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MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS OF FREE PERSONS OF COLOR CALDWELL COUNTY, KY


Reprinted with permission from Western Kentucky
Journal, vol VI, No. 1, Winter 1999


For personal use only. May not be reproduced in any form. 

   
   MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS OF FREE PERSONS OF COLOR
                  CALDWELL COUNTY, KY

           Compiled by Brenda Joyce Jerome, CGRS
Slaves in Kentucky, as in other Southern states, 
experienced life as dictated by their owners. Free 
persons of color, while not enjoying all the freedoms 
of white persons, were allowed to choose a trade and 
profit from their own labor. Many chose to live in 
towns as there was less danger of being kidnapped and 
forced back into slavery. Free persons of color were 
wise to carry their "free papers" with them at all times.

As of the first day of May 1808, it was unlawful for any 
free person of color to migrate or be brought into Kentucky. 
If this did happen and the free person of color remained
more than 30 days, he was subject to arrest. 

By 1860, no slave could be emancipated unless he left 
Kentucky immediately. Non-resident free persons of color 
were not allowed to come into Kentucky upon penalty of 
confinement in the penitentiary.

In 1816 the American Society for the Colonization of the 
Free People of Color in the United States, better known as 
the American Colonization Society, was founded. The second 
article of the constitution stated  that the "object  ... 
is to be exclusively directed, as to promote and execute a 
plan for colonizing (with their consent) the free people of 
color residing in our country, in Africa, or such other 
place as Congress shall deem most expedient. While no 
motives are given for the formation of the Society, some 
who espoused the American Colonization Society likely were 
more interested in ridding the country of free blacks, thus 
increasing the value of slaves, and still others were 
interested only in seeking relief from a bad population In 
1833, 102 emancipated slaves from Kentucky were shipped from 
Louisville to Liberia.

Slaves were usually set free by a will or through the county 
court, but emancipations were not always recorded. For this 
article, a variety of records were searched and sources are 
listed after each entry. Caldwell County Loose Papers refer 
to loose county court papers, many of which were not recorded, 
located in the Caldwell County Clerkās Office. This article 
does not list those shown as black or mulatto on the 1850 
Caldwell County Federal Census unless another record indicated 
they had been emancipated. 

ANDERSON, John, a free boy of color, bound to William R. MOTT 
to learn the art, trade, and mystery of a farmer until the 
18th day of July 1856, when John will be age 21, he being age 
12 on the 18th day of July 1847. MOTT to teach his apprentice 
to spell and read so as to read the New Testament with 
facility. [Indenture of Apprencticeship Book 1845 - 1886, 
p. 13, 20 Jan 1847]

ARCHER, Isaac listed as man of color on 1843 Caldwell County 
tax list; shown with 1 slave age over 16 and 1 horse. [1843 
Caldwell County Tax List]

ARMSTRONG, James, a free boy of color, bound to William R. 
MOTT to learn the art, trade and mystery of a farmer until 
the 1st day of August 1852, when James will be age 21, he 
being 16 as of the 1st day of August next. [Indenture of 
Apprenticeship Book  1845-1886, p. 11, 20 Jan 1847]

ASHBY, George and wife Nancy emancipated by the last will 
and testament of Stephen ASHBY decād [Caldwell County Will 
Book A, pp. 433-434, recorded 17 Jan 1831]  John ASHBY made 
oath that the following children of George and Nancy ASHBY 
have been born since the manumission: George, about 24 years 
of age, of dark complexion and about 6 feet 2 inches high; 
Henry, about 20 years of age, of yellow complexion, about 5 
feet 10 inches high; Sandford, about 17 years of age, dark 
complexion and about 5 feet 6 or 7 inches high; Sabra, about 
26 years of age, bright complexion, about 5 feet 5 inches high
and her two children, Nancy Katharine, about 2 years old, of 
bright complexion, and Mary Magdalene, born August 23rd 1856, 
all of whom being born of free parents and are hereby 
declared free. [Caldwell County Court Order Book H, p. 484,  
2 Jan 1857] George ASHBY listed as man of color on 1843 
Caldwell County Tax List and shown with 250 acres on Brushy 
Grove (worth $280), 1 slave over age 16 and 1 horse. [1843 
Caldwell County Tax List] George, a man of color commonly 
called and known by name of George ASHBY, purchased 225 acres 
of land on waters of Muddy Fork of Little River from George 
KESTERSON. [Caldwell County Deed Book K, p. 482,  29 Jun 
1842] George ASHBY, a man of color, conveyed 250 acres of 
land on waters of Muddy Fork of Little River to Owen R. BAKER. 
George and Nancy ASHBY signed the deed with their mark (X). 
[Caldwell County Deed Book S, p. 197,  8 Jan 1857]  

