Migration




People leave their home country or area for many reasons. When they go they go in a group - group migration - or they go, more or less, individually, and others follow - chain migration. Once the migrants get to where they are going, they can also move on - internal migration or forward migration.

It is called emigration when a person leaves one country and immigration when they go to another country. Once they arrive, immigrants may wish to become a citizen of the country to which they have migrated. This is called naturalization.

Migration could have been assisted by the government or by a landlord or by an emigration company. But migration could have been done with no assistance.

Transportation methods used in migration vary. One could take a ship from Europe or Asia to North America. Then transfer to a horse, carriage, coach, or wagon for further movement. Smaller ships capable of navigating rivers could also be taken. And, finally, one could walk.

Passenger lists for ships and train transportation exist. But only for certain periods of time.

Individuals and families travelled to North America. So did Home Children sent from Britain. So did female domestic servants sponsored by individuals or government agencies.

The following is a listing of articles, books, and web sites concerning migration, passengers, Home Children, domestics, etc.

Abbreviations

CIHM/ICMH = Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions
ISBN = International Standard Book Number
McOdrum = McOdrum Library, Carleton University, Ottawa
OB = Ottawa Branch, Ontario Genealogical Society publication
OBL = Ottawa Branch (OGS) Library
OFHC = Ottawa Family History Centre
OGSL = Ontario Genealogical Society Library
PCMA = Peterborough Centennial Museum and Archives

Domestics and other workers

Articles and books

Immigrant Domestic Servants in Canada (1991)
Marilyn Barber
Canadian Historical Association, Ottawa
ISBN 0887981224
Consult at: McOdrum

Laboring Children - British Immigrant Apprentices to Canada 1869-1924 (1980; reprinted 2000)
Joy Parr
Consult at:

The Skilled Emigrant and Her Kin: gender, culture, and labour recruitment (2001)
Joy Parr
Consult at:

"Sunny Ontario for British Girls, 1900-1930"
in Looking into My Sister’s Eyes: An Exploration in Women’s History (1986), pp. 55-73
Multicultural History Society of Ontario, Toronto
Marilyn Barber, author; Jean Burnet, editor
ISBN 0919045278
Consult at: McOdrum

"The Women Ontario Welcomed: Immigrant Domestics for Ontario Homes, 1870-1930"
in Ontario History, Vol. LXXII, No. 3, September 1980, pp. 148-172
Marilyn Barber
Consult at: McOdrum, OFHC

Web sites

Bulletin January-February 2001, Vol. 33, No. 1

Domestic work: paid and unpaid

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Emigration Societies, etc.

Some of the societies and agencies involved in emigration and settlement of migrants included:
British Women's Emigration Association (1885-1919)
Canadian Pacific Railway
Colonial Intelligence League (1910-1919) (for women)
Cow Cross Canadian Emigration Society
Female Middle Class Emigration Society (1901-1922)
The Self-Help Emigration Society
Society for Overseas Settlement of British Women (1917-1964)

Articles and books

Here and there: being the first report on the work of the Self-Help Emigration Society [microform] (1886)
The Self-Help Emigration Society, London
CIHM/ICMH Microfiche series: No. 17675
Consult at: McOdrum

Web sites

Emigration Societies

Index of British Emigration to North America; projects and opinions in the early Victorian period

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Guides and information on migration and settlement

Articles and books

Emigrant's Guide to North America (1998)
Roberta MacDougall; Elizabeth Thompson, editor
Translation of the original Gaelic of 1841; intended for Highland Scots heading for Canada
ISBN 1-896219-43-8
Consult at: OGSL

Emigration: the British farmer's and farm labourer's guide to Ontario: the premier province of the Dominion of Canada (2001)
Issued by authority of the Government of Ontario
Global Heritage Press, Milton, Ont.
Reprint. Originally published by C. Blackett Robinson, Toronto, 1880
ISBN 1-894378-43-1
Consult at:

Emigration to Canada and the United States: report of the Cow Cross Canadian Emigration Society. My journey of ten thousand miles, advice and information to intending emigrants, routes, distances, and rates of passage from Quebec, names and addresses of friends of the working man in 320 cities and towns, hints on economic house building, correspondence etc. [microform] (1871)
William Catlin
Cow Cross Canadian Emigration Society, London [?]
CIHM/ICMH Microfiche series: No. 05871
Consult at: McOdrum

