1. VIJAYA 544-505 BC - In the fifth century Prince
Vijaya and seven hundred of his followers landed in
Vijaya was the
founder of the first dynasty in
On the death of
the old King Sinha Bahu became King and married his sister. They had
many sons of whom the eldest was Vijaya. He was a problem child and the
King was very disturbed by his behavior. By the time he was eighteen years old
Vijaya was even more than a problem child. He was the sole disruptor of the
peace and contentment of the people. The King, having thought of the safety of
his throne, decided to banish Vijaya and his followers. Their heads were
shaven like criminals except for the strand at the back which was left uncut. Vijaya
and his seven hundred followers were boarded into an anchored ship without
rudders. The ship landed at a spot near Puttalam in
At this time, Kuveni, a wise and learned woman had succeeded her father as ruler of Heladipa (Lanka). She was told of the arrival of Vijaya and his followers and on meeting him fell in love with him and were united and blessed by Sandu the moon goddess. Preparations were made for the wedding according to the ancient rites and ceremonies of the people of Heladipe. An elderly man of the tribe conducted the ceremony and a hundred throbbing drums proclaimed that Kuveni, Queen of Heladipa, was wedded to Vijaya, the Aryan Prince. The coronation ceremony of the King followed the marriage.
Vijaya and Kuveni reigned as King and Queen
of Heladipa for five years and their subjects were happy and contented. They
had a son and a daughter. Vijaya abandoned Kuveni and his two
children to marry an Aryan Princess from a Royal family to whom he had been
betrothed before he was banished from his homeland. He made her his new Queen
Kuveni, broken hearted and alone, cursed Vijaya,
his Kingdom and all the future rulers of the
Vijaya did not have the expected son from his new Aryan Queen and died without an heir. He reigned with perfect justice for thirty eight years.
2. UPATISSA 505-504 BC – The Chief Minister of Vijaya – He took over as Regent as Vijaya died without an heir. He governed for one year until the arrival of Panduvasudeva, the younger son of Vijaya’s brother, Summitha.
504-474 BC –
Son of King Vijaya’s brother – Prince Panduvasudeva arrived accompanied by thirty
two noble youth. Princess Buddhakachchana, daughter of a King named Panda, from
an ancient Royal family
The King had ten sons, the eldest named Abhaya, and one daughter names Ummadha Citta.
A court Brahimn (learned astrologer) predicted that the son who will be born to Princess Citta will destroy his uncles. The sons of King Panduvasudeva held a meeting led by the second son Tissa and planned to kill their sister, Princess Citta. The eldest son, Abhaya, did not approve of such an extreme and cruel action, and with the consent of his father, the King, ordered her to be placed in solitary confinement. She was placed in a chamber adjoining the King’s own private chamber and the Queen’s personal maid, Cetiya, was entrusted with the task of taking care of the infant princess.
As the years went by Princess Citta grew into a beautiful woman. Shortly after her sixteenth year she was looking down at the garden from her chamber window and saw her brother Prince Tissa talking to a stranger under a tree. She asked Cetiya, her maid, who this man was and was told that he was Prince Dighagamini, the ruler of a neighboring state. The princess expressed her desire to meet this Prince and the maid Cetiya arranged this and a meeting took place between them. Soon, it was discovered by Citta and Princess Cetiya that the Princess was pregnant. Princess Citta confided this situation to her brother Prince Abhaya and he then learned that the person responsible was his own cousin Prince Dhigagamini.
Abhaya told his father the story
and persuaded him to marry the princess to Prince Dhigagamini. The King agreed.
Abhaya next told his brothers who were all furious with anger. Tissa proclaimed
that if Citta’s child was a boy he would kill him immediately. Citta, in her
attempt to protect her child should he be a boy, planned to substitute a female
newborn child in the place of hers if her child was a boy which was the case.
Her new born son was smuggled out of the palace and a new born female child was
substituted in his place. Her mother the Queen and the maidservant Cetiya, both,
agreed to help in this caper. The newborn son was spirited away into the safe
and secluded territory of the Ruhuna (south of the
The boy, now growing up in distant Ruhuna, was named Pandukabhaya, a combination of the names of Citta’s father, Panduvasudeva, and her eldest brother Abhaya, who had been her lifelong friend and savior. The reservoir, Abhaya Wewa, was built during their reign in the year 505 BC. The King died after a peaceful ad prosperous reign of thirty years. His sea of government, during this reign, was Vijitapura.
4. ABHAYA 474-454 BC – Eldest son of King Panduvasudeva – On the death of King Panduvasudeva his ten sons assembled together and chose Prince Abhaya, the oldest among them, to be the Sovereign of Lanka. Princess Ummada Citta’s cunning plan to conceal her son from her wicked brothers did not remain a closed secret for very long. They tried hard to seek him and kill him but failed. King Abhaya was accused by his brothers for having connived and helped their sister protect her son Pandukabhaya. Thus he was deposed and the second son, Prince Tissa, was given the throne.
5. TISSA 454-437 BC – Second son of King Panduvasudeva, younger brother of King Abhaya – He was appointed the regent by his eight younger brothers after the deposition of the oldest brother, King Abhaya, from the throne. Tissa claimed that he would be consecrated king only after he had finally defeated his nephew Pandukhabaya. This, however, was not to be as Pandukabhaya swept on triumphantly. Tissa was slain in battle along with all his eight younger brothers. Abhaya was spared. Pandukabhaya, the undisputed victor, called upon his uncle Abhaya to take up the throne again. Abhaya declined.
6. PANDUKABHAYA 437-367 BC – Grandson of King Panduvasudeva, Son of Princess Umaddha Citta,
Nephew of King Abhaya and Prince Tissa – Umaddha Citta had entrusted the education
of her son, Pandukabhaya, to a Brahmin by the name of Pandula. This Brahmin
made his own son, Canda, the fellow student of the Prince and the two became
good friends. Pandukabhaya married a beautiful princess named Swarnapali
(Pali), daughter of Girikandasiva, an uncle of his who was governing the
Pandukabhaya founded the city of
7. MUTASIVA 367-307 BC – Son of King Pandukabhaya -
8. DEVANAMPIYA TISSA 307-267 BC – second Son of King Mutasiva – His close friendship with Emperor
9. UTTIYA 267-257 BC – Brother of King Devanampiya Tissa -
10. MAHASIVA 257-247 BC – Second (younger) brother of King Devanampiya Tissa -
11. SURATISSA 247-237 BC – Younger brother of King Mutasiva
12. SENA & GUTTILA 237-215 BC – Two Tamil Chief’s, horse dealers, joint rulers who came from South India, killed King Suratissa and usurped the Sinhalese throne at Anuradhapura (first historically reported account of Tamil rule in Sri Lanka) Sinhala rule was re-established in 215 BC
13. ASELA 215-205 BC – Youngest (ninth) brother of King Devanampiya Tissa, younger brother of King Suratissa regained the kingdom from the Indian invaders
14. ELARA 205-161 BC (the Just) – A Tamil Prince of the Chola
Dynasty from South India ruled the country for 44 years after invading
Anuradhapura and killing King Asela – During this period of rule by the Tamil King Elara
whio ruled from Anuradhapura, the capital of Raja Rata (King’s Territory),
there were two Sub-Divisions of the Island known as Maya Rata to the South West
and Ruhuna to the South East. They were administered by Sub-Kings who were
loyal subjects and supporters of the supreme Monarch. At the time Elara ruled
15a KELANI TISSA – Mahanaga who established a local sovereignty at Magama devoted his time to religion. The Tissa Wewa of the Southern Province was constructed by him. He was succeeded, at his death, by his son Yatalaka Tissa who fixed his Capital at Kelaniya and built the Kelaniya Dagaba. On the death, Yakalaka Tissa was succeeded by his son, Gotabhaya, who went to Magama to reign at his grandfather’s capital, leaving a Kshatriya by the name of Kelani Tissa, to reign at Kelaniya.
16. DUTU GEMUNU aka
DUTTA GAMINI or GAMINI 161-137
BC – Eldest
son of King Kavan Tissa of Ruhuna, (originally the ruler of the
17. SADDHA TISSA 137-119 BC – Brother of King Dutu Gemunu -
18. THULLATTANA (Tulna) 119 BC – Second son of King Saddha Tissa ruled for 1 month and 10 days -
19. LAJJA TISSA 119-110 BC – Older brother of King Thullattana, oldest son of King Saddha Tissa -
20. KHALLATANAGA (Kalunna) 110-104 BC – Brother of King Lajja Tissa, third son of King Saddha Tissa -
21. VALAGAMBAHU I 104 BC – (Vattagamini Abhaya), fourth son of King Saddha Tissa -
22. PULAHATHA 103-100 BC – Tamil Chief – Reigned supreme for three years and was murdered by his Chief Minister, Bahiya.
23. BAHIYA 100-98 BC – Chief Minister of Pulahatha – Ruled for two years with the Chief Panayamara as Prime Minister who also murdered him and took power.
24. PANAYAMARA 98-91 BC – Prime Minister of Bahiya – Reigned for seven years and was murdered by his Chief Minister, Piliyamara
25. PILAYAMARA 91 BC – Chief Minister of Panayamara – Reigned for seven months and was murdered by his Chief Minister, Dathiya
26. DATHIYA 90-88 BC – Chief Minister of Pilayamara – Reigned for two years before he was killed.
27. VALAGAMBAHU I 88-76 BC – Fourth son of King Saddha Tissa
(137-119BC), restored the dynasty of King Dutu Gemunu – It was during his rule that a
dissention amonhst the priesthood between Mahavihara and Abhayagiri Vihara. One
memorable event was the writing down of the Tripitaka texts in Pali at the
28. MAHA CULA MAHA TISSA 76-62 BC – Son of Khallatanaga (110-104BC), nephew and adopted son of Valagambahu I -
29. CHORA NAGA (Mahanaga) 62-50 BC – Son of Valagambahu I, cousin of Maha Cola – He succeeded his cousin, Maha Cola, after his death. Lanka is said to have suffered a famine during this era. Cora Naga was killed with poisoned food given to him by his consort Anula after a reign of twelve years.
30. KUDA TISSA 50-47 BC – Son of Maha Cula Maha Tissa – After the death of Cora Naga, Kuda Tissa seized the throne and made himself king and took Anula as his Queen. After an uneventful reign of three years Anula developed a passion for Siva, the senior gate porter at the King’s Palace, poisoned the king and ascended the throne as the FIRST QUEEN of Lanka.
31. Queen ANULA 47-41 BC – Widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa, first Queen of Lanka – She made Siva, the palace porter as her consort. Subsequently she poisoned Siva and lived with an Indian carpenter, Vatuka, a firewood carrier Dharubatissa, and a palace priest named Neeliya, all of whom she poisoned, till she finally ruled the country alone and continued tolive an infamous life four months. She was burnt alive by Kuttakanna Tissa, the second son of Cula Maha Tissa, who found that he had the backing of all of the people of Lanka to puit an end to such an ignominous sovereign.