BAKER, Peggy. Summons issued against Peggy BAKER, a free 
woman of color, to shew cause if any why her son Dick shall 
not be bound out. [Caldwell County Court Order Book F, p. 280,  
16 Nov 1841]

Ben and Jack set free by deed of emancipation from heirs of 
Isaac BROWN decād. Ben is about 27 or 28 years old, of black 
complexion and about whom there are no peculiar marks. Jack is 
about 38 or 39 years old, of black complexion with a scar by a 
burn on his right arm and leg and two African marks projecting 
from the outer corner of each of his eyes. [Caldwell County Court 
Order Book E, p. 398,  16 Nov 1835.] Power of Attorney for 
emanicipation of Ben and Jack signed by legatees of Isaac BROWN 
decād of Randolph and Perry Counties, IL 10 Nov 1835: Jane BROWN, 
Samuel BROWN, David BROWN, Ephraim HILL, John BROWN, John CRAIG, 
Hugh M. BROWN, Isaac BROWN and Alexander CRAIG. Power of Attorney 
recorded in Perry County, IL 11 Nov 1835. Deed signed by Joseph 
BROWN, attorney in fact for the heirs of Isaac BROWN decād.  
[Caldwell County Loose Papers]

Betty.  Jacob B. CRIDER given leave to execute a bond preventing 
an old negro woman named Betty from becoming chargeable to this 
county, she having been emancipated by Henry MACHEN Senr. of this 
County. Betty is about 56 years of age, of dark complexion, 
about 5 feet 5 inches tall and has a lump or winn on her left 
wrist. [Caldwell County Court Order Book F, p. 483,  16 Dec 1844]

Bold George, Alexander, Larkin, Ned, Amey, Rine (alias Miranda), 
Dick (alias John), Richard Lyon, Jane (alias Mary Jane), Henry, 
Thomas, Charles, Susan, Ellery, Edward (son of Amy) and 
Frederick (son of Rine alias Miranda) freed by the will of 
William MITCHUSSON. [Caldwell County Will Book B, p. 53, 
recorded 16 May 1842]

CAPERTON, Davy, free man of Color, tendered a deed of emancipation 
dated 19 Sep 1842 setting free and at full liberty his wife, Betty. 
"Whereas my Wife Betty a woman aged about 52 years was conveyed 
to me as my property by her former mistress Mrs. Polly WADLINGTON 
on the 2nd of December 1835 and she is now my property and is now 
living with me in Caldwell County, of a dark complexion and of 
common stature." Davy Caperton with F.G. WADLINGTON, his 
security, entered into bond in the penalty of $100 conditioned 
to keep  Betty from becoming chargeable to this County. [Caldwell 
County Court Order Book F, pp. 345-346, 17 Oct 1842] David 
Caperton listed as free person of color on 1840 Caldwell County 
census. [1840 Caldwell County Federal Census, p. 46] David 
Caperton, a free man of Collor [sic] took up a stray on the turn 
pike leading to Hopkinsville on 22 Jan 1861. [Caldwell County 
Strays 1833-1864]

Cato set free by deed of emancipation dated 18 May 1836 from Robert 
RICHEY of Gallatin Co, IL by his attorney, Charles B. DALLAM of 
Princeton, KY. Cato is of black complexion, about 45 or 46 years 
old, about 5 feet 7 inches high, with a scar or burn just above 
the left elbow and a scar on the forehead. [Caldwell County Court 
Order Book E, pp. 459-460,  15 Aug 1836 and Caldwell County Loose 
Papers]

Charles and wife Judy set free by will of Elizabeth PRINCE. 
[Caldwell County Will Book A, p. 437, recorded 15 Aug 1831]

