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Chronology of Luxembourg

abt 900 - 400 BC: Celtic tribes from Danube Valley crossed Rhein River
 into Gaul, Spain, and the British Isles.
58-52 BC: Roman legions led by Julius Caesar conquered Gaul.
54 BC: Caesar conquered Treveri, Gallic tribe along the lower Moselle.
52 BC - AD 450: Gallo-Roman era. Gaul part of Roman empire.
44 BC - AD 180: Pax Augustorum. Trier became important Roman city.
200 - 300: Rheinland Franks began raids into northeastern Gaul.
300 - 450: Rheinland Franks enlisted in Roman armies, permitted to settle
 among Gallo-Romans in Rhein-Moselle area. Salian Franks settled in lands
 between lower Rhein and Scheldt.
451: Raids by the Huns led by Attila the Hun into northern Gaul.
455: Trier occupied by Rheinland Franks, who settled in large numbers in
 area between the Rhein, Meuse, and Moselle, later known as Austrasia.
481 - 511: Conquest of Gaul completed by Salian Franks under Clovis.
 Frankish rule established over Neustria.
481 - 752: Merovingian period. Descendants of Clovis reigned over lands of
 the Franks.
628 - 752: Austrasian mayors of the palace dominated the weak Merovingian
698: St. Willibrord established monastery at Echternach.
752: Pepin the Short elected King of the Franks, deposing last Merovingian
 rulers. Founded Carolingian dynasty.
768: Charlemagne, son of Pepin the Short, became King of the Franks.
 Established his capital at Aix-la-Chappelle (also known as Aachen).
800: Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III.
843: Treaty of Verdun. Charlemagne's empire divided among his three
 grandsons. Lothair I given Middle Kingdom to rule.
855: Death of Lothair I. Lothair II inherited northern part of his Kingdom,
 which became known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine.
870: Treaty of Mersen. Lothair II died without heirs and Lorraine divided
 between his uncles, Charles the Bald of France and Ludwig the German.
925: Heinrich the Fowler established German control over Lorraine.
936: Otto I elected King of the Germans, crowned at Aachen.
950: Sigefroi, son of Wigeric, count of the Ardennes, given Echternach as
 fief by Otto I.
962: Otto I crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII in Rome.
963: Sigefroi began construction of castle on the Bock (beginnings of city
 of Luxembourg).
966: Sigefroi accompanied Otto I on second invasion of Italy.
963-1354: City of Luxembourg grew up under protection of Sigefroi's castle.
 Sigefroi's successors recognized as counts of Luxembourg. County of
 Luxembourg became important feudal state.
1136: Direct male line of Sigefroi came to an end with death of Konrad II.
 Henri, count of Namur, became count of Luxembourg as Heinrich IV.
1244: Countess Ermesinde granted muncipal charter to city of Luxembourg.
1308: Heinrich VII, count of Luxembourg, elected Emperor of Holy Roman
 Empire. Crowned at Aachen in 1309.
1310-1313: Heinrich VII invaded Italy, crowned King of the Lombards in 1311
 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1312.
1310: Jan, son of Heinrich VII, became count of Luxembourg. Married
 Elizabeth of Bohemia in 1311.
1312: Jan crowned King of Bohemia, first of four Luxembourgish Kings to
 rule that country.
1312-1340: Jan fought in several campaigns in Germany, Italy, Lithuania,
 and Lorraine; lost sight in one eye in second Lithuanian campaign. Known
 thereafter as Jan the Blind.
1346: Charles, eldest son of Jan the Blind, elected Emperor of Holy Roman
 Empire. Jan died fighting on French side at Battle of Crecy. Charles
 assumed title of count of Luxembourg and crowned  Emperor of the Holy
 Roman Empire.
1348: Charles IV crowned King of Bohemia as Charles I. Made Prague capital
 of the Holy Roman Empire.
1353: Charles IV relinquished Luxembourg to his half-brother, Wenzel
 (Wenceslas) I.
1354: Luxembourg raised to status of Duchy, with Wenzel I as its first duke.
 Wenzel married Jeanne of Brabant.
1356: Joyeuse Entree of Wenzel I and Jeanne of Brabant into Brussels, their
 new capital. Charles IV (Charles I) issued Golden Bull regulating election
 of Holy Roman Emperors.
1383: Wenzel I died without heirs. Brabant reverted to wife's family. Duchy
 of Luxembourg reverted to his nephew, Wenzel (Wenceslas) II.
1383-1443: Time of troubles. Wenzel II, in need of money, gave Luxembourg
 as a pawn for repayment of a substantial loan. Luxembourg fell under
 control of various creditors in turn, ending up under the
 rule of Wenzel's niece,
 Elizabeth of Goerlitz. Sigismund, brother of Wenzel I and his successor as
 Holy Roman Emperor, was unable to repay loan, and left Elizabeth in
1441: Elizabeth of Goerlitz sold the Duchy of Luxembourg to Philippe the
 Good of Burgundy.