32. KUTTAKANNA TISSA 41-19 BC – Brother of Kuda Tissa (50-47BC), second son of Maha Cula Maha Tissa (76-62BC) -
33. BHATIKA ABHAYA 19 BC-9 AD – Bhatika Tissa, son of Kuttakanna Tissa -
34. MAHA DHATIKA MAHA NAGA 9-21 AD – Brother of Bhatika Abhaya -
35. AMANDA GAMINI ABHAYA 21-30 AD – Son of Maha Dhatika Maha Naga – built Ridi Vihara
36. KANIRA JANU TISSA 30-33 AD – Brother of Amanda Gamini Abhaya -
37. CHULABHAYA 33-34 AD – Son of Amanda Gamini Abhaya (21-20AD) -
38. QUEEN SIVALI 34 AD – Sister of Chulabhaya – ruled for 4 months
39. ILA NAGA 34-44 AD (Elunna) – Nephew of Queen Sivali – built Tissamaharama (Naga Maha Vihara)
40. CHANDHRAMUKA SIVA 44-52 AD – Son of Ila Naga – slain by younger brother Yasalaka Tissa
41. YASALAKA TISSA 52-60 AD – Younger brother of Candhamuka Siva -
42. SUBHA 60-66 AD – The hall porter of King Yasalaka Tissa -
43. VASABHA 66-110 AD – A member of the Lambakanna clan
– raised the
wall around the city of
44. VANKANASIKA TISSA 110-113 AD – Son of Vasabha – during this period a Chola named
Karikkal invaded the country and took away 12,000 Sinhalese to work on the
irrigation project of the Kaveri river in
45. GAJABAHU I
113-125 AD –
Son of Vankanasika Tissa – invaded the Chola kingdom and brought back the 12,000
Sinhalese plus another 12,000 Chola captives. He also brought back the tooth
relic of the Buddha and introduced the Pattini cult to
46. MAHALLAKA NAGA 125-131 AD – Father-in-Law of Gajabahu I -
47. BHATIKA TISSA 131-155 AD – Son of Mahallaka Naga -
48. KANITTHA TISSA 155-183 AD – Younger brother of Bhatika Tissa -
49. KHULA NAGA 183-185 AD – Son of Kanitta Tissa -
50. KHUDA NAGA 185-186 AD – Brother of Cula Naga – grate famine “EKANALIKA” occurred during this era
51. SIRI NAGA I 186-205 AD – Brother-in-Law of Kuda Naga and Commander of the troops – placed a parasol over the MahaThupa and rebuilt the Lova Mahapaya up to five storeys and also added 4 entrances to the Bodhi Tree
52. VOHARIKA TISSA (Vira Tissa) 205-227 AD – Son of Siri Naga I – suppressed heresies and checked Vaitulya doctrine
53. ABHAYA NAGA 227-235 AD – Brother of Voharaka Tissa -
54. SIRI NAGA II 235-237 AD – Son of Voharaka Tissa (205-227AD) -
55. VIJAYA KUMARA 237-238 AD – Son of Siri Naga II -
56. SANGHA TISSA 238-242 AD – A Lambakanna -
57. SIRI SANGHA BODHI I 242-244 AD – A Lambakanna – epidemic occured
58. GOTHABHAYA 244-257 AD – Minister of State, a Lambakanna – seized the Capital. King Sangha
Bodhi fled to the forest. Abhayagiri monks succeeded to the
59. JETTHA TISSA I 267-269 AD – Eldest son of Gothabhaya -
60. MAHASENA (Maha Sen) 269-296 AD – Brother of Jettha Tissa, younger son of Gothabhaya – a period of religious dissention followed. The Maha Vihara Bhikkus were persecuted and left abandoning the Maha Vihara for 9 years. Lovamahapaya was destroyed. Later the King became reconciled and Maha Vihara was repaired. He built 17 tanks.
61. KIT SIRI MEGHAVANNA (Kit Siri Mevan) 296-324 AD – Son of Mahasena – Sacred Tooth Relic was brought back from Kalinga by Princess Hemamali. He built a 3-storey Aramaya at Bddha Gaya for the monks
62. JETTHA TISSA II 324-333 AD – Brother of Kith Siri Meghavanna -
63. BUDDHADASA 333-362 AD – Son of Jettha Tissa II -
64. UPATISSA I 362-404 AD – Eldest son of Buddhadasa -
65. MAHANAMA 404-426 AD – Brother of Upatissa I -
66. SOTTHISENA 426 AD – Mahanama’s son born to a Tamil mother -
67. JANTU (Lamani Tissa) 426-427 AD – Husband of Sangha, daughter of Mahanama by his Sinhala Queen
68. MITTA SENA 427-428 AD - A noted plunderer – rule of Lambakanna Dynasty ended here
69. PANDU 428-433 AD – A Tamil invader, the first of this era -
70. PARINDA 433 AD – Son of Pandu, second Tamil ruler -
71. KHUDA PARINDA 433-449 AD – Younger brother of Pandu, Third Tamil ruler during this period -
72. TIRITARA 449 AD – Fourth Tamil ruler – was defeated and slain by Dhatusena within 2 months
73. DATHIYA 449-452 AD – Fifth Tamil ruler - was defeated and slain by Dhatusena after a war lasting 3 years
74. PITHIYA 452 AD – Sixth Tamil ruler - was defeated and slain by Dhatusena at the end of 7 months and with this the Indian dynasty was extinguished
The latter Anuradhapura Period
75. DHATUSENA 452-470 AD – Son of Sangha, the daughter of
76. KASYAPA 470-488 AD - son of King Dhatusena by a
Pallava woman, killed his father and moved his capital from
77. MOGALLANA (Mugalan) 488-506 AD – Son of Dhatusena, brother of Kasyapa -
78. KUMARA DHATUSENA (Kumaradasa) 506-515 AD – Son of Mogallana -
79. KIRTI SENA 515 AD – Son of Kumara Dhatusena – ruled for 9 months and was murdered by his maternal uncle, Siva
80. SIVA 515 AD – Uncle of Kirti Sena – Murdered by Upatissa. Was not allowed to rule for more than 25 days.
81. UPATISSA II 515-517 AD – Son-in-Law of Kumara Dhatusena (506-515AD) -
82. SILAKALA 517-530 AD – A prince of Lambakanna stock – prebviously son-in-law of King Dhatusena and brother-in-law of Mogalanna. Later son-in-law of Upatissa. Had three sons.
83. DATHAPATISSA 530 AD – Second son of Silakala – had his brother Upatissa murdered to become king for 6 months
84. MOGALLANA II (Dala Mugalan) 530-550 AD – Eldest brother of Dathapatissa – killed his brother
85. KIRTI SIRIMEGHA (Kuda Kitsirimevan) 550 AD – Son of Mogallana II -
86. MAHANAGA 550-553 AD – A prince from pure Moriya stock who occupied the position of Minister of War under King Dathapatissa (539AD) -
87. AGGABODHI I (Akbo) 553-587 AD – brother of Mahanaga, Nephew and Sub-King of Mahanaga -
88. AGGABODHI II (Kuda Akbo) 587-597 AD – Nephew and son-in-law of Aggabodhi I -
89. SANGHA TISSA II 597 AD – Brother and Sword-bearer of Aggabodhi II -
90. DALLA MOGALLANA 597-603 AD – Commander-in-Chief during the reign of Kuda Akbo (587-597AD) -
91. SILAMAGHAVANNA 603-612 AD – King Mogallana’s Sword-bearer, a prince of the Lambakanna stock -
92. AGGABODHI III 612-628 AD – Son of Silimeghavanna -
93. JETTHA TISSA III 613 AD – Son of King Sangha Tissa -
94. AGGABODHI III 613-623-640 AD – Son of Silimeghavanna (603-612AD) – restored to power
95. DATHOPA TISSA 624-636 AD – General of Jettha Tissa
(Dathasiva) – Despoiled
all the wealth of the
96. KASSAPA II 636-645 AD – Brother of Agbo II, Sub-King of Dathopa Tissa -
97. DAPPULA I 645 – Son in law of Silimeghavanna -
98. DATHOPA TISSA II 645-654 AD – Nephew of Dathopa Tissa I (Hattha Datha) – died in 673
99. AGGABODHI IV (Siri Sangha Bodhi III) 654-670 AD – Younger brother of Dathopa Tissa -
100. DATTA 670-672 AD – A chief of Royal blood who was placed on the throne by a wealthy Tamil Officer, Pottha-Kuttha
101. HALHA-DATHA I 672 AD – A youth also placed on the throne by the Tamil Officer, Pottha-Kuttha after the death of Datta -
102. MANAVAMMA 672-707 AD – Son of Kassapa I, descendant of
Silamegahavanna - In
the seventh century A.D., Tamil influence became firmly embedded in the
island's culture when Sinhalese Prince Manavamma seized the throne with Pallava
assistance. The dynasty that Manavamma established was heavily indebted to
Pallava patronage and continued for almost three centuries. During this time,
Pallava influence extended to architecture and sculpture, both of which bear
noticeable Hindu motifs. By the middle of the ninth century, the Pandyans had
risen to a position of ascendancy in southern
103. AGGABODHI V 707-713 AD – Son of Manavamma -
104. KASSAPA III 713-720 AD – Brother of Aggabodhi V -
105. MAHINDA I 720-723 AD – Younger brother of Kassapa III -
106. SILAMEGHA (Aggabodhi VI) 723-763 AD – Son of Kassapa III -
107. AGGABODHI VII 763-769 AD – Son of Mahinda -
108. MAHINDA II 769-789 AD – Son of Aggabodhi VI (Silamegha) -
109. DAPPULA II (Udaya I) 789-794 AD – The sub-king of Mahinda II (son of Mahinda II) -
110. MAHINDA III 794-798 AD – Son of Dappula II (Udaya I) -
111. AGGABODHI VIII 798-809 – Brother of Mahinda III -
112. DAPPULA III 809-825 AD – Younger brother of Aggabodhi VIII -
113. AGGABODHI IX 825-827 AD – Son of Dappula III -
Pandyans invaded and plundered
114. SENA I (Silamegha II) 827-847 AD – Younger brother of Aggabodhi IX -
115. SENA II 847-882 AD – Nephew of Sena I, son of Kassapa -
116. UDAYA I* 882-893 AD – Brother of sub-king of Sena II -
118. KASSAPA IV* 893-910 AD – Son of Sena II (sub-king of Udaya I) -
119. KASSAPA V* 913-920 AD – Son of Kassapa IV -
120. DAPPULA IV* 920 AD – Son of Kassapa V – ruled for 9 months
121. DAPPULA V (Kuda Dappula)* 920-922 AD – Brother of Dappula IV -
122. UDAYA II* 922-925 AD – Nephew of Sena II, sub-king of Dappula V -
123. SENA III* 925-934 AD – Brother of Udaya II -
124. UDAYA III* 934-942 AD – Sub-king of Sena III (a great friend of the king) -
125. SENA IV* 942-945 AD – Son of Kassapa V, sub-king of Udaya III -
126. MAHINDA IV 945-961 AD – Brother of Sena IV, nephew of Udaya III, sub-king of Sena -
127. SENA V 961-971 AD – Son of Mahinda IV -
128. MAHINDA V 971-1007 AD – younger brother of Sena V, the
last of the Sinhalese monarchs to rule from Anuradhapura, fled to Ruhuna, where he reigned
until 1007, when the Chola took him prisoner. He subsequently died in
129. RAJADIRAJA THE GREAT 1007-1019 AD – Chola (Tamil) Administration -
130. KASSAPA VI (Vikrama Bahu) 1019-1031 AD – Son of Mahinda -
131. KIRTI 1031 AD – A nobleman of Ruhuna -
132. MAHALANA KIRTI 1031-1034 AD – A Chief -
133. VIKRAMA PANDU 1034-1035 AD – A Sinhala Prince -
134. JAGATIPALA 1035-1039 AD – A native of Ayodhya, slain in battle by the Cholians (Tamils) -
135. LOKESVARA (Loka) 1039-1045 AD – An inhabitant of Ruhuna -
136. KASSAPA VII 1045 AD – A Chief -
I 1045-1095 AD – Grandson of Vikrama Bahu a member of the Sinhala Royal Family – The valiant prince Kirti, who
had started his military career at the age of thirteen and was now seventeen
years of age, who spent his early days in the jungles of Ruhuna, was proclaimed
king under the name of Vijaya Bahu I. He then made every preparation for
ridding the country of Chola (Tamil) domination. After nineteen years of
ceaseless campaigning he succeeded in expelling the Tamils from Polonnaruwa and
Thereafter, Vijaya Bahu, who
until then was crowned only as King of Ruhuna, had himself crowned as King of
Having rid the country of Chola (Tamil)
domination he produced order, peace and prosperity out of the chaos and misery
that had prevailed when he ascended the throne. The king brought Bhikku’s from
King Vijaya Bahu married Princess Lilavati, the daughter of Prince Jayatipala, as his chief queen. Later, the king married a princess from Kalinga Royal Family as his second Mahesi, and from her he had a son named Vikrama Bahu and a daughter named Ratnavali. His sister, Mitta, was given in marriage to a Pandya Prince who had three sons, the eldest of whom named Manabharana, became the husband of Ratnavali. Their son was Parakrama Bahu I.
