, came to the Kentucky territory from Stafford County,
Virginia. He was a man of affairs according to his lengthy will recorded
in Bourbon County. He was one of those who assisted Simon Kenton in
building his fortified blockhouse at Limestone (now Maysville) to guard
the northern Kentucky settlers. After the Indians had murdered all but
two persons of a company from Fauquier County, Virginia, Kenton who was
deeply distressed over the tragedy had struck out across Salt River to
gather a force of sixty men, among whom were John and Edward Waller.
This was the permanent beginning of a settlement at Limestone and the
gateway to pioneer Kentucky. Edward Waller is listed as a Major in the
Revolution by Heitman, and in Auditors Accounts, Revolutionary claims of
Virginia, we find the name of Captain Edward Waller. Not only was Edward
Waller a trustee of Hopewell, but he was one of the original trustees of
Washington, the first county seat of Mason County. He lived on Cooper's
Run in Bourbon County and died in 1792 leaving a widow, Elizabeth G.
Waller, and children.
Ref.: Bourbon court records; Collins History; Va. Petitions.
Thomas West, who conducted the first "public house" (tavern) in Paris,
was a central figure in the early life of Hopewell. This tavern was
built of logs and stood where Shire's Jewelry Store is now located. It
was first known simply as West's Tavern, but in later years when it was
clapboarded and washed over with a red-wash, it was referred to as
"West's Red Tavern," and the sign of the "square and compass" was
displayed above the entrance. Thomas West was, no doubt, of Maryland, as
he was guardian to Margaret, daughter of John and Rachel (Perry) West,
who have been identified with that state. In 1796 he built the first
brick house in Paris where Gibson's Garage now stands. He probably died
in Missouri. His widow, Mrs. Elizabeth West, died Jan. 9, 1847, aged 86
years. She was buried in the Paris cemetery.
James Lanier. In an old litigation in Bourbon County we find that James
Lanier had been persuaded by Lawrence Protzman, who was his close
personal friend, to leave his home in Davidson County, North Carolina,
and bring his family to Bourbon County and enter into a partnership with
him. He was to build Lanier a dwelling on one of his lots where he could
conduct a tavern .at the Court House, opposite the "public ground" and
furnish provisions and drink sufficient to supply a tavern for one year.
One James Lanier served in the Colonial militia of North Carolina as a
lieutenant in Pitt County, Nov., 1773. The name was probably spelled
also Lenior and there is a county in North Carolina bearing that name.
On December 21, 1796, James Lanier and wife, Sally, were residents of
Campbell County, Kentucky.
Ref.: Bourbon County court records; N. C. Archives.
James Littell was certainly one of the most active of the Hopewell
trustees. After leaving Bourbon County he was one of the original
trustees of Falmouth, Pendleton County, Kentucky, where he had erected a
station. As early as 1776 he had accompanied John Lyon into this
section. He was probably the James Littell who married Martha McConnell
in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, January 26, 1746, but he was married
a second time in Bourbon to Milcah Standeford, daughter of Aquilla
Standeford, who died in Mason County, Kentucky, former resident of
Hopewell, Maryland. There was another James Littell living in Bourbon
County in 1799, whose wife was Isabella McNay. This man was probably the
James Littell of York and Washington counties, Pennsylvania. Just where
James Littell, Hopewell trustee, died is not known. He lived in Campbell
County as well as Pendleton and, it appears, finally left the state.
James Littell (Little) first came to Cumberland County, Pennsylvania,
from the County Donegal, Ireland. He was a sergeant in the Revolution,
serving from Fayette County in the expedition against the Indians.
Ref.: Court records; Va. State Library.
Captain James Duncan was of the distinguished Berkeley County, Virginia,
family of which came also Major Joseph Duncan, who built his stone house
on the Paris Public Square about 1788-92. James Duncan was born February
20, 1750, and was married in Virginia December 9, 1777, to Elizabeth
Strode, daughter of Captain John Strode, founder of Strode's Station in
Clark County. In a deposition filed in Bourbon in 1805 he stated he came
to Kentucky for the first time in 1779, went to and from Virginia a
number of times, and in the spring of 1784 he moved his family to this
State. His first visit was made in company with Major George Michael
Bedinger and others (see company). He was security to Major Joseph
Duncan when the latter applied for a license to operate a tavern in
1792, which was later known as the Burr House. Here in.1794, Joseph
Duncan. Governor of Illinois, was born. Among the old papers in the
possession of the family we find the following: "Captain Duncan hath
this day brought before me Miles Travers who acknowledges himself to be
voluntarily enlisted in any of the Virginia Regiments of Continental
Troops," etc. dated July 27, 1781, and signed by An'y Noble, Berkeley
County, Virginia. James Duncan was evidently interested in fine horses,
sheep and cattle. In December, 1798, William Thomas received of James
Duncan sixty pounds for one Bay Stud horse, fourteen pounds for one gray
mare, six pounds for one sorel colt, seven pounds and sixteen shillings
for five head of neat cattle, for seven sheep seven pounds, four
shilling, for two beds and bedsteads one chest and one spinning wheel
seven pounds ten shillings. He died in Bourbon County October 16, 1817,
and his wife Elizabeth (Strode) Duncan, died July 2, 1825. They were the
parents of thirteen children, among whom was Jerry Duncan, ancestor of
James Duncan Bell.
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