remarkable for its scenic beauty, is one of the western border-towns
of Berkshire County. It has Hancock and Pittsfield on the north,
Lenox on the east, West Stockbridge on the south, and Canaan,
in New York, on the west. The length north and south is 5 miles,
and the width about 4 miles. The assessed area is 11,347 acres.
Nearly one half the area is forest, containing the usual flora
of the State.
Along the entire eastern side are the Lenox hills, and in the
northwest Perry's Peak rises to the height of 2,089 feet. Between
is a broad, arable valley, through which runs, northeast and southwest,
the Boston and Albany Railroad, having stations at Richmond village,
159 miles west of Boston, and at Richmond Furnace, one mile farther.
The town abounds in springs and rivulets, - of which Ford, Roye's,
Tracy and other brooks flow into Richmond Pond on the northeast
border; while Cone and Griffin brooks, flowing south, unite and
form Williams River, a tributary of the Housatonic. The geological
formation is Lauzon schists and Levis limestone. Many beds of
brown iron-ore are found in the town; and , in 1885 , 38 men were
employed in mining and smelting the ore. The other manufactures
were boots and shoes, leather, clothing, metallic articles, and
beverages. The aggregate value of all goods made was $30,897.
The soil is a clay loam; and the product of the 120 farms in the
last census year was valued at $119,244. The population was 854,
of whom 203 were voters. The valuation in 1888 was $476,570, with
a tax-rate of $14.50 on $1,000. There were 201 taxed dwelling-houses.
The public schools were provided with six buildings, valued at
some $3,000. The two churches are Congregationalist and Methodist.
Capt. Micah Mudge and Ichabod Wood, with their families, began
the settlement of this place in 1760. It bore the Indian name
of Yokum or " Yokun-town" until its incorporation under
the name of "Richmont," June 21, 1765. In 1785 this
was changed to its present name in honor of the Duke of Richmond.
The first church was organized in 1765, and the Rev. Job Swift
564-565 in Nason and Varney's Massachusetts Gazetteer, 1890