Clark, now in California, by will of Silas N. DAVIS to not be 
held in slavery provided Clark returns and gives a full report of 
his earnings in California. DAVISā wife to sell Clarkās family to 
Clark or free them, or do whatever she thinks proper. [Caldwell 
County Will Book B, p. 153, recorded 28 Sep 1854]

COTTON, Enoch, a free negro man exhibited in court his certificate 
of freedom. [Caldwell County Court Order Book D, p. 192, 18 Jul 
1825] Enoch Cotton listed a free person of color on 1840 Caldwell 
County census. [1840 Caldwell County Federal Census, p. 3] 

COX, Catharine emancipated and set free by her father, Scipio 
COX, by deed 20 Jul 1840. Scipio Cox also produced a bill of 
sale dated 24 Nov 1837 for $1000 for Catharine from John F. 
HARRIS to S. Cox. Catharine is 18 years of age, of dark yellow 
complexion, black & tolerable straight hair, 5 feet 6 inches 
high, a slight scar on the corner of her right eyebrow, a slight 
mark on the chin and  a mark on her left breast. [Caldwell County 
Court Order Book F, p. 158,  20 Jan 1840]

Dick emancipated by Matthew LYON 16 Oct 1812, having been bought 
of William BOND. Dick is about 40 years old. [Caldwell County 
Court Order Book A, pp. 244-245,  2 Nov 1812]

Easter set free by will of Thomas JOHNSON. [Caldwell County Will 
Book B, p. 13, recorded 19 Dec 1836]

ELDER, Milam listed as free person of color on 1840 Caldwell 
County census. [Caldwell County Federal Census, p. 33]

FOWLER, James listed as free person of color on 1840 Caldwell 
County census. [Caldwell County Federal Census, p. 31]

George to be emancipated by M. LYON. "To the Honorable the County 
Court of the County of Caldwell  The Subscriber applies to give 
them information that he has it in Contemplation to Emancipate his 
Negro Slave George the same he purchased of Wm. PRINCE & he wishes 
this his declaration of his may be entered of Record & is ready to 
proceed on his part with the Necessary Legal requisites in order 
to the compleat emancipation of the sd. George." [signed] M. LYON, 
4 Dec 1809. Wit: F.C. SHARP, John H. PHELPS. [Caldwell County 
Loose Papers; no record of being recorded]

George, age about 64 or 65 years, emancipated by deed of Samuel 
BLACK 21 Oct 1833. [Caldwell Co, KY Order Book E, pp. 271-273] 
George, a free man of color liberated by Saml. BLACK released 
from paying county or poll tax. [Caldwell County Court Order 
Book F, p. 163, 17 Feb 1840]

George, age about 41 or 42, black complexion, small knot on 
his forehead, scar on his right elbow and about 5 feet 8 inches 
tall; set free by deed of emancipation of George WRIGHT, who 
departed this life in Dundee, Scotland 13 Apr 1846.  [Caldwell 
County Court Order Book G, p. 124-5, 20 Jul 1846.]

George, Hasty, Nancy and Marinda set free by deed of emancipation 
of John BAKER 20 Jul 1835. George, about age 33 & of black 
complexion; Hasty, female about age 26 and of black complexion; 
Nancy, about age 21 years  & of yellow complexion; and Marinda, 
age near 7 years & of yellow complexion. [Caldwell Co Court Order 
Book E, p. 350, 20 Jul 1835] Negroes set free by John BAKER came 
into court & are entitled to their free papers. George, about 5 
feet 7 inches high with a perpendicular scar in his forehead (in 
the centre) and a slight scar on the breast; mulatto girl Marinda, 
about 8 years old, tolerable straight black hair. [Caldwell County 
Court Order Book E, p. 426,  15 Feb 1836; see also Will of John 
BAKER Sr, Will Book B, p. 10, recorded 15 Feb 1836] George BAKER 
listed as free person of color on 1840 Caldwell County census. 
[1840 Caldwell County Federal Census, p. 16]