King Vijaya Bahu, one of the greatest of Lanka’s Kings, died peacefully in the fifty fifth year of his reign at Polonnaruwa.
138. JAYA BAHU I 1095 AD – Brother of Vijaya Bahu I, Prime Minister of Vijaya Bahu – On the death of King Vijaya Bahu, at his capital Polonnaruwa, his sister Mitta, conspiring with her three sons, the chief officers of the state and the monks of the chief Vihara’s, had Jaya Bahu appointed king over Lanka, and in violation of ancient custom, had her eldest son Manabharana appointed sub-king.
When Vikrama Bahu, the son of Vijaya Bahu who was residing in the Ruhuna, received the news of his father’s death and of the subsequent developments in particular, that the conspirators (his cousins) were advancing towards his district, he made every preparation for war. Having defeated them in sux successive battles, he reached his father’s capital and took up residence there. He expelled Jaya Bahu from the throne and became king of Raja Rata.
King Jaya Bahu and his sister Metta resided with Mitta’s second son Kirti Siri Megha, where they died after a few years.
139. VIKRAMA BAHU I 1096-1117 AD – Son of Vijaya Bahu from a princess of Kalinga – Became king after expelling Jaya Bahu, brother and Prime Minister of Vijaya Bahu I.
An Indian invasion led by an experienced chieftan, Viradeva of Palandipa, arrived and received a crushing defeat at Polonnaruwa. In the meantime Vikrama Bahu’s three cousins, Manabharana, Kirti Sri Megha and Siri Vallabha, were making preparations to wrest the administration of Pihiti Rata from him. He advanced with his army into Maya Rata and routed their conjoint armies.
Manabharana died a few years after the birth of his son, Prince Parakrama Bahu, whereupon his brother, Kirti Siri Megha took upon himself the administration of Maya Rata, letting his brother Siri Vallabha administer the whole of Ruhuna District. Manabharana’s wife, Ratnavali, her two daughters and son Parakrama Bahu, resided with Siri Vallabha. Vikrama Bahu died in the twentieth year of his administration.
140. GAJA BAHU II 1117-1138 AD – Son of Vikrama Bahu I – The king’s uncle, Kirti Sirimegha, and Siri Vallabha made a second attempt to gain Pihiti Rata but failed. By this time, Prince Parakrama Bahu joined his uncle Kirti Sirimegha at the place of his birth. Kirti Sirimegha closely associated his nephew with himself in the course of administering the country. Later, Parakrama Bahu’s restless and ambitious spirit began to assert itself. He left to Pihiti Rata with a handful of the army youth, with the intention of acquainting himself of the exact conditions prevailing there, without the consent of his uncle Kirti Sirimegha.
King Gaja Bahu received the news of young Parkrama Bahu’s presence within his dominion and invited him to be a guest in his Palace. In order to allay all suspicions in King Gaja bahu’s mind, Parakrama Bahu sent for his sister, Bhaddavi, and gave her in marriage to King Gaja Bahu. Latr on Parakrama bahu sent troops against his uncle Gaja bahu. In the meantime Manabharana established himself at Polonnaruwa, determined at putting end to the rule of Gaja Bahu. King Gaja Bahu sent a pitiful appeal to Parakrama Bahu begging him to deliver him from his affliction. Thereupon, Parakrama Bahu recaptured Polonnaruwa setting Gaja Bahu at liberty and compelling Manabharana to seek safety in Ruhuna. Gaja Bahu fought Parakrama Bahu oncemore. After a long and fierce struggle Parakrama Bahu took Gaja bahu prisoner. On the exhortation of the Sangha the king was allowed to reign until his death. King Gaja Bahu died a few years after he had resumed the administration of his province.
141. PARAKRAMA BAHU I 1140-1173 AD – Grandson of Vijaya Bahu I, Prince of Royal Blood, Pandyan descent, son of Manabharana and Vijaya Bahu’s sister, Mitta – Parakrama Bahu I could not become king of Raja Rata at once because Manabharana too wanted to succeed Gaja Bahu. A war followed and Manabharana was defeated. Parakrama Bahu I became King of Lanka and the people filled the air with shouts of joy and victory. One of his first acts, after he ascended the throne, was to ensure that the city was self-sufficient in food. He did this by utilizing the vast resources that nature had so lavishly blessed the land with.
Viharas such as Jetavana and a
temple for the Tooth Relic were built. He also built more than a thousand tanks,
one of which was called “The
Parakrama Bahu I died after a reign of thirty three years leaving behind no heir to the throne.
142. VIJAYA BAHU II 1173-1174 AD – Parakrama Bahu’s nephew (sisters son) – Was nominated king as King Parakrama bahu had no heir to inherit the throne. He was a devout Buddhist endowed with great tenderness of heart and purity. He was also aman of considerable literary achievements and a poet of great renown. He pardoned numerous political prisoners that filled the jails in the country.
King Vijaya Bahu II was not destined to occupy the throne for longer than a year, having been foully murdered at the instance of a treacherous friend of his 0 a native of Kalinga named Mahinda.
143. MAHINDA VI 1174 AD – A Kalinga – Was put to death, by Kirti Nissanka, within five days of occupying the throne. Nissanka had occupied the office of sub-king during the reign of King Vijaya Bahu II.
144. NISSANKA MALLA (Kirti Sri Nissanka) 1174-1183 AD – A Kalinga Prince, sub-king of Vijaya Bahu II - (the Brahmanic legal system came to regulate the Sinhalese caste system in this period). Ascended the throne with the unanimous approval of the chiefs of Lanka. He was quiet and patriotic. A king of great energy and achievement who devoted much during his short reign of nine years to achieve internal reforms. He reduced taxation and eradicated robbery based on the concept that they who steal do so because of need and provided the people with every necessity. He also built beautiful mansions and temples. Improvements were made to to the Rankot Vihara by buulding a number of profusely ornamental chaples around it. He had two queens. One a Kalinga Princess named Subadhra and the other was Queen Kalyanavati.
His reign was followed by one of treachery, intrigue, dishonor and murder. Thus the Sinhalese Kingdom of Polonnaruwa moved rapidly to its collapse and annihilation.
145. VIRA BAHU I 1183 AD – Son of Nissanka Malla – ruled for one day – Was killed on the very day that he was installed as king by the commander-in-chief of the army, tavuru Senevirat on the grounds that he was a son not equal to his father.
146. VIKRAMA BAHU II 1183 AD – Younger brother of Nissanka Malla – Ruled the country for three months after which time he was murdered by a prince named Codanaga, a son of King Nissanka Malla’s sister.
147. CODANAGA 1183-1184 AD – Nephew of Nissanka Malla – Ruled for nine months and was deposed and deprived of his eyes by the General Senevirat who placed Lilavati, one of the queens of King parakrama Bahu I, on the throne.
148. QUEEN LILAVATI 1184-1187 AD – Widow of King Parakrama Bahu I –The country was peaceful and prosperous and the Queen was able to devote her time to the development of literature, music, drama and art. She ruled for three years wisely and well. She was removed from the throne by her co-Ministers.
149. SAHASSA MALLA 1187-1189 AD – King Nissanka Malla’s younger brother – Ruled for two years. Was also known as “The lion hearted king”. He was deposed by Ayasmantha, the chief of the army, who placed Kalyanavati, the queen of the late King Nissanka Malla, on the throne.
150. QUEEN KALYANAWATI 1189--1195 AD – Queen of late King Nissanka Malla – She was installed Queen by General Ayasmantha and the general ruled the country through her for six years. His reign came to an end after she was deposed.
151. DHAMMASOKA 1195-1196 AD – Infant King 3 months old was put to death by Anikanga – General Ayasmantha installed an infant, three months old, on to the throne and acted as Regent and ruled the country for another year. The infant Dhammasoka and Regent Ayasmantha were put to death by Anikanga, the governor of Maya Rata.
152. ANIKANGA 1196 AD – Governor of Maya Rata – Occupied the throne for seventeen days. Was assassinated by his own valiant, but treacherous, General Camunakka, who placed the deposed Queen Lilavati back on the throne.
153. QUEEN LILAVATI 1196-1197 AD - Widow of King Parakrama Bahu – She was placed on the throne for the second time by General Camunakka and he ruled the country through her for one year. She was deposed by Lokissara, who arrived in Lanka with an army enlisted abroad, and defeated the royal forces at the capital of Polonnaruwa.
154. LOKISSARA 1197 AD – Arrived with an army enlisted abroad and defeated the Royal forces at Polonnaruwa – Ruled for nine months and was deposed when the commander-in-chief of the Suinhala army installed Queen Lilavati back to the throne for the third time.
155. QUEEN LILAVATI 1197-1198 AD - Widow of King Parakrama Bahu – Ascended the throne for the third time. She was of undiluted Royal blood and a woman of dignity who commanded the respect and admiration of those with whom she came in contact. In the seventh month of her reign King Parakrama of Pandu invaded Lanka and deposed her.
156. PARAKRAMA PANDU (Parakum Pandi) 1198-1201 – South Indian Invader (Pandyan) – He ascended the throne deposing Queen Lilavati. He produced himself to be wise and capable monarch who administered justice strictly in accordance with the law of the land.
Lanka was invaded by Magha, a prince of Kalinga, in the third year of King Pandu’s reign. The king was taken captive, his eyes were plucked out and he was robbed of all his riches.
157. MAGHA (Kalinga) 1201-1222 AD – A prince of Kalinga – Magha had himself crowned king. The Tamils under Magha were merciless than any previous invaders. The ferocity, cruelty and barbarism of these invaders were such as Lanka had never known before even in spite of the many wars waged on her soil. They ransacked the kingdom, killed man and beast, broke images, destroyed temples, viharas, tortured the rich of their wealth and gave land to Cholas. The Tooth and Bowl relics were hidden. He tyrannized over the inhabitants of Pihiti Rata for twenty one years. As for the Maya district the invaders were complelled to retire into Pihiti Rata by the forces of Vijaya Bahu, a prince of Sinhala Royal blood.
158. VIJAYA BAHU III 1222-1226 AD – A patriotic Prince of Sinhala Royal blood – After the expulsion of the invaders from Maya Rata, Vijaya Bahu III reigned as king of that district for four years. He built many Vihara’s and repaired all the temples in his district that had been damaged by the invaders.