Web sites

Scottish Emigration special collection (Especially to North America and Ontario) at the University of Guelph

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Home Children and orphans

Articles and books

Barnarado children in Canada (date unknown)
Gail Corbett
Consult at:

Canadian homes for London wanderers [microform] (c. 1870)
Annie Macpherson
CIHM/ICMH Microfiche series: No. 04639
Consult at: McOdrum

Empty Cradles (1995)
Margaret Humphreys
ISBN 0-552-14164-X
Consult at: McOdrum

The Golden Bridge: Young Immigrants to Canada, 1833–1939 (2003)
Marjorie Kohli
ISBN 1-869219-90-X
Consult at: OGSL

The Home Children: their personal stories (1979)
Phyllis Harrison, editor
Watson & Dwyer, Winnipeg
ISBN 0920486029 (hardcover); ISBN 09020486045 (paperback)
Consult at: McOdrum

The Little Immigrants: The Orphans Who Came to Canada (2003; new ed.)
Kenneth Bagnell; preface by the Hon. Roy MacLaren, P.C.
ISBN 1-55002-370-5
Consult at: OGSL

Nation Builders: Barnardo Children in Canada (2002)
Gail H. Corbett
ISBN 1-55002-394-2
Consult at: OGSL

Neither waif nor stray: the search for a stolen identity (2000)
Perry Snow
ISBN 1-58112-758-8
Consult at:

Poor, ignorant children: Irish famine orphans in Saint John, New Brunswick (1999)
Peter D. Murphy
D'Arcy McGee Chair of Irish Studies, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Includes bibliographical references
ISBN 0-9696252-1-9
Consult at:

Mailing List and Message Board

British Home Children Mailing List

British Home Children Message Board

Web sites

Home Children (1869-1930) database

Home Children

Middlemore's Home Children in Canada

Young Immigrants to Canada

Young Immigrants to Canada - The Children's Names

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Immigration and Quarantine Stations

Articles and books

1847 Grosse Îsle: a Record of Daily Events (1997)
André Charbonneau and André Sévigny
Canadian Heritage and Parks Canada
ISBN 0-660-16878-2
Consult at: OGSL

Eyewitness - Grosse Ile - 1847 (1995) [Monograph]
Carraig Books
available in French as Les témoins parlent - Grosse Île 1847
Consult at:

Grosse Ile - Gateway to Canada - 1832-1937 (1984)
Marianna O'Gallagher
Carraig Books,
ISBN
Consult at:

Middle Island: Before and After the Tragedy (2002)
Caroline Daley and Anne Springer
commissioned by Middle Island Irish Historical Park Inc.
ISBN
Consult at:

Pier 21: the gateway that changed Canada (1988)
Trudy Duivenvoorden Mitic and J.P. LeBlanc
Lancelot Press, Hantsport, Nova Scotia
ISBN 0-88999-406-4
Consult at:

A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Îsle in 1847 (1997)
André Charbonneau and Doris Drolet-Dubé with Robert Grace and Sylvie Tremblay
Canadian Heritage and Parks Canada
ISBN 0-660-16877-4
Consult at: OGSL

Web sites

DOUKHOBORS QUARANTINED AT GROSSE ISLE, 1899

Ellis Island Immigration Museum

Grosse Île and the Irish Memorial

OUT OF IRELAND - Islands of Death

Partridge Island - Gateway to Canada

Pier 21

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Immigration records

Migrants came to Canada directly or by way of another country - usually, but not always, the United States.

Articles and books

Destination Canada: a guide to 20th century immigration records (2001, new edition)
Dave Obee, compiler
D. Obee, Victoria, B.C.
Previously published as: Naturalization and citizenship indexes in the Canada Gazette, 1915-1951
Includes bibliographical references
ISBN 0-9685026-5-2
Consult at:

Web sites

American Family Immigration History Center

Hawke Papers (or Toronto Emigration Office Records)

Immigration Records (1925-1935)

Searching the Ellis Island Database in One Step

Swedish Emigrant Institute

Swenson Swedish Immigraton Research Center

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Letters and stories of immigrants

Articles and books

Across the Waters: Ontario Immigrants' Experiences, 1820 - 1850 (1999)
Frances Hoffmann and Ryan Taylor
Consult at:

Brass buttons and silver horseshoes: stories from Canada's British war brides (2002)
Linda Granfield
McClelland & Stewart, Toronto
ISBN 0-7710-3535-7 (paper); ISBN 0-7710-3536-5 (hardcover)
Consult at:

English immigrant voices: labourers' letters from Upper Canada in the 1830s (2000)
Wendy Cameron, Sheila Haines, and Mary McDougall Maude, editors
McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal
Includes bibliographical references and index
ISBN 0-7735-2035-X
Consult at:

"Fifty Years: In Search of the Immigrant Experience" (January 2001)
in Swedish American Historical Quarterly, Vol. LII, No.1
On the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Swedish Pioneer Historical Society/Swedish-American Historical Society
Nils Hasselmo

Irish emigration and Canadian settlement: patterns, links, and letters (c. 1990)
Cecil J. Houston and William J. Smyth
University of Toronto Press, Toronto, and Ulster Historical Foundation, Belfast
ISBN 0901905453
Consult at: McOdrum

Petworth people: the untold story of the Petworth emigrants of Oxford County (2002)
V.N. Godin
Oxford County Branch, OGS, Woodstock, Ontario
ISBN
Consult at: OCB

Web sites

Immigration

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Migration and migrants

Articles and books

Arrivals: stories from the history of Ontario (2002)
John Bentley Mays
Penguin, Toronto
ISBN 0-14-301340-8
Consult at:

British Emigrant Gentlewomen in the Canadian West, 1880-1914 (1982)
Susan Jackel, editor
ISBN: 0774801492 Hardcover; ISBN: 0774801808 Paperback
Consult at:

Cornish Emigrants to Ontario (1998)
Toronto Cornish Association, compiler
Contains nominal index
ISBN 0-9684119-0-8
Consult at: OGSL

Defiant sisters: a social history of Finnish immigrant women in Canada (1988)
Varpu Lindström-Best
Multicultural History Society of Ontario, Toronto
ISBN 0919045383 (paper); ISBN 0919045367 (hardcover)
Consult at: McOdrum

A Dictionary of Scottish emigrants to Canada before Confederation
Donald Whyte
Volume 1 (1986) - ISBN 0-920036-090-0
Volume 2 (1995) - ISBN 07779-0191-9
Volume 3 (2001) - ISBN 0-7779-2119-7
Consult at: OGSL

Directory of Scottish settlers in North America 1625 - 1825 (1986)
David Dobson
Genealogical Pub., Baltimore, Maryland
Consult at: McOdrum

"Emigrants and Immigrants in Swedish History, 1846-1996: Celebrating the Sesquicentennial: Part I" (1996)
in Swedish American Historical Quarterly, Vol. 47 , pages 40-48
Raymond Jarvi
Consult at:

"Emigrants and Immigrants in Swedish History, 1846-1996: Celebrating the Sesquicentennial: Part II"(1996)
in Swedish American Historical Quarterly, Vol. 47, pages 112-118
Raymond Jarvi
Consult at:

Fast sailing and copper-bottomed: Aberdeen sailing ships and the emigrant Scots they carried to Canada, 1774-1855 ( 2002)
Lucille H. Campey
Natural Heritage/Natural History, Toronto
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-896219-31-4
Consult at:

Here be Dragons! Navigating the Hazards Found in Canadian Family Research (1996)
Althea Douglas
OGS, Toronto
Consult at: OGSL

Here be Dragons, Too! Navigating the Hazards Found in Canadian Family Research (2000)
Althea Douglas
OGS, Toronto
Consult at: OGSL

Index of some passengers who emigrated to Canada between 1817 & 1849 (2003; reprint)
John A. Acton, compiler and editor
Ontario Genealogical Society, Toronto
First published in 1999.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7779-2131-6
Consult at:

Passage to the New World: Packet Ships and Irish Famine Emigrants 1845 - 1851 (1995)
David Hollett
Consult at OBL

Peter Robinson's settlers (ca. 1987)
Carol Bennett
Juniper Books, Renfrew, Ontario
Includes bibliography
ISBN 0919137164
Consult at: McOdrum