HARRIS, Fanny, aged about 32 years 15 Nov 1836; mother of Rosena, 
age 7, and Nancy, age 4, and Sully, age 6 mo. Fanny is wife of 
Beverly HARRIS, who appointed James C. WELLER to prepare a deed 
of manumission 15 Nov 1836. [Caldwell County Court Order Book E] 
Deed of Emancipation 15 Nov 1836: ćKnow all men ... I Beverly 
HARRIS of the County of Caldwell ... from motives of benevolence 
and the love which I bear to my wife, and her 3 children named 
Rosena & Nancy whom I purchased of James KIRKPATRICK and Marcia 
T. KIRKPATRICK by Bill of Sale dated the 23d day of October 1834 
... and my son Sully who has been born since I purchased his mother 
... have manumitted ... and set free from Slavery my beloved wife 
Fanny, aged about 32 years, Rosena my daughter aged about 7, my 
daughter Nancy aged about 4 and my son Sully aged about 6 months 
... all my right, title and claim of, in and to their persons 
labor and services ...ä /s/ Beverly HARRIS by his attorney in 
fact James C. WELLER. [Caldwell County Loose Papers]  Sully HARRIS, 
a boy of color, placed as an apprentice to William S. SPRATT to 
learn the art, trade and mystery of a cabinet maker until the 19th 
of June 1855, at which time Sully will be age 20. [Indentures of 
Apprenticeship 1845 - 1886, p. 29-30,  24 Jun 1848]

HARRIS, James, a free boy of color, bound to William SPRATT to 
learn the art, trade mystery of a cabinet maker until 19 day of 
June 1857, at which time James will be age 20 years of age. 
[Indenture of Apprenticeship Book 1845 - 1886, p. 28-29, 24 Jun 1848]

HAWLEY, James F., a boy of color, bound to Gideon HAWLEY to 
learn the art, trade and mystery of farming until April 1869, 
at which time the apprentice will be age 21 years. [Indenture 
of Apprenticeship 1845 - 1886, p. 49-50, 4 May 1852]

HAWLEY, Mary Ann, a free person of color, placed as an apprentice 
to Gideon HAWLEY to learn the art, trade and mystery of a 
seamstress until September 1861, at which time the apprentice, 
if she shall then be living, will be 18 years of age. The apprentice 
is to be taught to read, write and cypher as far as the rule of 
three. [Indenture of Apprenticeship Book 1845 - 1886, pp. 47-48,  
19 Apr 1852]

HAWLEY, Richard Henry, a boy of color, bound as an apprentice to 
Gideon HAWLEY to learn the art, trade and mystery of farming until 
August of 1871, at which time the apprentice will be age 21. 
[Indentures of Apprenticeship Book 1845 - 1886, p. 50-51, 19 
Apr 1852]

Henry emancipated by Enoch P. GEORGE. Henry is about 39 years of 
age, about 5 feet 10 inches high, of dark complexion with a small 
bump on the right side of his nose below his eye. George, with 
Robert L. COBB, his security, entered into bond in the penal sum 
of $200 conditioned that Henry shall not become a charge upon any 
county in this Commonwealth. [Caldwell County Court Order Book G, 
p. 472,  18 Nov 1850]

HOWARD, Maria J. and her children, Maria Louisa, Sophronia and 
Harriet Lubenia, emancipated by deed from Thomas CAMPBELL and 
proven by oaths of James C. WELLER and Lucien C. DALLAM. Maria 
is aged about 33 years, 5 feet 4 inches high, of bright yellow 
complexion and her children, all of the same complexion and with 
black hair and eyes. [Caldwell County Court Order Book H, p. 6,  
16 Dec 1850]

Isabel and William Rhasa emancipated by will of Mary SMITH; 
children of Franky. David CALDWELL entered as security for Isabel 
and Wm. Rhasa, negroes emancipated by the will of Mary SMITH decād. 
[Caldwell County Court Order Book F, p. 195,  15 Jun 1840]

Ivy/Iras set free by deed of emancipation of Hugh McVAY. Ivy, 
also known as Iras, is of dark complexion, aged about 45 years 
and was purchased of David TUCKER of Mecklingburg Co, VA. 
[Caldwell County Court Order Book D, pp. 160 & 169, 19 Jan 
1825 & 19 Apr 1825]

Jack to inherit money from estate of Mary WYATT so he can 
purchase his freedom. [Caldwell County Will Book B, p. 191, 
recorded 17 Oct 1859]