Vijaya Bahu was a sedulous patron of learning and established a free school in every village of his kingdom. He had two sons named Parakrama bahu and Bhuvaneka Bahu respectively. He moved his seat of governance to Dambadeniya. He died in the fourth year of his reign.
159. PANDITHA PARAKRAMA BAHU II 1222-1257 AD – Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu III – On the death of Vijaya Bahu III, his son, Parakrama Bahu II, known as Panditha Parakrama on account of his great learning, succeeded the throne. King Magha, the soverign of Pihita Rata was defeated by the Sinhala army of King panditah Parakrama bahu. King Magha then decided to evacuate the country rather than allow himself to be taken captive. On their way they were mercilessly slaughtered by a Sinhala army. His reign is famous, not only for the labors of the king in the cause of religion, education and literature, but also for those of other eminent men in the field of literature.
The Tamils, led by a Prince named
Chandra Bhanu, son of the first ruler of
Although he was crowned at Polonnaruwa he ruled at dambadeniya. Panditha Parakrama Bahu reigned as king over the whole of Lanka for thirty five years. He died and was succeeded by his illustrious son, Vijaya Bahu. The king had five sons.
160. VIJAYA BAHU IV 1257-1259 AD – Eldest son of Panditha Parakrama Bahu II –. Vijaya Bahu appointed his cousin, Vira Bahu as Chief Minister, his brother Tilokamala as the Commander of the Sinhala army, which protected the Southern portion of the country from foreign invasion, his brother Bhuvaneka Bahu I as the Commander of the army which guarded the Northern portion of the country, and his brothers Parakrama Bahu and Jaya Bahu to attend the work in his capital. He himself journeyed throughout the country with Vira Bahu. He reigned for two years and was treacherously murdered by a servant, who had been bribed for the purpose by one of his Generals named Mitta who was desirous of ascending the throne. He was assassinated in 1270
161. MITTA 1259 AD – A General of the Army – Mitta ascended the throne. The
sub-king Bhuvaneka Bahu fled to Yapahuva and took refuge until Mitta was
killed. Not many days was Mitta spared to occupy the throne of Lanka. He was slain in the
162. BHUVANEKA BAHU I 1259-1270 – Brother of Vijaya Bahu IV
He was a beneficent monarch. During the early part of his reign Lanka was
repeatedly but unsuccessfully invaded by Indian forces. He ruled at Dambadeniya
and later shifted his capital to Yapahuva. He died at Yapahuva in the eleventh
year of his reign. He spread knowledge of the Pali scriptures throughout the
land. Bhuvaneka Bahu I greatly extended and adorned Yapahuva so that it shone
with exceeding beauty. He was responsible for the erection of the
163. CHANDRA BHANU 1270 AD – Son of the first ruler of Yapa Patuna (Jaffnapatnam) – He captured the Fort of Yapahuva but was deprived of his victory by the Pandya Emperor Kulasekera.
164. PARAKRAMA BAHU III 1270-1275 – Nephew of Buvaneka Bahu I, son
of Vijaya Bahu IV – His mother was a sister of Kulasekera. He was established as King
of Polonnaruwa. During his reign the island was invaded by a Pandyan army led
by one Chakravarti. The invaders succeeded in capturing the forces of Yapahuva
and carrying off the sacred Tooth-Relics. However, King Parakramu bahu III
succeeded in bringing it back to Lanka and placed the relics in an ancient
temple at the noble city of
165. BHUVANEKA BAHU II 1275-1277 – Son of Buvaneka Bahu I, cousin of Parakrama Bahu III – Bhuvaneka Bahu advanced to Polonnaruwa, slew Parakrama in battle and brought the Tooth-Relics to Kurunegala. Kulasekera, the Pandya Emperor, came himself to avenge the death of his nephew Parakrama Bahu III. He forced the Sinhalese King to action against an army outnumbering his. Bhuvaneka bahu died fighting heroically. He had ruled for two years from Kurunegala. A staunch supporter of the Buddhist faith he devoted himself to many works of charity during his reign.
166. PARAKRAMA BAHU IV 1277-1301 AD – son of Buvanekka Bahu II – Prince Parakrama bahu, son of
Bhuvaneka Bahu II, proclaimed himself as soverign against the Pandya emperor
167. BHUVANEKA BAHU III 1301-1307 AD – Known as Vanni Buvaneka Bahu – Historians tell us very little about the his reign and relationship to Parakrama Bahu IV. Varying accounts have been given of the ends of Parakrama Bahu IV and Bhuvaneka Bahu III.
Vathimi Raja, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu II by his Muslim wife, Fathima, was killed by Parakramabahu IV by pushing him over a cliff, the location of which is presently venerated by many as Galey Bandara. It is also said that he was the aforementioned Vathimi Raja, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu II by his Muslim wife Fathima.
168. VIJAYA BAHU V (Jaya Bahu) 1307 AD – Second son of Chandra Banu of
Jaffnapatnam – Vijaya
Bahu was reigning in the north of the
His son, Bodamapananda, came into
conflict with Parakrama bahu with the result that Kurunegala was seized by
Bodamapananda for his father, and Vijaya Bahu was installed on the throne as
Vijaya Bahu V. He abandoned Kurunegala and retreated to Senkadagala (
169. BHUVANEKA BAHU IV 1341-1351 AD – Son of Vijaya Bahu V – capital was shifted to Gampola where he established himself with the support of the General Senalankadhikara, brother-in-law of Bhuvaneka Bahu IV. It is probable that the capital was shifted from Kurunegala to Gampola owing to civil strife among the Sinhala themselves. Bhuvaneka Bahu IV was a man of great wisdom and faith, and a mind of excellent virtues. After his death his brother, Parakrama Bahu V, ascended the throne.
170. PARAKRAMA BAHU V 1344-1359 AD – Brother of Buvaneka Bahu IV,
son of Vijaya Bahu V – assumed power at Dedigama. He was associated with his brother
Bhuvaneka Bahu IV as king for a greater part of his reign, with Dedigama as his
171. VIKRAMA BAHU III 1357-1374 AD – Son of Buvaneka Bahu IV – The struggle for power between
Senalankadhikara and Alagakonnara (Alakesvara) of Rayigama gave the opportunity
to Nissanka Alakesvara to establish himself as the de facto ruler of
Gampola, reducing Vikrama Bahu III to the position of a mere figurehead and
also becoming the joint husband with his brothers of that kings sister. The
Tamil Kingdom of Yapa Patuna under King Arya Chakravarti
172. BHUVANEKA BAHU V 1357-1374 AD – Nissanka Alakeswara’s son by the sister of Vikrama Bahu III – He was proclaimed de jure king, as Bhuvaneka Bahu V. He was a staunch Buddhist and devoted the greater part of his time for the furtherance of religion.
The Jaffna King, Arya Chakravarti, sent armies by sea and land and the expedition by land seems to have had some success as Bhuvaneka bahu had fled Gampola and retired at Raigama where he reigned in the shadow of Vira Alakeswara.
Vira Alakeswara destroyed Arya Chakravarti’s army and marched on in triumph to Kotte. As Bhuvaneka Bahu was unable to return to Gampola the Sinhala Chiefs installed Vira Bahu, an energetic and ambitious prince, as king.
After the death of Bhuvaneka Bahu,
Vira Bahu’s elder brother Vijaya Bahu, who was living at Raigama, was enthroned
King of Kotte by Alakeswara and exercised authority over the Kingdom for twelve
years. Vira Alakeswara developed and constructed the City of
He maltreated foreigners
resorting to the
173. VIRA BAHU II 1408-1410 AD – Brother in law of King Buvaneka Bahu V – held power at Rayigama. He occupied the throne of Lanka during the period of time that elapsed between the capture of Bhuvaneka Bahu V and the appointment of Parakrama Bahu VI on the throne.
174. PARAKRAMA BAHU VI 1410-1462 AD – Prince named Sepanana (Jayapala) descended from Parakrama Bahu, the third son of Chandra Banu of Yapa Patuna (Jaffnapatnam), and whose mother, Sunethradevi, was a daughter of the daughter of Parakrama Bahu V of Dedigama –
Sepanana, who was born and bred
The king was a great patron of
literature. Great educational programs were made during his reign. Schools and
Pirivena’s flourished. Poets of imperishable renown like Totagamuve Sri Rahula gave
learning and culture an impetus such as it had never been before. At the
175. VIRA PARAKRAMA
BAHU VII 1462 AD – Jaya Bahu son of Parakrama Bahu
II’s natural daughter, Ulakudaya Devi – Jaya Bahu, on ascension to the throne assumed the
name Vira Parakrama Bahu. He was not allowed to occupy the throne for many
days. His uncle Sapumal Kumara hastened to Kotte from
176. BHUVANEKA BAHU VI 1462-1469 AD – Sapumal Kumara, son of Parakrama Bahu VI – After putting to death Vira Parakrama Bahu VII, Sapumal Kumara ascended the throne under the title Bhuvaneka Bahu VI. He was a staunch Buddhist and was devoted to furthering the welfare of his people and religion. During his reign a chief of Pasdun Korale named Siriwardena Patty Raja raised a rebellion. This insurrection was speedily quelled by the kings brother Ambulagala Kumara. Bhuvaneka Bahu VI died in the seventh year of his reign.
177. PANDITA PARAKRAMA BAHU 1469 AD – Adopted son of Buvaneka Bahu VI - The King, on ascending the throne, appointed the rebel Patty Raja as general. The late King Sapumal Kumara’s brother, Amubulagala Kumara, on receiving the news of his brother’s death and of the usurpation of the throne, hurried with his army, where, after a fiercely fought battle, the kings General, Patty Raja was slain. He also cruelly put to death King Pandita Parakrama Bahu and all members of his family.
178. VIRA PARAKRAMA BAHU VIII 1469-1489 AD – Ambulagala Kumara, son of Parakrama Bahu VI – Ambulagala Kumara crowned himself King assuming the name Vira Parakrama Bahu. He spent large sums of money in the furtherance of Buddhism. He had four princes and princesses and reigned for twenty years.
179. DHARMA PARAKRAMA
BAHU IX 1489-1509 AD – Son of Vira Parakrama Bahu – During his reign there existed several “Kings”
(Rajas) ruling various parts of the country. They all paid tribute to the ruler
at Kotte and called him the “Emperor” (Maha Rajah). The Indian Moors effected a landing in Chilaw during
this period. The Raja’s of Udugampola and Madampe inflicted a crushing defeat
on them in which there leader Kadiraya was slain. About this time, the
Portuguese had started competing with the Moors for trade in the
The Portuguese formed an alliance
with the king and established a factory or trading station in
King Dharma Parakrama Bahu died in the twentieth year of his reign.
Beginning of Portuguese Colonial
180. VIJAYA BAHU VI
OF KOTTE 1509-1524 AD – Brother of Dharma Parakrama
Bahu IX, Rajah of Menik Kadavara – The king was informed that the proposed factory or
trading station, requested by the Portuguese, was to be mounted with canon.
After many pleadings by the Portuguese the king gave a reluctant assent and the
first European stronghold in
King Vijaya Bahu had three sons, Bhuvaneka Bahu, Maha Raigam Bandara and Mayadunne by his first wife. On her death he married an Indian Princess by whom he had a son named Deva Raja Kumara. The sons of the kings first wife, having learnt that the king, in consultation with his Ministers, had decided upon appointing their step brother as his successor to the throne, fled from Kotte and having secured the assistance of Jayavira – the Raja of Kandy, marched on to the capital (Kotte) and had their father murdered in his palace.