"The Pre-Dawn of the Swedish Migration: Before 1846" (1997)
in Swedish American Historical Quarterly, Vol. 48, pages 117-129
H. Arnold Barton
Consult at:

"'The Right Sort of Woman': female emigrators and emigration to the British Empire, 1890-1910" (1994)
in Women's History Review, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 385-409
Julia Bush
Consult at:

"Scandinavian Immigrants in Canada" (1998)
in Canada and the Nordic Countries in Times of Reorientation: culture and politics
University of Aarhus, Denmark
Consult at:

Tools of the Trade for Canadian Genealogy (2000)
Althea Douglas
OGS, Toronto
Consult at: OGSL

Web sites

Icelanders in North America (bibliography)

Immigration and emigration - Lloyd's Register

"'The Right Sort of Woman': female emigrators and emigration to the British Empire, 1890-1910"

WANTED: Settlers

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Naturalization

Articles and books

Upper Canada naturalization records, 1828 - 1850 (1991)
Donald A. McKenzie
Ontario Genealogical Society, Toronto
ISBN 1-55075-050-X
Consult at: OGSL

Upper Canada naturalization registers, 1828-1850 (1999)
Norman K. Crowder and Sharon Bowman
Publication OB 99-05
ISBN 0-7779-1472-7
Consult at: OBL

Naturalization and citizenship indexes in the Canada Gazette, 1915-1951: a finding aid (1999)
Dave Obee, compiler
ISBN 0-9685026-1-X
Consult at:

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Passenger lists and indexes

Articles and books

The Caroline and her passengers: March-May, 1832 Glenn Wright
Wellington County Branch, Ontario Genealogical Society, Guelph, Ont.
Includes index and bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-7779-1942-7

Doukhobor ship passenger lists, 1898-1928 (2001, 2nd edition)
Steve Lapshinoff and Jonathan Kalmakoff
Crescent Valley, B.C.
Previous published as: Names of Doukhobor immigrants to Canada in 1899
Includes index
ISBN 0-9689266-2-2
Consult at:

Index to passengers who emigrated to Canada between 1817 and 1849 (1999)
John A. Acton, compiler and editor
OGS, Toronto
Includes index
ISBN 0-7779-0207-9
Consult at: OGSL

Peter Robinson Emigration, 1823 - 1825 (1987; 3rd printing 1999)
Carol Bennett
ISBN 0 919137 16 4
Consult at: PCMA

Web sites

Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild

Immigration Form 30A for ocean arrivals 1919 to 1924

Form 30A, 1919-1924

Passenger Lists 1865-1935

Passenger Lists, 1865-1935

Peter Robinson Irish Emigration to Canada (1823, 1825)

QUICK SURNAME LIST - 1825 - PETER ROBINSON IRISH SETTLERS

Emigrantregistret/Kinship Center - Swedish emigration archive

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Societies with an interest in immigration

Web sites

The Canadian Immigration Historical Society

Canadian Society of Mayflower Descendants

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Strays

Articles and books

Strays!: an index to British Strays in Canada resulting from the OGS Strays Project
Shirley E. Lancaster, project co-ordinator; David J. Browne, indexer
Ontario Genealogical Society, Toronto
Volume 1(1999) ISBN 0-7779-0222-2
Volume 2(2002) ISBN 0-7779-2120-0
Consult at: OGSL

Strays!: an index to the OGS Strays Project
Shirley E. Lancaster, project co-ordinator; David J. Browne, indexer
Ontario Genealogical Society, Toronto
Volume 1 (1996) ISBN 0-7779-0201-X
Volume 2 (1997) ISBN 0-7779-0210-9
Volume 3 (1998) ISBN 0-7779-0214-1
Volume 4 (1998) ISBN 0-7779-0216-8
Volume 5 (1999) ISBN 0-7779-0220-6
Volume 6 (2001) ISBN 0-7779-0228-1
Volume 7 (2001) ISBN 0-7779-0201-X
Volume 8 (2002) ISBN 0-7779-2122-7
Consult at: OGSL

Strays!: married name index to volumes I to III of the OGS Strays Project (1999)
Shirley E. Lancaster, project co-ordinator ; David J. Browne, indexer/computer input
Includes index
ISBN 0-7779-0221-4

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Transportation

Articles and books

Canadian Railway Records (1994)
Althea and Creighton Douglas
OGS, Toronto
1-55116-923-0
Consult at: OGSL