Jack and Tom emancipated by will of Margaret EDWARDS "provided 
they determine to migrate to Liberiaä and to make a determination 
in court. [Caldwell County Will Book B, p. 127, recorded 17 
Nov 1851]

JACKSON, Jacob listed as free person of color on 1840 Caldwell 
County census. [1840 Caldwell County Federal Census, p. 17]

Jackson, a mulatto boy born 17 Jul 1835, to be free at age 21 
per will of William W. CARNEY. Jennett M. DUNNING, daughter of 
William W. CARNEY, to raise and educate Jackson. Jackson also 
to have 260 acres of land and $2000. Also emancipated was Judy, 
a yellow woman, during her life, but her children, if she 
should have any, to be slaves. [Caldwell County Will Book B, 
p. 74, recorded 17 Mar 1845]

James manumitted by William McELROY. James, about 52 years of 
age next July, of dark complexion, about 5 feet 10 inches high. 
[Caldwell County Court Order Book H, p. 419, 21 Jan 1856.]

James, Joseph, Anderson and Thomas emancipated by the will of 
Mary SMITH decād. Thomas HUGHES entered as security in a bond 
in the penalty of $1200. [Caldwell County Court Order Book F, 
p. 195,  15 Jun 1840]

Jenny set free by will of William H. LACY. [Caldwell County 
Will Book A, p. 37, recorded 2 Dec 1811]

Jim and Patsy emancipated by deed of William B. BOND "from 
motives of humanity and benevolence.ä Patsy is aged about 55 
years, about 5 feet 2 or 3 inches high, of yellow complexion 
and rather thin with black eyes and hair. Jim is  about 60 years 
of age, of dark complexion, 5 feet 7 inches in height with black 
hair and eyes. Bond, with Jeremiah BOND, his security, entered 
into bond in the penal sum of $200 conditioned to keep sd. 
negroes from becoming chargeable to any county in this State. 
[Caldwell County Court Order Book G, p. 311,  17 Jul 1845]

JOHNSON, Joe, free man of color, died before 15 Mar 1850 when 
William GARRETT was appointed administrator of JOHNSONās estate. 
[Caldwell County Court Order Book G, p. 430,  15 Mar 1850]

Judy emancipated by deed from Levingston LINDSAY. Judy is of 
dark complexion, about 21 years of age, 5 feet 1 or 2 inches high. 
[Caldwell County Court Order Book G, p. 462,  16 Sep 1850]

Keziah set free by will of Michael PURTLE. [Caldwell County Will 
Book A, pp. 339-340, recorded 28 Aug 1820]

KIRBY, Martha Jane, Henry, Josiah and Samuel, free persons of 
color, bound as apprentices to John BAKER to learn the art, trade 
and mystery of farming. Martha Jane is age 13 next May, Henry will 
be age 11 the 11th of March next, Josiah will be age 9 August 
next and Samuel will be age 7 in May next and all are bound until 
they reach the age of 21 years. [Indenture of Apprenticeship Book 
1845 - 1886, pp. 64-65,  20 Apr 1857]

LEECH, William, a free boy of color, apprenticed to Mrs. 
Cassandra WEBB to learn the art, trade and mystery of a farmer 
until 1 November 1850, at which time the apprentice, if living, 
shall be 21 years of age. William is to be taught to spell and 
read, so as to read the New Testament with facility. [Indentures 
of Apprenticeship Book 1811-1845, pp. 164-165, 10 Feb 1845]

Lidy set free by deed of manumission from George MARSHALL dated 1 
Mar 1823; age 35 and able to work and gain a sufficient livelihood 
and maintenance. [Caldwell County Court Order Book D, pp. 58-59,  
21 Apr 1823]

Lydia, about age 45, set free by deed of emancipation of Andrew 
ROSS 19 Oct 1830. [Caldwell County Loose Papers]

MAIN, David. Summons: "To any Constable of Caldwell County ... 
Whereas information hath been given to me B.G. RICE, a Justice 
of the peace, by some [illegible] that David Main, a free man of 
colur, hath migrated or been brought into this State from the 
State of Tennessee and hath remained herein for the term of 30 
days, in contravention of the act of the General Assembly. 
Command you to cause the sd. David Main forthwith to be brought 
before me or some other Justice of the peace to be dealt with 
according to law.  2 Jan 1837. Decision: "We the Jury find 
defendant David Main not guilty." /s/ M. DUDLEY. [Caldwell 
County Loose Papers]