Bhuvaneka Bahu, the eldest
brother ascended the throne. Thereafter Raigam Bandara took up his abode at
Raigama as Raja of that district, and Mayadunne built himself a city at
Sitavaka and established himself as Raja of that district. Civil strife and
internal dissensions gave the Portuguese the opportunity of obtaining a
permanent foothold in the
181. BHUVANEKA BAHU VII 1524-1551
AD – Eldest
son of Vijaya Bahu - Shortly
before his death in 1551, the king successfully obtained Portuguese recognition
of his grandson, Dharmapala, as his successor.
long, rival King Mayadunne had annexed much of the Kotte kingdom and was
threatening the security of the capital city itself. The Portuguese were
obliged to defend Dharmapala (and their own credibility) because the ruler
lacked a popular following. They were subsequently forced to abandon Kotte and
182. DHARMAPALA 1551-1597 AD – Grandson of King Bhuvaneka Bahu VII, son of Vidiya Bandara – On the death of Bhuvaneka Bahu, his grandson Dharmapala, Vidiya Bandara’s son, was officially proclaimed king.
Kotte became a Portuguese protectorate
as the king of
Vidiya Bandara died as he had
lived, sword in hand. A worthy end to the life of undoubtedly the greatest
General this country has ever produced. The king of
Philip I of
183. MAYADUNNE OF SITAVAKA 1551-1581 AD – Brother of Bhuvaneka Bahu VII,
son of Vijaya Bahu VII – He ruled at Sitavaka – a fierce opponent of the Portuguese. He
devoted the whole of his life to an attempt to oust his brother King Bhuvaneka Bahu
and thereby preserve the independence of Lanka, which was being undermined by
the Portuguese intrigue. He made constant invasions on the
Together with his war-like son
Tikiri Bandara (Rajasinghe I), he fought many battles with the Portuguese. The
greatest battle for national freedom was fought in 1559 on the left bank of the
Kelani river (Mulleriyawa).
It was one of the bloodiest and most decisive battles in Sinhala history. “blood flows like water” says the
old chronicle. The Sinhalese, led by Mayadunne’s son Raja Singha, the Lion
Hearted, fought on undismayed and with never-flapping courage. The father and
son continued their onslaught on the Portuguese. Mayadunne and his son, whose
exceptional military prowess has been recognized and accepted by the Portuguese
themselves, launched massive attacks on Kotte, laid siege to it several times,
and, almost succeeded in taking it. Finally, the city being badly battered and
the Portuguese, unable to withstand the attacks, moved to
184. VIKRAMA BAHU 1469-1511 AD – Senasammata – He ruled in
During this period, there were two other Kingdoms in Lanka, the Kingdom of the South West Wet Zone and the Kingdom of Jaffna in the North
185. VIJAYAVIRA BANDARA 1511-1552 AD – Cousin of Mayadunne – The
186. KARALLIYADDE BANDARA 1552-1582 AD – Grandson of Senasammata Vikrama Bahu – Was placed on the Kandyan throne by the Portuguese.
187. RAJASINGHA I 1581-1593 AD – Son of Mayadunne – King Mayadunne’s son, Tikiri Banda, ascended the throne of Sri Lanka as Rajasinghe I after the death of his father. He fought battles, persecuted Buddhist monks and put to death any suspected of being critical of him.
Sitavaka gained in prestige
and its king became the rallying point of the Sinhalese. In the course of a
very few years he made himself master of the interior. He captured and annexed
He drove Karaliyadde Bandara,
the King of Kandy, a puppet ruler placed on the throne of
Konappu Bandara, who was now a political refugee, was converted to Christianity and was known as Don Juan to the Portuguese. He was sent by them to raise a rebellion against Raja Singha, which he accomplished successfully.
During this period, the King of Jaffna, PUVIRAJA PANDARAM PARARAJASEGARAM was overthrown and ETHIRIMANA SINGHAM PARARAJASEGARAM sat on the throne – a protectorate of Portugal
188. VIMALA DHARMA SURIYA I 1592-1604 AD – (Konappu Bandara) son of Vijayasundara Bandara – King Karaliyadde died of smallpox and his Queen and sons leaving to the care of the Portuguese, an infant daughter Kusuma Devi, and nineteen year old nephew Yamasinghe Bandara, son of his sister, Tikiri Kumari.
After the Portuguese gained
Vimala Dharma Suriya, having
annihilated the Portuguese force, took alive Dona Catherina and married her on
the battle-field in the presence of his whole army assembled there and
established a legal claim to the throne. The Portuguese resorted to violent
methods of retaliation and a war of extermination, unsurpassed in atrocity and
bloodshed, ensued. The war lasted for a long time and the Portuguese were
Although his reign was a continuous struggle with the Portuguese, he did all in his power to promote the cause of learning the Buddhist religion, which had received a staggering blow at the hands of his predecessor, King Raja Singha I.
He was a complete statesman.
The Dutch arrived in
A contest for the throne,
between the prince of Uva and Senarat, cousin of Vimala Dharma Suriya, became
imminent. At this juncture, Queen Mother Dona Catherina, declared herself regent for her young son
Prince Mahastenne, and thus prevented a civil war. Later, Dona Catherina
bestowed upon Senarat, who had but recently relinquished the priestly robes,
her heart and hand and with them the sovereignty of
189. SENARAT 1604-1635 AD – Cousin of Vimala Dharma Suriya
I – Prince Senarat, young and popular among the people, now married to late
King Vimala Dharma Suriya’s widowed Queen, Dona Catherina, was named King
Senarat the first of
King Senarat then took her elder daughter, Suriya Devi, by Vimala Dharma Suriya, as his wife. She too died in 1617. He then married the second daughter of Dona Catherina and Vimala Dharma Suriya, Sama Devi.
These marriages show that
Senarat, son of a village headman from matale, realized the weakness of his
claim to the throne and tried to establish his relationship with the old dynasty
In 1628, Constantine de Sao,
commander-in-chief of the Portuguese force, with a large force, boldly pushed
his way to
After a reign of twenty eight
years, he died in his old age in 1632, leaving behind three sons to administer
the Empire. To the eldest of them, Komara Singha Hastanne, he entrusted the
administration of Uva; to the second, Vijaya Pala, he entrusted the
principality of Matale, and to his youngest son, Raja Singha (Mahastenne), the
190. RAJA SINGHA II 1635-1687 AD – Son of Dona Catherina and
Senarat - (beginning of the period of Dutch occupation of
A large army commanded by Don
Diego de Mello, a Portuguese General, penetrated into
The king, determined to punish Don Diego, surrounded them with his forces, put them all to death by the sword, and subsequently cut off their heads and piled them up in pyramidal form as a warning to all aggressors, and history asserts that only thirty eight Europeans escaped to tell the tale.
King Raja Singha, perceiving
the difficulty that he would have to expel the Portuguese from Lanka, had sent
an emissary to a Dutch settlement in
Ever since the arrival of the Dutch in Lanka, in 1638, the king had treated them as no other than merceranies engaged for the particular purpose of expelling the Portuguese.
All Portuguese territories
were captured and with the fall of
In the reign of Raja Singha II,
He died after a reign of fifty five years on Dec 6, 1687, and was succeeded by his son Mahastenne.
191. VIMALA DHARMA
SURIYA II 1687-1707 AD – Son of King Rajasinghe II – whose son Mahastenne, ascended the
throne, and took the name of Vimala Dharma Suriya II. He was by nature a
religious and non-ambitious man who lived at peace with the Dutch. He married
the daughter of Mahesi from
192. SRI VIRA PARAKRAMA NARENDRA SINGHA 1707-1739 AD – Son of Vimala Dharma Suriya II – Was seventeen years old when he ascended the throne and was a temple of wisdom, valor and virtue. He conferred special favors on a novice bhikku named Saramkara, who was a poet, preacher, controversialist, and teacher of great reknown. At the instance of the king this bhikku composed the religious book titled “Sarattha Sangaha” consisting of 11,000 gathas (verses) and also translated the “Maha Bodhivamsa” and the “Bhesajja Manjusa”, a medical work, into Sinhala.
He was a very pious monarch
Thus, the king nominated, as his successor, the brother of his first queen who had remained at the court ever since his sister married him. He reigned for 32 years.
Beginning of Nayakkar Dynasty
193. SRI VIJAYA RAJA SINGHA 1739-1747 AD – Brother-in-law of King Narendra
Singha – Narendra
Singha’s first wife brother, from
Sri Vijaya Raja Singha was a man of considerable culture and devoted his attention almost entirely to the furtherance of the national religion. He is said to have caused life sized images of Buddha in recumbent, standing and sitting postures to be cut in the rock caves in various parts of the country.
He married a bride from the Royal
194. KIRTI SRI RAJA SINGHA 1747-1782 AD – Sri Vijaya Raja Singha’s wife’s eldest brother from Madura – The second of the South Indian line. He was a tender young man when he succeeded his brother-in-law, and it was not until the year 1751 that he ascended the throne as Kirti Sri Raja Singha. He devoted the first few years of his reign to the advancement of literature and religion.
The king, with the assistance of
the Dutch, got down learned Bhikkus from
He married the daughter of one
Nadukattu Sami Nayakkar in 1749. He further contracted three other Nayakkar
marriages but had no children from the
In spite of all the difficulties that the king had faced during his
195. SRI RAJADHI RAJA
SINGHA 1782-1798 AD – Brother of Kirthi Sri Raja
Singha – Ascended
the throne as Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha having come from
196. SRI VIKRAMA RAJA SINGHA 1798-1815 AD – Son of a sister of King Rajadhi Raja Singha’s Queen Upendramma - (beginning of British Colonial era). Sri Vickrama Raja Singha, who ascended the throne was known as Prince Kannasamy, whose father was Venkata Perumal who died before the child was born. The widow, Subhamma, and her son, Kannasamy, came to Lanka on the invitation of her sister, Queen Upendramma, Queen of King Rajadhi Rajasinghe. Their was a rival claimant to succeed King Rajadhi Raja Singha, the brother of Queen Upendramma, who had a stronger claim. However, Pilimatalava, the first Adigar (Prime Minister) saw to it that the South Indian Prince, who was barely 18 years old, was placed on the Kandyan Throne, because he had a deep seated plan to oust him and become king himself and set up a new dynasty of his own. Sri Vikrama Raja Singha did not have the advantage, either of the family background or the preliminary training which the preceeding three kings before him had. He came to the throne “like a flame of fire in darkness” and proceeded to rule “radiating great merit, splendor, authority and prowess and delighted the people with the fourfold virtues, charity, affability, service and impartiality.
Up to the time of Sri Vikrama
Raja Singha, the British who had succeeded the Dutch in the maritimeprovinces
These intrigues were eminently
successful. The King, exasperated by the alternate threats, committed the
“desired act of aggression”. War was at once declared. The king had fled and
the king’s cabinet had also evacuated the city. The British reached
On June 24, 1803, the Adigar
massacred the British troops stationed in
Pilimatalava was succeeded by his nephew, Ehelepola, and as he too began to plot against the king, Sri Vikrama Raja Singha could not tolerate his evil anymore through constant fear of assassination.
When, in 1818, a rebellion broke
out in Sabaragamuwa and Ehelepola was implicated in it, the king ordered the
Adigar to return to the Capital. However, Ehelepola knew the fate that awaited
him and fled to the British in
The whole of
The British started to make extensive preparations for the invasion of the King’s dominion with the assistance of Ehelepola. The principal reasons stated for the invasion were the alleged tyranny of the king and his unwillingness to enter into any terms with the British.