1443: Burgundian armies captured city of Luxembourg in surprise night
1443-1555: Period of Burgundian rule. Duchy of Luxembourg ruled by dukes of
 Burgundy from their capital at Brussels.
1477: Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, died at the Battle of Nancy. His
 daughter Mary became regent and married Maximilian of Austria.
1506: Charles of Ghent, grandson of Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian of
 Austria, inherited Burgundian possessions, including Duchy of Luxembourg,
 at age of 6.
1516: Charles of Ghent became King of Spain as Charles I, heir to Ferdinand
 and Isabella of Spain.
1517: Beginning of Protestant Reformation in Germany.
1519: Charles of Ghent inherited Austria, Bohemia and Hungary upon death of
 his grandfather, Maximilian I. Elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1520 as
 Charles V.
1521: Charles V presided over Imperial Diet at Worms, which condemned the
 teachings of Martin Luther.
1527: Imperial troops captured Rome. Took Pope Clement VII prisioner.
1530: Charles V crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Clement VII in Bologna. Last
 Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by a pope.
1552-1554: Large part of Luxembourg city, including Sigefroi's castle,
 destroyed while under siege during war between Charles V and Francois I,
 King of France.
1555: Charles V turned over control of Burgundian possessions in the
 Netherlands, including Duchy of Luxembourg, to his son Philipp.
1556: Philipp became King of Spain as Philip II.
1559: Philip II returned to Spain, appointed his sister Margaret of Parma
 regent of the Netherlands.
1559-1566: Political and religious strife in the Netherlands.
1566: Iconoclastic Fury caused Margaret to send to Philip II for help.
1567: Philip II sent Spanish army under Duke of Alva to restore order and
 restablish royal control in the Netherlands. Alva set up Council of Blood,
 and hung counts of Egmont and Horn. Willem the Silent went into exile in
1568: Willem the Silent's first invasion of the Netherlands ended in
1572: Willem the Silent's second, more successful, invasion of the
 Netherlands, aided by the Sea Beggars, gained control of Holland, Zealand,
 and Utrecht.
1575: Unpaid Spanish troops in Netherlands mutiny and sacked several cities,
 including Antwerp (Spanish Fury). Southern provinces joined northern
 provinces in revolt.
1577: Don Juan of Austria sent to Netherlands by Philip II as governor.
 Spanish troops withdrew. New iconoclastic outbreaks.
1578: Duke of Parma, son of Don Juan, sent to Netherlands with new army to
 put down rebellion and restore order.
1578-1587: Duke of Parma reconquered southern Netherlands, including
1581: Seven northern provinces declared their independence, as the United
 Provinces with Willem the Silent as Stadholder.
1584: Willem the Silent was assassinated.
1588: Defeat of the Spanish Armada by the English ended Spanish hopes of
 reconquering the northern Netherlands.
1609: Spanish signed twelve-year truce with United Provinces.
1618-1648: Thirty Years War.
1621: Spain renewed war against United Provinces.
1635: Entrance of France into Thirty Years War, turning Luxembourg into
1648: Treaty of Westphalia ended Thirty Years War. Dutch independence
1648-1659: Fighting continued in Spanish Netherlands between Spain and
1659: Treaty of the Pyrenees ended war between France and Spain. France
 annexed part of Duchy of Luxembourg, including area around Thionville and
 Mamedy (First Partition of Luxembourg).
1672-1678: French war against the United Provinces (Dutch Republic).
1678-1684: Louis XIV conquered Duchy of Luxembourg.
1684: Fortress of Luxembourg captured by French armies led by Marshal de
1684-1697: French rule Luxembourg. Vauban redesigned fortifications of city,
 making it into Gibraltar of the North.
1689-1697: War of the League of Augsburg. England joined Holland, Austria,
 Brandenburg, Sweden, and Spain in alliance against Louis XIV.
1697: Treaty of Ryswick. Louis XIV forced to return Luxembourg to Spanish
1700: Charles II of Spain died, naming Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis
 XIV, as his heir.
1701: Louis XIV put French troops into border forts, including Luxembourg.
1702-1713: War of the Spanish Succession. New grand alliance formed against
 France. Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy inflicted heavy
 defeats upon French armies in Germany  and the Netherlands.
1713: Treaty of Utrecht. Spanish Netherlands transferred to Austrian rule.
 Louix XIV's grandson confirmed as King of Spain, as Philip V.
1715-1795: Austrian Hapsburgs ruled over the southern Netherlands, including
 the Duchy of Luxembourg. 