Canadian steel, Chinese grit: a tribute to the Chinese who worked on Canada's railroads more than a century ago / Fêng ku Chung-hua hun : Chi nien pai nien chan(2000)
Julia Ningyu Li / Li Ning Yü p'ien chu, compiler and editor
Paxlink Communications Inc., Toronto
Text is in English and Chinese and includes bibliographical references
ISBN 0-9687319-0-2
Consult at:

Ghost Railways of Ontario (1994)
Ron Brown
Browdview Press Ltd., Peterborough, Ontario
ISBN 1-55111-054-7
Consult at:

"Swedes as Nation Builders: 'Give me Swedes and snoose and I'll build a railway to hell' " (December 1988)
in Swedish Press
Elinor Barr
Consult at:

Web sites

The Ships List

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Where did they come from?

Articles and books

Canadian steel, Chinese grit: a tribute to the Chinese who worked on Canada's railroads more than a century ago / Fêng ku Chung-hua hun : Chi nien pai nien chan(2000)
Julia Ningyu Li / Li Ning Yü p'ien chu, compiler and editor
Paxlink Communications Inc., Toronto
Text is in English and Chinese and includes bibliographical references
ISBN 0-9687319-0-2
Consult at:

Flight from famine: the coming of the Irish to Canada(c. 1990)
Donald MacKay
McClelland & Stewart, Toronto
ISBN 0771054432
Consult at: McOdrum

Migrations from western Ukraine to western Canada: proceedings of the joint conferences (2002)
Alexander Makar and Radomir Bilash, editors
Canadian Centre for Ukrainian Culture and Ethnography, Edmonton
Copublished by: Historic Sites Service, Alberta Community Development
Includes text in Ukrainian and English. Includes bibliographical references
ISBN 1-55195-156-8

Peter Robinson Emigration, 1823 - 1825 (1987; 3rd printing 1999)
Carol Bennett
ISBN 0 919137 16 4
Available from Peterborough Centennial Museum and Archives or Global Genealogy

The promised land : settling the West, 1896-1914 (2002)
Pierre Berton
Anchor Canada, Toronto
ISBN 0-385-65929-6

Robert Whyte's 1847 famine ship diary: the journey of an Irish coffin ship (c. 1994)
James J. Mangan, editor
Mercier Press, Dublin
Previously published as The ocean plague, or, A voyage to Quebec in an Irish emigrant vessel
ISBN 1856350916
Consult at: McOdrum

Russian roots and Canadian wings: Russian archival documents on the Doukhobor emigration to Canada (1999)
John Woodsworth, compiler, translator and annotater; foreword by Vladimir Tolstoy
Penumbra Press, Manotick, Ontario
ISBN 092125489X
Consult at: McOdrum

The Swedish Experience in Canada: a preliminary annotated bibliography of selected English languages books and articles (1991)
Elinor Berglund Barr
Emigrant Institute, Sweden
Consult at:

Web sites

Border Entry (U.S. to Canada)

Border Entry Records

Emigration From Cork Ireland to Upper Canada, 1823

The Icelanders at Kinmount

The Icelanders: Their Ontario Year

Immigrants to Canada

Massachusetts Genealogy - US GenWeb

Migration into and out of Ontario

The Peopling of Canada: 1891 - 1921 (bibliography)

Peter Robinson Irish Emigration to Canada (1823, 1825)

PETER ROBINSON IRISH EMIGRATION TO CANADA (1823, 1825)

Swedish Emigrant Institute

Swedish Genealogical Society of Minnesota

Swenson Swedish Immigraton Research Center

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Where did they go?

Some of the reasons for moving on to somewhere else include free or inexpensive land, gold, and jobs. There may also be others.

Articles and books

The Franco-Americans of New England: dreams and realities (2004)
Yves Roby
McGill-Queen's University Press
ISBN 2-89448-391-0

Obligation and Opportunity: single Maritime women in Boston, 1870 - 1930
Betsy Beattie
ISBN 0-7735-2019-8 (hardcover); 0-7735-2018-X (paper)

Web sites

Immigration to the Red River Valley

Migration into and out of Ontario

St. Albans Lists FAQ (Immigration from Canada into the U.S.)

Why North Dakota?

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