The king, finding the situation hopeless, abandoned the capital and fled to Medamaha-Nuwara, where he took refuge in a house of a peasant. King Sri Vikrama Raja Singha was captured and taken prisoner with his Queen Venkata Angammal.
On Mar 2, 1815, Lanka was ceded
to the British under a treaty called the Kandyan Convention. With Sri Vikrama
Raja Singha ended, not only the last vestige of national freedom but also a
civilization based on an entire and unique ethno-religious social philosophy,
which our forefathers, with their toil, sweat, blood, and tears, had protected
for 2,358 years. The downfall of the
The King was taken to
End of Nayakkar Dynasty
Names of Tamil Kings and their period of rule of Jaffnapatnam
ARYA CHAKRAVARTI DYNASTY
KALINGAMAN alias KOOLANGAI SINGAI ARYAN alias KALINGA VIJEYABAHU 1210-1246 (when there was no successor to
the Throne, Chieftan Pandi Malavan, who hailed from the village of Ponpatti
went to Madurai and brought Prince Singai Aryan and crowned him as King of
2 KULASEKARA SINGAI ARYAN 1246-1256 son of Koolangai Singai Aryan
3 KULOTUNGA SINGAI ARYAN 1256-1279 son of Kulasekara Singai Aryan
4 VIKRAMA SINGAI ARYAN 1279-1302 son of Kulotunga Singai Aryan
5 VAROTYA SINGAI ARYAN 1302-1325 son of Vikrama Singai Aryan
6 MARTANDA SINGAI ARYAN 1325-1348 son of Varotya Singai Aryan
7 KUNAPUSHANA SINGAI ARYAN 1348-1371 son of Martanda Singai Aryan
8 VIROTAYA SINGAI ARYAN
1371-1380son of Kunapushana Singai Aryan
9 JAYAWIRA SINGAI ARYAN 1380-1410 son of Virotaya Singai Aryan
10 KUNAWIRA SINGAI ARYAN 1410-1440 son of Jayawira Singai Aryan
SINGAI ARYAN 1440-1450 son of Kunawira Singai Aryan . From 1450 to 1467 the
12 SAPUMAL KUMARAYA aka CHENPAGAP PERUMAL 1450-1467
son of PARAKRAMA BAHU VI who was later known as BHUVANEKABAHU VI when he ruled
King Kanagasuriya Singai Aryan
fled to TamilNadu and came back with an army and re-captured the
13 **KANAGASURIYA SINGAI ARYAN 1467-1478 son of Kunawira Singai Aryan (2nd reign)
14 SINGAI PARARAJASEKARAN 1478-1519 son of Kanagasuriya Singai Aryan
Spouse #1: + Raja Lakshmi Ammal
Spouse #2: + Valli Ammai
Spouse #3: + Mangath Ammal
15 SANKILI SEGARAJASEKARAN I 1519-1561 son of Singai Pararajasekaran & Mangath Ammal
16 *PUVIRAJA PANDARAM PARARAJASEKARAN 1561-1565 son of Sankili Segarajasekaran
17 KURUNCHI NAINAR 1565-1570 (Usurper)
18 PERIYA PILLAI SEGARAJASEKARAN 1570-1582
19 *PUVIRAJA PANDARAM PARARAJASEKARAN 1582-1591 (2nd reign) son of Sankili Segarajasekaran
20 ETHIRIMANNA SINGA PARAJASEKARAN 1591-1615 (Portuguese Colonial Rule) son of Periya Pillai Segarajasekaran
21 ARAKESARI 1615-1617 (Regent for the Infant Crown Prince, Leuke Kumaran, son of Ethirimanna Singa Pararajasekaran)
22 SANKILI KUMARAN II 1617-1619 (Nephew of Ethirimanna Singa Pararajasekaran)
Portuguese Rule (15 Nov 1505-1638AD)
Dutch Rule (1685-1796AD)
British Rule (1796-1948AD)
Data extracted from “Monarchs of Sri Lanka” by H.M.Mervyn Herath, ISBN 955-97483-0-0, July 2001 and other sources.
Book Review – Daily News, Friday September 7, 2001
by H.M. Mervyn Herath
There are a number of books available on ancient Sri Lankan history. Based on proven facts and evidences and also on myths and legends, historians have constructed and reconstructed of what had happened several centuries ago in this blessed isle. To me ancient Lankan history is a mystery and controversial because I find most books are interpretative and partisan depending on who writes for whom. But one thing is clear : the so-called Sinhalas and the so-called Thamilians, all belong to one ethnic stock with quite a measure of mixing of other ethnic stocks.
And of course they speak different languages partly because of adoption and partly due to cultural affinities. This is only a personal point of view and need not be taken as a reliable observation. But if we realize that all of us belong to one humankind, most of our silly ethnic wars would become non-existent. This can be realized only when there is an attitudinal change on the part of some diehard racists on both sides masquerading as politicians.
The book under review is a well-produced document with illustrations and is very handy and elegant. Within its 100 pages, the writer encompasses the highlights in Lankan history from B.C. 504 to 2000 A.D. in a chronological order. Beginning with King Vijaya, he ends with Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga. He calls the book Monarchs of Sri Lanka.
The contents of this book is lined-up in this manner: Vijaya to Sri Vickrama Raja Singha, Period Under British Rule (King George III, King George IV, King William IV, Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, King George V, King Edward VIII, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II -only the photos),
Governors of Sri Lanka (Frederick North, Thomas Maitland, Robert Browning, Edward Paget, Edward Barnes, Robert Horton, James Mackenzie, Colin Campbell, Torrington, Geo Anderson, Henry Ward, Charles Mac Carthy, Hercules Robinson, William Gregory, James Longden, Arthur Gordon, Arthur Havelock, J. West Ridgeway, Henry Blake, Henry Maccallum, Robert Chalmers, John Anderson, William Manning, Hugh Clifford, Herbert Stanley, Graeme Thomson, Reginald Edward Stubbs, Andrew Caldecott, Monk Mason More, Oliver Goonetilleke, William Gopallawa - photos only)
Prime Ministers of Sri Lanka (D. S. Senanayake, Dudley Senanayake, John Kotalawala, S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, W. Dahanayaka, Sirimavo Bandaranaike, J. R. Jayewardene, Ranasingha Premadasa, D. B. Wijetunga, Ranil Wickremesinghe, Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, Ratnasiri Wickremanayaka (photos only),
Presidents and Executive Presidents of Sri Lanka (William Gopallawa, J. R. Jayewardene, Ranasingha Premadasa, D. B. Wijetunga, Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (photos only)
What is the purpose of writing this book? The writer, H. M. Mervyn Herath explains:
" This booklet was compiled with the hope that it will satisfy the busy Sri Lankans of their long-felt want to acquire even briefly some knowledge about the past monarchs of their motherland".
He is also modest enough to say that "The work does not pretend by any means to be exhaustive or correct in all its details, although I am confident that the text is accurate, but I apologize for any mistakes that might exist."
The book is written in a simple style. I wish to refrain from commenting on the contents of the book, because it is the way he looks at history and it is his prerogative.
And yet it is a useful reference book in English for those of us who have no time to read academic works within a short time.
Mr. Mervyn Herath
He had lectured in
Kings and Rulers of
600BC Buddha visited Mahiyangana
King Vijaya 544BC-505BC
Landing of King Vijaya depicted in an
King Vijaya arrives from
At that time Kuveni was in Lanka.
King Vijaya’s grand mother was Suppa Devi
Veddha people are the aboriginal inhabitants of Lanka.Supposed to have been since 6th Century BC.
King Panduvasudeva 504BC-474BC (son of King Vijaya’s brother)
Built Abhaya tank.
King Devanampiyatissa 307BC-267BC
King Devanampiyatissa hunting deer.
King Devanampiyatissa worshiping Mahinda
Mahinda thera brought Buddhism to
Mihintale.(see picture above)
Muttiyanganaya built by King Devanampiyatissa.
Sri Maha Bodhi
Sangamitta brought bodhi tree branch from
She established the order for bhikkuni nuns.
Bo tree planted in 288BC
Isurumuniya by King Devanampiyatissa.
Thuparamaya by King Devanampiyatissa.
Maha Siva 257BC-247BC
Sura Tissa 247BC-237BC
Sena & Gutthila 237BC-215BC
King Elara 205BC-161BC
King Elara invaded from
Tomb of King Elara
King Kelani Tissa 161BC (Capital Kelaniya )(Maya Rata)
Daughter of King Kelani Tissa is Vihara Maha
Vihara Maha Devi
King Kelani Tissa’s son King Yaklakatissa built the Kelaniya Viharaya.
King Kavan Tissa. 161BC (Ruhuna)
Magul Poruwa of King Kavantissa.
Tissamaharama Viharaya built by King Kavantissa.
Tissawewa built by King Kavantissa.
King Dutugemunu 161BC -137BC
of King Dutugemunu in
Ruwanveliseya built by King Dutugemunu.
Mirisveti dagaba built by King Dutugemunu.
Lovamahapaya built by King Dutugemunu.
Valagambahu 1 104BC
King Valagambahu 88BC-76BC
Abhayagiriya built by King Valagambahu
Dambulla temple built by King Valagambahu
Maha Chula Maha Tissa 76BC-62BC
Chora Naga 62BC-50BC
Kuda Tissa 50BC-47BC
Anula Devi 47BC-41BC
Bhatika Abhaya 19BC-9BC
Maha Dhatika Mahanaga 9BC-21AD
Amanda Gamini Abhaya 21AD-30AD
Kaniru Janu Tissa 30AD-33AD
Ila Naga 34AD-44AD
Chandramuka Siva 44AD-52AD
Yasalaka tissa 52AD-60AD
Gajabahu 1 113-125
Mahalaka Naga 125-131AD
Bhatika Tissa 131-155
Kanittha Tissa 155-183
Khula Naga 183-185
Khuda Naga 185-186
Siri Naga 186-205, Sri Naga rebuilt Lovamahapaya up to 5 stories.
Voharika Tissa 205-227
Abhaya Naga 227-235
Siri Naga 235-237
Vijaya Kumara 237-238
Sangha Tissa 238-242
Siri Sangha Bodhi 242-244
Jettha Tissa 1 267-269
King Mahasena 269AD-296AD
King Mahasena built several tanks.
Jethavanaramaya built by King Mahasena
Kiri Vehera at Kataragama built by King Mahasena.
King Mahasena’s palace.
King Kit Siri Meghavanna 296AD-324AD (son of King Maha Sena)
Princess Hemamala and Prince Danta bringing the Buddha’s tooth relic to Lanka.
Tooth relic restored at this site.
Perahera with tooth relic.
Jettha Tissa 11 324-333
Upatissa 1 362-404
412-413 Chinese traveler Fa-Hian arrive and
Pandu 428-433 (Tamil Invader)
Khuda Parinda 433-449
Tiri tara 449
King Dhatusena 452AD-470AD (
Aukana Buddha Statue by King Dhatusena.
Kala wewa built by King Dhatusena
King Kasyapa- Sigiriya 470 AD- 488AD
Sigiriya built by King Kasyapa
Sigiriya (entrance) built by King Kasyapa.