Mary to be set free at death of her owner by paper dated 27 
Jul 1819 by Milintha[?] JOHNSON. [Caldwell County Loose Papers]

Matilda, age 38, set free by deed of emancipation dated 21 Nov 
1831 from Ephraim M. PACK, believing that "slavery is 
inconsistent with the [illegible] Laws of Nature." 
[Caldwell County Court Order Book E, p. 160]

Milly and Malinda emancipated by the will of Richard BAKER 
decād appeared in court and are of the following description: 
Milly is of black complexion, aged about 37 or 38, about 5 
feet 3 inches & a half in height. Malinda is of a bright 
yellow complexion, aged about 19 years and about 5 feet 2 & 
a quarter inches high. Hugh McRACKIN entered as their security 
to keep them from becoming chargeable to the county in a bond 
in the penalty of $250. [Caldwell County Court Order Book F, 
p. 200,  20 Jul 1840]

MONTGOMERY, John, "a free man of color ... from motives of 
benevolance and humanity have manumitted and do hereby manumit 
and set free from slavery my negro woman named Abby (wife), 
aged about 33 and of black complexion and my infant son Jackson, 
aged 6 months ..." 15 Feb 1836. /s/ John (X his mark) MONTGOMERY. 
[Caldwell County Loose Papers] John Montgomery listed as a 
free person of color on 1840 Caldwell County census. 
[Caldwell County Federal Census, p. 30]
 
Nancy emancipated by Walker W. WILLIAMS by deed. Nancy, a 
mulatto, about 38 years of age, about 5 feet 3 inches high, 
a small mole on the centre of her chin and one on the right 
side of her nose and one on her right cheek, with black hair 
and black eyes. WILLIAMS, with Robert A. PATTERSON, his security, 
entered into bond in the penal sum of $200 conditioned to keep 
Nancy from becoming chargeable to any county in this State. 
[Caldwell County Court Order Book G, p. 164,  21 Dec 1846]

Naoma, aged about 56 or 57 on 21 Apr 1840, and her children 
to be set free following the death of Mary DEACON, wife of 
James DEACON, per will of James DEACON. [Caldwell County Will 
Book A, pp. 28-29, no date, but recorded with wills of 1812]

Ned to be free at age 35 per will of William ORR. Vina and 
child Lucy Jane to be free if William ORRās wife, Jane, died 
without a will. [Caldwell County Will Book B, p. 34, recorded 
18 Nov 1839]

Patsy.  Mrs. Elizabeth JONES stated that Patsy was born free 
in the State of Virginia near Mrs. JONESā residence and shortly 
afterward came and lived in her family and was raised by her 
from about 4 years of age. Patsy is of bright yellow complexion, 
black straight hair, has an oblong mole on her left wrist, aged 
about 33 years and 5 feet in height. [Caldwell County Court 
Order Book F, p. 241,  19 Apr 1841]

Phebe emancipated by will of Mary SMITH; mother of Phebe, Franky, 
Peggy and Thomas. Also set free were Phebeās children Minerva, 
Stephen, John, Mary Jane, Smith and Aaron. Franky has had children 
Isabel and William Rasha. Peggy has had a child, James Armstrong. 
All to be free per Mary SMITHās will. Mary SMITH was first married 
to James DEACON and then Robert SMITH. [Caldwell County Will Book 
B, pp. 37-40, recorded 20 Apr 1840] Robert SMITH, per his will, 
emancipated Thomas, Manervy, Steven, John, Mary Jane, Smith, Aaron, 
Isaac, Sylvanus, Isabel, Unity, James, William Ratio, James 
Armstrong. [Caldwell County Will Book A, pp. 448-450, recorded 21 
Oct 1834] Smith, late the slave of Mary SMITH decād, emancipated 
by will of sd. Mary SMITH. Smith is about 21 years of age, 5 feet 
10 inches high, rather slender made. [Caldwell County Court Order 
Book G, p. 426,  15 Feb 1850] Minerva and her children, Ewell & 
Martha emancipated by the will of Mary SMITH. Zachariah KENNEDY 
entered as security in the penalty of $600. [Caldwell County Court 
Order Book F, p. 202,  17 Aug 1840]