Time of peace and relative prosperity.
1789-1790: Brabantine Revoltuion against the reforms of Emperor Josef II.
 Put down by Field Marshal von Bender, Austrian governor of Luxembourg.
1795: French revolutionary armies captured fortress of Luxembourg after
 long siege.
1795-1814: French ruled Luxembourg, which became the Department of Forests.
1798: Kloppelkrieg. (Rising in protest against conscription of Luxembourgers
 into French army.)
1804: Napoleon I visited Luxembourg, given key to the city.
1815: Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo. Congress of Vienna created Kingdom of
 the Netherlands, including Belgium and the former Dutch Republic, under
 rule of Willem I (Willem VI, Prince of Orange). Luxembourg became a Grand
 Duchy under the personal rule of Willem I, but joined to the new German
 Confederation rather than the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Eastern third of
 Luxembourg  annexed by Prussia (Second Partition of Luxembourg). Prussian
 garrison installed in fortress.
1830: Belgians revolted against Dutch rule and established their
 independence. Invited Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to be their king.
1830-1839: Period of Joint Rule. Luxembourg sent delegates to Belgian
 Congress, but Prussian troops held the city of Luxembourg for the Dutch
1839: Firsty Treaty of London (Third Partition of Luxembourg) went into
 effect. French-speaking western part of the Grand Duchy became Belgian
 province of Luxembourg. Truncated Grand Duchy  became more or less
 independent, under continued rule of Dutch kings, and remained part of the
 German Confederation.
1840: Willem I of the Netherlands abdicated. Willem II became King of the
 Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1840-1849).
1841: Large iron ore deposits discovered in the Minette.
1842: Luxembourg joined German customs union, the Zollverein.
1848: Willem II granted the Grand Duchy a liberal constitution.
1849: Accession of Willem III as King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of
1857: Willem III imposed reactionary constituion on Luxembourg,
 Strengthening his powers as Grand Duke.
1859: First Luxembourg railroad opened.
1866-1867: Napoleon II tried to purchase Luxembourg from Willem III.
1867: Second Treaty of London recognized independence and permanent
 neutrality of Luxembourg. Prussian garrison withdrew. Fortifications of
 Luxembourg to be dismantled.
1868: Liberal constitution of 1848 restored.
1884: Thomas process of removing impurities from iron ore introduced into
 Luxembourg. Beginning of Luxembourg's rise as a major producer of steel.
1890: Willem III died. His daughter Wilhelmina became Queen of the
 Netherlands, but Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg became Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
1903: Completion of Pont Adolf joining older and newer parts of Luxembourg
1912: Marie-Adelaide, granddaughter of Adolf, became Grand Duchess of
1914-1918: World War I. Luxembourg under German occupation.
1918-1919: Peace conference at Versailles. Belgium advanced claim to annex
 Luxembourg. Two American divisions occupied Grand Duchy.
1919: Marie-Adelaide abdicated in favor of her sister Charlotte. Referendum
 established Luxembourg's overwhelming desire to remain independent under
 the Nassau-Weilburg dynasty.
1922: Customs and monetary union established with Belgium.
1939: Celebration of 100th anniversary of Luxembourg independence, dating
 from year First Treaty of London went into effect.
1939-1945: World War II.
10 May 1945: German troops occupied Luxembourg. Government and grand ducal
 family went into exile.
1942: Hitler proclaimed Luxembourg part of Third Reich. Conscription of
 Luxembourgers into German army began. General strike in protest put down
 with great severity.
1944: Governments-in-exile signed Benelux agreement. American 5th Armored
 Division entered Grand Duchy at Rodange on 9 September and liberated the
 city of Luxembourg on 10th September.
16 Dec 1944-18 Jan 1945: Battle of the Bulge (Rundstedt Offensive). German
 troops reoccupied northern Belgium and Luxembourg. American Thrid Army
 under Patton entered Luxembourg and raced north to defeat the Germans and
 drive them out of Luxembourg again.
1947: Customs and monetary union with Belgium renewed.
1948: Benelux agreement went into effect. Luxembourg joined Marshall Plan.
1949: Luxembourg joined NATO.
1951: Luxembourg became seat of European Coal and Steel Community (Schuman
1957: Treaty of Rome. Luxembourg became one of the six founding members of
 the European Economic Community (EEC).
1959: Luxembourg began process of transforming itself into major financial
1963: Luxembourg celebrated 1000th anniversity of the founding of the city.
1964: Grand Duchess Charlotte abdicated in favor of her eldest son, Grand
 Duke Jean.
1985: Grand Duchess Charlotte died.
1989: Luxembourg celebrated 150th anniversity of its independence.
1994: Celebrations to mark 50th anniversity of liberation of Luxembourg.
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