Kumara Dhatusena 506-515
Upatissa 11 515-517
Moggalana 11 530-550
Krti sri megha 550
Agga Bodhi 1 553-587
Agga Bodhi 11 587-597
Sangha Tissa 11 597
Dalla Moggalana 597-603
Sila Mogavanna 603-612
Agga bodhi 3 612-628
Aggabodhi 3 613-623
Dathopa Tissa 2 645-654
Aggabodhi 1V 654-670
Halha datha 672
Kassapa 111 713-720
Sila Megha 723-763
Aggabodhi V11 763-769
Mahinda 11 769-789
Mahinda 111 794-798
Aggabodhi V111 798-809
Sena 1 827-847
Sena 11 847-882
Udhaya 1 882-893
Kassapa 1V 893-910
Kassapa V 913-920
Dappula V 920-922
Udhaya 11 922-925
Sena 111 925-934
Udaya 111 934-942
Sena 1V 942-945
Mahinda 1V 945-961
Sena V 961-971
Mahinda V 971-1007
Kassapa V1 1019-1031(Vikrama bahu)
Mahalana Kirti 1031-1034
Vikrama Pandu 1034-1035
Kassapa V11 1045
Built by Vijayabahu
Built by Vijayabahu 1 to restore tooth relic.
Jayabahu 1 1095
Vicramabahu 1 1096-1117
Parakramabahu 1 1140AD-1173AD (Polannaruwa)
Parakramabahu 1 (Polanaruwa)
Gal Viharaya built by Parakramabahu 1
Audence hall- Parakramabahu 1
Near Parakramabahu audience hall
Parakrama Samudraya built by King Parakramabahu 1
Vijayabahu 11 1173-1174
Mahinda V1 1174
King Nissanka Malla 1174AD-1183AD
King Nissanka malla built the Rankot vihara.
Made by King Nissanka Malla to restore tooth relic.
King Nissankamalla is supposed to have
Coda Naga 1183-1184
Queen Leelawathi 1184-1187
Sahassa Malla 1187-1189
Queen Kalyanawathi 1189-1195
Queen Leelawathi 1196-1197
Queen Leelawathi 1197-1198
Parakrama Pandu 1198-1201
Megha 1201-1222 Jaffnapatnam
1210-1246 Koolangaisigai Aryan
Vijayabahu 3 (1222AD-1226AD)
Tooth relic restored in Beligala by Vijayabahu 3
Parakramabahu 2 (1222AD-1257AD)
1246-1256 Kulasekara Singai Aryan
1256-1279 Kulotunga Singai Aryan
Tooth relic restored in Dambadeniya.
Vijayabahu 1V 1257-1259
Bhuvanekabahu 1 (1259AD-1270AD)*
Tooth relic restored in Yapahuwa.
Parakramabahu 111 1270-1275
Bhuvanekabahu 11 1275-1277
Parakramabahu 1V (1277AD-1301AD)
Tooth relic in charge of Uttaramulla monestary in Kurunegala.
1290 Marco Polo arrives in
Bhuvanekabahu 111 1301-1307
Vijayabahu V 1307AD
1279-1302 Vicrama Singai Aryan
1302-1325 Varotya Singai Aryan
1325-1348 Martanda Singai Aryan
1348-1371 Kunapushna Singai Aryan
Bhuvanekabahu 1V 1341-1351 Gampola
Vicramabahu 111 1357-1374
Vickramabahu 111 in 1371 is supposed to have had a garden
Bhuvanekabahu V (1357AD-1374AD)
Tooth relic restored in Kotte.
Vira Bahu 1408-1410
Parakramabahu V 1344-1359
1371-1380 Virotya Singai Aryan
1380-1410 Jayawira Singai Aryan
1410-1440 Kunawira Singai Aryan
1440-1450 Kanagasuriya Singai Aryan
King Parakramabahu V1 1410AD- 1466AD
Bellanwila Raja Maha Vihara.
Also built during this period Kotte Raja Maha Vihara.
Arabs are supposed to have come to
Vira Parakramabahu V11 1466-69 (Grandson of Parakramabahu V1)
1450-1467 Sapumal Kumaraya or
Chenpagap Perumal.Adopted son of
Bhuvanekabahu V1 1469-1477 (Sapumal Kumaraya)(Parakramabahu V1’s adopted son marched from yapapatuna and killed Jayavira and became king)
Panditha Parakramabahu 1477 (adopted son of Bhuvanekabahu V1)
Vira Parakramabahu 1477-1489(brother of Parakrama bahu V1)
(VPB had 2 queens.1st queen gave Bhuvanekabahu
2hd queen gave Sakkalavalla
Dharma Parakramabahu 1X 1489-1509( Bhuvanekabahu took the name of Dharma Parakramabahu and became king)
1505 Arrival of Portuguese ( Don Loureno de Almeida)
They traded Cinamon.They built the Colombo Fort.
Portuguese Admiral Alfonso Albuquerque
(1490-1515)new the importance
of the Trincomalee Harbour.(Portuguese
Vijaya Bahu V1 1509-1524(brother of Dharma Parakramabahu)
Vijayabahu from queen Anula Khatuda had Maha
From Vijayabahu’s 2hd queen (kiravelle biso bandara) There was a son Deva Rajasinghe.
1518 Joao de Silveira
1518-1522 Lepo de Brito
1522-1524 Fernao Gomes de Lemos
Nallur Palace Jaffna
1467-1478 Kanagasuriya Singai
1478-1519 Singai Pararajasekaran
1519-1561 Sankili Segaraja Sekaran
1561-1565 Puvirajha Pararajasekaran
King Buvanekabahu V11 (1524AD-1551AD)*
1515-97 the Island was divided into 4 Kingdoms.Kandy
Samudra devi + Vediya Bandara (he is the grand son of Sakkalavalla above)
1524-51 Office Abolished
Don Juan Dharmapala 1551-1597* Kotte
1557 Portuguese convert Dharmapala to Catholic.Portuguese confiscate
property of Buddhist and Hindu
1551-1552 Joao Henriques
1552-1553 Duarto de Ela
1555-1559 Alfonso Periera
1559-1560 Jorge de Menses
1560-1564 Balthasar Guedes de Sousa
1564-1565 Pedro de Ataide Inferno
1565-1568 Diego de Melo
1568-1570 Fernando de Mouroy
1570-1572 Diego de Melo
1572-1575 Antonio de Noronha
1575-1578 Fernando de Albuquerque
1578-1580 Manual de Sousa
Nallur Palace Jaffna
1565-1570 Kurunchi Nainar
1582-1591 Puviraja Pararajasekaran
Portuguese rulers in Ceylon
1580-1598 Philippe 1
1598-1621 Phillipe 2
1594 Pedrolopes de Souse
1594-1613 D Jeronimo de Azerado
1613-1614 D Francisco de Meneses
1614-1616 Manual Mascarenlias Homem
1616-1618 Nuno Alvares Pereira
1618-1622 Constantino de Saenoventra
Mayadunne **1551AD-1581AD (Sitawaka)(brother of Bhuwanekabahu V11)
Rajasinghe 1(tikiri bandara) **1581-1593
Vimala Dharmasuriya 1
1592 Vimala Dharmasuriya builds a wall
around city of
1595 Tooth relic brought to
1617-1619 Sinkili Kumaran II
Jaffna Royal flag
Sinkili Kumaran was taken prisoner
By Portuguese and sent to
King Vimala Dharmasuriya 1 with Dutch Explorer in 1602.
Senarath 1604-1635(cousin of vimaladharmasuriya)
Portuguese rulers in
1621-1640 Phileppe 111
1622-1630 Jorge de Albuquerque
1630-1631 D Philepe Mascaredus
1631-1633 D Jorge de Almeida
1633-1635 Diego de mello de Castro
Portuguese force Buddhists and Hindus to become Christians.
Rajasinghe 2 (1635AD-1687AD) (son of Senarath)
Portuguese rulers in Ceylon (cont)
1635-1636 D Jorge de Almeida
1636-1638 Diego de mello de Castro
1638-1640 D Antonio Mascorentas
1640-1645 Jhon 1V of Braganza
1640-1645 D Phillipo Mascarendus
1645-1653 Manual Masconbas Hamases
1653-1655 Francisco de Mello de Castra
1655-1656 Antonio de Sousa Continho
1656-1658 Antonio de Amaral de Menezes (Jaffna)
Dutch arrive in Lanka in 1638
Later dutch fight with Portuguese and Portuguese surrender.
Dutch take control in 1658
1668 Dutch trade in gems and cinnamon.
Vimaladharmasuriya 11 1687-1707 (son of Rajasinghe 2)
Dutch help Vimaladharmasuriya to get a bride from Madura
Dutch helps to bring Buddhist monks from
Dutch Governors in
1640- William J Costor
1640-1646 Jan Thyszoon Payart
1646-1650 Joan Maartzuyker
1650-1653 Jacob Van Kittensteyn
1653-1660 Adrian Vander Meyden
1660-1661 Rykelef Van Goons
1661-1663 Adrian Vander Meyden
1663-1664 Jacob Hustaart
1664-1675 Ryklof Van Goons
1675-1679 Ryklof Van Goons (Jr)
1679-1692 Lourens Pyl
1692-1697 Thomas Van Rhee
1697-1702 Gerrit de Heere
1702-1706 Cornelis Jan Simons
In 1700 Dutch built the Jaffna Fort
Tooth relic temple built by Vimaladharmasuriya.
1694 Export of Spices
Dutch Church in
Dutch resort to trade.
Sri Vira Parakrama Narendra Singhe 1707-1739 (son of Vimaladharmasuriya 2)
He also brings a bride from Madura. Tooth relic temple developed.
Dutch Governors of
1706-1716 Hendrick Becker
1716-1723 Isaac Augustin Rumpf
1723-1726 Johannes Hertenberg
1726-1729 Petrus Vuyst
1729-1732 Stephanus Versluys
1732-1734 Jacob Christian Pielac
1734-1736 Diederick Van Domberg
1736-1739 Gustaaf.W.B Van Imhoff
Wolvendal church in
Dondra Head Light House.
Dutch buildings in
Sri Vijaya Raja Singhe 1739-1747
1742 Dutch help king with ships to bring back Buddhism.
1745 Dutch appoint Muhandirams to rule villages.
Dutch Governors in
1739-1742 Willern Maurits Bruyninck
1742-1743 Daniel Overbeck
1743-1751 Julias V Van Gullenesses
Dutch brought Malay soldirs to fight wars.
Mode of transport for kings were the palanquin.
Kirti Sri Rajasinghe (1747AD-1782 AD ) Kandy (BIL of SVRS)
1747 Esela perahera starts in Kandy.
1749 Stone wall around Sri Mahabodhiya.
King Rajasinghe brings back buddhism from
Velivita Saranankara thera learned pali to gain access to Thripitaka.In 1753 he was conferred Upasampada.
1753 Samanakkodi Adigar participates in the bringing of Buddhism to Sri Lanka.In 1760 he is put to death for plotting against the King.
Dutch Governors in
1751-1752 Gerad Joan Vreeland
1752-1757 Johan Gideon Loten
1757-1762 Jan Sebrenden
1762-1765 LJ Baron Van Eck
1765-1785 Imam Wilem Falck
1781 British war with Dutch.
1782 Rajasinghe falls from horse and dies.
1782-1784 French occupy Trincomalee.
Sri Rajadhi Rajasinghe (1782AD-1798AD)(Brother of Kirti Sri Rajasinghe)
Wevurukannala viharaya built by King Sri Rajadhi Rajasinghe.
Dutch Governors in
1785-1794 Willem J Van de Graaf
1794-1796 JG Van Angelbeck
British take over
Gangaramaya built in 1805
Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe (1798AD-1815AD)(Kirti Sri Rajasinghe’s nephew)
Dalada Maligawa 19th Centuary
Tooth Relic at Dalaa Maligawa.