Phereby mentioned as "my former negro woman Phereby now in 
Liberia and her children" in will of F.W. UREY. Also mentions 
all Negroes to be free at death of UREYās wife. [Caldwell County 
Will Book B, p. 234, recorded 29 Aug 1865]

Phoebe, Tom and Martha, children of Lydia, a free woman of color, 
apprenticed to Reuben R. MARSHALL; Phoebe, 9 years of age the 6th 
of last April; Thomas, 8 years of age the 4th of this month and 
Martha, 11 years of age the 14th Feby next. Thomas is to learn the 
art, trade and mystery of a farmer until he is age 21 and the 
Phoebe and Martha, the trade of spinsters until they are age 18. 
[Indentures of Apprenticeship 1811-1845, p. 116,  9 Dec 1833]

PICKETT, Charles, a free person of color, produced in open 
court a copy of a decree of the Chancellor of the Caldwell 
Circuit Court (Charles, a free person of Color, Complt, against 
John PICKETT, defendant) emancipating and setting him free. 
Charles is of bright yellow complexion, about 24 years of age, 
about 5 feet 7 and one quarter inches high with his shoes off 
and the little finger of his right hand being deformed by being 
bent in & stubed. [Caldwell County Court Order Book F, p. 211,  
19 Oct 1840]

Randall and Perry mentioned as "men servants heretofore emancipated"
in will of Hugh McRACKEN. [Caldwell County Will Book B, p. 62, 
recorded 20 Nov 1843]

RENFRO, Travis listed a free person of color on 1840 Caldwell 
County census. [Caldwell County Federal Census, p. 16]

Rippon and Betty, both about age 65 years, set free by deed of 
emancipation of Winfrey BOND 18 Dec 1826. [Caldwell County Loose 
Papers]

Samuel, about age 40, set free by deed of emancipation from 
Reuben DYER. [Caldwell Co Court Order Book E, p. 499, 20 Feb 1837] 
Saml. DYER listed as man of color on 1843 Caldwell County Tax 
List and shown with 1 slave over age 16 and 1 horse. [1843 Caldwell 
County Tax List] 

Sarah and Duncan to be free at death of wife of Meredith ARCHER 
and marriage of his daughters, according to will of Meredith 
Archer. Slave Ashmore to be free when he is age 45, now being 
19 years old. [Caldwell County Will Book B, p. 89, recorded 
17 May 1847]

WARD, Lucy listed as free person of color on 1840 Caldwell 
County census. [Caldwell County Federal Census, p. 16]

WHYTE, Cyrus emancipated by his wife, Peggy SMITH, a free woman 
of color, 18 Sep 1848. On that same date Cyrus posted bond with 
Wm. R. MOTT that he would never become a charge on any county in 
the Commonwealth. Cyrus was about 5 feet 10 inches high, of yellow 
complexion, rather spare made, about 46 years of age and had been 
purchased of Wm. A. Mott for $350 by Peggy Smith 18 Jan 1847. The 
bill of sale was witnessed by James C. WELLER, J.A. CARTWRIGHT 
and F.W. UREY.  [Caldwell County Loose Papers] 

Slaves (not named) to be liberated, provided those under age 40 
will agree to go to Kentucky in Liberia and the Colonization 
Society will ship them off. If over age 40, they may remain if 
they choose, according to will of Charles B. DALLAM. [Caldwell 
County Will Book B, p. 94, recorded 17 Jan 1848]



References:

Lloyd G. Lee, A Brief History of Kentucky and Its Counties. (Berea, 
  KY: Kentucke Imprints, 1988),  p. 51.
Kentucky Acts of the General Assembly, 1822.
Lewis Collins, History of Kentucky, Vol. 1.  (Berea, KY: Kentucke 
  Imprints, 1976), p. 83.
William Jay, An Inquiry Into the Character and Tendency of the 
American Colonization, and the American Anti-Slavery Societies, 
(New York: Leavitt, Hard & Co., 1835),  pp. 15-16.