1801 British set up 170 Catholic Schools.
1802 British favour Muslims.
1803 Third local regiment formed by British (Malays only again)
1811 Pilimatalave beheaded by king for treason. Ehelapola becomes 1st Adigar.
1814 Ehelapola’s wife & 3 children killed.by king’s orders.
1814 4th local regiment formed comprising African troops.
Great people who fought against the British.
Ehelapola Nilame 1810
British take control of the island in 1815.
24/1/1816 King taken to
30/1/1832 King dies at age of 52 years.
1817-1818 Great rebellion against the British
1818 Keppetipola executed by British.
Ehelapola was banished to
British Governors of Lanka
Fredrick North 1798-1805
Sir Thomas Maitland 1805-1811
Residence of Thomas Maitland (now Mt Lavinia Hotel)
Sir Robert Brownrigg 1812-1820
1818 Tooth relic captured by British
1819 Rajakariya system to build roads.
1820 Polannaruwa discovered after 700 years.
1820 Miracle occurs.Silver rays projected to sky from pinnacle of Dalada temple.
Edward Barnes 1820-1822
Edward Paget 1822
James Campbell 1822-1824
1824 Population in
1825 Colombo- Kandy road completed using rajakariya system with the participation of Don Soloman Dias Bandaranaike.
1826 Mahavamsa discovered.
Edward Barnes 1824-1831
1830 Caste tactic to divide Sinhalese.
1833 Legislative Council set up.
Robert Wilmot Horton 1831-1837
James Alexander Mackanzie 1837-1841
Colin Campbell 1841-1847
Viscount Torrington 1847-1850
1846 Veera Puran Appu killed by firing squad at Bogambara after the Matale Rebellion.
Veera Puran Appu memorial
1849 Gongalegoda Banda exiled to Malacca.
Sir George William 1850-1855
Henry George Ward 1855-1860
Charles Justin Maccarthy 1860-1863
1862 Thuparamaya restored.
1863 Panadura debate.
Railways started 1864
Terrance O’Brian 1863-1865
Indian tamils were brought for tea & rubber estate work.
Sir Hercules Robinson 1865-1872
Galle Face Hotel 1864
Arrival of Sir Henry Olcott.
1876 Kirindi Oya Project completed.
William Henry Gregory 1872-1877
1880 Buddhist flag designed by JR de Silva
and Henry Olcott to mark revival of buddhism
Henry Olcott(b 1832) and Hikkaduwe Sumangala thera.(1827-1911)
Photo taken in 1880.
Sir James Longdon 1877-1883
Arthur Hamilton 1883.-1890
1885 Revival of Islam
1885 Majority of schools are in
1888 Due to grain tax
Arthur Elibank Havelock 1890-1895
1891 Indian tamils
1895 Matara railway opened.
Joseph West Ridgeway 1896-1903
1901 Sinhalese park
1901 Population is 3
Sir Henry Arthur Blake 1903-1907
1905 Rubber boom.
Sir Henry Edward Maccalum 1907-1913
Robert Chalmers 1913-1915
1911 population is 4
1914 World War 1
Sinhala Muslim riots in Gampola 1915 .Due to riots 107 Sinhalese die.
Reginold Edward Stubbs 1915-1916 actg
Sir Jhon Anderson 1916-1918 actg
Reginold Stubbs 1918 actg
Sir William Henry Manning 1918-1925
1920 Govt schools-919.Christian Schools 2122
1921 Population- 4
Edward Bruce Alexander 1925
Sir Hugh Clifford 1925-1927
Sir Herbert James Stanley 1928-1931
1930 Govt Schools 2122
Sir Grame Thompson 1931-1933
1931 Population 5
1931 Donoughmore Constitution introduced.
Dehiwela Zoo built 1936
Reginold Edward Stubbs 1933-1937
Sir Andrew Caldcoll 1937-1944
1940 Ruwanveliseya restored.(It took 47 years)
World war 2 (1939-1945)
Sir Henry Mock Mason Moore 1944-1948
1947 GG Ponnambalam joins
people who fought to obtain
Edmund Samarakkody (Became MP from LSSP)
He went to Jail for short term under British in 1940’s
SWRD Bandaranaike (Became PM from SLFP)
DS Senanayake (Became PM from
Phillip Gunerwardena (Became Minister)
He was killed by the British in 1915.
George E de Silva (Became Minister)
FR Senanayake (Became MP)
Lesli Gunerwardena (Became MP)
DM Rajapakse (Became MP)
GG Ponnambalam (Became MP)
Buddhist 70% Hindu 15% Islam 7.5% Christian 7.5%
Governor General of
Henry Mason Moore
Oliver Goonethileke 1954-1962
William Gopallawa 1962-1972 and non executive President 22/5/1972-4/2/1978.
Prime Ministers under West Minister based political system.
Don Stephen Senanayake
(Leader of Opposition)
Developed Agriculture.Made the Gal Oya Project.
DS Senanayake with Cabinet Ministers
Central Bank of
(Leader of Opposition)
Jhon Lionel Kotalawela (12/10/1953-12/4/1956)Prime Minister
(Leader of Opposition)
Kotalawela defence academy built in 1980
Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (12/4/1956-26/9/1959)(SLFP)
Prime Minister (Leader of Opposition)
1957 Banda Chelva pact signed and withdrawn in 1958
He made Sinhala the official language.Riots in 1958.Assisinated by monk in 1959.
Wijeynanda Dahanayake (26/9/1959-21/3/1960)(LSSP) Prime Minister
(Leader of Opposition)
(CP de Silva)
Dudley Senanayake (21/3/1960-21/7/1960)(
Sirimavo Ratwatte Bandaranaike (21/7/1960-27/3/1965)(SLFP)
(Worlds 1st Woman Prime Minister)
Escaped 1962 Coup.
(Leader of Opposition)
Dudley Senanayake (27/3/1965-29/7/1970)(
Leader of the Opposition
1965 Dudly Chelva pact signed and withdrawn in 1968..
Sirimavo Bandaranaike (29/5/1970-23/7/1977)(SLFP)
(Leader of Opposition)
She follows Socialist Policies.
Nationalized key sectors of economy(banking
Hardship to people due to closed economy.
Faced the 1971 JVP Insurgency.(about 10
Made the Uda Walawe Project.
Was Chairperson Non Aligned Movement in 1975.
BMICH built during Sirimavo govt for Non Aligned Summit.
Pinnawela elephant orphanage started in1975
Tourism developed.Several Tourist Hotels were built.Employment were given and valuable foreign exchange earned from tourism.
Junias Richard Jayawardena
Victory with 5/6 Majority in parliament.
Executive President system is introduced with change of constitution.
JR Jayawardena (4/2/1978-2/1/1989) (
He changed the constitution.
He removed civic rights of Sirima Bandaranaike for 7 years.
Capital transferred from
Opened the heavily state controlled economy.
Made the Mahaweli Project(Victoria
Free Trade Zone opened.
Rapid Development during his period.
1982 No General Election but a Referendum is held.
1977 and 1983 riots (3000 tamils die)
After 1983 riots 150
1983 Millionaire businessman Upali Wijewardena dies of plane crash.
1987 Indo Lanka Peace Accord
Indian Peace Keeping Force (in North & East) 1987 -1989
Faced the tamil ethnic conflict (Eelam war 1)led by V Prabahakaran
Many go for foreign employment (
Supreme Court Complex
1 Ruppee (JR)
Ranasinghe Premadasa (6/2/1978-3/3/1989)
(Leader of Opposition)
1983-1988 Anura Bandaranaike
1988 Presidential Election held
R Premadasa (2/1/1989-1/5/1993)(
Jana Saviya and Gam Udawa Projects
Faced the 1988-89 JVP Insurgency (about 60
(Wijeweera was killed by the Army)
Developed Garment factories.Thus gave employment and earned valuable foreign exchange.
He sent off the Indian Peace keeping force
1991 LTTE kill Rajiv Ghandhi Indian Prime Minister.
Faced the tamil ethnic conflict. (Eelam war 2)led by Prabhakaran
Died of a LTTE suicide bomb.On
DB Wijetunga (3/3/1989-2/5/1993)
(Sirima Bandaranaike 1989-94)
Banda Wijetunga (2/5/1993-12/11/1994)(
Ranil Wickremasinghe (7/5/1993-19/8/1994)
Chandrika Kumaratunga (19/8/94-14/11/1994)
Assasinated by LTTE
1994 Presidential Election held.People hope for Peace.
Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga(12/11/1994-19/11/2005)
Executive President (SLFP/PA)
Faced the tamil ethnic conflict. (Eelam war 3) led by
Central Bank destroyed by LTTE in 1995 by a bomb and re built later.
take control of
Escaped assassination attempt in 1999 but lost an eye.One day before the 1999
1998 Saarc Conference
(1994-2001 Ranil Wickremasinghe)
2001 Muslim –Sinhala riot in Mawanella
2001 LTTE bomb
2001 General Election held and Ranil Wickremasinghe wins.
Ceasefire agreement signed between V Prabahkaran and Ranil Wickremasinghe.Peace talks.Rapid development during this period.
Ceasefire lasted from 2002-2008.
( Opposition Leader)
(2001-04 Mahinda Rajapakse)
JVP now in politics join PA for elections.
2003 Senior MP of
2003 Parliament dissolved and elections
Tsunami 26/12/2004 killed 30
Presidential Election held in 2005
Mahinda Rajapakse (19/11/2005-)
Faced the tamil ethnic conflict. (Eelam war 4)led by Prabhakaran
2007 Army take control of Batticaloa.
From 1983 onwards more than 70
(2004 – 2009 Ranil Wickremasinghe)
Historical Timeline during the Portuguese Colonial era
1557 Dharmapala hands over Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara and Daladage to Portuguese, to recover cost incurred while helping Kotte against Mayadunne.
1557 Seven storyed Kithsirimevanpaya in Kelaniya,built by Dambadeniya kings destroyed.
1557 Five storyed Royal Palace converted to Catholic church.And St Barthalomeus Church built on site.
1557 Five storyed Dalada Maligawa of Kotte destroyed.
1557 Buddhist Universities burnt.Monks massacared by Portuguese.
1557 400acre Vidagama Pirivena of Ragama converted to church graveyard.
1558 End of 4 temples-Sinigama Devalaya , Vijayaba Pirivena in Thotegamuwa, Dondra Vishunu Temple,Saman Devalaya Siripada.
1591 Last battle of Jaffna
1615 Portuguese increase the demand of cinnamon 4 times.
1626 Muslims protected by King Senarath,otherwise they would be killed by the Portuguese.Robert Knox has recorded that Muslims were settled in Sinhala areas, and, at least 4000 were settled in Batticaloa.
1628 Peace pact broken and Trincomalee and Batticaloa taken by Portuguese.
1630 Portuguese bring South Indians to Jaffna for Tobbacco cultivation.
Sri Lankan's who fought for Independence
Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan
Sir Ponnambalam Arunachalam
Dr T B Jayah
Ms Vivienne Gunerwardena
Migethwatte Gunananda Thero
D B Jayathileke
D R Wijewardene
E W Perera
Arthur V Dias
W A de Silva
Sir Razik Fareed
Dr Colvin R de Silva
Sir Muthu Coomarasamy
S A Wickremasinghe
H J C Perera
E J Samarawickrema
Daisy Dias Bandaranaike
A E Goonesinghe
Prepared by :Manjula de Livera
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
15th March 2008.